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1

Link-based quantitative methods to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene Pairs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential coexpression analysis (DCEA) is increasingly used for investigating the global transcriptional mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Current DCEA methods mostly adopt a gene connectivity-based strategy to estimate differential coexpression, which is characterized by comparing the numbers of gene neighbors in different coexpression networks. Although it simplifies the calculation, this strategy mixes up the identities of different coexpression neighbors of a gene, and fails to differentiate significant differential coexpression changes from those trivial ones. Especially, the correlation-reversal is easily missed although it probably indicates remarkable biological significance. Results We developed two link-based quantitative methods, DCp and DCe, to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene pairs (links). Bearing the uniqueness of exploiting the quantitative coexpression change of each gene pair in the coexpression networks, both methods proved to be superior to currently popular methods in simulation studies. Re-mining of a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D) expression dataset from the perspective of differential coexpression analysis led to additional discoveries than those from differential expression analysis. Conclusions This work pointed out the critical weakness of current popular DCEA methods, and proposed two link-based DCEA algorithms that will make contribution to the development of DCEA and help extend it to a broader spectrum.

Yu Hui; Liu Bao-Hong; Ye Zhi-Qiang; Li Chun; Li Yi-Xue; Li Yuan-Yuan

2011-01-01

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Protein functional links in Trypanosoma brucei, identified by gene fusion analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain or gene fusion analysis is a bioinformatics method for detecting gene fusions in one organism by comparing its genome to that of other organisms. The occurrence of gene fusions suggests that the two original genes that participated in the fusion are functionally linked, i.e. their gene products interact either as part of a multi-subunit protein complex, or in a metabolic pathway. Gene fusion analysis has been used to identify protein functional links in prokaryotes as well as in eukaryotic model organisms, such as yeast and Drosophila. Results In this study we have extended this approach to include a number of recently sequenced protists, four of which are pathogenic, to identify fusion linked proteins in Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. We have also examined the evolution of the gene fusion events identified, to determine whether they can be attributed to fusion or fission, by looking at the conservation of the fused genes and of the individual component genes across the major eukaryotic and prokaryotic lineages. We find relatively limited occurrence of gene fusions/fissions within the protist lineages examined. Our results point to two trypanosome-specific gene fissions, which have recently been experimentally confirmed, one fusion involving proteins involved in the same metabolic pathway, as well as two novel putative functional links between fusion-linked protein pairs. Conclusions This is the first study of protein functional links in T. brucei identified by gene fusion analysis. We have used strict thresholds and only discuss results which are highly likely to be genuine and which either have already been or can be experimentally verified. We discuss the possible impact of the identification of these novel putative protein-protein interactions, to the development of new trypanosome therapeutic drugs.

Dimitriadis Dimitris; Koumandou V Lila; Trimpalis Philip; Kossida Sophia

2011-01-01

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X inactivation testing for identifying a non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation in an extended family, taking advantage of the X chromosome inactivation status of the females in order to determine their carrier state. X inactivation in the females was determined with the androgen receptor methylation assay; thereafter, the X chromosome was screened with evenly spaced polymorphic markers. Once initial linkage was identified, the region of interest was saturated with additional markers and the males were added to the analysis. Candidate genes were sequenced. Ten females showed skewed inactivation, while six revealed a normal inactivation pattern. A maximal lod score of 5.54 at ??=?0.00 was obtained with the marker DXS10151. Recombination events mapped the disease gene to a 17.4-Mb interval between the markers DXS10153 and DXS10157. Three candidate genes in the region were sequenced and a previously described missense mutation (P375L) was identified in the ACSL4/FACL4 gene. On the basis of the female X inactivation status, we have mapped and identified the causative mutation in a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation. PMID:21584729

Yonath, Hagith; Marek-Yagel, Dina; Resnik-Wolf, Haike; Abu-Horvitz, Almogit; Baris, Hagit N; Shohat, Mordechai; Frydman, Moshe; Pras, Elon

2011-05-17

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X inactivation testing for identifying a non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to identify a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation in an extended family, taking advantage of the X chromosome inactivation status of the females in order to determine their carrier state. X inactivation in the females was determined with the androgen receptor methylation assay; thereafter, the X chromosome was screened with evenly spaced polymorphic markers. Once initial linkage was identified, the region of interest was saturated with additional markers and the males were added to the analysis. Candidate genes were sequenced. Ten females showed skewed inactivation, while six revealed a normal inactivation pattern. A maximal lod score of 5.54 at ??=?0.00 was obtained with the marker DXS10151. Recombination events mapped the disease gene to a 17.4-Mb interval between the markers DXS10153 and DXS10157. Three candidate genes in the region were sequenced and a previously described missense mutation (P375L) was identified in the ACSL4/FACL4 gene. On the basis of the female X inactivation status, we have mapped and identified the causative mutation in a gene causing non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation.

Yonath H; Marek-Yagel D; Resnik-Wolf H; Abu-Horvitz A; Baris HN; Shohat M; Frydman M; Pras E

2011-11-01

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Network inference analysis identifies an APRR2-like gene linked to pigment accumulation in tomato and pepper fruits.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening.

Pan Y; Bradley G; Pyke K; Ball G; Lu C; Fray R; Marshall A; Jayasuta S; Baxter C; van Wijk R; Boyden L; Cade R; Chapman NH; Fraser PD; Hodgman C; Seymour GB

2013-03-01

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A new gene involved in X-linked mental retardation identified by analysis of an X;2 balanced translocation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

X-linked forms of mental retardation (MR) affect approximately 1 in 600 males and are likely to be highly heterogeneous. They can be categorized into syndromic (MRXS) and nonspecific (MRX) forms. In MRX forms, affected patients have no distinctive clinical or biochemical features. At least five MRX genes have been identified by positional cloning, but each accounts for only 0.5%-1.0% of MRX cases. Here we show that the gene TM4SF2 at Xp11.4 is inactivated by the X breakpoint of an X;2 balanced translocation in a patient with MR. Further investigation led to identification of TM4SF2 mutations in 2 of 33 other MRX families. RNA in situ hybridization showed that TM4SF2 is highly expressed in the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. TM4SF2 encodes a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, which are known to contribute in molecular complexes including beta-1 integrins. We speculate that through this interaction, TM4SF2 might have a role in the control of neurite outgrowth.

Zemni R; Bienvenu T; Vinet MC; Sefiani A; Carrié A; Billuart P; McDonell N; Couvert P; Francis F; Chafey P; Fauchereau F; Friocourt G; des Portes V; Cardona A; Frints S; Meindl A; Brandau O; Ronce N; Moraine C; van Bokhoven H; Ropers HH; Sudbrak R; Kahn A; Fryns JP; Beldjord C; Chelly J

2000-02-01

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A new gene involved in X-linked mental retardation identified by analysis of an X;2 balanced translocation.  

Science.gov (United States)

X-linked forms of mental retardation (MR) affect approximately 1 in 600 males and are likely to be highly heterogeneous. They can be categorized into syndromic (MRXS) and nonspecific (MRX) forms. In MRX forms, affected patients have no distinctive clinical or biochemical features. At least five MRX genes have been identified by positional cloning, but each accounts for only 0.5%-1.0% of MRX cases. Here we show that the gene TM4SF2 at Xp11.4 is inactivated by the X breakpoint of an X;2 balanced translocation in a patient with MR. Further investigation led to identification of TM4SF2 mutations in 2 of 33 other MRX families. RNA in situ hybridization showed that TM4SF2 is highly expressed in the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. TM4SF2 encodes a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, which are known to contribute in molecular complexes including beta-1 integrins. We speculate that through this interaction, TM4SF2 might have a role in the control of neurite outgrowth. PMID:10655063

Zemni, R; Bienvenu, T; Vinet, M C; Sefiani, A; Carrié, A; Billuart, P; McDonell, N; Couvert, P; Francis, F; Chafey, P; Fauchereau, F; Friocourt, G; des Portes, V; Cardona, A; Frints, S; Meindl, A; Brandau, O; Ronce, N; Moraine, C; van Bokhoven, H; Ropers, H H; Sudbrak, R; Kahn, A; Fryns, J P; Beldjord, C; Chelly, J

2000-02-01

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Methylation-Spanning Linker Libraries Link Gene-Rich Regions and Identify Epigenetic Boundaries in Zea mays  

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Complex cereal genomes are largely composed of small gene-rich regions intermixed with 5 kb to 200 kb blocks of repetitive DNA. The repetitive DNA blocks are usually 5-methylated at 5?-CG-3? and 5?-CNG-3? cytosines in most or all adult tissues, while the genes are generally unmethylated at these sit...

Yuan, Yinan; SanMiguel, Phillip J.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.

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Gene expression profiling after carbon ion irradiation in experimental murine tumors for identifying genes linked to its effectiveness using microarray analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To identify molecular mechanism of effectiveness induced by carbon-ion radiotherapy, we investigated expression profiles of murine tumors, which have various radiosensitivity for gamma irradiation, using microarrays consisting of 55k genes. Six murine tumors (squamous cell carcinoma: NR-S1, SCCVII, Fibrosarcoma: NFSa, no.8520, and Mammary carcinoma: MCano.4, MMCa) were transplanted in hind legs of C3H/Henirs mice and solid tumors were irradiated with either carbon-ion beam or gamma-ray. Growth rate of tumor, diminishing rate of tumor, recurrence rate, and cure rate were investigated as phenotype of radiosensitivity. Principal compornent analysis (PCA) was used to investigate similarity among expression profiles. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the intensity of each tumor to evaluate significant differences. Pairwise comparisons were made by Wilcoxon test. All recurred tumors showed different profiles from non-irradiation control tumors and expression change of several hundreds genes were identified to be specific to recurred tumors. We detected several tens of genes, whose expressions were significantly up-regulated after carbon-irradiation for squamous cell carcinomas. Comparison of those expression intensity between radiosensitive (SCC-VII) and radioresistant (NR-S1) tumors revealed that carbon-irradiation caused differentially expressed genes, which were related with cell cycle arrest, Redox, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, between radiosensitive tumors and radioresistant tumors. (author)

2006-01-01

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Linking the salt transcriptome with physiological responses of a salt-resistant Populus species as a strategy to identify genes important for stress acclimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified.

Brinker M; Brosché M; Vinocur B; Abo-Ogiala A; Fayyaz P; Janz D; Ottow EA; Cullmann AD; Saborowski J; Kangasjärvi J; Altman A; Polle A

2010-12-01

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The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity.

Moriguchi Yoshinari; Ujino-Ihara Tokuko; Uchiyama Kentaro; Futamura Norihiro; Saito Maki; Ueno Saneyoshi; Matsumoto Asako; Tani Naoki; Taira Hideaki; Shinohara Kenji; Tsumura Yoshihiko

2012-01-01

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Scan-Statistic Approach Identifies Clusters of Rare Disease Variants in LRP2, a Gene Linked and Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders, in Three Datasets  

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Cluster-detection approaches, commonly used in epidemiology and astronomy, can be applied in the context of genetic sequence data for the identification of genetic regions significantly enriched with rare disease-risk variants (DRVs). Unlike existing association tests for sequence data, the goal of cluster-detection methods is to localize significant disease mutation clusters within a gene or region of interest. Here, we focus on a chromosome 2q replicated linkage region that is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that has been sequenced in three independent datasets. We found that variants in one gene, LRP2, residing on 2q are associated with ASD in two datasets (the combined variable-threshold-test p value is 1.2 × 10?5). Using a cluster-detection method, we show that in the discovery and replication datasets, variants associated with ASD cluster preponderantly in 25 kb windows (adjusted p values are p1 = 0.003 and p2 = 0.002), and the two windows are highly overlapping. Furthermore, for the third dataset, a 25 kb region similar to those in the other two datasets shows significant evidence of enrichment of rare DRVs. The region implicated by all three studies is involved in ligand binding, suggesting that subtle alterations in either LRP2 expression or LRP2 primary sequence modulate the uptake of LRP2 ligands. BMP4 is a ligand of particular interest given its role in forebrain development, and modest changes in BMP4 binding, which binds to LRP2 near the mutation cluster, might subtly affect development and could lead to autism-associated phenotypes.

Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Makarov, Vlad; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

2012-01-01

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Scan-statistic approach identifies clusters of rare disease variants in LRP2, a gene linked and associated with autism spectrum disorders, in three datasets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cluster-detection approaches, commonly used in epidemiology and astronomy, can be applied in the context of genetic sequence data for the identification of genetic regions significantly enriched with rare disease-risk variants (DRVs). Unlike existing association tests for sequence data, the goal of cluster-detection methods is to localize significant disease mutation clusters within a gene or region of interest. Here, we focus on a chromosome 2q replicated linkage region that is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that has been sequenced in three independent datasets. We found that variants in one gene, LRP2, residing on 2q are associated with ASD in two datasets (the combined variable-threshold-test p value is 1.2 × 10(-5)). Using a cluster-detection method, we show that in the discovery and replication datasets, variants associated with ASD cluster preponderantly in 25 kb windows (adjusted p values are p(1) = 0.003 and p(2) = 0.002), and the two windows are highly overlapping. Furthermore, for the third dataset, a 25 kb region similar to those in the other two datasets shows significant evidence of enrichment of rare DRVs. The region implicated by all three studies is involved in ligand binding, suggesting that subtle alterations in either LRP2 expression or LRP2 primary sequence modulate the uptake of LRP2 ligands. BMP4 is a ligand of particular interest given its role in forebrain development, and modest changes in BMP4 binding, which binds to LRP2 near the mutation cluster, might subtly affect development and could lead to autism-associated phenotypes.

Ionita-Laza I; Makarov V; Buxbaum JD

2012-06-01

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Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem, affecting men and women about equally. Mouse genetic studies demonstrate that more than 200 genes specifically or predominantly regulate fertility. However, few genetic causes of infertility in humans have been identified. Here, we focus on the regulation of male fertility by X-linked, germ cell-specific genes. Previous genomic studies reveal that the mammalian X chromosome is enriched for genes expressed in early spermatogenesis. Recent genetic studies in mice show that X-linked, germ cell-specific genes, such as A-kinase anchor protein 4 (Akap4), nuclear RNA export factor 2 (Nxf2), TBP-associated factor 7l (Taf7l), and testis-expressed gene 11 (Tex11), indeed play important roles in the regulation of male fertility. Moreover, we find that the Taf7l Tex11 double-mutant males exhibit much more severe defects in meiosis than either single mutant, suggesting that these 2 X-linked genes regulate male meiosis synergistically. The X-linked, germ cell-specific genes are particularly attractive in the study of male infertility in humans. Because males are hemizygous for X-linked genes, loss-of-function mutations in the single-copy X-linked genes, unlike in autosomal genes, would not be masked by a normal allele. The genetic studies of X-linked, germ cell-specific genes in mice have laid a foundation for mutational analysis of their human orthologues in infertile men. PMID:19875494

Zheng, Ke; Yang, Fang; Wang, Peijing Jeremy

2009-10-29

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Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem, affecting men and women about equally. Mouse genetic studies demonstrate that more than 200 genes specifically or predominantly regulate fertility. However, few genetic causes of infertility in humans have been identified. Here, we focus on the regulation of male fertility by X-linked, germ cell-specific genes. Previous genomic studies reveal that the mammalian X chromosome is enriched for genes expressed in early spermatogenesis. Recent genetic studies in mice show that X-linked, germ cell-specific genes, such as A-kinase anchor protein 4 (Akap4), nuclear RNA export factor 2 (Nxf2), TBP-associated factor 7l (Taf7l), and testis-expressed gene 11 (Tex11), indeed play important roles in the regulation of male fertility. Moreover, we find that the Taf7l Tex11 double-mutant males exhibit much more severe defects in meiosis than either single mutant, suggesting that these 2 X-linked genes regulate male meiosis synergistically. The X-linked, germ cell-specific genes are particularly attractive in the study of male infertility in humans. Because males are hemizygous for X-linked genes, loss-of-function mutations in the single-copy X-linked genes, unlike in autosomal genes, would not be masked by a normal allele. The genetic studies of X-linked, germ cell-specific genes in mice have laid a foundation for mutational analysis of their human orthologues in infertile men.

Zheng K; Yang F; Wang PJ

2010-01-01

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Identifying clusters of functionally related genes in genomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MOTIVATION: An increasing body of literature shows that genomes of eukaryotes can contain clusters of functionally related genes. Most approaches to identify gene clusters utilize microarray data or metabolic pathway databases to find groups of genes on chromosomes that are linked by common attributes. A generalized method that can find gene clusters regardless of the mechanism of origin would provide researchers with an unbiased method for finding clusters and studying the evolutionary forces that give rise to them. RESULTS: We present an algorithm to identify gene clusters in eukaryotic genomes that utilizes functional categories defined in graph-based vocabularies such as the Gene Ontology (GO). Clusters identified in this manner need only have a common function and are not constrained by gene expression or other properties. We tested the algorithm by analyzing genomes of a representative set of species. We identified species-specific variation in percentage of clustered genes as well as in properties of gene clusters including size distribution and functional annotation. These properties may be diagnostic of the evolutionary forces that lead to the formation of gene clusters. AVAILABILITY: A software implementation of the algorithm and example output files are available at http://fcg.tamu.edu/C_Hunter/.

Yi G; Sze SH; Thon MR

2007-05-01

17

Using global unique identifiers to link autism collections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To propose a centralized method for generating global unique identifiers to link collections of research data and specimens. DESIGN: The work is a collaboration between the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative and the National Database for Autism Research. The system is implemented as a web service: an investigator inputs identifying information about a participant into a client application and sends encrypted information to a server application, which returns a generated global unique identifier. The authors evaluated the system using a volume test of one million simulated individuals and a field test on 2000 families (over 8000 individual participants) in an autism study. MEASUREMENTS: Inverse probability of hash codes; rate of false identity of two individuals; rate of false split of single individual; percentage of subjects for which identifying information could be collected; percentage of hash codes generated successfully. RESULTS: Large-volume simulation generated no false splits or false identity. Field testing in the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative Simplex Collection produced identifiers for 96% of children in the study and 77% of parents. On average, four out of five hash codes per subject were generated perfectly (only one perfect hash is required for subsequent matching). DISCUSSION: The system must achieve balance among the competing goals of distinguishing individuals, collecting accurate information for matching, and protecting confidentiality. Considerable effort is required to obtain approval from institutional review boards, obtain consent from participants, and to achieve compliance from sites during a multicenter study. CONCLUSION: Generic unique identifiers have the potential to link collections of research data, augment the amount and types of data available for individuals, support detection of overlap between collections, and facilitate replication of research findings.

Johnson SB; Whitney G; McAuliffe M; Wang H; McCreedy E; Rozenblit L; Evans CC

2010-11-01

18

MHC-linked and un-linked class I genes in the wallaby  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background MHC class I antigens are encoded by a rapidly evolving gene family comprising classical and non-classical genes that are found in all vertebrates and involved in diverse immune functions. However, there is a fundamental difference between the organization of class I genes in mammals and non-mammals. Non-mammals have a single classical gene responsible for antigen presentation, which is linked to the antigen processing genes, including TAP. This organization allows co-evolution of advantageous class Ia/TAP haplotypes. In contrast, mammals have multiple classical genes within the MHC, which are separated from the antigen processing genes by class III genes. It has been hypothesized that separation of classical class I genes from antigen processing genes in mammals allowed them to duplicate. We investigated this hypothesis by characterizing the class I genes of the tammar wallaby, a model marsupial that has a novel MHC organization, with class I genes located within the MHC and 10 other chromosomal locations. Results Sequence analysis of 14 BACs containing 15 class I genes revealed that nine class I genes, including one to three classical class I, are not linked to the MHC but are scattered throughout the genome. Kangaroo Endogenous Retroviruses (KERVs) were identified flanking the MHC un-linked class I. The wallaby MHC contains four non-classical class I, interspersed with antigen processing genes. Clear orthologs of non-classical class I are conserved in distant marsupial lineages. Conclusion We demonstrate that classical class I genes are not linked to antigen processing genes in the wallaby and provide evidence that retroviral elements were involved in their movement. The presence of retroviral elements most likely facilitated the formation of recombination hotspots and subsequent diversification of class I genes. The classical class I have moved away from antigen processing genes in eutherian mammals and the wallaby independently, but both lineages appear to have benefited from this loss of linkage by increasing the number of classical genes, perhaps enabling response to a wider range of pathogens. The discovery of non-classical orthologs between distantly related marsupial species is unusual for the rapidly evolving class I genes and may indicate an important marsupial specific function.

Siddle Hannah V; Deakin Janine E; Coggill Penny; Hart Elizabeth; Cheng Yuanyuan; Wong Emily SW; Harrow Jennifer; Beck Stephan; Belov Katherine

2009-01-01

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A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics.

Abel Frida; Dalevi Daniel; Nethander Maria; Jörnsten Rebecka; De Preter Katleen; Vermeulen Joëlle; Stallings Raymond; Kogner Per; Maris John; Nilsson Staffan

2011-01-01

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Exploring the link between dystonia genes and idiopathic scoliosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is characterized by a complex curvature of the spine of unknown etiology. Unknown genetic factors likely play a role in disease pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that AIS could result from central nervous system dysfunction and be related to dystonia. On the basis of this information, we hypothesized that genes linked to dystonia contribute to the pathogenesis of AIS. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the potential association between sequence variants in candidate dystonia genes and AIS. We sequenced the coding region of 5 selected dystonia-causing genes in 24 subjects with AIS, followed by targeted confirmation in additional 89 patients and 73 controls. RESULTS: No mutations were identified in any of the dystonia genes studied. CONCLUSIONS: We found no genetic link between dystonia and AIS. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This investigation is a genetic evaluation of the association between dystonia and AIS. Despite the support in the literature for a pathogenic link between both the disorders, we have not identified any mutations in dystonia genes in patients with AIS.

Gonzalez-Alegre P; Buffard V; Wang K; Henien S; Morcuende JA

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Identifying Coevolving Partners from Paralogous Gene Families  

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Full Text Available Many methods have been developed to detect coevolution from aligned sequences. However, all the existing methods require a one-to-one mapping of candidate coevolving partners (nucleotides, amino acids) a priori. When two families of sequences have distinct duplication and loss histories, ?nding the one-to-one mapping of coevolving partners can be computationally involved. We propose an algorithm to identify the coevolving partners from two families of sequences with distinct phylogenetic trees. The algorithm maps each gene tree to a reference species tree, and builds a joint state of sequence composition and assignments of coevolving partners for each species tree node. By applying dynamic programming on the joint states, the optimal assignments can be identi?ed. Time complexity is quadratic to the size of the species tree, and space complexity is exponential to the maximum number of gene tree nodes mapped to the same species tree node. Analysis on both simulated data and Pfam protein domain sequences demonstrates that the paralog coevolution algorithm picks up the coevolving partners with 60%–88% accuracy. This algorithm extends phylogeny-based coevolutionary models and make them applicable to a wide range of problems such as predicting protein-protein, protein-DNA and DNA-RNA interactions of two distinct families of sequences.

Chen-Hsiang Yeang

2008-01-01

22

Identifying genes of gene regulatory networks using formal concept analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the behavior of a gene regulatory network, it is essential to know the genes that belong to it. Identifying the correct members (e.g., in order to build a model) is a difficult task even for small subnetworks. Usually only few members of a network are known and one needs to guess the missing members based on experience or informed speculation. It is beneficial if one can additionally rely on experimental data to support this guess. In this work we present a new method based on formal concept analysis to detect unknown members of a gene regulatory network from gene expression time series data. We show that formal concept analysis is able to find a list of candidate genes for inclusion into a partially known basic network. This list can then be reduced by a statistical analysis so that the resulting genes interact strongly with the basic network and therefore should be included when modeling the network. The method has been applied to the DNA repair system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this application, our method produces comparable results to an already existing method of component selection while it is applicable to a broader range of problems. PMID:18312149

Gebert, Jutta; Motameny, Susanne; Faigle, Ulrich; Forst, Christian V; Schrader, Rainer

2008-03-01

23

Identifying genes of gene regulatory networks using formal concept analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to understand the behavior of a gene regulatory network, it is essential to know the genes that belong to it. Identifying the correct members (e.g., in order to build a model) is a difficult task even for small subnetworks. Usually only few members of a network are known and one needs to guess the missing members based on experience or informed speculation. It is beneficial if one can additionally rely on experimental data to support this guess. In this work we present a new method based on formal concept analysis to detect unknown members of a gene regulatory network from gene expression time series data. We show that formal concept analysis is able to find a list of candidate genes for inclusion into a partially known basic network. This list can then be reduced by a statistical analysis so that the resulting genes interact strongly with the basic network and therefore should be included when modeling the network. The method has been applied to the DNA repair system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this application, our method produces comparable results to an already existing method of component selection while it is applicable to a broader range of problems.

Gebert J; Motameny S; Faigle U; Forst CV; Schrader R

2008-03-01

24

Towards linked open gene mutations data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high-throughput technologies, a great wealth of variation data is being produced. Such information may constitute the basis for correlation analyses between genotypes and phenotypes and, in the future, for personalized medicine. Several databases on gene variation exist, but this kind of information is still scarce in the Semantic Web framework. In this paper, we discuss issues related to the integration of mutation data in the Linked Open Data infrastructure, part of the Semantic Web framework. We present the development of a mapping from the IARC TP53 Mutation database to RDF and the implementation of servers publishing this data. Methods A version of the IARC TP53 Mutation database implemented in a relational database was used as first test set. Automatic mappings to RDF were first created by using D2RQ and later manually refined by introducing concepts and properties from domain vocabularies and ontologies, as well as links to Linked Open Data implementations of various systems of biomedical interest. Since D2RQ query performances are lower than those that can be achieved by using an RDF archive, generated data was also loaded into a dedicated system based on tools from the Jena software suite. Results We have implemented a D2RQ Server for TP53 mutation data, providing data on a subset of the IARC database, including gene variations, somatic mutations, and bibliographic references. The server allows to browse the RDF graph by using links both between classes and to external systems. An alternative interface offers improved performances for SPARQL queries. The resulting data can be explored by using any Semantic Web browser or application. Conclusions This has been the first case of a mutation database exposed as Linked Data. A revised version of our prototype, including further concepts and IARC TP53 Mutation database data sets, is under development. The publication of variation information as Linked Data opens new perspectives: the exploitation of SPARQL searches on mutation data and other biological databases may support data retrieval which is presently not possible. Moreover, reasoning on integrated variation data may support discoveries towards personalized medicine.

Zappa Achille; Splendiani Andrea; Romano Paolo

2012-01-01

25

NGS identifies TAZ mutation in a family with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We reported a family with two male siblings affected with infantile dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Extensive evaluation failed to identify the underlying cause for the DCM. Next generation sequencing (NGS) with targeted enrichment identified a hemizygous variant c.718G>C (p.Gly240Arg) in the TAZ gene. This variant has been reported in three other families with X linked infantile DCM and is therefore likely pathogenic. NGS allows efficient screening of a large number of uncommon genes in complex disorders like DCM, in which there is substantial genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The identification of TAZ mutation has major impact on their medical care as the surveillance needs to be expanded to cover for the Barth syndrome, a severe metabolic phenotype also caused by TAZ mutation, in addition to DCM.

Man E; Lafferty KA; Funke BH; Lun KS; Chan SY; Chau AK; Chung BH

2013-01-01

26

Bioinformatics methods for identifying candidate disease genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract With the explosion in genomic and functional genomics information, methods for disease gene identification are rapidly evolving. Databases are now essential to the process of selecting candidate disease genes. Combining positional information with disease characteristics and functional information is the usual strategy by which candidate disease genes are selected. Enrichment for candidate disease genes, however, depends on the skills of the operating researcher. Over the past few years, a number of bioinformatics methods that enrich for the most likely candidate disease genes have been developed. Such in silico prioritisation methods may further improve by completion of datasets, by development of standardised ontologies across databases and species and, ultimately, by the integration of different strategies.

van Driel Marc A; Brunner Han G

2006-01-01

27

Molecular approaches to identify novel genes expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our laboratory is engaged in an effort to identify genes expressed primarily during plant embryogenesis. Genes which exhibit unique expression profiles in the plant are also being sought. To this end, several methods to identify and clone novel genes based on specific expression patterns have been developed. These methods include virtual subtraction, differential display and other PCR based technologies. In addition to this, a yeast one-hybrid approach has been established to identify transcription factors which regulate these genes. To date, this work has identified several novel genes.

Nuccio ML; Li Z; Hsieh TF; Kim SY; Thomas T

1997-01-01

28

Expression profiling identifies genes involved in emphysema severity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in emphysema severity in COPD patients. Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from non-tumor lung tissue from 30 smokers with emphysema. Class comparison analysis based on gas transfer measurement was performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Genes were then selected for technical validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) if also represented on microarray platforms used in previously published emphysema studies. Genes technically validated advanced to tests of biological replication by qRT-PCR using an independent test set of 62 lung samples. Class comparison identified 98 differentially expressed genes (p p Gene expression profiling of lung from emphysema patients identified seven candidate genes associated with emphysema severity including COL6A3, SERPINF1, ZNHIT6, NEDD4, CDKN2A, NRN1 and GSTM3.

Francis Santiyagu; Larsen Jill E; Pavey Sandra J; Bowman Rayleen V; Hayward Nicholas K; Fong Kwun M; Yang Ian A

2009-01-01

29

The discoidin I gene family of Dictyostelium discoideum is linked to genes regulating its expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discoidin I protein has been studied extensively as a marker of early development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. However, like most other developmentally regulated proteins in this system, no reliable information was available on the linkage of the discoidin genes to other known genes. Analysis of the linkage of the discoidin I genes by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that all three discoidin I genes as well as a pseudogene are located on linkage group II. This evidence is consistent with the discoidin I genes forming a gene cluster that may be under the control of a single regulatory element. The discoidin I genes are linked to three genetic loci (disA, motA, daxA) that affect the expression of the discoidin I protein. Linkage of the gene family members to regulatory loci may be important in the coordinate maintenance of the gene family and regulatory loci. A duplication affecting the entire discoidin gene family is also linked to group II; this appears to be a small tandem duplication. This duplication was mapped using a DNA polymorphism generated by insertion of the Tdd-3 mobile genetic element into a Tdd-2 element flanking the gamma gene. A probe for Tdd-2 identified a restriction fragment length polymorphism in strain AX3K that was consistent with generation by a previously proposed Tdd-3 insertion event. A putative duplication or rearrangement of a second Tdd-2 element on linkage group IV of strain AX3K was also identified. This is the first linkage information available for mobile genetic elements in D. discoideum.

Welker DL

1988-07-01

30

News Note: Scientists identify molecular link between BRCA1 protein levels and obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

NCI researchers have defined a possible molecular link between breast cancer risk and obesity. New study results show that a protein called C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) acts to control a gene linked to breast cancer risk in rapidly growing cells by monitoring and responding to how the cells use and store energy (metabolic state).

31

Coexpression of linked genes in Mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Similarity in gene expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed to explain the presence of such coexpression patterns. The adaptive model assumes that coexpression is advantageous and is established by relocation of initially unlinked but coexpressed genes, whereas the neutral model asserts that coexpression is a type of leaky expression due to similar expressional environments of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible with several empirical observations. Here, we propose that coexpression of linked genes is a form of transcriptional interference that is disadvantageous to the organism. We show that even distantly linked genes that are tens of megabases away exhibit significant coexpression in the human genome. However, the linkage is more likely to be broken during evolution between genes of high coexpression than those of low coexpression and the breakage of linkage reduces gene coexpression. These results support our hypothesis that coexpression of linked genes in mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous, implying that many mammalian genes may never reach their optimal expression pattern due to the interference of their genomic environment and that such transcriptional interference may be a force promoting recurrent relocation of genes in the genome.

Liao BY; Zhang J

2008-08-01

32

Coexpression of linked genes in Mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous.  

Science.gov (United States)

Similarity in gene expression pattern between closely linked genes is known in several eukaryotes. Two models have been proposed to explain the presence of such coexpression patterns. The adaptive model assumes that coexpression is advantageous and is established by relocation of initially unlinked but coexpressed genes, whereas the neutral model asserts that coexpression is a type of leaky expression due to similar expressional environments of linked genes, but is neither advantageous nor detrimental. However, these models are incompatible with several empirical observations. Here, we propose that coexpression of linked genes is a form of transcriptional interference that is disadvantageous to the organism. We show that even distantly linked genes that are tens of megabases away exhibit significant coexpression in the human genome. However, the linkage is more likely to be broken during evolution between genes of high coexpression than those of low coexpression and the breakage of linkage reduces gene coexpression. These results support our hypothesis that coexpression of linked genes in mammalian genomes is generally disadvantageous, implying that many mammalian genes may never reach their optimal expression pattern due to the interference of their genomic environment and that such transcriptional interference may be a force promoting recurrent relocation of genes in the genome. PMID:18440951

Liao, Ben-Yang; Zhang, Jianzhi

2008-04-24

33

Haplotype Analysis in Multiple Crosses to Identify a QTL Gene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identifying quantitative trait locus (QTL) genes is a challenging task. Herein, we report using a two-step process to identify Apoa2 as the gene underlying Hdlq5, a QTL for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels on mouse chromosome 1. First, we performed a sequence analysis of the ...

Wang, Xiaosong; Korstanje, Ron; Higgins, David; Paigen, Beverly

34

YGA: identifying distinct biological features between yeast gene sets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The advance of high-throughput experimental technologies generates many gene sets with different biological meanings, where many important insights can only be extracted by identifying the biological (regulatory/functional) features that are distinct between different gene sets (e.g. essential vs. non-essential genes, TATA box-containing vs. TATA box-less genes, induced vs. repressed genes under certain biological conditions). Although many servers have been developed to identify enriched features in a gene set, most of them were designed to analyze one gene set at a time but cannot compare two gene sets. Moreover, the features used in existing servers were mainly focused on functional annotations (GO terms), pathways, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and/or protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In yeast, various important regulatory features, including promoter bendability, nucleosome occupancy, 5'-UTR length, and TF-gene regulation evidence, are available but have not been used in any enrichment analysis servers. This motivates us to develop the Yeast Genes Analyzer (YGA), a web server that simultaneously analyzes various biological (regulatory/functional) features of two gene sets and performs statistical tests to identify the distinct features between them. Many well-studied gene sets such as essential, stress-response, TATA box-containing and cell cycle genes were pre-compiled in YGA for users, if they have only one gene set, to compare with. In comparison with the existing enrichment analysis servers, YGA tests more comprehensive regulatory features (e.g. promoter bendability, nucleosome occupancy, 5'-UTR length, experimental evidence of TF-gene binding and TF-gene regulation) and functional features (e.g. PPI, GO terms, pathways and functional groups of genes, including essential/non-essential genes, stress-induced/-repressed genes, TATA box-containing/-less genes, occupied/depleted proximal-nucleosome genes and cell cycle genes). Furthermore, YGA uses various statistical tests to provide objective comparison measures. The two major contributions of YGA, comprehensive features and statistical comparison, help to mine important information that cannot be obtained from other servers. The sophisticated analysis tools of YGA can identify distinct biological features between two gene sets, which help biologists to form new hypotheses about the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for the observed difference between these two gene sets. YGA can be accessed from the following web pages: http://cosbi.ee.ncku.edu.tw/yga/ and http://yga.ee.ncku.edu.tw/.

Chang DT; Li WS; Bai YH; Wu WS

2013-04-01

35

Cellular analysis of newly identified Hox downstream genes in Drosophila.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hox genes code for conserved homeodomain transcription factors, which act as regional regulators for the specification of segmental identities along the anterior-posterior axis in all animals studied. They execute their function mainly through the activation or repression of their downstream genes. We have recently identified a large number of genes to be directly or indirectly targeted by Hox proteins through gene expression profiling in the model organism Drosophila. However, the cell-specific regulation of these downstream genes and the functional significance of the regulation are largely unknown. We have validated and functionally studied many of the newly identified downstream genes of the Hox proteins Deformed (Dfd) and Abdominal-B (Abd-B), and provide evidence that Hox proteins regulate a diverse group of downstream genes, from transcription factors to realisators with major and minor roles during morphogenesis.

Zhai Z; Fuchs AL; Lohmann I

2010-02-01

36

Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diabetes Drugs September 26, 2011 Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Why can some people make ... Three of the most widely studied psychological resources—optimism, self-esteem and mastery (the feeling that you ...

37

Scientists Identify Four Candidate Obesity Genes in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Press release on a recent study where researchers developed a strain of mice more likely to be obese and then, using this strain, identified four genes in mouse chromosome 7 that may relate to obesity. This study, ĂÂFour Out of Eight Genes in a Mouse Chromosome 7 Congenic Donor Region are Candidate Obesity Genes,ĂÂ was conducted by Craig H. Warden, Kari A. Sarahan, and Janis S. Fisler of the University of California, Davis. The study is published in Physiologic Genomics.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-09-06

38

Coexpression of linked gene pairs persists long after their separation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many eukaryotes, physically linked gene pairs tend to be coexpressed. However, it is still controversial to what extent this neighbor coexpression is maintained by selection and to what extent it is nonselective, purely mechanistic "leaky expression." Here, we analyze expression patterns of gene pairs that have lost their linkage in the evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae since its last common ancestor with Kluyveromyces waltii or that were never linked in the S. cerevisiae lineage but became neighbors in a related yeast. We demonstrate that coexpression of many linked genes is retained long after their separation and is thus likely to be functionally important. In addition, unlinked gene pairs that recently became neighbors in other yeast species tend to be coexpressed in S. cerevisiae. This suggests that natural selection often favors chromosomal rearrangements in which coexpressed genes become neighbors. Contrary to previous suggestions, selectively favorable coexpression appears not to be restricted to bidirectional promoters.

Wang GZ; Chen WH; Lercher MJ

2011-01-01

39

Coexpression of linked gene pairs persists long after their separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many eukaryotes, physically linked gene pairs tend to be coexpressed. However, it is still controversial to what extent this neighbor coexpression is maintained by selection and to what extent it is nonselective, purely mechanistic "leaky expression." Here, we analyze expression patterns of gene pairs that have lost their linkage in the evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae since its last common ancestor with Kluyveromyces waltii or that were never linked in the S. cerevisiae lineage but became neighbors in a related yeast. We demonstrate that coexpression of many linked genes is retained long after their separation and is thus likely to be functionally important. In addition, unlinked gene pairs that recently became neighbors in other yeast species tend to be coexpressed in S. cerevisiae. This suggests that natural selection often favors chromosomal rearrangements in which coexpressed genes become neighbors. Contrary to previous suggestions, selectively favorable coexpression appears not to be restricted to bidirectional promoters. PMID:21737396

Wang, Guang-Zhong; Chen, Wei-Hua; Lercher, Martin J

2011-07-06

40

Midlife gene expressions identify modulators of aging through dietary interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dietary interventions are effective ways to extend or shorten lifespan. By examining midlife hepatic gene expressions in mice under different dietary conditions, which resulted in different lifespans and aging-related phenotypes, we were able to identify genes and pathways that modulate the aging pr...

Zhou, Bing; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Jialiang; Chen, Haiyang; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jinbo; Green, Christopher D.; Yan, Zhen

 
 
 
 
41

Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk  

Science.gov (United States)

A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with data on a different sample collection from NCI’s genome-wide association studies (GWAS), lung cancer risk was still estimated to be lower, but only by 21 percent.

42

Computational and experimental analysis identifies many novel human genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because of advances in automation, human genomic sequences are being deposited in public databases at a dramatic rate. However, the process of detecting genes in these sequences is still something of an art. Here we describe the implementation and testing of a relatively straightforward computational approach, the Virtual Transcribed Sequence project, which analyzes their gene content using the gene prediction program GENSCAN (GENSCAN 1.0 1,2) in combination with similarity-based methods. This approach identifies many novel human genes not found even in EST databases.

Miyajima N; Burge CB; Saito T

2000-06-01

43

Computational and experimental analysis identifies many novel human genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of advances in automation, human genomic sequences are being deposited in public databases at a dramatic rate. However, the process of detecting genes in these sequences is still something of an art. Here we describe the implementation and testing of a relatively straightforward computational approach, the Virtual Transcribed Sequence project, which analyzes their gene content using the gene prediction program GENSCAN (GENSCAN 1.0 1,2) in combination with similarity-based methods. This approach identifies many novel human genes not found even in EST databases. PMID:10860834

Miyajima, N; Burge, C B; Saito, T

2000-06-16

44

The Zipper: a method for using personal identifiers to link data while preserving confidentiality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This report describes a method for linking separate confidential data sets that contain personal identifying information while preserving required anonymity. METHODS: Research data were linked with child abuse and neglect (CAN) report data by an independent "safe" analyst using an identical set of unique identifier codes assigned to each case in both data sets after all personal identifiers had been removed. RESULTS: The research team never learned CAN report status of individuals, the state agency never saw the research data, and the desired analyses were completed using the merged data set. CONCLUSIONS: The method was successfully used to merge data from separate sources without divulging confidential information.

Kruse RL; Ewigman BG; Tremblay GC

2001-09-01

45

Elevated urinary ?2 microglobulin in the first identified Japanese family afflicted by X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we report what is to our knowledge the first identified Japanese family afflicted by X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy. The index case is a 52-year-old man with almost 40years of progressive proximal muscle weakness. High urinary ?2 microglobulin, normal serum ?2 microglobulin, autophagic vacuoles with sarcolemmal features, and a hemizygous c.164-7T>G mutation in the VMA21 gene were found. His two maternal uncles had similar clinicopathological findings. High urinary ?2 microglobulin without obvious renal dysfunction might result from decreased urine acidification in the distal convoluted tubules caused by the VMA21 gene mutation. These findings might prove to be useful as a preliminary marker suggestive of X-linked myopathy with excessive autophagy.

Kurashige T; Takahashi T; Yamazaki Y; Nagano Y; Kondo K; Nakamura T; Yamawaki T; Tsuburaya R; Hayashi YK; Nonaka I; Nishino I; Matsumoto M

2013-11-01

46

Genes identified by visible mutant phenotypes show increased bias toward one of two subgenomes of maize.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Not all genes are created equal. Despite being supported by sequence conservation and expression data, knockout homozygotes of many genes show no visible effects, at least under laboratory conditions. We have identified a set of maize (Zea mays L.) genes which have been the subject of a disproportionate share of publications recorded at MaizeGDB. We manually anchored these "classical" maize genes to gene models in the B73 reference genome, and identified syntenic orthologs in other grass genomes. In addition to proofing the most recent version 2 maize gene models, we show that a subset of these genes, those that were identified by morphological phenotype prior to cloning, are retained at syntenic locations throughout the grasses at much higher levels than the average expressed maize gene, and are preferentially found on the maize1 subgenome even with a duplicate copy is still retained on the opposite subgenome. Maize1 is the subgenome that experienced less gene loss following the whole genome duplication in maize lineage 5-12 million years ago and genes located on this subgenome tend to be expressed at higher levels in modern maize. Links to the web based software that supported our syntenic analyses in the grasses should empower further research and support teaching involving the history of maize genetic research. Our findings exemplify the concept of "grasses as a single genetic system," where what is learned in one grass may be applied to another.

Schnable JC; Freeling M

2011-01-01

47

Genes identified by visible mutant phenotypes show increased bias toward one of two subgenomes of maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Not all genes are created equal. Despite being supported by sequence conservation and expression data, knockout homozygotes of many genes show no visible effects, at least under laboratory conditions. We have identified a set of maize (Zea mays L.) genes which have been the subject of a disproportionate share of publications recorded at MaizeGDB. We manually anchored these "classical" maize genes to gene models in the B73 reference genome, and identified syntenic orthologs in other grass genomes. In addition to proofing the most recent version 2 maize gene models, we show that a subset of these genes, those that were identified by morphological phenotype prior to cloning, are retained at syntenic locations throughout the grasses at much higher levels than the average expressed maize gene, and are preferentially found on the maize1 subgenome even with a duplicate copy is still retained on the opposite subgenome. Maize1 is the subgenome that experienced less gene loss following the whole genome duplication in maize lineage 5-12 million years ago and genes located on this subgenome tend to be expressed at higher levels in modern maize. Links to the web based software that supported our syntenic analyses in the grasses should empower further research and support teaching involving the history of maize genetic research. Our findings exemplify the concept of "grasses as a single genetic system," where what is learned in one grass may be applied to another. PMID:21423772

Schnable, James C; Freeling, Michael

2011-03-10

48

Identifying Common Genes and Networks in Multi-Organ Fibrosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroproliferative diseases of organs are poorly understood and generally lack effective anti-fibrotic treatments. Our goal was to identify the key regulatory factors in pathologic fibrosis, common between organ-based fibrotic disease. We analyzed 9 microarray datasets publicly available in the GEO datasets from lung, heart, liver and kidney fibrotic disease tissue (489 microarrays total, disease and control). We identified a set of 90 genes differentially expressed in at least five microarray datasets. We used IPA and DAVID analysis to identify gene networks and their molecular functions. A mutual information based network work activity analysis showed that a connective tissue disorders network was the most active for all types of fibrosis included in this analysis. Conclusion: Our analysis indicates that despite different disease manifestation, organ fibrosis share a specific set of genes suggesting the potential for a common origin.

Wenzke, Kevin E.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen; Zhang, Jie; Marsh, Clay B.; Huang, Kun

2012-01-01

49

Tracing evolutionary footprints to identify novel gene functional linkages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systematic determination of gene function is an essential step in fully understanding the precise contribution of each gene for the proper execution of molecular functions in the cell. Gene functional linkage is defined as to describe the relationship of a group of genes with similar functions. With thousands of genomes sequenced, there arises a great opportunity to utilize gene evolutionary information to identify gene functional linkages. To this end, we established a computational method (called TRACE) to trace gene footprints through a gene functional network constructed from 341 prokaryotic genomes. TRACE performance was validated and successfully tested to predict enzyme functions as well as components of pathway. A so far undescribed chromosome partitioning-like protein ro03654 of an oleaginous bacteria Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 (RHA1) was predicted and verified experimentally with its deletion mutant showing growth inhibition compared to RHA1 wild type. In addition, four proteins were predicted to act as prokaryotic SNARE-like proteins, and two of them were shown to be localized at the plasma membrane. Thus, we believe that TRACE is an effective new method to infer prokaryotic gene functional linkages by tracing evolutionary events.

Chen Y; Yang L; Ding Y; Zhang S; He T; Mao F; Zhang C; Zhang H; Huo C; Liu P

2013-01-01

50

Exploiting natural variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes for increased ethanol resistance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass holds promise as an alternative fuel. However, industrial stresses, including ethanol stress, limit microbial fermentation and thus prevent cost competitiveness with fossil fuels. To identify novel engineering targets for increased ethanol tolerance, we took advantage of natural diversity in wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We previously showed that an S288c-derived lab strain cannot acquire higher ethanol tolerance after a mild ethanol pretreatment, which is distinct from other stresses. Here, we measured acquired ethanol tolerance in a large panel of wild strains and show that most strains can acquire higher tolerance after pretreatment. We exploited this major phenotypic difference to address the mechanism of acquired ethanol tolerance, by comparing the global gene expression response to 5% ethanol in S288c and two wild strains. Hundreds of genes showed variation in ethanol-dependent gene expression across strains. Computational analysis identified several transcription factor modules and known coregulated genes as differentially expressed, implicating genetic variation in the ethanol signaling pathway. We used this information to identify genes required for acquisition of ethanol tolerance in wild strains, including new genes and processes not previously linked to ethanol tolerance, and four genes that increase ethanol tolerance when overexpressed. Our approach shows that comparative genomics across natural isolates can quickly identify genes for industrial engineering while expanding our understanding of natural diversity.

Lewis JA; Elkon IM; McGee MA; Higbee AJ; Gasch AP

2010-12-01

51

Application of an efficient gene targeting system linking secondary metabolites to their biosynthetic genes in Aspergillus terreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP-related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP affecting melanin synthesis was also identified in this species. PMID:23841722

Guo, Chun-Jun; Knox, Benjamin P; Sanchez, James F; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S; Wang, Clay C C

2013-07-10

52

Application of an efficient gene targeting system linking secondary metabolites to their biosynthetic genes in Aspergillus terreus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP-related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP affecting melanin synthesis was also identified in this species.

Guo CJ; Knox BP; Sanchez JF; Chiang YM; Bruno KS; Wang CC

2013-07-01

53

Midlife gene expressions identify modulators of aging through dietary interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary interventions are effective ways to extend or shorten lifespan. By examining midlife hepatic gene expressions in mice under different dietary conditions, which resulted in different lifespans and aging-related phenotypes, we were able to identify genes and pathways that modulate the aging process. We found that pathways transcriptionally correlated with diet-modulated lifespan and physiological changes were enriched for lifespan-modifying genes. Intriguingly, mitochondrial gene expression correlated with lifespan and anticorrelated with aging-related pathological changes, whereas peroxisomal gene expression showed an opposite trend. Both organelles produce reactive oxygen species, a proposed causative factor of aging. This finding implicates a contribution of peroxisome to aging. Consistent with this hypothesis, lowering the expression levels of peroxisome proliferation genes decreased the cellular peroxide levels and extended the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. These findings show that transcriptional changes resulting from dietary interventions can effectively reflect causal factors in aging and identify previously unknown or under-appreciated longevity pathways, such as the peroxisome pathway. PMID:22509016

Zhou, Bing; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Jialiang; Chen, Haiyang; Hou, Lei; Wang, Jinbo; Green, Christopher D; Yan, Zhen; Huang, Xun; Kaeberlein, Matt; Zhu, Li; Xiao, Huasheng; Liu, Yong; Han, Jing-Dong J

2012-04-16

54

Midlife gene expressions identify modulators of aging through dietary interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary interventions are effective ways to extend or shorten lifespan. By examining midlife hepatic gene expressions in mice under different dietary conditions, which resulted in different lifespans and aging-related phenotypes, we were able to identify genes and pathways that modulate the aging process. We found that pathways transcriptionally correlated with diet-modulated lifespan and physiological changes were enriched for lifespan-modifying genes. Intriguingly, mitochondrial gene expression correlated with lifespan and anticorrelated with aging-related pathological changes, whereas peroxisomal gene expression showed an opposite trend. Both organelles produce reactive oxygen species, a proposed causative factor of aging. This finding implicates a contribution of peroxisome to aging. Consistent with this hypothesis, lowering the expression levels of peroxisome proliferation genes decreased the cellular peroxide levels and extended the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. These findings show that transcriptional changes resulting from dietary interventions can effectively reflect causal factors in aging and identify previously unknown or under-appreciated longevity pathways, such as the peroxisome pathway.

Zhou B; Yang L; Li S; Huang J; Chen H; Hou L; Wang J; Green CD; Yan Z; Huang X; Kaeberlein M; Zhu L; Xiao H; Liu Y; Han JD

2012-05-01

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Identifying Mendelian disease genes with the variant effect scoring tool.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Whole exome sequencing studies identify hundreds to thousands of rare protein coding variants of ambiguous significance for human health. Computational tools are needed to accelerate the identification of specific variants and genes that contribute to human disease. RESULTS: We have developed the Variant Effect Scoring Tool (VEST), a supervised machine learning-based classifier, to prioritize rare missense variants with likely involvement in human disease. The VEST classifier training set comprised ~ 45,000 disease mutations from the latest Human Gene Mutation Database release and another ~45,000 high frequency (allele frequency >1%) putatively neutral missense variants from the Exome Sequencing Project. VEST outperforms some of the most popular methods for prioritizing missense variants in carefully designed holdout benchmarking experiments (VEST ROC AUC = 0.91, PolyPhen2 ROC AUC = 0.86, SIFT4.0 ROC AUC = 0.84). VEST estimates variant score p-values against a null distribution of VEST scores for neutral variants not included in the VEST training set. These p-values can be aggregated at the gene level across multiple disease exomes to rank genes for probable disease involvement. We tested the ability of an aggregate VEST gene score to identify candidate Mendelian disease genes, based on whole-exome sequencing of a small number of disease cases. We used whole-exome data for two Mendelian disorders for which the causal gene is known. Considering only genes that contained variants in all cases, the VEST gene score ranked dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) number 2 of 2253 genes in four cases of Miller syndrome, and myosin-3 (MYH3) number 2 of 2313 genes in three cases of Freeman Sheldon syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential power gain of aggregating bioinformatics variant scores into gene-level scores and the general utility of bioinformatics in assisting the search for disease genes in large-scale exome sequencing studies. VEST is available as a stand-alone software package at http://wiki.chasmsoftware.org and is hosted by the CRAVAT web server at http://www.cravat.us.

Carter H; Douville C; Stenson PD; Cooper DN; Karchin R

2013-01-01

56

Gene identified that sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

NCI scientists have found that a gene, Schlafen-11 (SLFN11), sensitizes cells to substances known to cause irreparable damage to DNA.  As part of their study, the researchers used a repository of 60 cell types to identify predictors of cancer cell response to classes of DNA damaging agents, widely used as chemotherapy treatments for many cancers.

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Method for identifying hypsizigus marmoreus mating type gene  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a method for performing mating type gene identification on a basidiospore monocaryon strain which is separated from different hypsizigus marmoreus strains. In the identifying process, in particular application of a flushing reaction, a palisade reaction and transplanting, the method can primarily identify the mating type gene of the hypsizigus marmoreus intuitively and quickly without other instruments and equipment. When the method is applied in cross breeding, the mating type gene of basidiospore monocaryon parent and progeny strains can be identified conveniently so as to improve the purposiveness and the effectiveness of the cross breeding process. The adopted method can shorten the time for identifying the mating type gene for 5 to 10 days, reduce the number of comparing-screening strains by 75 percent theoretically in cross breeding, improve the fecundity, and is more convenient and efficient particularly in application of multiple cross breeding of multiple strains. Then, the method selects the compatible basidiospore monocaryon strain having clamp connection according to the identification result to carry out biparental crossing, and screens hybrid strains according to growth speed, growth potential and economical character index, thereby obtaining stable, high yield and high quality hybrid strains.

ZHIYONG FENG; MINGGUANG LIU; JUNHUI GAO; MINGJIE CHEN; HUI CHEN

58

Identify condition-specific gene co-expression networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since co-expressed genes often are co-regulated by a group of transcription factors, different conditions (e.g. disease versus normal) may lead to different transcription factor activities and therefore different co-expression networks. We propose a method for identifying condition-specific co-expression networks by combining our recently developed network quasi-clique mining algorithm and the expected conditional F-statistic. We apply this method to compare the transcriptional programmes between the non-basal and basal types of breast cancers. The results provide a new perspective for studying gene interaction dynamics in cancers and assessing the effects of perturbation on key genes such as transcription factors. Our work is a way for dynamically characterising the gene interaction networks.

Kalluru V; Machiraju R; Huang K

2013-01-01

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Globicatella bacteraemia identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Globicatella are streptococcus-like organisms that have been rarely isolated from clinical specimens. Their epidemiology and clinical significance remain largely unknown. AIMS: To describe two cases of Globicatella bacteraemia identified by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. METHODS: Two unidentified streptococcus-like bacteria isolated from blood cultures of patients were subject to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Two cases of Globicatella bacteraemia were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In the first case, a gram positive coccus was isolated from the blood culture of an 80 year old woman with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial sepsis, who died the day after developing the bacteraemia. The bacterium was unidentified by conventional phenotypic tests, the Vitek (gram positive identification) and the ATB expression (ID32 Strep) systems. In the second case, a similar bacterium was isolated from the blood culture of a 92 year old woman with polymicrobial acute pyelonephritis complicated by septic shock, who subsequently recovered after antibiotic treatment. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the two isolates showed 0.5% nucleotide difference from that of G. sulfidifaciens and 0.7% nucleotide difference from that of G. sanguinis, indicating that they were Globicatella species. CONCLUSIONS: Because Globicatella is rarely encountered in clinical microbiology laboratories, it may have been overlooked or misidentified in these cases. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a useful tool to better characterise the epidemiology and clinical significance of Globicatella.

Lau SK; Woo PC; Li NK; Teng JL; Leung KW; Ng KH; Que TL; Yuen KY

2006-03-01

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Comparison of methods for identifying periodically varying genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several methods have been reported for identifying periodically varying genes from gene expression datasets. We compare the performance of five existing methods and a combination of G-statistic and autocovariance (called GVAR) using simulated sine-function-based and cell-cycle-based datasets. Based on this analysis we recommend appropriate methods for different experimental situations (length of the time series, sampling interval and noise level). No single method performs the best under all tested conditions. None of the evaluated methods perform well at high noise levels for short time series data. At lower noise levels, GVAR performed the best.

Vijayan V; Deshpande P; Gadgil C; Gadgil M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Genes expressed in blood link osteoarthritis with apoptotic pathways.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify novel gene expression networks in blood of osteoarthritis patients compared to controls. METHODS: A comprehensive exploration of gene expression in peripheral blood was performed by microarray analysis for a subset of osteoarthritis patients from the Genetics osteoARthritis and Progression (GARP) study in comparison with sex and age-matched healthy controls. To identify pathways, we performed gene enrichment analyses (database for annotation, visualisation and integrated discovery and search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes). Quantitative PCR analysis in overlapping and in additional osteoarthritis samples was performed for prioritised genes to validate and replicate findings. Classification of cases and controls was explored by applying statistical models. RESULTS: 741 probes representing 694 unique genes were differentially expressed between cases and controls, including 86 genes expressed with at least a 1.5-fold difference. ATF4, GPR18 and H3F3B were among the top genes identified (p<4.5?×?10(-8)). We found that in the blood of osteoarthritis patients the apoptosis pathway, including the well-known gene CASP3, was significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. Our findings were validated in independent samples and when using a small subset of the validated genes, we could accurately distinguish patients from controls (area under the curve 98%). CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, we have identified specific gene expression networks, in the easily accessible tissue blood, which associated consistently with osteoarthritis among GARP study cases. Our data further hint at the relevance of apoptosis as an aetiological factor in osteoarthritis onset, thereby qualifying expression profiling of blood as a useful tool to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of osteoarthritis.

Ramos YF; Bos SD; Lakenberg N; Böhringer S; den Hollander WJ; Kloppenburg M; Slagboom PE; Meulenbelt I

2013-07-01

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Identifying targets for COPD treatment through gene expression analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zhi-Hua Chen1, Hong Pyo Kim1, Stefan W Ryter1, Augustine MK Choi21Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Despite the status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a major global health problem, no currently available therapies can limit COPD progression. Therefore, an urgent need exists for the development of new and effective treatments for COPD. An improved understanding in the molecular pathogenesis of COPD can potentially identify molecular targets to facilitate the development of new therapeutic modalities. Among the best approaches for understanding the molecular basis of COPD include gene expression profiling techniques, such as serial analysis of gene expression or microarrays. Using these methods, recent studies have mapped comparative gene expression profiles of lung tissues from patients with different stages of COPD relative to healthy smokers or non-smokers. Such studies have revealed a number of differentially-regulated genes associated with COPD progression, which include genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, extracellular matrix, cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis, and stress responses. These studies have shed new light on the molecular mechanisms of COPD, and suggest novel targets for clinical treatments.Keywords: COPD, gene expression, therapeutic targets

Zhi-Hua Chen; Hong Pyo Kim; Stefan W Ryter; Augustine MK Choi

2008-01-01

63

Animal models of GWAS-identified type 2 diabetes genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

More than 65 loci, encoding up to 500 different genes, have been implicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as conferring an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whilst mouse models have in the past been central to understanding the mechanisms through which more penetrant risk genes for T2D, for example, those responsible for neonatal or maturity-onset diabetes of the young, only a few of those identified by GWAS, notably TCF7L2 and ZnT8/SLC30A8, have to date been examined in mouse models. We discuss here the animal models available for the latter genes and provide perspectives for future, higher throughput approaches towards efficiently mining the information provided by human genetics.

da Silva Xavier G; Bellomo EA; McGinty JA; French PM; Rutter GA

2013-01-01

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Animal models of GWAS-identified type 2 diabetes genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 65 loci, encoding up to 500 different genes, have been implicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as conferring an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whilst mouse models have in the past been central to understanding the mechanisms through which more penetrant risk genes for T2D, for example, those responsible for neonatal or maturity-onset diabetes of the young, only a few of those identified by GWAS, notably TCF7L2 and ZnT8/SLC30A8, have to date been examined in mouse models. We discuss here the animal models available for the latter genes and provide perspectives for future, higher throughput approaches towards efficiently mining the information provided by human genetics. PMID:23710470

da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Bellomo, Elisa A; McGinty, James A; French, Paul M; Rutter, Guy A

2013-04-11

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Haplotype analysis in multiple crosses to identify a QTL gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Identifying quantitative trait locus (QTL) genes is a challenging task. Herein, we report using a two-step process to identify Apoa2 as the gene underlying Hdlq5, a QTL for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels on mouse chromosome 1. First, we performed a sequence analysis of the Apoa2 coding region in 46 genetically diverse mouse strains and found five different APOA2 protein variants, which we named APOA2a to APOA2e. Second, we conducted a haplotype analysis of the strains in 21 crosses that have so far detected HDL QTLs; we found that Hdlq5 was detected only in the nine crosses where one parent had the APOA2b protein variant characterized by an Ala61-to-Val61 substitution. We then found that strains with the APOA2b variant had significantly higher (P < or = 0.002) plasma HDL levels than those with either the APOA2a or the APOA2c variant. These findings support Apoa2 as the underlying Hdlq5 gene and suggest the Apoa2 polymorphisms responsible for the Hdlq5 phenotype. Therefore, haplotype analysis in multiple crosses can be used to support a candidate QTL gene.

Wang X; Korstanje R; Higgins D; Paigen B

2004-09-01

66

Haplotype analysis in multiple crosses to identify a QTL gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying quantitative trait locus (QTL) genes is a challenging task. Herein, we report using a two-step process to identify Apoa2 as the gene underlying Hdlq5, a QTL for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels on mouse chromosome 1. First, we performed a sequence analysis of the Apoa2 coding region in 46 genetically diverse mouse strains and found five different APOA2 protein variants, which we named APOA2a to APOA2e. Second, we conducted a haplotype analysis of the strains in 21 crosses that have so far detected HDL QTLs; we found that Hdlq5 was detected only in the nine crosses where one parent had the APOA2b protein variant characterized by an Ala61-to-Val61 substitution. We then found that strains with the APOA2b variant had significantly higher (P < or = 0.002) plasma HDL levels than those with either the APOA2a or the APOA2c variant. These findings support Apoa2 as the underlying Hdlq5 gene and suggest the Apoa2 polymorphisms responsible for the Hdlq5 phenotype. Therefore, haplotype analysis in multiple crosses can be used to support a candidate QTL gene. PMID:15310659

Wang, Xiaosong; Korstanje, Ron; Higgins, David; Paigen, Beverly

2004-08-12

67

Identifying polymorphism in enamelin gene in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI).  

Science.gov (United States)

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a developmental defect of dental enamel formation. This enamel defect can be caused by mutation in ENAM gene. Hence this study investigated the molecular defect in the enamelin gene in a patient with the clinical features of AI. The genomic DNA was extracted from patient's whole blood samples and the DNA was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence of 16 pairs of oligonucleotide primers specifically designed to amplify all the 10 exons, g2382, g6395 and g8344 of the enamelin (ENAM) gene in the long arm of the chromosome 4. The PCR products were gel purified and sequenced to identify any mutation. The ENAM gene sequences from the patient were aligned with the reference sequence (GenBank accession no. AY167999) using VectorNTI software. We identified a single base difference at location g359 A-->G on exon 1 between the reference sequence and patient's sequence. We successfully ruled out any possible mutation on exon 2, exon 3, exon 4, exon 5, exon 6, exon 7, exon 8, exon 9, exon 10, g2382, g6395 and g8344. PMID:18466877

Gopinath, V K; Yoong, Tan Pang; Yean, Chan Yean; Ravichandran, M

2008-05-08

68

Overview of skin diseases linked to connexin gene mutations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mutations in skin-expressed connexin genes, such as connexins 26, 30, 30.3, 31, and 43, have been linked to several human hereditary diseases with multiple organ involvement. Mutations in connexin 26 are linked to diseases including Vohwinkel syndrome, keratitis-ichthyosis deafness, and hystrix-like ichthyosis deafness syndromes, palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness, deafness with Clouston-like phenotype, and Bart-Pumphrey syndrome. Mutations in connexin 30 are correlated with Clouston syndrome. Connexin 30.3 and 31 mutations lead to erythrokeratoderma variabilis, and mutations in connexin 43 are correlated with oculodentodigital dysplasia. Provided is a review of these mutations and related skin disorders.

Avshalumova L; Fabrikant J; Koriakos A

2013-05-01

69

Links between core promoter and basic gene features influence gene expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diversity in rates of gene expression is essential for basic cell functions and is controlled by a variety of intricate mechanisms. Revealing general mechanisms that control gene expression is important for understanding normal and pathological cell functions and for improving the design of expression systems. Here we analyzed the relationship between general features of genes and their contribution to expression levels. Results Genes were divided into four groups according to their core promoter type and their characteristics analyzed statistically. Surprisingly we found that small variations in the TATA box are linked to large differences in gene length. Genes containing canonical TATA are generally short whereas long genes are associated with either non-canonical TATA or TATA-less promoters. These differences in gene length are primarily determined by the size and number of introns. Generally, gene expression was found to be tightly correlated with the strength of the TATA-box. However significant reduction in gene expression levels were linked with long TATA-containing genes (canonical and non-canonical) whereas intron length hardly affected the expression of TATA-less genes. Interestingly, features associated with high translation are prevalent in TATA-containing genes suggesting that their protein production is also more efficient. Conclusion Our results suggest that interplay between core promoter type and gene size can generate significant diversity in gene expression.

Moshonov Sandra; Elfakess Rofa; Golan-Mashiach Michal; Sinvani Hadar; Dikstein Rivka

2008-01-01

70

CCR Connections: News - Newly Identified Mechanism Links Obesity with Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence points to obesity as a risk factor for a variety of cancers. Now a new study by CCR scientists shows that excessive carbohydrate metabolism activates a protein that suppresses BRCA1 and many other genes involved in DNA repair. The protein, called c-terminal binding protein (CtBP), links breast cancer with obesity, diabetes, and other conditions associated with metabolic imbalance, according to a study led by Kevin Gardner, M.D., Ph.D., a Senior Investigator in the Genetics Branch.

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Comparative genomics and gene expression analysis identifies BBS9, a new Bardet-Biedl syndrome gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic human disorder characterized by obesity, retinopathy, polydactyly, renal and cardiac malformations, learning disabilities, and hypogenitalism. Eight BBS genes representing all known mapped loci have been identified. Mutation analysis of the known BBS genes in BBS patients indicate that additional BBS genes exist and/or that unidentified mutations exist in the known genes. To identify new BBS genes, we performed homozygosity mapping of small, consanguineous BBS pedigrees, using moderately dense SNP arrays. A bioinformatics approach combining comparative genomic analysis and gene expression studies of a BBS-knockout mouse model was used to prioritize BBS candidate genes within the newly identified loci for mutation screening. By use of this strategy, parathyroid hormone-responsive gene B1 (B1) was found to be a novel BBS gene (BBS9), supported by the identification of homozygous mutations in BBS patients. The identification of BBS9 illustrates the power of using a combination of comparative genomic analysis, gene expression studies, and homozygosity mapping with SNP arrays in small, consanguineous families for the identification of rare autosomal recessive disorders. We also demonstrate that small, consanguineous families are useful in identifying intragenic deletions. This type of mutation is likely to be underreported because of the difficulty of deletion detection in the heterozygous state by the mutation screening methods that are used in many studies. PMID:16380913

Nishimura, Darryl Y; Swiderski, Ruth E; Searby, Charles C; Berg, Erik M; Ferguson, Amanda L; Hennekam, Raoul; Merin, Saul; Weleber, Richard G; Biesecker, Leslie G; Stone, Edwin M; Sheffield, Val C

2005-10-26

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R4 regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) identify an ancient MHC-linked synteny group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are key regulators of G protein signaling. RGS proteins of the R4 RGS group are composed of a mere RGS domain and are mainly involved in immune response modulation. In both human and mouse, most genes encoding the R4 RGS proteins are located in the same region of chromosome 1. We show here that the RGS1/RGS16 neighborhood constitutes a synteny group well conserved across tetrapods and closely linked to the MHC paralogon of chromosome 1. Genes located in the RGS1/RGS16 region have paralogs close to the MHC on chromosome 6 or close to the other MHC paralogons. In amphioxus, a cephalochordate, these genes possess orthologs that are located in the same scaffolds as a number of markers defining the proto-MHC in this species (Abi-Rached et al., Nat Genet 31:100-115, 2002). We therefore propose that the RGS1/RGS16 region provides useful markers to investigate the origins and the evolution of the MHC. In addition, we show that some genes of the region appear to have immune functions not only in human, but also in Xenopus. PMID:23129146

Suurväli, Jaanus; Robert, Jacques; Boudinot, Pierre; Rüütel Boudinot, Sirje

2012-11-06

73

R4 regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) identify an ancient MHC-linked synteny group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are key regulators of G protein signaling. RGS proteins of the R4 RGS group are composed of a mere RGS domain and are mainly involved in immune response modulation. In both human and mouse, most genes encoding the R4 RGS proteins are located in the same region of chromosome 1. We show here that the RGS1/RGS16 neighborhood constitutes a synteny group well conserved across tetrapods and closely linked to the MHC paralogon of chromosome 1. Genes located in the RGS1/RGS16 region have paralogs close to the MHC on chromosome 6 or close to the other MHC paralogons. In amphioxus, a cephalochordate, these genes possess orthologs that are located in the same scaffolds as a number of markers defining the proto-MHC in this species (Abi-Rached et al., Nat Genet 31:100-115, 2002). We therefore propose that the RGS1/RGS16 region provides useful markers to investigate the origins and the evolution of the MHC. In addition, we show that some genes of the region appear to have immune functions not only in human, but also in Xenopus.

Suurväli J; Robert J; Boudinot P; Rüütel Boudinot S

2013-02-01

74

Gene expression profiling identifies molecular subtypes of inflammatory breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Comprehensive gene expression profiles obtained using DNA microarrays have revealed previously indistinguishable subtypes of noninflammatory breast cancer (NIBC) related to different features of mammary epithelial biology and significantly associated with survival. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, particular, and aggressive form of disease. Here we have investigated whether the five molecular subtypes described for NIBC (luminal A and B, basal, ERBB2 overexpressing, and normal breast-like) were also present in IBC. We monitored the RNA expression of approximately 8,000 genes in 83 breast tissue samples including 37 IBC, 44 NIBC, and 2 normal breast samples. Hierarchical clustering identified the five subtypes of breast cancer in both NIBC and IBC samples. These subtypes were highly similar to those defined in previous studies and associated with similar histoclinical features. The robustness of this classification was confirmed by the use of both alternative gene set and analysis method, and the results were corroborated at the protein level. Furthermore, we show that the differences in gene expression between NIBC and IBC and between IBC with and without pathologic complete response that we have recently reported persist in each subtype. Our results show that the expression signatures defining molecular subtypes of NIBC are also present in IBC. Obtained using different patient series and different microarray platforms, they reinforce confidence in the expression-based molecular taxonomy but also give evidence for its universality in breast cancer, independently of a specific clinical form. PMID:15781628

Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Rougemont, Jacques; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Cervera, Nathalie; Tarpin, Carole; Nguyen, Catherine; Xerri, Luc; Houlgatte, Rémi; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel

2005-03-15

75

A sequence-based approach to identify reference genes for gene expression analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An important consideration when analyzing both microarray and quantitative PCR expression data is the selection of appropriate genes as endogenous controls or reference genes. This step is especially critical when identifying genes differentially expressed between datasets. Moreover, reference genes suitable in one context (e.g. lung cancer) may not be suitable in another (e.g. breast cancer). Currently, the main approach to identify reference genes involves the mining of expression microarray data for highly expressed and relatively constant transcripts across a sample set. A caveat here is the requirement for transcript normalization prior to analysis, and measurements obtained are relative, not absolute. Alternatively, as sequencing-based technologies provide digital quantitative output, absolute quantification ensues, and reference gene identification becomes more accurate. Methods Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) profiles of non-malignant and malignant lung samples were compared using a permutation test to identify the most stably expressed genes across all samples. Subsequently, the specificity of the reference genes was evaluated across multiple tissue types, their constancy of expression was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), and their impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data was evaluated. Results We show that (i) conventional references genes such as ACTB and GAPDH are highly variable between cancerous and non-cancerous samples, (ii) reference genes identified for lung cancer do not perform well for other cancer types (breast and brain), (iii) reference genes identified through SAGE show low variability using qPCR in a different cohort of samples, and (iv) normalization of a lung cancer gene expression microarray dataset with or without our reference genes, yields different results for differential gene expression and subsequent analyses. Specifically, key established pathways in lung cancer exhibit higher statistical significance using a dataset normalized with our reference genes relative to normalization without using our reference genes. Conclusions Our analyses found NDUFA1, RPL19, RAB5C, and RPS18 to occupy the top ranking positions among 15 suitable reference genes optimal for normalization of lung tissue expression data. Significantly, the approach used in this study can be applied to data generated using new generation sequencing platforms for the identification of reference genes optimal within diverse contexts.

Chari Raj; Lonergan Kim M; Pikor Larissa A; Coe Bradley P; Zhu Chang; Chan Timothy HW; MacAulay Calum E; Tsao Ming-Sound; Lam Stephen; Ng Raymond T; Lam Wan L

2010-01-01

76

Meta-analysis of gene expression data identifies causal genes for prostate cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in male populations across the globe. With the advent of gene expression arrays, many microarray studies have been conducted in prostate cancer, but the results have varied across different studies. To better understand the genetic and biologic mechanisms of prostate cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of two studies on prostate cancer. Eight key genes were identified to be differentially expressed with progression. After gene co-expression analysis based on data from the GEO database, we obtained a co- expressed gene list which included 725 genes. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these genes are involved in actin filament-based processes, locomotion and cell morphogenesis. Further analysis of the gene list should provide important clues for developing new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.

Wang XY; Hao JW; Zhou RJ; Zhang XS; Yan TZ; Ding DG; Shan L

2013-01-01

77

Homeobox genes: a molecular link between development and cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Homeobox genes are regulatory genes encoding nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors, regulating aspects of morphogenesis and cell differentiation during normal embryonic development of several animals. Vertebrate homeobox genes can be divided in two subfamilies: clustered, or HOX genes, and nonclustered, or divergent, homeobox genes. During the last decades, several homeobox genes, clustered and nonclustered ones, were identified in normal tissue, in malignant cells, and in different diseases and metabolic alterations. Homeobox genes are involved in the normal teeth development and in familial teeth agenesis. Normal development and cancer have a great deal in common, as both processes involve shifts between cell proliferation and differentiation. The literature is accumulating evidences that homeobox genes play an important role in oncogenesis. Many cancers exhibit expression of or alteration in homeobox genes. Those include leukemias, colon, skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancers, among others. This review is aimed at introducing readers to some of the homeobox family functions in normal tissues and especially in cancer.

Nunes Fabio Daumas; Almeida Fernanda Campos Souza de; Tucci Renata; Sousa Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de

2003-01-01

78

Gene that controls aggressiveness in breast cancer cells identified  

Science.gov (United States)

In a discovery that sheds new light on the aggressiveness of certain breast cancers, Whitehead Institute and MIT researchers have identified a transcription factor, known as ZEB1, that is capable of converting non-aggressive basal-type cancer cells into highly malignant, tumor-forming cancer stem cells (CSCs). Intriguingly, luminal breast cancer cells, which are associated with a much better clinical prognosis, carry this gene in a state in which it seems to be permanently shut down. MIT is home to the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

79

Identifying paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in linked administrative health data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the contribution of the quality of nursing care to patient outcomes. Due to different casemix and risk profiles, algorithms for administrative health data that identify nursing-sensitive outcomes in adult hospitalised patients may not be applicable to paediatric patients. The study purpose was to test adult algorithms in a paediatric hospital population and make amendments to increase the accuracy of identification of hospital acquired events. The study also aimed to determine whether the use of linked hospital records improved the likelihood of correctly identifying patient outcomes as nursing sensitive rather than being related to their pre-morbid conditions. Methods Using algorithms developed by Needleman et al. (2001), proportions and rates of records that identified nursing-sensitive outcomes for pressure ulcers, pneumonia and surgical wound infections were determined from administrative hospitalisation data for all paediatric patients discharged from a tertiary paediatric hospital in Western Australia between July 1999 and June 2009. The effects of changes to inclusion and exclusion criteria for each algorithm on the calculated proportion or rate in the paediatric population were explored. Linked records were used to identify comorbid conditions that increased nursing-sensitive outcome risk. Rates were calculated using algorithms revised for paediatric patients. Results Linked records of 129,719 hospital separations for 79,016 children were analysed. Identification of comorbid conditions was enhanced through access to prior and/or subsequent hospitalisation records (43% of children with pressure ulcers had a form of paralysis recorded only on a previous admission). Readmissions with a surgical wound infection were identified for 103 (4.8/1,000) surgical separations using linked data. After amendment of each algorithm for paediatric patients, rates of pressure ulcers and pneumonia reduced by 53% and 15% (from 1.3 to 0.6 and from 9.1 to 7.7 per 10,000 patient days) respectively, and an 84% increase in the proportion of surgical wound infection (from 5.7 to 10.4 per 1,000 separations). Conclusions Algorithms for nursing-sensitive outcomes used in adult populations have to be amended before application to paediatric populations. Using unlinked individual hospitalisation records to estimate rates of nursing-sensitive outcomes is likely to result in inaccurate rates.

Wilson Sally; Bremner Alexandra P; Hauck Yvonne; Finn Judith

2012-01-01

80

Identifying paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in linked administrative health data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the contribution of the quality of nursing care to patient outcomes. Due to different casemix and risk profiles, algorithms for administrative health data that identify nursing-sensitive outcomes in adult hospitalised patients may not be applicable to paediatric patients. The study purpose was to test adult algorithms in a paediatric hospital population and make amendments to increase the accuracy of identification of hospital acquired events. The study also aimed to determine whether the use of linked hospital records improved the likelihood of correctly identifying patient outcomes as nursing sensitive rather than being related to their pre-morbid conditions. METHODS: Using algorithms developed by Needleman et al. (2001), proportions and rates of records that identified nursing-sensitive outcomes for pressure ulcers, pneumonia and surgical wound infections were determined from administrative hospitalisation data for all paediatric patients discharged from a tertiary paediatric hospital in Western Australia between July 1999 and June 2009. The effects of changes to inclusion and exclusion criteria for each algorithm on the calculated proportion or rate in the paediatric population were explored. Linked records were used to identify comorbid conditions that increased nursing-sensitive outcome risk. Rates were calculated using algorithms revised for paediatric patients. RESULTS: Linked records of 129,719 hospital separations for 79,016 children were analysed. Identification of comorbid conditions was enhanced through access to prior and/or subsequent hospitalisation records (43% of children with pressure ulcers had a form of paralysis recorded only on a previous admission). Readmissions with a surgical wound infection were identified for 103 (4.8/1,000) surgical separations using linked data. After amendment of each algorithm for paediatric patients, rates of pressure ulcers and pneumonia reduced by 53% and 15% (from 1.3 to 0.6 and from 9.1 to 7.7 per 10,000 patient days) respectively, and an 84% increase in the proportion of surgical wound infection (from 5.7 to 10.4 per 1,000 separations). CONCLUSIONS: Algorithms for nursing-sensitive outcomes used in adult populations have to be amended before application to paediatric populations. Using unlinked individual hospitalisation records to estimate rates of nursing-sensitive outcomes is likely to result in inaccurate rates.

Wilson S; Bremner AP; Hauck Y; Finn J

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Computation method to identify differential allelic gene expression and novel imprinted genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MOTIVATION: Genomic imprinting plays an important role in both normal development and diseases. Abnormal imprinting is strongly associated with several human diseases including cancers. Most of the imprinted genes were discovered in the neighborhood of the known imprinted genes. This approach is difficult to extend to analyze the whole genome. We have decided to take a computational approach to systematically search the whole genome for the presence of mono-allelic expressed genes and imprinted genes in human genome. RESULTS: A computational method was developed to identify novel imprinted or mono-allelic genes. Individuals represented in human cDNA libraries were genotyped using Bayesian statistics, and differential expression of polymorphic alleles was identified. A significant reduction in the number of libraries that expressed both alleles, measured by Z-statistics, is a strong indicator for an imprinted or a mono-allelic gene. AVAILABILITY: The data sets are available at http://leelab.nci.nih.gov/leelab/jsp/IGDM/IGDM.html

Yang HH; Hu Y; Edmonson M; Buetow K; Lee MP

2003-05-01

82

SlWUS1; An X-linked Gene Having No Homologous Y-Linked Copy in Silene latifolia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dioecious plant Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and comparison of the positions of sex-linked genes indicates that at least three large inversions have occurred during the evolution of the Y chromosome. In this article, we describe the isolation of a new sex-linked gene from ...

Kazama, Yusuke; Nishihara, Kiyoshi; Bergero, Roberta; Fujiwara, Makoto T.; Abe, Tomoko; Charlesworth, Deborah; Kawano, Shigeyuki

83

Gene Mutation Linked to Type of Childhood Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have identified a gene that may play a role in the growth and spread of a childhood cancer called rhabdomyosarcoma, which develops in the body's soft tissues. The finding has revealed a potential new target for the treatment of this disease.

84

Blood pressure loci identified with a gene-centric array.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies. PMID:22100073

Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R; Newhouse, Stephen J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G; Whincup, Peter H; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Dobson, Richard J; Howard, Philip J; Mein, Charles A; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Davey Smith, George; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Goodall, Alison H; Fowkes, F Gerald; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S; Burton, Paul R; Nelson, Christopher P; Tobin, Martin D; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sőber, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Hastie, Claire E; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Björn; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Wells, George A; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G M; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Maris; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D; Samani, Nilesh J; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B

2011-11-17

85

GIN transposons: genetic elements linking retrotransposons and genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a previous work, we characterized a gene, called Gypsy Integrase 1 (GIN1), which encodes a protein very similar to the integrase domains present in Gypsy/Ty3 retrotransposons. I describe here a paralog of GIN1 and GIN2 and show that both genes are present in multiple vertebrates and that a likely homolog is found in urochordates. Surprisingly, phylogenetic and structural analyses support the counterintuitive idea that the GIN genes did not directly derive from retrotransposons but from a novel type of animal-specific DNA transposons, the GIN elements. These elements, described for the first time in this study, are characterized by containing a gene that encodes a protein that is also very similar to Gypsy/Ty3 integrases. It turns out that the sequences of the integrases encoded by GIN1 and GIN2 are more similar to those found in GIN elements than to those detected in retrotransposons. Moreover, several introns are in the same positions in the integrase-encoding genes of some GIN elements, GIN1 and GIN2. The simplest explanation for these results is that GIN elements appeared early in animal evolution by co-option of the integrase of a retrotransposon, they later expanded in multiple animal lineages, and, eventually, gave rise to the GIN genes. In summary, GIN transposons may be the "missing link" that explain how GIN genes evolved from retrotransposons. GIN1 and GIN2 may have contributed to control the expansion of GIN elements and Gypsy/Ty3 retrotransposons in chordates.

Marín I

2010-08-01

86

GIN transposons: genetic elements linking retrotransposons and genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous work, we characterized a gene, called Gypsy Integrase 1 (GIN1), which encodes a protein very similar to the integrase domains present in Gypsy/Ty3 retrotransposons. I describe here a paralog of GIN1 and GIN2 and show that both genes are present in multiple vertebrates and that a likely homolog is found in urochordates. Surprisingly, phylogenetic and structural analyses support the counterintuitive idea that the GIN genes did not directly derive from retrotransposons but from a novel type of animal-specific DNA transposons, the GIN elements. These elements, described for the first time in this study, are characterized by containing a gene that encodes a protein that is also very similar to Gypsy/Ty3 integrases. It turns out that the sequences of the integrases encoded by GIN1 and GIN2 are more similar to those found in GIN elements than to those detected in retrotransposons. Moreover, several introns are in the same positions in the integrase-encoding genes of some GIN elements, GIN1 and GIN2. The simplest explanation for these results is that GIN elements appeared early in animal evolution by co-option of the integrase of a retrotransposon, they later expanded in multiple animal lineages, and, eventually, gave rise to the GIN genes. In summary, GIN transposons may be the "missing link" that explain how GIN genes evolved from retrotransposons. GIN1 and GIN2 may have contributed to control the expansion of GIN elements and Gypsy/Ty3 retrotransposons in chordates. PMID:20228153

Marín, Ignacio

2010-03-12

87

SPRIT: Identifying horizontal gene transfer in rooted phylogenetic trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic trees based on sequences from a set of taxa can be incongruent due to horizontal gene transfer (HGT). By identifying the HGT events, we can reconcile the gene trees and derive a taxon tree that adequately represents the species' evolutionary history. One HGT can be represented by a rooted Subtree Prune and Regraft (RSPR) operation and the number of RSPRs separating two trees corresponds to the minimum number of HGT events. Identifying the minimum number of RSPRs separating two trees is NP-hard, but the problem can be reduced to fixed parameter tractable. A number of heuristic and two exact approaches to identifying the minimum number of RSPRs have been proposed. This is the first implementation delivering an exact solution as well as the intermediate trees connecting the input trees. Results We present the SPR Identification Tool (SPRIT), a novel algorithm that solves the fixed parameter tractable minimum RSPR problem and its GPL licensed Java implementation. The algorithm can be used in two ways, exhaustive search that guarantees the minimum RSPR distance and a heuristic approach that guarantees finding a solution, but not necessarily the minimum one. We benchmarked SPRIT against other software in two different settings, small to medium sized trees i.e. five to one hundred taxa and large trees i.e. thousands of taxa. In the small to medium tree size setting with random artificial incongruence, SPRIT's heuristic mode outperforms the other software by always delivering a solution with a low overestimation of the RSPR distance. In the large tree setting SPRIT compares well to the alternatives when benchmarked on finding a minimum solution within a reasonable time. SPRIT presents both the minimum RSPR distance and the intermediate trees. Conclusions When used in exhaustive search mode, SPRIT identifies the minimum number of RSPRs needed to reconcile two incongruent rooted trees. SPRIT also performs quick approximations of the minimum RSPR distance, which are comparable to, and often better than, purely heuristic solutions. Put together, SPRIT is an excellent tool for identification of HGT events and pinpointing which taxa have been involved in HGT.

Hill Tobias; Nordström Karl JV; Thollesson Mikael; Säfström Tommy M; Vernersson Andreas KE; Fredriksson Robert; Schiöth Helgi B

2010-01-01

88

Next-generation whole genome sequencing identifies the direction of norovirus transmission in linked patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are a highly transmissible and major cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis resulting in bed and hospital-ward closures. Where hospital outbreaks are suspected, it is important to determine the routes of spread so that appropriate infection-control procedures can be implemented. To investigate a cluster of norovirus cases occurring in children undergoing bone marrow transplant, we undertook norovirus genome sequencing by next-generation methods. Detailed comparison of sequence data from 2 linked cases enabled us to identify the likely direction of spread. METHODS: Norovirus complementary DNA was amplified by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from 13 stool samples from 5 diagnostic real-time PCR-positive patients. The amplicons were sequenced by Roche 454, the genomes assembled by de novo assembly, and the data analyzed phylogenetically. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis indicated that patients were infected by viruses similar to 4 distinct GII.4 subtypes and 2 patients were linked by the same virus. Of the 14 sites at which there were differences between the consensus sequences of the 2 linked viral genomes, 9 had minor variants present within one or the other patient. Further analysis confirmed that minor variants at all 9 sites in patient B w ere present as the consensus sequence in patient A. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis excluded a common source of infection in this apparent outbreak. Two of 3 patients on the same ward had closely related viruses, raising the possibility of cross-infection despite protective isolation. Analysis of deep sequencing data enabled us to establish the likely direction of nosocomial transmission.

Kundu S; Lockwood J; Depledge DP; Chaudhry Y; Aston A; Rao K; Hartley JC; Goodfellow I; Breuer J

2013-08-01

89

Network-based inference framework for identifying cancer genes from gene expression data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Great efforts have been devoted to alleviate uncertainty of detected cancer genes as accurate identification of oncogenes is of tremendous significance and helps unravel the biological behavior of tumors. In this paper, we present a differential network-based framework to detect biologically meaningful cancer-related genes. Firstly, a gene regulatory network construction algorithm is proposed, in which a boosting regression based on likelihood score and informative prior is employed for improving accuracy of identification. Secondly, with the algorithm, two gene regulatory networks are constructed from case and control samples independently. Thirdly, by subtracting the two networks, a differential-network model is obtained and then used to rank differentially expressed hub genes for identification of cancer biomarkers. Compared with two existing gene-based methods (t-test and lasso), the method has a significant improvement in accuracy both on synthetic datasets and two real breast cancer datasets. Furthermore, identified six genes (TSPYL5, CD55, CCNE2, DCK, BBC3, and MUC1) susceptible to breast cancer were verified through the literature mining, GO analysis, and pathway functional enrichment analysis. Among these oncogenes, TSPYL5 and CCNE2 have been already known as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer, CD55 has been suspected of playing an important role in breast cancer prognosis from literature evidence, and other three genes are newly discovered breast cancer biomarkers. More generally, the differential-network schema can be extended to other complex diseases for detection of disease associated-genes.

Yang B; Zhang J; Yin Y; Zhang Y

2013-01-01

90

Network-Based Inference Framework for Identifying Cancer Genes from Gene Expression Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Great efforts have been devoted to alleviate uncertainty of detected cancer genes as accurate identification of oncogenes is of tremendous significance and helps unravel the biological behavior of tumors. In this paper, we present a differential network-based framework to detect biologically meaningful cancer-related genes. Firstly, a gene regulatory network construction algorithm is proposed, in which a boosting regression based on likelihood score and informative prior is employed for improving accuracy of identification. Secondly, with the algorithm, two gene regulatory networks are constructed from case and control samples independently. Thirdly, by subtracting the two networks, a differential-network model is obtained and then used to rank differentially expressed hub genes for identification of cancer biomarkers. Compared with two existing gene-based methods (t-test and lasso), the method has a significant improvement in accuracy both on synthetic datasets and two real breast cancer datasets. Furthermore, identified six genes (TSPYL5, CD55, CCNE2, DCK, BBC3, and MUC1) susceptible to breast cancer were verified through the literature mining, GO analysis, and pathway functional enrichment analysis. Among these oncogenes, TSPYL5 and CCNE2 have been already known as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer, CD55 has been suspected of playing an important role in breast cancer prognosis from literature evidence, and other three genes are newly discovered breast cancer biomarkers. More generally, the differential-network schema can be extended to other complex diseases for detection of disease associated-genes.

Yang, Bo; Zhang, Junying; Yin, Yaling; Zhang, Yuanyuan

2013-01-01

91

Development of a SCAR marker linked to the I gene in common bean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two 24-mer SCAR primers (SW13) were developed from a previously identified 10-mer RAPD primer (OW13(690)) linked to the I gene, which conditions resistance to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean. Linkage between SW13 and the I gene was tested in three F2 populations segregating for both SW13 and the I gene: N84004/Michelite (1.0 +/- 0.7 cM), Seafarer/UI-114 (1.3 +/- 0.8 cM), and G91201/Alpine (5.0 +/- 2.2 cM). SW13 proved to be more specific and reproducible than the OW13(690) RAPD marker. Using different heat-stable DNA polymerases, SW13 amplified a single 690-bp fragment linked to the I gene that more consistently permitted the identification of resistant plants. In addition, the presence of the I gene was detected using SW13 in genotypes originating from different gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris L., indicating a broad utility of this marker for bean breeding programs. PMID:8983191

Melotto, M; Afanador, L; Kelly, J D

1996-12-01

92

Development of a SCAR marker linked to the I gene in common bean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two 24-mer SCAR primers (SW13) were developed from a previously identified 10-mer RAPD primer (OW13(690)) linked to the I gene, which conditions resistance to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean. Linkage between SW13 and the I gene was tested in three F2 populations segregating for both SW13 and the I gene: N84004/Michelite (1.0 +/- 0.7 cM), Seafarer/UI-114 (1.3 +/- 0.8 cM), and G91201/Alpine (5.0 +/- 2.2 cM). SW13 proved to be more specific and reproducible than the OW13(690) RAPD marker. Using different heat-stable DNA polymerases, SW13 amplified a single 690-bp fragment linked to the I gene that more consistently permitted the identification of resistant plants. In addition, the presence of the I gene was detected using SW13 in genotypes originating from different gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris L., indicating a broad utility of this marker for bean breeding programs.

Melotto M; Afanador L; Kelly JD

1996-12-01

93

Promoter RNA links transcriptional regulation of inflammatory pathway genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered, their function and their association with RNAi factors in the nucleus have remained obscure. Here, we identify RNA transcripts that overlap the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) promoter and contain two adjacent binding sites for an endogenous miRNA, miR-589. We find that miR-589 binds the promoter RNA and activates COX-2 transcription. In addition to miR-589, fully complementary duplex RNAs that target the COX-2 promoter transcript activate COX-2 transcription. Activation by small RNA requires RNAi factors argonaute-2 (AGO2) and GW182, but does not require AGO2-mediated cleavage of the promoter RNA. Instead, the promoter RNA functions as a scaffold. Binding of AGO2 protein/small RNA complexes to the promoter RNA triggers gene activation. Gene looping allows interactions between the promoters of COX-2 and phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A), an adjacent pro-inflammatory pathway gene that produces arachidonic acid, the substrate for COX-2 protein. miR-589 and fully complementary small RNAs regulate both COX-2 and PLA2G4A gene expression, revealing an unexpected connection between key steps of the eicosanoid signaling pathway. The work demonstrates the potential for RNA to coordinate locus-dependent assembly of related genes to form functional operons through cis-looping.

Matsui M; Chu Y; Zhang H; Gagnon KT; Shaikh S; Kuchimanchi S; Manoharan M; Corey DR; Janowski BA

2013-09-01

94

Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression technologies have the ability to generate vast amounts of data, yet there often resides only limited resources for subsequent validation studies. This necessitates the ability to perform sorting and prioritization of the output data. Previously described methodologies have used functional pathways or transcriptional regulatory grouping to sort genes for further study. In this paper we demonstrate a comparative genomics based method to leverage data from animal models to prioritize genes for validation. This approach allows one to develop a disease-based focus for the prioritization of gene data, a process that is essential for systems that lack significant functional pathway data yet have defined animal models. This method is made possible through the use of highly controlled spotted cDNA slide production and the use of comparative bioinformatics databases without the use of cross-species slide hybridizations. Results Using gene expression profiling we have demonstrated a similar whole transcriptome gene expression patterns in prostate cancer cells from human and rat prostate cancer cell lines both at baseline expression levels and after treatment with physiologic concentrations of the proposed chemopreventive agent Selenium. Using both the human PC3 and rat PAII prostate cancer cell lines have gone on to identify a subset of one hundred and fifty-four genes that demonstrate a similar level of differential expression to Selenium treatment in both species. Further analysis and data mining for two genes, the Insulin like Growth Factor Binding protein 3, and Retinoic X Receptor alpha, demonstrates an association with prostate cancer, functional pathway links, and protein-protein interactions that make these genes prime candidates for explaining the mechanism of Selenium's chemopreventive effect in prostate cancer. These genes are subsequently validated by western blots showing Selenium based induction and using tissue microarrays to demonstrate a significant association between downregulated protein expression and tumorigenesis, a process that is the reverse of what is seen in the presence of Selenium. Conclusions Thus the outlined process demonstrates similar baseline and selenium induced gene expression profiles between rat and human prostate cancers, and provides a method for identifying testable functional pathways for the action of Selenium's chemopreventive properties in prostate cancer.

Schlicht Michael; Matysiak Brian; Brodzeller Tracy; Wen Xinyu; Liu Hang; Zhou Guohui; Dhir Rajiv; Hessner Martin J; Tonellato Peter; Suckow Mark; Pollard Morris; Datta Milton W

2004-01-01

95

Similar interstitial deletions of the KAL-1 gene in two Brazilian families with X-linked Kallmann Syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Mutations in the KAL-1 gene localized at Xp22.3 have been shown to be responsible for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome (KS), a disorder characterized by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. In this paper, we describe the investigation of two families with X-linked KS, in which similar interstitial deletions ning exons 5 to 10 of the KAL-1 gene were identified. The presence of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences within the KAL-1 gene might have predisposed to this type of mutation.

Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Monlleo, Isabella Lopes; Porciuncula, Carlos Guilherme Gaelzer; Fontes, Marshall Italo Barros; Baptista, Maria Teresa Mathias; Hackel, Christine

2004-01-01

96

A genetic screen identifies interferon-? effector genes required to suppress hepatitis C virus replication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Interferon-? (IFN?) is an important component of anti-HCV therapy; it up-regulates transcription of IFN-stimulated genes, many of which have been investigated for their antiviral effects. However, all of the genes required for the antiviral function of IFN? (IFN effector genes [IEGs]) are not known. IEGs include not only IFN-stimulated genes, but other nontranscriptionally induced genes that are required for the antiviral effect of IFN?. In contrast to candidate approaches based on analyses of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, identification of IEGs requires a broad functional approach. METHODS: We performed an unbiased genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to identify IEGs that inhibit HCV. Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs incubated with IFN? and then infected with JFH1 HCV. Cells were stained using HCV core antibody, imaged, and analyzed to determine the percent infection. Candidate IEGs detected in the screen were validated and analyzed further. RESULTS: The screen identified 120 previously unreported IEGs. From these, we more fully evaluated the following: asparagine-linked glycosylation 10 homolog (yeast, ?-1,2-glucosyltransferase); butyrylcholinesterase; dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (CD26, adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2); glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator; guanylate cyclase 1, soluble, ? 3; MYST histone acetyltransferase 1; protein phosphatase 3 (formerly 2B), catalytic subunit, ? isoform; peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-?-DBD-interacting protein 1; and solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2; and demonstrated that they enabled IFN?-mediated suppression of HCV at multiple steps of its life cycle. Expression of these genes had more potent effects against flaviviridae because a subset was required for IFN? to suppress dengue virus but not influenza A virus. In addition, many of the host genes detected in this screen (92%) were not transcriptionally stimulated by IFN?; these genes represent a heretofore unknown class of non-IFN-stimulated gene IEGs. CONCLUSIONS: We performed a whole-genome loss-of-function screen to identify genes that mediate the effects of IFN? against human pathogenic viruses. We found that IFN? restricts HCV via actions of general and specific IEGs.

Fusco DN; Brisac C; John SP; Huang YW; Chin CR; Xie T; Zhao H; Jilg N; Zhang L; Chevaliez S; Wambua D; Lin W; Peng L; Chung RT; Brass AL

2013-06-01

97

Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Concerted evolution occurs in multigene families and is characterized by stretches of homogeneity and higher sequence similarity between paralogues than between orthologues. Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence. Our strategy involved the identification of duplicated genes with greater similarity within a species than between species. These genes were required to be present in multiple mammalian genomes, suggesting duplication early in mammalian divergence. To eliminate genes that have been conserved due to strong purifying selection, our analysis also required at least one intron to have retained high sequence similarity between paralogues. RESULTS: We identified three human gene pairs undergoing concerted evolution (BMP8A/B, DDX19A/B, and TUBG1/2). Phylogenetic investigations reveal that in each case the duplication appears to have occurred prior to eutherian mammalian radiation, with exactly two paralogues present in all examined species. This indicates that all three gene duplication events were established over 100 million years ago. CONCLUSION: The extended duration of concerted evolution in multiple distant lineages suggests that there has been prolonged homogenization of specific segments within these gene pairs. Although we speculate that selection for homogenization could have been utilized in order to maintain crucial homo- or hetero- binding domains, it remains unclear why gene conversion has persisted for such extended periods of time. Through these analyses, our results demonstrate additional examples of a process that plays a definite, although unspecified, role in molecular evolution.

Carson AR; Scherer SW

2009-01-01

98

Candidate genes affecting Drosophila life span identified by integrating microarray gene expression analysis and QTL mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

the current increase in life expectancy observed in industrialized societies underscores the need to achieve a better understanding of the aging process that could help the development of effective strategies to avhieve healthy aging. This will require not only identifying genes involved in the agi...

99

Prediction potential of candidate biomarker sets identified and validated on gene expression data from multiple datasets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Independently derived expression profiles of the same biological condition often have few genes in common. In this study, we created populations of expression profiles from publicly available microarray datasets of cancer (breast, lymphoma and renal) samples linked to clinical information with an iterative machine learning algorithm. ROC curves were used to assess the prediction error of each profile for classification. We compared the prediction error of profiles correlated with molecular phenotype against profiles correlated with relapse-free status. Prediction error of profiles identified with supervised univariate feature selection algorithms were compared to profiles selected randomly from a) all genes on the microarray platform and b) a list of known disease-related genes (a priori selection). We also determined the relevance of expression profiles on test arrays from independent datasets, measured on either the same or different microarray platforms. Results Highly discriminative expression profiles were produced on both simulated gene expression data and expression data from breast cancer and lymphoma datasets on the basis of ER and BCL-6 expression, respectively. Use of relapse-free status to identify profiles for prognosis prediction resulted in poorly discriminative decision rules. Supervised feature selection resulted in more accurate classifications than random or a priori selection, however, the difference in prediction error decreased as the number of features increased. These results held when decision rules were applied across-datasets to samples profiled on the same microarray platform. Conclusion Our results show that many gene sets predict molecular phenotypes accurately. Given this, expression profiles identified using different training datasets should be expected to show little agreement. In addition, we demonstrate the difficulty in predicting relapse directly from microarray data using supervised machine learning approaches. These findings are relevant to the use of molecular profiling for the identification of candidate biomarker panels.

Gormley Michael; Dampier William; Ertel Adam; Karacali Bilge; Tozeren Aydin

2007-01-01

100

Combining gene expression and genetic analyses to identify candidate genes involved in cold responses in pea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cold stress affects plant growth and development. In order to better understand the responses to cold (chilling or freezing tolerance), we used two contrasted pea lines. Following a chilling period, the Champagne line becomes tolerant to frost whereas the Terese line remains sensitive. Four suppression subtractive hybridisation libraries were obtained using mRNAs isolated from pea genotypes Champagne and Terese. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) performed on 159 genes, 43 and 54 genes were identified as differentially expressed at the initial time point and during the time course study, respectively. Molecular markers were developed from the differentially expressed genes and were genotyped on a population of 164 RILs derived from a cross between Champagne and Terese. We identified 5 candidate genes colocalizing with 3 different frost damage quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals and a protein quantity locus (PQL) rich region previously reported. This investigation revealed the role of constitutive differences between both genotypes in the cold responses, in particular with genes related to glycine degradation pathway that could confer to Champagne a better frost tolerance. We showed that freezing tolerance involves a decrease of expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the expression of a gene involved in the production of cysteine and methionine that could act as cryoprotectant molecules. Although it remains to be confirmed, this study could also reveal the involvement of the jasmonate pathway in the cold responses, since we observed that two genes related to this pathway were mapped in a frost damage QTL interval and in a PQL rich region interval, respectively. PMID:23632303

Legrand, Sylvain; Marque, Gilles; Blassiau, Christelle; Bluteau, Aurélie; Canoy, Anne-Sophie; Fontaine, Véronique; Jaminon, Odile; Bahrman, Nasser; Mautord, Julie; Morin, Julie; Petit, Aurélie; Baranger, Alain; Rivičre, Nathalie; Wilmer, Jeroen; Delbreil, Bruno; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle

2013-04-28

 
 
 
 
101

Linking genes to diseases with a SNPedia-Gene Wiki mashup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A variety of topic-focused wikis are used in the biomedical sciences to enable the mass-collaborative synthesis and distribution of diverse bodies of knowledge. To address complex problems such as defining the relationships between genes and disease, it is important to bring the knowledge from many different domains together. Here we show how advances in wiki technology and natural language processing can be used to automatically assemble 'meta-wikis' that present integrated views over the data collaboratively created in multiple source wikis. RESULTS: We produced a semantic meta-wiki called the Gene Wiki+ that automatically mirrors and integrates data from the Gene Wiki and SNPedia. The Gene Wiki+, available at (http://genewikiplus.org/), captures 8,047 distinct gene-disease relationships. SNPedia accounts for 4,149 of the gene-disease pairs, the Gene Wiki provides 4,377 and only 479 appear independently in both sources. All of this content is available to query and browse and is provided as linked open data. CONCLUSIONS: Wikis contain increasing amounts of diverse, biological information useful for elucidating the connections between genes and disease. The Gene Wiki+ shows how wiki technology can be used in concert with natural language processing to provide integrated views over diverse underlying data sources.

Good BM; Clarke EL; Loguercio S; Su AI

2012-01-01

102

Linking genes to diseases with a SNPedia-Gene Wiki mashup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of topic-focused wikis are used in the biomedical sciences to enable the mass-collaborative synthesis and distribution of diverse bodies of knowledge. To address complex problems such as defining the relationships between genes and disease, it is important to bring the knowledge from many different domains together. Here we show how advances in wiki technology and natural language processing can be used to automatically assemble ‘meta-wikis’ that present integrated views over the data collaboratively created in multiple source wikis. Results We produced a semantic meta-wiki called the Gene Wiki+ that automatically mirrors and integrates data from the Gene Wiki and SNPedia. The Gene Wiki+, available at (http://genewikiplus.org/), captures 8,047 distinct gene-disease relationships. SNPedia accounts for 4,149 of the gene-disease pairs, the Gene Wiki provides 4,377 and only 479 appear independently in both sources. All of this content is available to query and browse and is provided as linked open data. Conclusions Wikis contain increasing amounts of diverse, biological information useful for elucidating the connections between genes and disease. The Gene Wiki+ shows how wiki technology can be used in concert with natural language processing to provide integrated views over diverse underlying data sources.

Good Benjamin M; Clarke Erik L; Loguercio Salvatore; Su Andrew I

2012-01-01

103

Identifying novel genes in C. elegans using SAGE tags.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive efforts devoted to predicting protein-coding genes in genome sequences, many bona fide genes have not been found and many existing gene models are not accurate in all sequenced eukaryote genomes. This situation is partly explained by the fact that gene prediction programs have been developed based on our incomplete understanding of gene feature information such as splicing and promoter characteristics. Additionally, full-length cDNAs of many genes and their isoforms are hard to obtain due to their low level or rare expression. In order to obtain full-length sequences of all protein-coding genes, alternative approaches are required. RESULTS: In this project, we have developed a method of reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences based on short expressed sequence tags which is called sequence tag-based amplification of cDNA ends (STACE). Expressed tags are used as anchors for retrieving full-length transcripts in two rounds of PCR amplification. We have demonstrated the application of STACE in reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences using expressed tags mined in an array of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) of C. elegans cDNA libraries. We have successfully applied STACE to recover sequence information for 12 genes, for two of which we found isoforms. STACE was used to successfully recover full-length cDNA sequences for seven of these genes. CONCLUSIONS: The STACE method can be used to effectively reconstruct full-length cDNA sequences of genes that are under-represented in cDNA sequencing projects and have been missed by existing gene prediction methods, but their existence has been suggested by short sequence tags such as SAGE tags.

Nesbitt MJ; Moerman DG; Chen N

2010-01-01

104

Identifying novel genes in C. elegans using SAGE tags  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive efforts devoted to predicting protein-coding genes in genome sequences, many bona fide genes have not been found and many existing gene models are not accurate in all sequenced eukaryote genomes. This situation is partly explained by the fact that gene prediction programs have been developed based on our incomplete understanding of gene feature information such as splicing and promoter characteristics. Additionally, full-length cDNAs of many genes and their isoforms are hard to obtain due to their low level or rare expression. In order to obtain full-length sequences of all protein-coding genes, alternative approaches are required. Results In this project, we have developed a method of reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences based on short expressed sequence tags which is called sequence tag-based amplification of cDNA ends (STACE). Expressed tags are used as anchors for retrieving full-length transcripts in two rounds of PCR amplification. We have demonstrated the application of STACE in reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences using expressed tags mined in an array of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) of C. elegans cDNA libraries. We have successfully applied STACE to recover sequence information for 12 genes, for two of which we found isoforms. STACE was used to successfully recover full-length cDNA sequences for seven of these genes. Conclusions The STACE method can be used to effectively reconstruct full-length cDNA sequences of genes that are under-represented in cDNA sequencing projects and have been missed by existing gene prediction methods, but their existence has been suggested by short sequence tags such as SAGE tags.

Nesbitt Matthew J; Moerman Donald G; Chen Nansheng

2010-01-01

105

High cortisol responses identify propensity for obesity that is linked to thermogenesis in skeletal muscle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subjects characterized as cortisol high responders (HRs) consume more calories after stress, but it is unknown whether cortisol responsiveness predicts a propensity for obesity. Female sheep with either high or low cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were identified. Body composition was similar in HRs and cortisol low responders (LRs), but the HRs had greater (P<0.01) adiposity than did the LRs (40.5±0.7 vs. 35.8±1.4%) after high-energy feeding, despite comparable food intake. Postprandial thermogenesis in muscle temperature was 0.8 ± 0.08°C higher in the LRs than in the HRs (P<0.01), whereas feeding-induced changes in fat temperature were similar. Leptin and insulin sensitivity were similar in the HRs and LRs. Feeding lowered (P<0.001) the respiratory control ratio in muscle (HRs 9.2±0.8-5.2±1.2; LRs 8.4±0.5-5.2±0.7), indicative of increased uncoupled respiration. Also in muscle, the feeding-induced increases in uncoupling protein (UCP)-3 (fold increase: HRs, 2.4; LRs, 2.0), ryanodine 1 receptor (RyR1; fold increase: HRs 3.1; LRs 2.1), and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase (fold increase: HRs 1.5; LRs 1.6) were equivalent in the HRs and LRs. Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA revealed no haplotypic differences between the 2 groups. We conclude that predisposition to obesity can be predicted by cortisol responsiveness to an ACTH challenge and that the response is due to innate differences in muscle thermogenesis.-Lee, T. K., Clarke, I. J., St. John, J., Young, I. R., Leury, B. L., Rao, A., Andrews, Z. B., Henry, B. A. High cortisol responses identify propensity to obesity that is linked to thermogenesis in skeletal muscle.

Lee TK; Clarke IJ; St John J; Young IR; Leury BL; Rao A; Andrews ZB; Henry BA

2013-09-01

106

A bi-ordering approach to linking gene expression with clinical annotations in gastric cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the study of cancer genomics, gene expression microarrays, which measure thousands of genes in a single assay, provide abundant information for the investigation of interesting genes or biological pathways. However, in order to analyze the large number of noisy measurements in microarrays, effective and efficient bioinformatics techniques are needed to identify the associations between genes and relevant phenotypes. Moreover, systematic tests are needed to validate the statistical and biological significance of those discoveries. Results In this paper, we develop a robust and efficient method for exploratory analysis of microarray data, which produces a number of different orderings (rankings) of both genes and samples (reflecting correlation among those genes and samples). The core algorithm is closely related to biclustering, and so we first compare its performance with several existing biclustering algorithms on two real datasets - gastric cancer and lymphoma datasets. We then show on the gastric cancer data that the sample orderings generated by our method are highly statistically significant with respect to the histological classification of samples by using the Jonckheere trend test, while the gene modules are biologically significant with respect to biological processes (from the Gene Ontology). In particular, some of the gene modules associated with biclusters are closely linked to gastric cancer tumorigenesis reported in previous literature, while others are potentially novel discoveries. Conclusion In conclusion, we have developed an effective and efficient method, Bi-Ordering Analysis, to detect informative patterns in gene expression microarrays by ranking genes and samples. In addition, a number of evaluation metrics were applied to assess both the statistical and biological significance of the resulting bi-orderings. The methodology was validated on gastric cancer and lymphoma datasets.

Shi Fan; Leckie Christopher; MacIntyre Geoff; Haviv Izhak; Boussioutas Alex; Kowalczyk Adam

2010-01-01

107

PORCN mutations and variants identified in patients with focal dermal hypoplasia through diagnostic gene sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene PORCN, which encodes a protein required for the secretion and signaling of Wnt proteins. While deletions are responsible for a small percentage of FDH-causing mutations, the vast majority of mutations are single-nucleotide substitutions or small deletions or insertions that can be identified by sequence analysis. In 2007, we implemented a PORCN gene sequencing test for individuals with a clinical diagnosis of FDH. To date, we have detected 12 novel PORCN mutations and 6 previously reported mutations in 53 such unrelated patients. The pathogenic PORCN mutations included nine nonsense mutations, three missense mutations, one small deletion, two small duplications, and three splice-site mutations. Of these mutations, two were found in affected men and were mosaic; one of these was found in three other affected women. The remaining 16 mutations were found only in women. All the mutations detected in women were presumed heterozygous. In addition to the disease-causing mutations, eight nucleotide variants of unknown significance were identified. Further characterization of these variants suggests that four of them are pathogenic mutations. These findings add to the heterogeneity of mutations in the PORCN gene that cause FDH.

Fernandes PH; Wen S; Sutton VR; Ward PA; Van den Veyver IB; Fang P

2010-10-01

108

PORCN mutations and variants identified in patients with focal dermal hypoplasia through diagnostic gene sequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant disorder caused by mutations in the gene PORCN, which encodes a protein required for the secretion and signaling of Wnt proteins. While deletions are responsible for a small percentage of FDH-causing mutations, the vast majority of mutations are single-nucleotide substitutions or small deletions or insertions that can be identified by sequence analysis. In 2007, we implemented a PORCN gene sequencing test for individuals with a clinical diagnosis of FDH. To date, we have detected 12 novel PORCN mutations and 6 previously reported mutations in 53 such unrelated patients. The pathogenic PORCN mutations included nine nonsense mutations, three missense mutations, one small deletion, two small duplications, and three splice-site mutations. Of these mutations, two were found in affected men and were mosaic; one of these was found in three other affected women. The remaining 16 mutations were found only in women. All the mutations detected in women were presumed heterozygous. In addition to the disease-causing mutations, eight nucleotide variants of unknown significance were identified. Further characterization of these variants suggests that four of them are pathogenic mutations. These findings add to the heterogeneity of mutations in the PORCN gene that cause FDH. PMID:20854095

Fernandes, Priscilla H; Wen, Shu; Sutton, Vernon Reid; Ward, Patricia A; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B; Fang, Ping

2010-09-20

109

A stratified transcriptomics analysis of polygenic fat and lean mouse adipose tissues identifies novel candidate obesity genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In addition to brain-regulated processes, recent genome wide association studies have indicated that genes highly expressed in adipose tissue affect the distribution and function of fat and thus contribute to obesity. Using a stratified transcriptome gene enrichment approach we attempted to identify adipose tissue-specific obesity genes in the unique polygenic Fat (F) mouse strain generated by selective breeding over 60 generations for divergent adiposity from a comparator Lean (L) strain. RESULTS: To enrich for adipose tissue obesity genes a 'snap-shot' pooled-sample transcriptome comparison of key fat depots and non adipose tissues (muscle, liver, kidney) was performed. Known obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL) information for the model allowed us to further filter genes for increased likelihood of being causal or secondary for obesity. This successfully identified several genes previously linked to obesity (C1qr1, and Np3r) as positional QTL candidate genes elevated specifically in F line adipose tissue. A number of novel obesity candidate genes were also identified (Thbs1, Ppp1r3d, Tmepai, Trp53inp2, Ttc7b, Tuba1a, Fgf13, Fmr) that have inferred roles in fat cell function. Quantitative microarray analysis was then applied to the most phenotypically divergent adipose depot after exaggerating F and L strain differences with chronic high fat feeding which revealed a distinct gene expression profile of line, fat depot and diet-responsive inflammatory, angiogenic and metabolic pathways. Selected candidate genes Npr3 and Thbs1, as well as Gys2, a non-QTL gene that otherwise passed our enrichment criteria were characterised, revealing novel functional effects consistent with a contribution to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A focussed candidate gene enrichment strategy in the unique F and L model has identified novel adipose tissue-enriched genes contributing to obesity.

Morton NM; Nelson YB; Michailidou Z; Di Rollo EM; Ramage L; Hadoke PW; Seckl JR; Bunger L; Horvat S; Kenyon CJ; Dunbar DR

2011-01-01

110

Systems Biology Approach to Identify Gene Network Signatures for Colorectal Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we integrated prior knowledge from gene signatures and protein interactions with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and gene/protein network modeling together to identify gene network signatures from gene expression microarray data. We demonstrated how to apply this approach into dis...

Sonachalam, Madhankumar; Shen, Jeffrey; Huang, Hui; Wu, Xiaogang

111

Functional gene group analysis identifies synaptic gene groups as risk factor for schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with a polygenic pattern of inheritance and a population prevalence of ~1%. Previous studies have implicated synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We tested the accumulated association of genetic variants in expert-curated synaptic gene groups with schizophrenia in 4673 cases and 4965 healthy controls, using functional gene group analysis. Identifying groups of genes with similar cellular function rather than genes in isolation may have clinical implications for finding additional drug targets. We found that a group of 1026 synaptic genes was significantly associated with the risk of schizophrenia (P=7.6 × 10(-11)) and more strongly associated than 100 randomly drawn, matched control groups of genetic variants (P<0.01). Subsequent analysis of synaptic subgroups suggested that the strongest association signals are derived from three synaptic gene groups: intracellular signal transduction (P=2.0 × 10(-4)), excitability (P=9.0 × 10(-4)) and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling (P=2.4 × 10(-3)). These results are consistent with a role of synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia and imply that impaired intracellular signal transduction in synapses, synaptic excitability and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling play a role in the pathology of schizophrenia.

Lips ES; Cornelisse LN; Toonen RF; Min JL; Hultman CM; Holmans PA; O'Donovan MC; Purcell SM; Smit AB; Verhage M; Sullivan PF; Visscher PM; Posthuma D

2012-10-01

112

Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming.

Roth A; Kyzar EJ; Cachat J; Stewart AM; Green J; Gaikwad S; O'Leary TP; Tabakoff B; Brown RE; Kalueff AV

2013-01-01

113

Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming. PMID:23123364

Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O'Leary, Timothy P; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E; Kalueff, Allan V

2012-10-31

114

Development of RAPD Markers linked to Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini, is the most severe disease of castor bean (Ricinus communis). For the development of marker for wilt-resistant gene, 200 F2 individuals from a cross between the resistant cultivar 48-1 and the susceptible cultivar VP-1 were inoculated with a race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini. Bulked segregant analysis was used to search for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to wilt resistance in F2 progeny derived from the above cross. Three markers (RKC 231375, RKC 211080 and OPBE 18900) flanking the wilt resistance gene were identified. The developed markers segregated from the screened Fusarium wilt resistant progenies of F2 and F3 families confirmed their linkage with Fusarium wilt resistance and the resistant castor bean genotypes were successfully identified among thirteen cultivars screened. Linkage analysis was carried out using the three markers on the 200 F2 individuals which showed that the genetic distance for the three markers at the wilt resistance gene was 5 cM, 10.7 cM and 7.6 cM respectively. The predicted protein 3D model of the translated amino acid sequence from RKC 23 showed characteristic features of DNA binding protein (2BIN). This study provides a base for probable mining of Fusarium wilt resistance gene in castor bean and simultaneously gives valuable insights into the characterization of R-gene subclass in castor genome.

M Singh

2011-01-01

115

Phenocopies induced with antisense RNA identify the wingless gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Earlier work suggested that the wingless gene of Drosophila is required for cooperation within discrete groups of cells during development. We show that antisense RNA made from a 3 kb transcript produces wingless mutant phenocopies when injected into wild-type eggs, proving that this transcript executes the wingless function. In the accompanying paper, Rijsewijk et al. report cloning of a Drosophila homolog (Dint-1) of the mouse int-1 gene and show that this gene is identical to wingless+. The partial sequence of the wingless cDNA that we have isolated is identical to part of the complete Dint-1 sequence described by Rijsewijk et al.

Cabrera CV; Alonso MC; Johnston P; Phillips RG; Lawrence PA

1987-08-01

116

Comparative genomics identifies new alpha class genes within the avian glutathione S-transferase gene cluster.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs: EC2.5.1.18) are a superfamily of multifunctional dimeric enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to electrophilic chemicals. In most animals and in humans, GSTs are the principal enzymes responsible for detoxifying the mycotoxin aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and GST dysfunction is a known risk factor for susceptibility towards AFB(1). Turkeys are one of the most susceptible animals known to AFB(1), which is a common contaminant of poultry feeds. The extreme susceptibility of turkeys is associated with hepatic GSTs unable to detoxify the highly reactive and electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). In this study, comparative genomic approaches were used to amplify and identify the alpha-class tGST genes (tGSTA1.1, tGSTA1.2, tGSTA1.3, tGSTA2, tGSTA3 and tGSTA4) from turkey liver. The conserved GST domains and four alpha-class signature motifs in turkey GSTs (with the exception of tGSTA1.1 which lacked one motif) confirm the presence of hepatic alpha-class GSTs in the turkey. Four signature motifs and conserved residues found in alpha-class tGSTs are (1) xMExxxWLLAAAGVE, (2) YGKDxKERAxIDMYVxG, (3) PVxEKVLKxHGxxxL and (4) PxIKKFLXPGSxxKPxxx. A BAC clone containing the alpha-class GST gene cluster was isolated and sequenced. The turkey alpha-class GTS genes genetically map to chromosome MGA2 with synteny between turkey and human alpha-class GSTs and flanking genes. This study identifies the alpha-class tGST gene cluster and genetic markers (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms) that can be used to further examine AFB(1) susceptibility and resistance in turkeys. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed proteins from these genes is currently underway.

Kim JE; Bauer MM; Mendoza KM; Reed KM; Coulombe RA Jr

2010-03-01

117

Comparative genomics identifies new alpha class genes within the avian glutathione S-transferase gene cluster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs: EC2.5.1.18) are a superfamily of multifunctional dimeric enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) to electrophilic chemicals. In most animals and in humans, GSTs are the principal enzymes responsible for detoxifying the mycotoxin aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and GST dysfunction is a known risk factor for susceptibility towards AFB(1). Turkeys are one of the most susceptible animals known to AFB(1), which is a common contaminant of poultry feeds. The extreme susceptibility of turkeys is associated with hepatic GSTs unable to detoxify the highly reactive and electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB(1)-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). In this study, comparative genomic approaches were used to amplify and identify the alpha-class tGST genes (tGSTA1.1, tGSTA1.2, tGSTA1.3, tGSTA2, tGSTA3 and tGSTA4) from turkey liver. The conserved GST domains and four alpha-class signature motifs in turkey GSTs (with the exception of tGSTA1.1 which lacked one motif) confirm the presence of hepatic alpha-class GSTs in the turkey. Four signature motifs and conserved residues found in alpha-class tGSTs are (1) xMExxxWLLAAAGVE, (2) YGKDxKERAxIDMYVxG, (3) PVxEKVLKxHGxxxL and (4) PxIKKFLXPGSxxKPxxx. A BAC clone containing the alpha-class GST gene cluster was isolated and sequenced. The turkey alpha-class GTS genes genetically map to chromosome MGA2 with synteny between turkey and human alpha-class GSTs and flanking genes. This study identifies the alpha-class tGST gene cluster and genetic markers (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms) that can be used to further examine AFB(1) susceptibility and resistance in turkeys. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed proteins from these genes is currently underway. PMID:19913078

Kim, Ji Eun; Bauer, Miranda M; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Reed, Kent M; Coulombe, Roger A

2009-11-10

118

Gene Duplication Identified in an Uncommon Form of Bone Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists have discovered that a familial form of a rare bone cancer called chordoma is explained not by typical types of changes or mutations in the sequence of DNA in a gene, but rather by the presence of a second copy of an entire gene. Inherited large structural changes, known as copy number variations (CNVs), have been implicated in some hereditary diseases but have seldom been reported as the underlying basis for a familial cancer.

119

Traffic Study On Road Links and Estimate the Fund required for Identified Road Improvement Projects in Major Urban Centre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Salem is the fifth largest city with a population of 7.54 lakhs (2011) in Tamil Nadu. Local Authorities faced with great difficulties to identify required various road improvement projects. Repair or improvement works may have to be under taken on a basis which has to be decided based on socio-economic, administrative, technical, political factors etc., The identified road network selected for the study comprises 162 road links in Salem Corporation. Existing traffic condition, surface condition of carriageway, street lighting, footpath condition and drainage condition in the Salem Corporation area has been studied in detail. Traffic volume count survey was conducted on the idendified 162 road links in Salem Corporation. Identify the type of transport facilities required for the road links. In Salem Corporation area 44 road links required removal of onstreet parking and encroachment, 52 road links required widening of carriageway , 23 road links required traffic management measures with extrawidening to carry the existing traffic flow efficiently. Total fund required for identified various road improvement projects have been calculated as Rs.100.16 Crores

T. Subramani

2012-01-01

120

Sensitized phenotypic screening identifies gene dosage sensitive region on chromosome 11 that predisposes to disease in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identification of susceptibility genes for human disease is a major goal of current biomedical research. Both sequence and structural variation have emerged as major genetic sources of phenotypic variability and growing evidence points to copy number variation as a particularly important source of susceptibility for disease. Here we propose and validate a strategy to identify genes in which changes in dosage alter susceptibility to disease-relevant phenotypes in the mouse. Our approach relies on sensitized phenotypic screening of megabase-sized chromosomal deletion and deficiency lines carrying altered copy numbers of ?30 linked genes. This approach offers several advantages as a method to systematically identify genes involved in disease susceptibility. To examine the feasibility of such a screen, we performed sensitized phenotyping in five therapeutic areas (metabolic syndrome, immune dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cancer and behaviour) of a 0.8?Mb reciprocal chromosomal duplication and deficiency on chromosome 11 containing 27 genes. Gene dosage in the region significantly affected risk for high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome, antigen-induced immune hypersensitivity, ApoE-induced atherosclerosis, and home cage activity. Follow up studies on individual gene knockouts for two candidates in the region showed that copy number variation in Stat5 was responsible for the phenotypic variation in antigen-induced immune hypersensitivity and metabolic syndrome. These data demonstrate the power of sensitized phenotypic screening of segmental aneuploidy lines to identify disease susceptibility genes.

Ermakova O; Piszczek L; Luciani L; Cavalli FM; Ferreira T; Farley D; Rizzo S; Paolicelli RC; Al-Banchaabouchi M; Nerlov C; Moriggl R; Luscombe NM; Gross C

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

SlWUS1; an X-linked gene having no homologous Y-linked copy in Silene latifolia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dioecious plant Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and comparison of the positions of sex-linked genes indicates that at least three large inversions have occurred during the evolution of the Y chromosome. In this article, we describe the isolation of a new sex-linked gene from S. latifolia, which provides new information on the evolution of this plant's young sex chromosomes. By using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction degenerate primers based on the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence of WUSCHEL, a flower-development gene, we found two copies in S. latifolia, which we named SlWUS1 and SlWUS2. Southern blot and genetic segregation analysis showed that SlWUS1 is located on the X chromosome and SlWUS2 is autosomal. No Y-linked copy of SlWUS1 was found by either Southern blot analysis under low-stringency conditions or polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, so we conclude that SlWUS1 probably has no Y-linked homolog. It is unknown whether the Y chromosome lost the SlWUS1 copy by degeneration of this individual gene or whether deletion of a larger genome region was involved. Several tests lead us to conclude that dosage compensation has not evolved for this sex-linked gene. We mapped the ortholog in the nondioecious relative S. vulgaris (SvWUS1), to compare the location in a species that has no history of having sex chromosomes. SvWUS1 maps to the same linkage group as other fully X-linked genes, indicating that it was not added to the X, but was lost from the Y. Its location differs in the maps from the two species, raising the possibility that the X chromosome, as well as the Y, may have been rearranged.

Kazama Y; Nishihara K; Bergero R; Fujiwara MT; Abe T; Charlesworth D; Kawano S

2012-10-01

122

SlWUS1; an X-linked gene having no homologous Y-linked copy in Silene latifolia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dioecious plant Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and comparison of the positions of sex-linked genes indicates that at least three large inversions have occurred during the evolution of the Y chromosome. In this article, we describe the isolation of a new sex-linked gene from S. latifolia, which provides new information on the evolution of this plant's young sex chromosomes. By using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction degenerate primers based on the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence of WUSCHEL, a flower-development gene, we found two copies in S. latifolia, which we named SlWUS1 and SlWUS2. Southern blot and genetic segregation analysis showed that SlWUS1 is located on the X chromosome and SlWUS2 is autosomal. No Y-linked copy of SlWUS1 was found by either Southern blot analysis under low-stringency conditions or polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, so we conclude that SlWUS1 probably has no Y-linked homolog. It is unknown whether the Y chromosome lost the SlWUS1 copy by degeneration of this individual gene or whether deletion of a larger genome region was involved. Several tests lead us to conclude that dosage compensation has not evolved for this sex-linked gene. We mapped the ortholog in the nondioecious relative S. vulgaris (SvWUS1), to compare the location in a species that has no history of having sex chromosomes. SvWUS1 maps to the same linkage group as other fully X-linked genes, indicating that it was not added to the X, but was lost from the Y. Its location differs in the maps from the two species, raising the possibility that the X chromosome, as well as the Y, may have been rearranged. PMID:23050237

Kazama, Yusuke; Nishihara, Kiyoshi; Bergero, Roberta; Fujiwara, Makoto T; Abe, Tomoko; Charlesworth, Deborah; Kawano, Shigeyuki

2012-10-01

123

Identifying protein-coding genes in genomic sequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vast majority of the biology of a newly sequenced genome is inferred from the set of encoded proteins. Predicting this set is therefore invariably the first step after the completion of the genome DNA sequence. Here we review the main computational pipelines used to generate the human reference protein-coding gene sets.

Harrow J; Nagy A; Reymond A; Alioto T; Patthy L; Antonarakis SE; Guigó R

2009-01-01

124

Identifying a species tree subject to random lateral gene transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major problem for inferring species trees from gene trees is that evolutionary processes can sometimes favor gene tree topologies that conflict with an underlying species tree. In the case of incomplete lineage sorting, this phenomenon has recently been well-studied, and some elegant solutions for species tree reconstruction have been proposed. One particularly simple and statistically consistent estimator of the species tree under incomplete lineage sorting is to combine three-taxon analyses, which are phylogenetically robust to incomplete lineage sorting. In this paper, we consider whether such an approach will also work under lateral gene transfer (LGT). By providing an exact analysis of some cases of this model, we show that there is a zone of inconsistency when majority-rule three-taxon gene trees are used to reconstruct species trees under LGT. However, a triplet-based approach will consistently reconstruct a species tree under models of LGT, provided that the expected number of LGT transfers is not too high. Our analysis involves a novel connection between the LGT problem and random walks on cyclic graphs. We have implemented a procedure for reconstructing trees subject to LGT or lineage sorting in settings where taxon coverage may be patchy and illustrate its use on two sample data sets.

Steel M; Linz S; Huson DH; Sanderson MJ

2013-04-01

125

Identifying new human oocyte marker genes: a microarray approach.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of classical IVF techniques is still impaired by poor implantation and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer. This is mainly due to a lack of reliable criteria for the selection of embryos with sufficient development potential. Several studies have provided evidence that some gene expre...

Gasca, Stéphan; Pellestor, Franck; Assou, Said; Loup, Vanessa; Anahory, Tal; Dechaud, Hervé; De Vos, John; Hamamah, Samir

126

Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8'-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting.

Manmathan H; Shaner D; Snelling J; Tisserat N; Lapitan N

2013-03-01

127

A functional siRNA screen identifies genes modulating angiotensin II-mediated EGFR transactivation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to mediate cellular growth, although the molecular mechanisms are not resolved. To address this, we performed a functional siRNA of the human kinome in human mammary epithelial cells that demonstrate a robust AT1R-EGFR transactivation. We identified a suite of genes that both positively and negatively regulate AT1R-EGFR transactivation. Many candidates comprised components of EGFR signalling networks, whereas others, including TRIO, BMX and CHKA, had not been previously linked to EGFR transactivation. Individual knockdown of TRIO, BMX or CHKA attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR by angiotensin II stimulation, but not following direct stimulation of the EGFR with EGF, indicating that these genes function between the activated AT1R and the EGFR. Further investigation of TRIO and CHKA revealed that their activity is likely to be required for AT1R-EGFR transactivation. CHKA also mediated EGFR transactivation in response to another GPCR ligand, thrombin, indicating a pervasive role for CHKA in GPCR-EGFR crosstalk. Our study reveals the power of unbiased, functional genomic screens to identify new signalling mediators important for cell biology related to tissue remodelling in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

George AJ; Purdue BW; Gould CM; Thomas DW; Handoko Y; Qian H; Quaife-Ryan GA; Morgan KA; Simpson KJ; Thomas WG; Hannan RD

2013-09-01

128

Improved mutation tagging with gene identifiers applied to membrane protein stability prediction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The automated retrieval and integration of information about protein point mutations in combination with structure, domain and interaction data from literature and databases promises to be a valuable approach to study structure-function relationships in biomedical data sets. RESULTS: We developed a rule- and regular expression-based protein point mutation retrieval pipeline for PubMed abstracts, which shows an F-measure of 87% for the mutation retrieval task on a benchmark dataset. In order to link mutations to their proteins, we utilize a named entity recognition algorithm for the identification of gene names co-occurring in the abstract, and establish links based on sequence checks. Vice versa, we could show that gene recognition improved from 77% to 91% F-measure when considering mutation information given in the text. To demonstrate practical relevance, we utilize mutation information from text to evaluate a novel solvation energy based model for the prediction of stabilizing regions in membrane proteins. For five G protein-coupled receptors we identified 35 relevant single mutations and associated phenotypes, of which none had been annotated in the UniProt or PDB database. In 71% reported phenotypes were in compliance with the model predictions, supporting a relation between mutations and stability issues in membrane proteins. CONCLUSION: We present a reliable approach for the retrieval of protein mutations from PubMed abstracts for any set of genes or proteins of interest. We further demonstrate how amino acid substitution information from text can be utilized for protein structure stability studies on the basis of a novel energy model.

Winnenburg R; Plake C; Schroeder M

2009-01-01

129

Improved mutation tagging with gene identifiers applied to membrane protein stability prediction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The automated retrieval and integration of information about protein point mutations in combination with structure, domain and interaction data from literature and databases promises to be a valuable approach to study structure-function relationships in biomedical data sets. Results We developed a rule- and regular expression-based protein point mutation retrieval pipeline for PubMed abstracts, which shows an F-measure of 87% for the mutation retrieval task on a benchmark dataset. In order to link mutations to their proteins, we utilize a named entity recognition algorithm for the identification of gene names co-occurring in the abstract, and establish links based on sequence checks. Vice versa, we could show that gene recognition improved from 77% to 91% F-measure when considering mutation information given in the text. To demonstrate practical relevance, we utilize mutation information from text to evaluate a novel solvation energy based model for the prediction of stabilizing regions in membrane proteins. For five G protein-coupled receptors we identified 35 relevant single mutations and associated phenotypes, of which none had been annotated in the UniProt or PDB database. In 71% reported phenotypes were in compliance with the model predictions, supporting a relation between mutations and stability issues in membrane proteins. Conclusion We present a reliable approach for the retrieval of protein mutations from PubMed abstracts for any set of genes or proteins of interest. We further demonstrate how amino acid substitution information from text can be utilized for protein structure stability studies on the basis of a novel energy model.

Winnenburg Rainer; Plake Conrad; Schroeder Michael

2009-01-01

130

Unexpected conservation of the X-linked color vision gene in nocturnal prosimians: evidence from two bush babies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bush babies have had a long history of nocturnal life and it would be interesting to know whether their color vision genes have become degenerate. Therefore, we used PCR techniques to sequence the X-linked pigment gene of two of these nocturnal prosimians: Galago senegalensis and Otolemur garnettii. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA of G. senegalensis showed a single X-linked pigment gene. Interestingly, the deduced pigment sequences of the two bush babies are identical. By comparing the X-linked pigments of bush baby, human, squirrel monkey, and marmoset, 38 variable positions were identified. At those positions that may cause a spectral shift, the bush baby pigment has identical or biochemically similar residues to those of the marmoset cone pigment with a spectral peak of 543 nm. This result is consistent with the estimate of 544-545 nm for the spectral peak of the X-linked pigment of Otolemur crassicaudatus, which is closely related to Otolemur garnettii. The neighbor-joining tree of mammalian X-linked pigments showed a significantly shorter branch in the bush baby lineage than in other primate lineages. A relative rate test showed that the nonsynonymous substitution rate of the bush baby X-linked pigment gene is about three times slower than that of the human red pigment gene, though the synonymous substitution rates of the two genes are similar. The slower nonsynonymous rate in the bush baby lineage suggests that the bush baby X-linked pigment gene is under functional constraints, in spite of its nocturnal life. Two radical changes at positions in the intradiskal surface next to the sixth transmembrane domain were observed in the X-linked cone pigment of bush babies but not in other primates. They are changes from Ala to Ser and from Asn to His, which are similar in function to the corresponding residues in rhodopsins. These two changes may be of importance for dim light sensitivity, which is consistent with our proposal that the evolution of the bush baby X-linked pigment gene is under selective pressure. In addition, the 2.5% divergence in introns 2 and 5 of the X-linked pigment gene between the two bush babies supports their classification into two separate genera.

Zhou YH; Hewett-Emmett D; Ward JP; Li WH

1997-12-01

131

Unexpected conservation of the X-linked color vision gene in nocturnal prosimians: evidence from two bush babies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bush babies have had a long history of nocturnal life and it would be interesting to know whether their color vision genes have become degenerate. Therefore, we used PCR techniques to sequence the X-linked pigment gene of two of these nocturnal prosimians: Galago senegalensis and Otolemur garnettii. Southern hybridization of genomic DNA of G. senegalensis showed a single X-linked pigment gene. Interestingly, the deduced pigment sequences of the two bush babies are identical. By comparing the X-linked pigments of bush baby, human, squirrel monkey, and marmoset, 38 variable positions were identified. At those positions that may cause a spectral shift, the bush baby pigment has identical or biochemically similar residues to those of the marmoset cone pigment with a spectral peak of 543 nm. This result is consistent with the estimate of 544-545 nm for the spectral peak of the X-linked pigment of Otolemur crassicaudatus, which is closely related to Otolemur garnettii. The neighbor-joining tree of mammalian X-linked pigments showed a significantly shorter branch in the bush baby lineage than in other primate lineages. A relative rate test showed that the nonsynonymous substitution rate of the bush baby X-linked pigment gene is about three times slower than that of the human red pigment gene, though the synonymous substitution rates of the two genes are similar. The slower nonsynonymous rate in the bush baby lineage suggests that the bush baby X-linked pigment gene is under functional constraints, in spite of its nocturnal life. Two radical changes at positions in the intradiskal surface next to the sixth transmembrane domain were observed in the X-linked cone pigment of bush babies but not in other primates. They are changes from Ala to Ser and from Asn to His, which are similar in function to the corresponding residues in rhodopsins. These two changes may be of importance for dim light sensitivity, which is consistent with our proposal that the evolution of the bush baby X-linked pigment gene is under selective pressure. In addition, the 2.5% divergence in introns 2 and 5 of the X-linked pigment gene between the two bush babies supports their classification into two separate genera. PMID:9419238

Zhou, Y H; Hewett-Emmett, D; Ward, J P; Li, W H

1997-12-01

132

Identifying genes associated with quantitative traits in pigs: integrating quantitative and molecular approaches for meat quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two major strategies are used to identify genes that are involved in complex traits, genome scanning and candidate gene approaches. While a quantitative trait locus (QTL) strategy relies on a scan of the entire genome combined with phenotypic measurements, a candidate gene approach tries to identify genes based on their possible role in the physiology of the traits. Both strategies are based on the integration between quantitative and molecular approaches. Over the last decade, enormous effort has been applied to identify and localize QTL involved in most of the economically important traits in pigs and a number of candidate genes were suggested and further validated according to a concordant position to the detected QTL and related functions. However, lacking of information in regards to identified genes within the identified QTL, and false-positive QTL are major constraints that limit the successful of this approach. Additional approaches, including a gene expression analysis of the divergence of phenotype of interest was integrated into a candidate gene analysis, in which a putative candidate gene is the one that could be statistically detected from the genes controlling large components of inheritable gene expression variation. Furthermore, a remarkable progress of molecular approaches by newly developed technique, a study of an interaction between genes and a holistic study of biological regulation, system biology, is underway. These continuations will assist the researchers to identify direct candidate gene for quantitative traits in animal breeding.

Karl Schellander

2010-01-01

133

Linking yeast Gcn5p catalytic function and gene regulation using a quantitative, graded dominant mutant approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Establishing causative links between protein functional domains and global gene regulation is critical for advancements in genetics, biotechnology, disease treatment, and systems biology. This task is challenging for multifunctional proteins when relying on traditional approaches such as gene deletions since they remove all domains simultaneously. Here, we describe a novel approach to extract quantitative, causative links by modulating the expression of a dominant mutant allele to create a function-specific competitive inhibition. Using the yeast histone acetyltransferase Gcn5p as a case study, we demonstrate the utility of this approach and (1) find evidence that Gcn5p is more involved in cell-wide gene repression, instead of the accepted gene activation associated with HATs, (2) identify previously unknown gene targets and interactions for Gcn5p-based acetylation, (3) quantify the strength of some Gcn5p-DNA associations, (4) demonstrate that this approach can be used to correctly identify canonical chromatin modifications, (5) establish the role of acetyltransferase activity on synthetic lethal interactions, and (6) identify new functional classes of genes regulated by Gcn5p acetyltransferase activity--all six of these major conclusions were unattainable by using standard gene knockout studies alone. We recommend that a graded dominant mutant approach be utilized in conjunction with a traditional knockout to study multifunctional proteins and generate higher-resolution data that more accurately probes protein domain function and influence.

Lanza AM; Blazeck JJ; Crook NC; Alper HS

2012-01-01

134

GeneFriends: An online co-expression analysis tool to identify novel gene targets for aging and complex diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many diseases have been well characterized at the molecular level, the underlying mechanisms are often unknown. Nearly half of all human genes remain poorly studied, yet these genes may contribute to a number of disease processes. Genes involved in common biological processes and diseases are often co-expressed. Using known disease-associated genes in a co-expression analysis may help identify and prioritize novel candidate genes for further study. Results We have created an online tool, called GeneFriends, which identifies co-expressed genes in over 1,000 mouse microarray datasets. GeneFriends can be used to assign putative functions to poorly studied genes. Using a seed list of disease-associated genes and a guilt-by-association method, GeneFriends allows users to quickly identify novel genes and transcription factors associated with a disease or process. We tested GeneFriends using seed lists for aging, cancer, and mitochondrial complex I disease. We identified several candidate genes that have previously been predicted as relevant targets. Some of the genes identified are already being tested in clinical trials, indicating the effectiveness of this approach. Co-expressed transcription factors were investigated, identifying C/ebp genes as candidate regulators of aging. Furthermore, several novel candidate genes, that may be suitable for experimental or clinical follow-up, were identified. Two of the novel candidates of unknown function that were co-expressed with cancer-associated genes were selected for experimental validation. Knock-down of their human homologs (C1ORF112 and C12ORF48) in HeLa cells slowed growth, indicating that these genes of unknown function, identified by GeneFriends, may be involved in cancer. Conclusions GeneFriends is a resource for biologists to identify and prioritize novel candidate genes involved in biological processes and complex diseases. It is an intuitive online resource that will help drive experimentation. GeneFriends is available online at: http://genefriends.org/.

van Dam Sipko; Cordeiro Rui; Craig Thomas; van Dam Jesse; Wood Shona H; de Magalhăes Joăo

2012-01-01

135

Integrated genomic analyses identify ERRFI1 and TACC3 as glioblastoma-targeted genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The glioblastoma genome displays remarkable chromosomal aberrations, which harbor critical glioblastoma-specific genes contributing to several oncogenetic pathways. To identify glioblastoma-targeted genes, we completed a multifaceted genome-wide analysis to characterize the most significant aberrati...

Duncan, Christopher G.; Killela, Patrick J.; Payne, Cathy A.; Lampson, Benjamin; Chen, William C.; Liu, Jeff; Solomon, David

136

Gene sequencing project identifies abnormal gene that launches rare childhood leukemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Research led by the St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital – Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project has identified a fusion gene responsible for almost 30 percent of a rare subtype of childhood leukemia with an extremely poor prognosis. The finding offers the first evidence of a mistake that gives rise to a significant percentage of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) cases in children. AMKL accounts for about 10 percent of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The discovery paves the way for desperately needed treatment advances.

137

A medical record-linked biorepository to identify novel biomarkers for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, is increasing in prevalence in the developing world. We describe an approach to establish a biorepository linked to medical records with the eventual goal of facilitating discovery of biomarkers for AVD.

Zi Ye; Fara S Kalloo; Iftikhar J Kullo

2012-01-01

138

Identifying Common Genes and Networks in Multi-Organ Fibrosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibroproliferative diseases of organs are poorly understood and generally lack effective anti-fibrotic treatments. Our goal was to identify the key regulatory factors in pathologic fibrosis, common between organ-based fibrotic disease. We analyzed 9 microarray datasets publicly available in the GEO ...

Wenzke, Kevin E.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen; Zhang, Jie; Marsh, Clay B.; Huang, Kun

139

A multistep genomic screen identifies new genes required for repair of DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Efficient mechanisms for rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are vital because misrepair of such lesions leads to mutation, aneuploidy and loss of cell viability. DSB repair is mediated by proteins acting in two major pathways, called homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining. Repair efficiency is also modulated by other processes such as sister chromatid cohesion, nucleosome remodeling and DNA damage checkpoints. The total number of genes influencing DSB repair efficiency is unknown. RESULTS: To identify new yeast genes affecting DSB repair, genes linked to gamma radiation resistance in previous genome-wide surveys were tested for their impact on repair of site-specific DSBs generated by in vivo expression of EcoRI endonuclease. Eight members of the RAD52 group of DNA repair genes (RAD50, RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55, RAD57, MRE11 and XRS2) and 73 additional genes were found to be required for efficient repair of EcoRI-induced DSBs in screens utilizing both MATa and MAT? deletion strain libraries. Most mutants were also sensitive to the clastogenic chemicals MMS and bleomycin. Several of the non-RAD52 group genes have previously been linked to DNA repair and over half of the genes affect nuclear processes. Many proteins encoded by the protective genes have previously been shown to associate physically with each other and with known DNA repair proteins in high-throughput proteomics studies. A majority of the proteins (64%) share sequence similarity with human proteins, suggesting that they serve similar functions. CONCLUSIONS: We have used a genetic screening approach to detect new genes required for efficient repair of DSBs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The findings have spotlighted new genes that are critical for maintenance of genome integrity and are therefore of greatest concern for their potential impact when the corresponding gene orthologs and homologs are inactivated or polymorphic in human cells.

McKinney JS; Sethi S; Tripp JD; Nguyen TN; Sanderson BA; Westmoreland JW; Resnick MA; Lewis LK

2013-01-01

140

Transposon-tagging identifies novel pathogenicity genes in Fusarium graminearum.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase of sequenced fungal genomes, high-throughput methods for functional analyses of genes are needed. We assessed the potential of a new transposon mutagenesis tool deploying a Fusarium oxysporum miniature inverted-repeat transposable element mimp1, mobilized by the transposase of impala, a Tc1-like transposon, to obtain knock-out mutants in Fusarium graminearum. We localized 91 mimp1 insertions which showed good distribution over the entire genome. The main exception was a major hotspot on chromosome 2 where independent insertions occurred at exactly the same nucleotide position. Furthermore insertions in promoter regions were over-represented. Screening 331 mutants for sexual development, radial growth and pathogenicity on wheat resulted in 19 mutants (5.7%) with altered phenotypes. Complementation with the original gene restored the wild-type phenotype in two selected mutants demonstrating the high tagging efficiency. This is the first report of a MITE transposon tagging system as an efficient mutagenesis tool in F. graminearum. PMID:18926918

Dufresne, Marie; van der Lee, Theo; Ben M'barek, Sarrah; Xu, Xiude; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Taiguo; Waalwijk, Cees; Zhang, Wenwei; Kema, Gert H J; Daboussi, Marie-Josée

2008-09-23

 
 
 
 
141

Identifying Stress Transcription Factors Using Gene Expression and TF-Gene Association Data  

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Full Text Available Unicellular organisms such as yeasts have evolved to survive environmental stresses by rapidly reorganizing the genomic expression program to meet the challenges of harsh environments. The complex adaptation mechanisms to stress remain to be elucidated. In this study, we developed Stress Transcription Factor Identification Algorithm (STFIA), which integrates gene expression and TF-gene association data to identify the stress transcription factors (TFs) of six kinds of stresses. We identified some general stress TFs that are in response to various stresses, and some specific stress TFs that are in response to one specific stress. The biological significance of our findings is validated by the literature. We found that a small number of TFs may be sufficient to control a wide variety of expression patterns in yeast under different stresses. Two implications can be inferred from this observation. First, the adaptation mechanisms to different stresses may have a bowtie structure. Second, there may exist extensive regulatory cross-talk among different stress responses. In conclusion, this study proposes a network of the regulators of stress responses and their mechanism of action.

Wei-Sheng Wu; Bor-Sen Chen

2007-01-01

142

An in vivo RNA interference screen identifies gene networks controlling Drosophila melanogaster blood cell homeostasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In metazoans, the hematopoietic system plays a key role both in normal development and in defense of the organism. In Drosophila, the cellular immune response involves three types of blood cells: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. This last cell type is barely present in healthy larvae, but its production is strongly induced upon wasp parasitization or in mutant contexts affecting larval blood cell homeostasis. Notably, several zygotic mutations leading to melanotic mass (or "tumor") formation in larvae have been associated to the deregulated differentiation of lamellocytes. To gain further insights into the gene regulatory network and the mechanisms controlling larval blood cell homeostasis, we conducted a tissue-specific loss of function screen using hemocyte-specific Gal4 drivers and UAS-dsRNA transgenic lines. Results By targeting around 10% of the Drosophila genes, this in vivo RNA interference screen allowed us to recover 59 melanotic tumor suppressor genes. In line with previous studies, we show that melanotic tumor formation is associated with the precocious differentiation of stem-cell like blood progenitors in the larval hematopoietic organ (the lymph gland) and the spurious differentiation of lamellocytes. We also find that melanotic tumor formation can be elicited by defects either in the fat body, the embryo-derived hemocytes or the lymph gland. In addition, we provide a definitive confirmation that lymph gland is not the only source of lamellocytes as embryo-derived plasmatocytes can differentiate into lamellocytes either upon wasp infection or upon loss of function of the Friend of GATA cofactor U-shaped. Conclusions In this study, we identify 55 genes whose function had not been linked to blood cell development or function before in Drosophila. Moreover our analyses reveal an unanticipated plasticity of embryo-derived plasmatocytes, thereby shedding new light on blood cell lineage relationship, and pinpoint the Friend of GATA transcription cofactor U-shaped as a key regulator of the plasmatocyte to lamellocyte transformation.

Avet-Rochex Amélie; Boyer Karčne; Polesello Cédric; Gobert Vanessa; Osman Dani; Roch Fernando; Augé Benoit; Zanet Jennifer; Haenlin Marc; Waltzer Lucas

2010-01-01

143

Network properties of complex human disease genes identified through genome-wide association studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of network properties of human disease genes have mainly focused on monogenic diseases or cancers and have suffered from discovery bias. Here we investigated the network properties of complex disease genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAs), thereby eliminating discovery bias. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We derived a network of complex diseases (n = 54) and complex disease genes (n = 349) to explore the shared genetic architecture of complex diseases. We evaluated the centrality measures of complex disease genes in comparison with essential and monogenic disease genes in the human interactome. The complex disease network showed that diseases belonging to the same disease class do not always share common disease genes. A possible explanation could be that the variants with higher minor allele frequency and larger effect size identified using GWAs constitute disjoint parts of the allelic spectra of similar complex diseases. The complex disease gene network showed high modularity with the size of the largest component being smaller than expected from a randomized null-model. This is consistent with limited sharing of genes between diseases. Complex disease genes are less central than the essential and monogenic disease genes in the human interactome. Genes associated with the same disease, compared to genes associated with different diseases, more often tend to share a protein-protein interaction and a Gene Ontology Biological Process. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that network neighbors of known disease genes form an important class of candidates for identifying novel genes for the same disease.

Barrenas F; Chavali S; Holme P; Mobini R; Benson M

2009-01-01

144

Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production. PMID:23610393

Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, André; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

2013-04-22

145

Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

Michelucci A; Cordes T; Ghelfi J; Pailot A; Reiling N; Goldmann O; Binz T; Wegner A; Tallam A; Rausell A; Buttini M; Linster CL; Medina E; Balling R; Hiller K

2013-05-01

146

A search engine to identify pathway genes from expression data on multiple organisms  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The completion of several genome projects showed that most genes have not yet been characterized, especially in multicellular organisms. Although most genes have unknown functions, a large collection of data is available describing their transcriptional activities under many different experimental conditions. In many cases, the coregulatation of a set of genes across a set of conditions can be used to infer roles for genes of unknown function. Results We developed a search engine, the Multiple-Species Gene Recommender (MSGR), which scans gene expression datasets from multiple organisms to identify genes that participate in a genetic pathway. The MSGR takes a query consisting of a list of genes that function together in a genetic pathway from one of six organisms: Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Helicobacter pylori. Using a probabilistic method to merge searches, the MSGR identifies genes that are significantly coregulated with the query genes in one or more of those organisms. The MSGR achieves its highest accuracy for many human pathways when searches are combined across species. We describe specific examples in which new genes were identified to be involved in a neuromuscular signaling pathway and a cell-adhesion pathway. Conclusion The search engine can scan large collections of gene expression data for new genes that are significantly coregulated with a pathway of interest. By integrating searches across organisms, the MSGR can identify pathway members whose coregulation is either ancient or newly evolved.

Chen, Chunnuan; Weirauch, Matthew T; Powell, Corey C; Zambon, Alexander C; Stuart, Joshua M

2007-01-01

147

A search engine to identify pathway genes from expression data on multiple organisms  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome projects showed that most genes have not yet been characterized, especially in multicellular organisms. Although most genes have unknown functions, a large collection of data is available describing their transcriptional activities under many different experimental conditions. In many cases, the coregulatation of a set of genes across a set of conditions can be used to infer roles for genes of unknown function. Results We developed a search engine, the Multiple-Species Gene Recommender (MSGR), which scans gene expression datasets from multiple organisms to identify genes that participate in a genetic pathway. The MSGR takes a query consisting of a list of genes that function together in a genetic pathway from one of six organisms: Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Helicobacter pylori. Using a probabilistic method to merge searches, the MSGR identifies genes that are significantly coregulated with the query genes in one or more of those organisms. The MSGR achieves its highest accuracy for many human pathways when searches are combined across species. We describe specific examples in which new genes were identified to be involved in a neuromuscular signaling pathway and a cell-adhesion pathway. Conclusion The search engine can scan large collections of gene expression data for new genes that are significantly coregulated with a pathway of interest. By integrating searches across organisms, the MSGR can identify pathway members whose coregulation is either ancient or newly evolved.

Chen Chunnuan; Weirauch Matthew T; Powell Corey C; Zambon Alexander C; Stuart Joshua M

2007-01-01

148

Using a suppression subtractive library-based approach to identify tobacco genes regulated in response to short-term sulphur deficit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monitoring expression at the transcriptional level is an essential first step for the functional analysis of plant genes. Genes encoding proteins directly involved in sulphur metabolism constitute only a small fraction of all the genes affected by sulphur deficiency stress. Transcriptional responses to various periods of sulphur deprivation have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, no corresponding data are available for Solanaceae sp. To address this problem, a subtractive library-based approach to search for tobacco genes regulated by a short-term sulphur starvation has been adopted. In this work, 38 genes were identified, of which 22 were regulated positively and 16 were regulated negatively. The transcript levels of the representative genes were monitored in four parts of the plants (mature and immature leaves, stems, and roots), which exhibited differential sulphur deficiency. Interestingly, some genes exhibit different regulation of expression in different parts of the plants. Database analysis allowed assignment of the potential function for many of the identified genes; however, the functions of a small number of genes strongly regulated by sulphur starvation remain unknown. The genes were grouped into nine functional categories, each including both up- and down-regulated genes. The possible links between the identified regulated genes and sulphur metabolism are considered, and compared where possible with expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although no obvious regulatory genes were identified, the genes encoding proteins of unknown function remain as potential components of the regulatory processes.

Wawrzy?ska A; Lewandowska M; Hawkesford MJ; Sirko A

2005-06-01

149

Identification of RAPD Markers Linked to the Male Sterility Gene in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genetic male sterility is controlled by one pair of ressesive allele (aa) in sugar beet. This trait is used in most breeding programes. The exsistance of the character in a line or population facilitates transfer of important trait to the breeding material (for example resistance to plant disease). Also, it is possible to increase genetic diversity of monogerm populations by using genetic male sterility. The time and cost of transferring of this gene will be decreased, if the character is tagged with a molecular marker. Bulked segregant analysis using 302 RAPD primers in two F2 populations (231 and 261 population) was performed for the the identification of RAPD markers linked to the genetic male sterility gene. DNA preparation from 8 male fertile and male sterile plants were separately mixed. At first, the primers were tested on bulks. The primers with polymorphic bands were tested on individual plants of the bulks. Only if the polymorphism of the primers was confirmed, they were tested on the other individual plants. Finally, 10 and 6 markers were identified in 231 and 261 populations, respectively, which their distances to male sterility gene were lower than 50 cM. AB-8-18-600r marker was the nearest marker to male sterility gene. This marker showed only 3 and 1 recombination in 231 and 261 populations, respectively. The distance of this marker and genetic male sterility locus was estimated as 5.3 cM in combined F2 populations.

L. Khodaei; H. Rahimian; R. Amiri; M. Mesbah; A. Mirzaei asl; S. k. Kazemitabar

2007-01-01

150

Microcephaly gene links trithorax and REST/NRSF to control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder causing significantly reduced cerebral cortex size. Many known microcephaly gene products localize to centrosomes, regulating cell fate and proliferation. Here, we identify and characterize a nuclear zinc finger protein, ZNF335/NIF-1, as a causative gene for severe microcephaly, small somatic size, and neonatal death. Znf335 null mice are embryonically lethal, and conditional knockout leads to severely reduced cortical size. RNA-interference and postmortem human studies show that ZNF335 is essential for neural progenitor self-renewal, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation. ZNF335 is a component of a vertebrate-specific, trithorax H3K4-methylation complex, directly regulating REST/NRSF, a master regulator of neural gene expression and cell fate, as well as other essential neural-specific genes. Our results reveal ZNF335 as an essential link between H3K4 complexes and REST/NRSF and provide the first direct genetic evidence that this pathway regulates human neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. PMID:23178126

Yang, Yawei J; Baltus, Andrew E; Mathew, Rebecca S; Murphy, Elisabeth A; Evrony, Gilad D; Gonzalez, Dilenny M; Wang, Estee P; Marshall-Walker, Christine A; Barry, Brenda J; Murn, Jernej; Tatarakis, Antonis; Mahajan, Muktar A; Samuels, Herbert H; Shi, Yang; Golden, Jeffrey A; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Shenhav, Ruthie; Walsh, Christopher A

2012-11-21

151

Identifying directed links in large scale functional networks: application to brain fMRI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological experiments increasingly yield data representing large ensembles of interacting variables, making the application of advanced analytical tools a forbidding task. We present a method to extract networks of correlated activity, specifically from functional MRI data, such that: (a) network nodes represent voxels, and (b) the network links can be directed or undirected, representing temporal relationships between the nodes. The method provides a snapshot of the ongoing dynamics of the brain without sacrificing resolution, as the analysis is tractable even for very large numbers of voxels. Results We find that, based on topological properties of the networks, the method provides enough information about the dynamics to discriminate between subtly different brain states. Moreover, the statistical regularities previously reported are qualitatively preserved, i.e. the resulting networks display scale-free and small-world topologies. Conclusion Our method expands previous approaches to render large scale functional networks, and creates the basis for an extensive and -due to the presence of mixtures of directed and undirected links- richer motif analysis of functional relationships.

Cecchi Guillermo A; Rao A Ravishankar; Centeno Maria V; Baliki Marwan; Apkarian A Vania; Chialvo Dante R

2007-01-01

152

Gene expression profiles of breast biopsies from healthy women identify a group with claudin-low features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increased understanding of the variability in normal breast biology will enable us to identify mechanisms of breast cancer initiation and the origin of different subtypes, and to better predict breast cancer risk. METHODS: Gene expression patterns in breast biopsies from 79 healthy women referred to breast diagnostic centers in Norway were explored by unsupervised hierarchical clustering and supervised analyses, such as gene set enrichment analysis and gene ontology analysis and comparison with previously published genelists and independent datasets. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two separate clusters of normal breast tissue based on gene-expression profiling, regardless of clustering algorithm and gene filtering used. Comparison of the expression profile of the two clusters with several published gene lists describing breast cells revealed that the samples in cluster 1 share characteristics with stromal cells and stem cells, and to a certain degree with mesenchymal cells and myoepithelial cells. The samples in cluster 1 also share many features with the newly identified claudin-low breast cancer intrinsic subtype, which also shows characteristics of stromal and stem cells. More women belonging to cluster 1 have a family history of breast cancer and there is a slight overrepresentation of nulliparous women in cluster 1. Similar findings were seen in a separate dataset consisting of histologically normal tissue from both breasts harboring breast cancer and from mammoplasty reductions. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to explore the variability of gene expression patterns in whole biopsies from normal breasts and identified distinct subtypes of normal breast tissue. Further studies are needed to determine the specific cell contribution to the variation in the biology of normal breasts, how the clusters identified relate to breast cancer risk and their possible link to the origin of the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

Haakensen VD; Lingjaerde OC; Lüders T; Riis M; Prat A; Troester MA; Holmen MM; Frantzen JO; Romundstad L; Navjord D; Bukholm IK; Johannesen TB; Perou CM; Ursin G; Kristensen VN; Břrresen-Dale AL; Helland A

2011-01-01

153

Gene expression profiles of breast biopsies from healthy women identify a group with claudin-low features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of the variability in normal breast biology will enable us to identify mechanisms of breast cancer initiation and the origin of different subtypes, and to better predict breast cancer risk. Methods Gene expression patterns in breast biopsies from 79 healthy women referred to breast diagnostic centers in Norway were explored by unsupervised hierarchical clustering and supervised analyses, such as gene set enrichment analysis and gene ontology analysis and comparison with previously published genelists and independent datasets. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two separate clusters of normal breast tissue based on gene-expression profiling, regardless of clustering algorithm and gene filtering used. Comparison of the expression profile of the two clusters with several published gene lists describing breast cells revealed that the samples in cluster 1 share characteristics with stromal cells and stem cells, and to a certain degree with mesenchymal cells and myoepithelial cells. The samples in cluster 1 also share many features with the newly identified claudin-low breast cancer intrinsic subtype, which also shows characteristics of stromal and stem cells. More women belonging to cluster 1 have a family history of breast cancer and there is a slight overrepresentation of nulliparous women in cluster 1. Similar findings were seen in a separate dataset consisting of histologically normal tissue from both breasts harboring breast cancer and from mammoplasty reductions. Conclusion This is the first study to explore the variability of gene expression patterns in whole biopsies from normal breasts and identified distinct subtypes of normal breast tissue. Further studies are needed to determine the specific cell contribution to the variation in the biology of normal breasts, how the clusters identified relate to breast cancer risk and their possible link to the origin of the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

Haakensen Vilde D; Lingjćrde Ole; Lüders Torben; Riis Margit; Prat Aleix; Troester Melissa A; Holmen Marit M; Frantzen Jan; Romundstad Linda; Navjord Dina; Bukholm Ida K; Johannesen Tom B; Perou Charles M; Ursin Giske; Kristensen Vessela N; Břrresen-Dale Anne-Lise; Helland Ĺslaug

2011-01-01

154

A candidate gene for X-linked Ocular Albinism (OA1)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ocular Albinism of the Nettleship-Fall type 1 (OA1) is the most common form of ocular albinism. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait with affected males showing severe reduction of visual acuity, nystagmus, strabismus, photophobia. Ophthalmologic examination reveals foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmentation of the retina and iris translucency. Microscopic examination of melanocytes suggests that the underlying defect in OA1 is an abnormality in melanosome formation. Recently we assembled a 350 kb cosmid contig spanning the entire critical region on Xp22.3, which measures approximately 110 kb. A minimum set of cosmids was used to identify transcribed sequences using both cDNA selection and exon amplification. Two putative exons recovered by exon amplification strategy were found to be highly conserved throughout evolution and, therefore, they were used as probes for the screening of fetal and adult retina cDNA libraries. This led to the isolation of clones spanning a full-length cDNA which measures 7.6 kb. Sequence analysis revealed that the predicted protein product shows homology with syntrophines and a Xenopus laevis apical protein. The gene covers approximately 170 kb of DNA and spans the entire critical region for OA1, being deleted in two patients with contiguous gene deletion including OA1 and in one patient with isolated OA1. Therefore, this new gene represents a very strong candidate for involvement in OA1 (an alternative, but unlikely possibility to be considered is that the true OA1 gene lies within an intron of the former). Northern analysis revealed very high level of expression in retina and melanoma. Unlike most Xp22.3 genes, this gene is conserved in the mouse. We are currently performing SSCP analysis and direct sequencing of exons on DNAs from approximately 60 unrelated patients with OA1 for mutation detection.

Bassi, M.T.; Schiaffino, V.; Rugarli, E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

155

Reporter gene expression from LTR-circles as tool to identify HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early HIV-1 integrase inhibitors, such as compounds containing a ?-diketo acid moiety, were identified by extensive high-throughput screening campaigns. Traditionally, in vitro biochemical assays, measuring the catalytic activities of integrase, have been used for this purpose. However, these assays are confounded by the absence of cellular processes or cofactors that play a role in the integration of HIV-1 DNA in the cellular genome. In contrast to regular cell-based virus inhibition assays, which targets all steps of the viral replication cycle, a novel cellular screening assays was developed to enable the specific identification of integrase inhibitors, employing a readout that is linked with the inhibition of integrase activity. Therefore, a HIV-1 lentiviral vector equipped with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene was used to detect expression from extrachromosomal viral DNA (1- or 2-long terminal repeat circles), formed when integration of vector DNA into the cellular genome is prevented by an integrase inhibitor. In this assay, eGFP expression from the low residual level of transcriptional activity of extrachromosomal DNA was measured via high-throughput flow cytometry. An algorithm for analysis of eGFP expression histograms enabled the specific identification of integrase inhibitors. This assay is amenable for high throughput screening to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase.

Van Loock M; Hombrouck A; Jacobs T; Winters B; Meersseman G; Van Acker K; Clayton RF; Malcolm BA

2013-02-01

156

Linking genes to diseases: it's all in the data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genome-wide association analyses on large patient cohorts are generating large sets of candidate disease genes. This is coupled with the availability of ever-increasing genomic databases and a rapidly expanding repository of biomedical literature. Computational approaches to disease-gene association...

Tiffin, N.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Perez-Iratxeta, C.

157

Four tightly linked rab genes are differentially expressed in rice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have cloned and sequenced the four members of a rice rab (responsive to abscisic acid) gene family that are tandemly arrayed in a locus approximately 30 kbp in length. Each of the genes contains a single, small intron. They are all transcriptionally active and encode proteins of Mr 15,500-16,800 with two highly conserved domains. Northern analysis with gene-specific probes showed slightly different patterns of expression for the four genes in rice plant tissues and in response to osmotic stress. Comparison of the promoter regions revealed a conserved GC-rich sequence (CGG/CCGCGCT) with some homology to the SP1 binding site (Briggs et al., 1986). Another conserved sequence (PuTACGTGGCPu), whose core is found in the promoter regions of ABA-responsive cotton genes, is reminiscent of the cAMP responsive element (Deutsch et al., 1988).

Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K; Mundy J; Chua NH

1990-01-01

158

Identifying paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in linked administrative health data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the contribution of the quality of nursing care to patient outcomes. Due to different casemix and risk profiles, algorithms for administrative health data that identify nursing-sensitive outcomes in adult hospitalised patients may ...

Wilson Sally; Bremner Alexandra P; Hauck Yvonne; Finn Judith

159

Structure and evolution of Apetala3, a sex-linked gene in Silene latifolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of sex chromosomes is often accompanied by gene or chromosome rearrangements. Recently, the gene AP3 was characterized in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. It was suggested that this gene had been transferred from an autosome to the Y chromosome. Results In the present study we provide evidence for the existence of an X linked copy of the AP3 gene. We further show that the Y copy is probably located in a chromosomal region where recombination restriction occurred during the first steps of sex chromosome evolution. A comparison of X and Y copies did not reveal any clear signs of degenerative processes in exon regions. Instead, both X and Y copies show evidence for relaxed selection compared to the autosomal orthologues in S. vulgaris and S. conica. We further found that promoter sequences differ significantly. Comparison of the genic region of AP3 between the X and Y alleles and the corresponding autosomal copies in the gynodioecious species S. vulgaris revealed a massive accumulation of retrotransposons within one intron of the Y copy of AP3. Analysis of the genomic distribution of these repetitive elements does not indicate that these elements played an important role in the size increase characteristic of the Y chromosome. However, in silico expression analysis shows biased expression of individual domains of the identified retroelements in male plants. Conclusions We characterized the structure and evolution of AP3, a sex linked gene with copies on the X and Y chromosomes in the dioecious plant S. latifolia. These copies showed complementary expression patterns and relaxed evolution at protein level compared to autosomal orthologues, which suggests subfunctionalization. One intron of the Y-linked allele was invaded by retrotransposons that display sex-specific expression patterns that are similar to the expression pattern of the corresponding allele, which suggests that these transposable elements may have influenced evolution of expression patterns of the Y copy. These data could help researchers decipher the role of transposable elements in degenerative processes during sex chromosome evolution.

Cegan Radim; Marais Gabriel AB; Kubekova Hana; Blavet Nicolas; Widmer Alex; Vyskot Boris; Doležel Jaroslav; Šafá? Jan; Hobza Roman

2010-01-01

160

MlAB10: A Triticum turgidum Subsp. dicoccoides Derived Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Identified in Common Wheat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Powdery mildew is an economically important disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). NC97BGTAB10 contains powdery mildew resistance introgressed from wild emmer wheat (T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides). The objectives of this research were to genetically characterize the powdery mildew resistance in NC97BGTAB10, identify SSR markers closely linked to the resistance gene, and provide evidence that the gene is novel. One hundred thirty nine F2:3 lines from the cross NC97BGTAB10/Saluda were evaluated in the field and greenhouse for reaction to powdery mildew. Resistance was controlled by a single gene. Bulked segregant analysis identified a polymorphism between the resistant and susceptible bulks on chromosome 2BL. The population was genotyped with SSR markers that were specific to chromosome 2B and a linkage map was developed. The SSR marker Xwmc445 mapped 7 cM proximal to the resistance gene and no marker could be mapped distal to the gene. It was concluded that the resistance gene lies in the distal tip of chromosome 2BL. The powdery mildew resistance genes Pm33 and MlZec1 have also been mapped to the region. A detached leaf test with two powdery mildew isolates indicated the resistance gene in NC97BGTAB10 was different from MlZec1. No allelism test could be conducted to determine the relationships between the resistance genes in NC97BGTAB10, Pm33 or MlZec1 at this time. Thus, the resistance gene in NC97BGTAB10 was given the temporary designation MlAB10.

Maxwell JJ; Lyerly JH; Srnic G; Parks R; Cowger C; Marshall D; Brown-Guedira E; Murphy JP

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment of [3H]glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-Mr (49K) product. For [3H]mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an addition size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90env, the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80env, and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicting that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins.

1988-01-01

162

O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-M{sub r} (49K) product. For ({sup 3}H)mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an addition size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90{sup env}, the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80{sup env}, and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicting that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins.

Pinter, A.; Honnen, W.J. (Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York Inc., NY (USA))

1988-03-01

163

Gene-carried chitosan-linked polyethylenimine induced high gene transfection efficiency on dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dendritic cell (DC) networking system has become an attractive approach in cancer immunotherapy. Successful DC gene engineering depends on the development of transgene vectors. A cationic polymer, chitosan-linked polyethylenimine (PEI) (CP), possessing the advantages of both PEI and chitosan, has been applied in nonviral transfection of DCs. Physicochemical evaluation showed that CP/DNA complexes could form cationic nanoparticles. Compared with DCs transfected with commercial reagent, Lipofectamine2000, it showed higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity when DCs were transfected with CP/DNA complexes. A nuclear trafficking observation of CP/DNA complexes by a confocal laser scanning microscope further revealed that the CP could help DNA enter into the cytoplasm and finally into the nucleus of a DC. Finally, vaccination of DCs transfected with CP/DNA encoding gp100 slightly improved resistance to the B16BL6 melanoma challenge. This is the first report that CP polymer is used as a nonviral vector for DC gene delivery and DC vaccine. Essentially, these results might be helpful to design a promising nonviral vector for DC gene delivery. PMID:23586911

Chen, Yu-Zhe; Yao, Xing-Lei; Ruan, Gui-Xin; Zhao, Qing-Qing; Tang, Gu-Ping; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Gao, Jian-Qing

2012-10-01

164

UV cross-linking identifies four polypeptides that require the TATA box to bind to the Drosophila hsp70 promoter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A protein fraction that requires the TATA sequence to bind to the hsp70 promoter has been partially purified from nuclear extracts of Drosophila embryos. This TATA factor produces a large DNase I footprint that extends from -44 to +35 on the promoter. A mutation that changes TATA to TATG interferes both with the binding of this complex and with the transcription of the hsp70 promoter in vitro, indicating that this interaction is important for transcriptional activity. Using a highly specific protein-DNA cross-linking assay, we have identified four polypeptides that require the TATA sequence to bind to the hsp70 promoter. Polypeptides of 26 and 42 kilodaltons are in intimate contact with the TATA sequence. Polypeptides of 150 and 60 kilodaltons interact within the region from +24 to +47 in a TATA-dependent manner. Both the extended footprint and the polypeptides identified by UV cross-linking indicate that the Drosophila TATA factor is a multicomponent complex.

1990-01-01

165

UV cross-linking identifies four polypeptides that require the TATA box to bind to the Drosophila hsp70 promoter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protein fraction that requires the TATA sequence to bind to the hsp70 promoter has been partially purified from nuclear extracts of Drosophila embryos. This TATA factor produces a large DNase I footprint that extends from -44 to +35 on the promoter. A mutation that changes TATA to TATG interferes both with the binding of this complex and with the transcription of the hsp70 promoter in vitro, indicating that this interaction is important for transcriptional activity. Using a highly specific protein-DNA cross-linking assay, we have identified four polypeptides that require the TATA sequence to bind to the hsp70 promoter. Polypeptides of 26 and 42 kilodaltons are in intimate contact with the TATA sequence. Polypeptides of 150 and 60 kilodaltons interact within the region from +24 to +47 in a TATA-dependent manner. Both the extended footprint and the polypeptides identified by UV cross-linking indicate that the Drosophila TATA factor is a multicomponent complex.

Gilmour, D.S.; Dietz, T.J.; Elgin, S.C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

1990-08-01

166

A BAC-bacterial recombination method to generate physically linked multiple gene reporter DNA constructs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporter gene mice are valuable animal models for biological research providing a gene expression readout that can contribute to cellular characterization within the context of a developmental process. With the advancement of bacterial recombination techniques to engineer reporter gene constructs from BAC genomic clones and the generation of optically distinguishable fluorescent protein reporter genes, there is an unprecedented capability to engineer more informative transgenic reporter mouse models relative to what has been traditionally available. Results We demonstrate here our first effort on the development of a three stage bacterial recombination strategy to physically link multiple genes together with their respective fluorescent protein (FP) reporters in one DNA fragment. This strategy uses bacterial recombination techniques to: (1) subclone genes of interest into BAC linking vectors, (2) insert desired reporter genes into respective genes and (3) link different gene-reporters together. As proof of concept, we have generated a single DNA fragment containing the genes Trap, Dmp1, and Ibsp driving the expression of ECFP, mCherry, and Topaz FP reporter genes, respectively. Using this DNA construct, we have successfully generated transgenic reporter mice that retain two to three gene readouts. Conclusion The three stage methodology to link multiple genes with their respective fluorescent protein reporter works with reasonable efficiency. Moreover, gene linkage allows for their common chromosomal integration into a single locus. However, the testing of this multi-reporter DNA construct by transgenesis does suggest that the linkage of two different genes together, despite their large size, can still create a positional effect. We believe that gene choice, genomic DNA fragment size and the presence of endogenous insulator elements are critical variables.

Maye Peter; Stover Mary; Liu Yaling; Rowe David W; Gong Shiaochin; Lichtler Alexander C

2009-01-01

167

Synthetic diether-linked cationic lipids for gene delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quaternary ammonium lipids 2a-p, with diether linkages between hydrocarbon chains and their ammonium headgroups, were synthesized as potential vectors for cationic liposome-mediated gene delivery. Varying the length of carbon chains and quaternary ammonium heads as well as different anionic complexes will enable the study of the structure-function relationships of these cationic lipids in terms of gene delivery properties.

Liu D; Qiao W; Li Z; Zhang S; Cheng L; Jin K

2006-03-01

168

Topoisomerases facilitate transcription of long genes linked to autism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Topoisomerases are expressed throughout the developing and adult brain and are mutated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how topoisomerases are mechanistically connected to ASD is unknown. Here we find that topotecan, a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor, dose-dependently reduces the expression of extremely long genes in mouse and human neurons, including nearly all genes that are longer than 200?kilobases. Expression of long genes is also reduced after knockdown of Top1 or Top2b in neurons, highlighting that both enzymes are required for full expression of long genes. By mapping RNA polymerase II density genome-wide in neurons, we found that this length-dependent effect on gene expression was due to impaired transcription elongation. Interestingly, many high-confidence ASD candidate genes are exceptionally long and were reduced in expression after TOP1 inhibition. Our findings suggest that chemicals and genetic mutations that impair topoisomerases could commonly contribute to ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

King IF; Yandava CN; Mabb AM; Hsiao JS; Huang HS; Pearson BL; Calabrese JM; Starmer J; Parker JS; Magnuson T; Chamberlain SJ; Philpot BD; Zylka MJ

2013-09-01

169

Microsatellite markers linked to 2 powdery mildew resistance genes introgressed from Triticum carthlicum accession PS5 into common wheat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two dominant powdery mildew resistance genes introduced from Triticum carthlicum accession PS5 to common wheat were identified and tagged using microsatellite markers. The gene designated PmPS5A was placed on wheat chromosome 2AL and linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm356 at a genetic distance of 10.2 cM. Based on the information of its origin, chromosome location, and reactions to 5 powdery mildew isolates, this gene could be a member of the complex Pm4 locus. The 2nd gene designated PmPS5B was located on wheat chromosome 2BL with 3 microsatellite markers mapping proximally to the gene: Xwmc317 at 1.1 cM; Xgwm111 at 2.2 cM; and Xgwm382 at 4.0 cM; and 1 marker, Xgwm526, mapping distally to the gene at a distance of 18.1 cM. Since this gene showed no linkage to the other 2 known powdery mildew resistance genes on wheat chromosome 2B, Pm6 and Pm26, we believe it is a novel powdery mildew resistance gene and propose to designate this gene as Pm33.

Zhu Z; Zhou R; Kong X; Dong Y; Jia J

2005-08-01

170

Microsatellite markers linked to 2 powdery mildew resistance genes introgressed from Triticum carthlicum accession PS5 into common wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two dominant powdery mildew resistance genes introduced from Triticum carthlicum accession PS5 to common wheat were identified and tagged using microsatellite markers. The gene designated PmPS5A was placed on wheat chromosome 2AL and linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm356 at a genetic distance of 10.2 cM. Based on the information of its origin, chromosome location, and reactions to 5 powdery mildew isolates, this gene could be a member of the complex Pm4 locus. The 2nd gene designated PmPS5B was located on wheat chromosome 2BL with 3 microsatellite markers mapping proximally to the gene: Xwmc317 at 1.1 cM; Xgwm111 at 2.2 cM; and Xgwm382 at 4.0 cM; and 1 marker, Xgwm526, mapping distally to the gene at a distance of 18.1 cM. Since this gene showed no linkage to the other 2 known powdery mildew resistance genes on wheat chromosome 2B, Pm6 and Pm26, we believe it is a novel powdery mildew resistance gene and propose to designate this gene as Pm33. PMID:16094424

Zhu, Zhendong; Zhou, Ronghua; Kong, Xiuying; Dong, Yuchen; Jia, Jizeng

2005-08-01

171

Coupling gene chip analyses and rat genetic variances in identifying potential target genes that may contribute to neuropathic allodynia development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic factors and nerve injury-induced changes of gene expression in sensory neurons are potential contributors to tactile allodynia, a neuropathic pain state manifested as hypersensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimulation. To uncover genes relevant to neuropathic allodynia, we analyzed gene expression profiles in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of spinal nerve-ligated Harlan and Holtzman Sprague Dawley rats, strains with different susceptibilities to neuropathic allodynia. Using Affymetrix gene chips, we identified genes showing differential basal-level expression in these strains without injury-induced regulation. Of more than 8000 genes analyzed, less than 180 genes in each strain were regulated after injury, and 19-22% of that was regulated in a strain-specific manner. Importantly, we identified functionally related genes that were co-regulated post injury in one or both strains. In situ hybridization and real-time PCR analyses of a subset of identified genes confirmed the patterns of the microarray data, and the former also demonstrated that injury-induced changes occurred, not only in neurons, but also in non-neuronal cells. Together, our studies provide a global view of injury plasticity in DRG of these rat stains and support a plasticity-based mechanism mediating variations in allodynia susceptibility, thus providing a source for further characterization of neuropathic pain-relevant genes and potential pathways.

Valder CR; Liu JJ; Song YH; Luo ZD

2003-11-01

172

Coupling gene chip analyses and rat genetic variances in identifying potential target genes that may contribute to neuropathic allodynia development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic factors and nerve injury-induced changes of gene expression in sensory neurons are potential contributors to tactile allodynia, a neuropathic pain state manifested as hypersensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimulation. To uncover genes relevant to neuropathic allodynia, we analyzed gene expression profiles in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of spinal nerve-ligated Harlan and Holtzman Sprague Dawley rats, strains with different susceptibilities to neuropathic allodynia. Using Affymetrix gene chips, we identified genes showing differential basal-level expression in these strains without injury-induced regulation. Of more than 8000 genes analyzed, less than 180 genes in each strain were regulated after injury, and 19-22% of that was regulated in a strain-specific manner. Importantly, we identified functionally related genes that were co-regulated post injury in one or both strains. In situ hybridization and real-time PCR analyses of a subset of identified genes confirmed the patterns of the microarray data, and the former also demonstrated that injury-induced changes occurred, not only in neurons, but also in non-neuronal cells. Together, our studies provide a global view of injury plasticity in DRG of these rat stains and support a plasticity-based mechanism mediating variations in allodynia susceptibility, thus providing a source for further characterization of neuropathic pain-relevant genes and potential pathways. PMID:14535940

Valder, Carolina R; Liu, Jan-Jan; Song, Yan-Hua; Luo, Z David

2003-11-01

173

Gene expression: The missing link in evolutionary computation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper points out that the traditional perspective of evolutionary computation may not provide the complete picture of evolutionary search. This paper focuses on gene expression-- transformations of representation (DNA->RNA->Protein) from a the perspective of relation construction. It decomposes the complex process of gene expression into several steps, namely (1) expression control of DNA base pairs, (2) alphabet transformations during transcription and translation, and (3) folding of the proteins from sequence representation to Euclidean space. Each of these steps is investigated on grounds of relation construction and search efficiency. At the end these pieces of the puzzle are put together to develope a possibly crude and cartoon computational description of gene expression.

Kargupta, H.

1997-09-01

174

A selective sweep in or near the Silene latifolia X-linked gene SlssX  

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The full-text of this article is not currently available in ORA, but you may be able to access the article via the publisher copy link on this record page. Citation: Filatov, D. A. (2008). 'A selective sweep in or near the Silene latifolia X-linked gene SlssX', Genetics Research, 9...

Filatov, D. A.

175

U3 snoRNA genes are multi-copy and frequently linked to U5 snRNA genes in Euglena gracilis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: U3 snoRNA is a box C/D small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) involved in the processing events that liberate 18S rRNA from the ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA). Although U3 snoRNA is present in all eukaryotic organisms, most investigations of it have focused on fungi (particularly yeasts), animals and plants. Relatively little is known about U3 snoRNA and its gene(s) in the phylogenetically broad assemblage of protists (mostly unicellular eukaryotes). In the euglenozoon Euglena gracilis, a distant relative of the kinetoplastid protozoa, Southern analysis had previously revealed at least 13 bands hybridizing with U3 snoRNA, suggesting the existence of multiple copies of U3 snoRNA genes. RESULTS: Through screening of a lambda genomic library and PCR amplification, we recovered 14 U3 snoRNA gene variants, defined by sequence heterogeneities that are mostly located in the U3 3'-stem-loop domain. We identified three different genomic arrangements of Euglena U3 snoRNA genes: i) stand-alone, ii) linked to tRNAArg genes, and iii) linked to a U5 snRNA gene. In arrangement ii), the U3 snoRNA gene is positioned upstream of two identical tRNAArg genes that are convergently transcribed relative to the U3 gene. This scenario is reminiscent of a U3 snoRNA-tRNA gene linkage previously described in trypanosomatids. We document here twelve different U3 snoRNA-U5 snRNA gene arrangements in Euglena; in each case, the U3 gene is linked to a downstream and convergently oriented U5 gene, with the intergenic region differing in length and sequence among the variants. CONCLUSION: The multiple U3 snoRNA-U5 snRNA gene linkages, which cluster into distinct families based on sequence similarities within the intergenic spacer, presumably arose by genome, chromosome, and/or locus duplications. We discuss possible reasons for the existence of the unusually large number of U3 snoRNA genes in the Euglena genome. Variability in the signal intensities of the multiple Southern hybridization bands raises the possibility that Euglena contains a naturally aneuploid chromosome complement.

Charette JM; Gray MW

2009-01-01

176

U3 snoRNA genes are multi-copy and frequently linked to U5 snRNA genes in Euglena gracilis§  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background U3 snoRNA is a box C/D small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) involved in the processing events that liberate 18S rRNA from the ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA). Although U3 snoRNA is present in all eukaryotic organisms, most investigations of it have focused on fungi (particularly yeasts), animals and plants. Relatively little is known about U3 snoRNA and its gene(s) in the phylogenetically broad assemblage of protists (mostly unicellular eukaryotes). In the euglenozoon Euglena gracilis, a distant relative of the kinetoplastid protozoa, Southern analysis had previously revealed at least 13 bands hybridizing with U3 snoRNA, suggesting the existence of multiple copies of U3 snoRNA genes. Results Through screening of a ? genomic library and PCR amplification, we recovered 14 U3 snoRNA gene variants, defined by sequence heterogeneities that are mostly located in the U3 3'-stem-loop domain. We identified three different genomic arrangements of Euglena U3 snoRNA genes: i) stand-alone, ii) linked to tRNAArg genes, and iii) linked to a U5 snRNA gene. In arrangement ii), the U3 snoRNA gene is positioned upstream of two identical tRNAArg genes that are convergently transcribed relative to the U3 gene. This scenario is reminiscent of a U3 snoRNA-tRNA gene linkage previously described in trypanosomatids. We document here twelve different U3 snoRNA-U5 snRNA gene arrangements in Euglena; in each case, the U3 gene is linked to a downstream and convergently oriented U5 gene, with the intergenic region differing in length and sequence among the variants. Conclusion The multiple U3 snoRNA-U5 snRNA gene linkages, which cluster into distinct families based on sequence similarities within the intergenic spacer, presumably arose by genome, chromosome, and/or locus duplications. We discuss possible reasons for the existence of the unusually large number of U3 snoRNA genes in the Euglena genome. Variability in the signal intensities of the multiple Southern hybridization bands raises the possibility that Euglena contains a naturally aneuploid chromosome complement.

Charette J Michael; Gray Michael W

2009-01-01

177

A novel method to identify high order gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association studies: Gene-based MDR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Because common complex diseases are affected by multiple genes and environmental factors, it is essential to investigate gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions to understand genetic architecture of complex diseases. After the great success of large scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies using the high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips, the study of gene-gene interaction becomes a next challenge. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis has been widely used for the gene-gene interaction analysis. In practice, however, it is not easy to perform high order gene-gene interaction analyses via MDR in genome-wide level because it requires exploring a huge search space and suffers from a computational burden due to high dimensionality. Results We propose dimensional reduction analysis, Gene-MDR analysis for the fast and efficient high order gene-gene interaction analysis. The proposed Gene-MDR method is composed of two-step applications of MDR: within- and between-gene MDR analyses. First, within-gene MDR analysis summarizes each gene effect via MDR analysis by combining multiple SNPs from the same gene. Second, between-gene MDR analysis then performs interaction analysis using the summarized gene effects from within-gene MDR analysis. We apply the Gene-MDR method to bipolar disorder (BD) GWA data from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). The results demonstrate that Gene-MDR is capable of detecting high order gene-gene interactions associated with BD. Conclusion By reducing the dimension of genome-wide data from SNP level to gene level, Gene-MDR efficiently identifies high order gene-gene interactions. Therefore, Gene-MDR can provide the key to understand complex disease etiology.

Oh Sohee; Lee Jaehoon; Kwon Min-Seok; Weir Bruce; Ha Kyooseob; Park Taesung

2012-01-01

178

Highly conserved gene order and numerous novel repetitive elements in genomic regions linked to wing pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With over 20 parapatric races differing in their warningly colored wing patterns, the butterfly Heliconius erato provides a fascinating example of an adaptive radiation. Together with matching races of its co-mimic Heliconius melpomene, H. erato also represents a textbook case of Müllerian mimicry, a phenomenon where common warning signals are shared amongst noxious organisms. It is of great interest to identify the specific genes that control the mimetic wing patterns of H. erato and H. melpomene. To this end we have undertaken comparative mapping and targeted genomic sequencing in both species. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of genomic sequences linked to color pattern mimicry genes in Heliconius. RESULTS: Scoring AFLP polymorphisms in H. erato broods allowed us to survey loci at approximately 362 kb intervals across the genome. With this strategy we were able to identify markers tightly linked to two color pattern genes: D and Cr, which were then used to screen H. erato BAC libraries in order to identify clones for sequencing. Gene density across 600 kb of BAC sequences appeared relatively low, although the number of predicted open reading frames was typical for an insect. We focused analyses on the D- and Cr-linked H. erato BAC sequences and on the Yb-linked H. melpomene BAC sequence. A comparative analysis between homologous regions of H. erato (Cr-linked BAC) and H. melpomene (Yb-linked BAC) revealed high levels of sequence conservation and microsynteny between the two species. We found that repeated elements constitute 26% and 20% of BAC sequences from H. erato and H. melpomene respectively. The majority of these repetitive sequences appear to be novel, as they showed no significant similarity to any other available insect sequences. We also observed signs of fine scale conservation of gene order between Heliconius and the moth Bombyx mori, suggesting that lepidopteran genome architecture may be conserved over very long evolutionary time scales. CONCLUSION: Here we have demonstrated the tractability of progressing from a genetic linkage map to genomic sequence data in Heliconius butterflies. We have also shown that fine-scale gene order is highly conserved between distantly related Heliconius species, and also between Heliconius and B. mori. Together, these findings suggest that genome structure in macrolepidoptera might be very conserved, and show that mapping and positional cloning efforts in different lepidopteran species can be reciprocally informative.

Papa R; Morrison CM; Walters JR; Counterman BA; Chen R; Halder G; Ferguson L; Chamberlain N; Ffrench-Constant R; Kapan DD; Jiggins CD; Reed RD; McMillan WO

2008-01-01

179

Highly conserved gene order and numerous novel repetitive elements in genomic regions linked to wing pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background With over 20 parapatric races differing in their warningly colored wing patterns, the butterfly Heliconius erato provides a fascinating example of an adaptive radiation. Together with matching races of its co-mimic Heliconius melpomene, H. erato also represents a textbook case of Müllerian mimicry, a phenomenon where common warning signals are shared amongst noxious organisms. It is of great interest to identify the specific genes that control the mimetic wing patterns of H. erato and H. melpomene. To this end we have undertaken comparative mapping and targeted genomic sequencing in both species. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of genomic sequences linked to color pattern mimicry genes in Heliconius. Results Scoring AFLP polymorphisms in H. erato broods allowed us to survey loci at approximately 362 kb intervals across the genome. With this strategy we were able to identify markers tightly linked to two color pattern genes: D and Cr, which were then used to screen H. erato BAC libraries in order to identify clones for sequencing. Gene density across 600 kb of BAC sequences appeared relatively low, although the number of predicted open reading frames was typical for an insect. We focused analyses on the D- and Cr-linked H. erato BAC sequences and on the Yb-linked H. melpomene BAC sequence. A comparative analysis between homologous regions of H. erato (Cr-linked BAC) and H. melpomene (Yb-linked BAC) revealed high levels of sequence conservation and microsynteny between the two species. We found that repeated elements constitute 26% and 20% of BAC sequences from H. erato and H. melpomene respectively. The majority of these repetitive sequences appear to be novel, as they showed no significant similarity to any other available insect sequences. We also observed signs of fine scale conservation of gene order between Heliconius and the moth Bombyx mori, suggesting that lepidopteran genome architecture may be conserved over very long evolutionary time scales. Conclusion Here we have demonstrated the tractability of progressing from a genetic linkage map to genomic sequence data in Heliconius butterflies. We have also shown that fine-scale gene order is highly conserved between distantly related Heliconius species, and also between Heliconius and B. mori. Together, these findings suggest that genome structure in macrolepidoptera might be very conserved, and show that mapping and positional cloning efforts in different lepidopteran species can be reciprocally informative.

Papa Riccardo; Morrison Clayton M; Walters James R; Counterman Brian A; Chen Rui; Halder Georg; Ferguson Laura; Chamberlain Nicola; ffrench-Constant Richard; Kapan Durrell D; Jiggins Chris D; Reed Robert D; McMillan William O

2008-01-01

180

Horizontal gene transfer: linking sex and cell fate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) enable horizontal gene transfer among bacteria. In Pseudomonas, only a phenotypically distinct subpopulation of ICE-bearing cells can mobilize ICE DNA to new hosts. Transfer competence is a terminal state; division is limited, and many cells lyse.

Davis BM; Waldor MK

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Systems Biology Approach to Identify Gene Network Signatures for Colorectal Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we integrated prior knowledge from gene signatures and protein interactions with gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and gene/protein network modeling together to identify gene network signatures from gene expression microarray data. We demonstrated how to apply this approach into discovering gene network signatures for colorectal cancer (CRC) from microarray datasets. First, we used GSEA to analyze the microarray data through enriching differential genes in different CRC-related gene sets from two publicly available up-to-date gene set databases – Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) and Gene Signatures Database (GeneSigDB). Second, we compared the enriched gene sets through enrichment score, false-discovery rate, and nominal p-value. Third, we constructed an integrated protein–protein interaction (PPI) network through connecting these enriched genes by high-quality interactions from a human annotated and predicted protein interaction database, with a confidence score labeled for each interaction. Finally, we mapped differential gene expressions onto the constructed network to build a comprehensive network model containing visualized transcriptome and proteome data. The results show that although MSigDB has more CRC-relevant gene sets than GeneSigDB, the integrated PPI network connecting the enriched genes from both MSigDB and GeneSigDB can provide a more complete view for discovering gene network signatures. We also found several important sub-network signatures for CRC, such as TP53 sub-network, PCNA sub-network, and IL8 sub-network, corresponding to apoptosis, DNA repair, and immune response, respectively.

Sonachalam, Madhankumar; Shen, Jeffrey; Huang, Hui; Wu, Xiaogang

2012-01-01

182

Gene expression profiling and candidate gene resequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both preleukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 of 27 (30%) acquired an Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired an Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation.

Novak RL; Harper DP; Caudell D; Slape C; Beachy SH; Aplan PD

2012-12-01

183

Gene expression profiling and candidate gene resequencing identifies pathways and mutations important for malignant transformation caused by leukemogenic fusion genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) and CALM-AF10 (CA10) are oncogenic fusion proteins produced by recurrent chromosomal translocations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transgenic mice that express these fusions develop AML with a long latency and incomplete penetrance, suggesting that collaborating genetic events are required for leukemic transformation. We employed genetic techniques to identify both preleukemic abnormalities in healthy transgenic mice as well as collaborating events leading to leukemic transformation. Candidate gene resequencing revealed that 6 of 27 (22%) CA10 AMLs spontaneously acquired a Ras pathway mutation and 8 of 27 (30%) acquired an Flt3 mutation. Two CA10 AMLs acquired an Flt3 internal-tandem duplication, demonstrating that these mutations can be acquired in murine as well as human AML. Gene expression profiles revealed a marked upregulation of Hox genes, particularly Hoxa5, Hoxa9, and Hoxa10 in both NHD13 and CA10 mice. Furthermore, mir196b, which is embedded within the Hoxa locus, was overexpressed in both CA10 and NHD13 samples. In contrast, the Hox cofactors Meis1 and Pbx3 were differentially expressed; Meis1 was increased in CA10 AMLs but not NHD13 AMLs, whereas Pbx3 was consistently increased in NHD13 but not CA10 AMLs. Silencing of Pbx3 in NHD13 cells led to decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and decreased colony formation in vitro, suggesting a previously unexpected role for Pbx3 in leukemic transformation. PMID:22885519

Novak, Rachel L; Harper, David P; Caudell, David; Slape, Christopher; Beachy, Sarah H; Aplan, Peter D

2012-08-08

184

ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-?1 is an important angiogenic factor involved in the different aspects of angiogenesis and vessel maintenance. TGF-? signalling is mediated by the T?RII/ALK5 receptor complex activating the Smad2/Smad3 pathway. In endothelial cells TGF-? utilizes a second type I receptor, ALK1, activating the Smad1/Smad5 pathway. Consequently, a perturbance of ALK1, ALK5 or T?RII activity leads to vascular defects. Mutations in ALK1 cause the vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methods The identification of ALK1 and not ALK5 regulated genes in endothelial cells, might help to better understand the development of HHT. Therefore, the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 was infected with a recombinant constitutively active ALK1 adenovirus, and gene expression was studied by using gene arrays and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results After 24 hours, 34 genes were identified to be up-regulated by ALK1 signalling. Analysing ALK1 regulated gene expression after 4 hours revealed 13 genes to be up- and 2 to be down-regulated. Several of these genes, including IL-8, ET-1, ID1, HPTP? and TEAD4 are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. Evaluation of ALK1 regulated gene expression in different human endothelial cell types was not in complete agreement. Further on, disparity between constitutively active ALK1 and TGF-?1 induced gene expression in HMEC-1 cells and primary HUVECs was observed. Conclusion Gene array analysis identified 49 genes to be regulated by ALK1 signalling and at least 14 genes are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. There was substantial agreement between the gene array and quantitative real-time PCR data. The angiogenesis related genes might be potential HHT modifier genes. In addition, the results suggest endothelial cell type specific ALK1 and TGF-? signalling.

Lux Andreas; Salway Fiona; Dressman Holly K; Kröner-Lux Gabriele; Hafner Mathias; Day Philip JR; Marchuk Douglas A; Garland John

2006-01-01

185

A novel missense mutation in the ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene underlies X-linked recessive nonsyndromic hypodontia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic hypodontia or congential absence of one or more permanent teeth is a common anomaly of dental development in humans. This condition may be inherited in an autosomal (dominant/recessive) or X-linked (dominant/recessive) mode. Mutations in three genes, PAX9, MSX1, and AXIN2, have been determined to be associated with autosomal dominant and recessive tooth agenesis. Recent studies in a few families showed that mutations in the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene result in X-linked nonsyndromic hypodontia. METHODS: Genotyping of a five-generation Pakistani family with X-linked isolated hypodontia having three affected men was carried out using EDA-linked polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome Xq12-q13.1. To screen for a mutation in the EDA gene, all of its coding exons and splice junction sites were PCR amplified from genomic DNA of affected and unaffected individuals of the family and sequenced directly in an ABI Prism 310 automated DNA sequencer. RESULTS: We successfully mapped the affected locus to chromosome Xq12-q13.1, and found a novel missense mutation (c.993G>C) in the EDA gene in the affected men. The mutation causes substitution of glutamine with histidine (p.Q331H) in the tumor necrosis factor homology domain of EDA. CONCLUSIONS: A mutation identified in this study extends the body of evidence implicating the EDA gene in X-linked nonsyndromic hypodontia and supports the role of EDA-EDAR-EDARADD signaling in the morphogenesis of teeth.

Ayub M; ur-Rehman F; Yasinzai M; Ahmad W

2010-12-01

186

Overexpression of X-linked genes in T cells from women with lupus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Women develop lupus more frequently than men and the reason remains incompletely understood. Evidence that men with Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXY) develop lupus at approximately the same rate as women suggests that a second X chromosome contributes. However, since the second X is normally inactivated, how it predisposes to lupus is unclear. DNA methylation contributes to the silencing of one X chromosome in women, and CD4+ T cell DNA demethylation contributes to the development of lupus-like autoimmunity. This suggests that demethylation of genes on the inactive X may predispose women to lupus, and this hypothesis is supported by a report that CD40LG, an immune gene encoded on the X chromosome, demethylates and is overexpressed in T cells from women but not men with lupus. Overexpression of other immune genes on the inactive X may also predispose women to this disease. We therefore compared mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in experimentally demethylated T cells from women and men as well as in T cells from women and men with lupus. T cells from healthy men and women were treated with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine, then X-linked mRNAs were surveyed with oligonucleotide arrays, and X-linked miRNA's surveyed with PCR arrays. CD40LG, CXCR3, OGT, miR-98, let-7f-2*, miR 188-3p, miR-421 and miR-503 were among the genes overexpressed in women relative to men. MiRNA target prediction analyses identified CBL, which downregulates T cell receptor signaling and is decreased in lupus T cells, as a gene targeted by miR-188-3p and miR-98. Transfection with miR-98 and miR-188-3p suppressed CBL expression. The same mRNA and miRNA transcripts were also demethylated and overexpressed in CD4+ T cells from women relative to men with active lupus. Together these results further support a role for X chromosome demethylation in the female predisposition to lupus.

Hewagama A; Gorelik G; Patel D; Liyanarachchi P; McCune WJ; Somers E; Gonzalez-Rivera T; Strickland F; Richardson B

2013-03-01

187

A hydrogenase-linked gene in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain delta H encodes a polyferredoxin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genes mvhDGA, which encode the subunit polypeptides of the methyl viologen-reducing hydrogenase in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum strain delta H, have been cloned and sequenced. These genes, together with a fourth open reading frame designated mvhB, are tightly linked and appear to form an...

Reeve, J N; Beckler, G S; Cram, D S; Hamilton, P T; Brown, J W; Krzycki, J A; Kolodziej, A F; Alex, L; Orme-Johnson, W H

188

Newly identified fusion genes in lung and colorectal cancer may guide treatment with 'targeted' drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel gene abnormalities discovered in a subpopulation of lung and colorectal tumors could potentially identify patients with a good chance of responding to highly specific "targeted" drugs already in use for treating other cancers, scientists report.

189

The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the genome sequence of the nonseed vascular plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and by comparative genomics identify genes that likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular plants and their subsequent evolution

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cedric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sorensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theilsen, Gunter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loque, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel

2011-04-28

190

Adipose Co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation. Methods Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher’s Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network. Results We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG) were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1) reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals. Conclusions This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations.

Haas Blake E; Horvath Steve; Pietiläinen Kirsi H; Cantor Rita M; Nikkola Elina; Weissglas-Volkov Daphna; Rissanen Aila; Civelek Mete; Cruz-Bautista Ivette; Riba Laura; Kuusisto Johanna; Kaprio Jaakko; Tusie-Luna Teresa; Laakso Markku; Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A; Pajukanta Päivi

2012-01-01

191

GeneChaser: Identifying all biological and clinical conditions in which genes of interest are differentially expressed  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of gene expression data in the public repositories, such as NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) has grown exponentially, and provides a gold mine for bioinformaticians, but has not been easily accessible by biologists and clinicians. Results We developed an automated approach to annotate and analyze all GEO data sets, including 1,515 GEO data sets from 231 microarray types across 42 species, and performed 12,658 group versus group comparisons of 24 GEO-specified types. We then built GeneChaser, a web server that enables biologists and clinicians without bioinformatics skills to easily identify biological and clinical conditions in which a gene or set of genes was differentially expressed. GeneChaser displays these conditions in graphs, gives statistical comparisons, allows sort/filter functions and provides access to the original studies. We performed a single gene search for Nanog and a multiple gene search for Nanog, Oct4, Sox2 and LIN28, confirmed their roles in embryonic stem cell development, identified several drugs that regulate their expression, and suggested their potential roles in sex determination, abnormal sperm morphology, malaria infection, and cancer. Conclusion We demonstrated that GeneChaser is a powerful tool to elucidate information on function, transcriptional regulation, drug-response and clinical implications for genes of interest.

Chen Rong; Mallelwar Rohan; Thosar Ajit; Venkatasubrahmanyam Shivkumar; Butte Atul J

2008-01-01

192

Mutations in the gene for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in patients with different clinical phenotypes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, the gene for the most common peroxisomal disorder, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), has been described encoding a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. We analyzed the entire protein-coding sequence of this gene by reverse-transcription PCR, SSCP, and DNA sequencing in five patients with different clinical expressions were cerebral childhood ALD, adrenomyecloneuropathy (AMN), and {open_quotes}Addison disease only{close_quotes} (AD) phenotype. In the three patients exhibiting the classical picture of severe childhood ALD we identified in the 5{prime} portion of the X-ALD gene a 38-bp deletion that causes a frameshift mutation, a 3-bp deletion leading to a deletion of an amino acid in the ATP-binding domain of the ALD protein, and a missense mutation. In the patient with the clinical phenotype of AMN, a nonsense mutation in codon 212, along with a second site mutation at codon 178, was observed. Analysis of the patient with the ADO phenotype revealed a further missense mutation at a highly conserved position in the ALDP/PMP70 comparison. The disruptive nature of two mutations (i.e., the frameshift and the nonsense mutation) in patients with biochemically proved childhood ALD and AMN further strongly supports the hypothesis that alterations in this gene play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Since the current biochemical techniques for X-ALD carrier detection in affected families lack sufficient reliability, our procedure described for systematic mutation scanning is also capable of improving genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Braun, A.; Ambach, H.; Kammerer, S.; Rolinski, B.; Roscher, A.; Rabl, W. [Univ. of Munich (Germany); Stoeckler, S. [Univ. of Graz (Germany); Gaertner, J. [Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany); Zierz, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

1995-04-01

193

Genome-wide association studies in Hong Kong identified novel susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus  

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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with complex genetic inheritance. GWAS have identified a number of susceptibility genes for SLE in the last two years. However, the imbalance of the populations studied may have hindered our ability to detect susceptibility genes ...

Yang, W; Li, R; Yang, J; Ye, DQ; Lau, YL

194

Network biology approach for identifying key regulatory genes by expression based study of breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of high-throughput array technology is omnipresent in diverse areas specifically, early diagnosis of disease, discovery of infectious agents, search for biological markers and screening of potential drug candidates. Here, we integrated gene expression data with the network-based approach to identify novel genes that were playing central role in the network through interconnecting to a number of differentially expressed breast cancer genes. The 62 cancerous genes retrieved from the Breast Cancer Gene Database (BCGD) were mapped in the normalized data accessed from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) to analyze their pattern. Interaction networks for each gene were constructed to understand the biology of the metastasis at systems level. The individual networks were fused together for the detection of interacting hubs, 38 novel genes were found to be deeply intermingled with the central hub node. Gene Ontology studies were made to depict the biology of the hub nodes not alone through gene ranking but by applying the Hyper geometric test with the Benjamini Hochberg False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction method at a significance level of 0.05. Analyzing p-values from the statistical test indicated that most of the novel genes were involved in the same biological function as the disordered genes like signal transducer, transcription regulator, enzyme binding, molecular transducer and receptor signaling protein activity and same pathway as MAPK signaling, Apoptosis, Wnt Signaling, ErbB signaling and Cell Cycle. Lastly, we identified 3 novel genes CHUK, INSR and CREBBP showing high connections with the 12 novel genes reported in literatures as well with the perturbed genes. As a result, these genes can be considered as significant finding in revealing the basis and pathways responsible for breast cancer.

Yamini Chand; Md Afroz Alam

2012-01-01

195

Interplay of microRNAs, transcription factors and target genes: linking dynamic expression changes to function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small non-coding RNAs that, in most cases, negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in fine-tuning fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, cell death and cell cycle control and are believed to confer robustness to biological responses. Here, we investigated simultaneously the transcriptional changes of miRNA and mRNA expression levels over time after activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway by interferon-? stimulation of melanoma cells. To examine global miRNA and mRNA expression patterns, time-series microarray data were analysed. We observed delayed responses of miRNAs (after 24-48 h) with respect to mRNAs (12-24 h) and identified biological functions involved at each step of the cellular response. Inference of the upstream regulators allowed for identification of transcriptional regulators involved in cellular reactions to interferon-? stimulation. Linking expression profiles of transcriptional regulators and miRNAs with their annotated functions, we demonstrate the dynamic interplay of miRNAs and upstream regulators with biological functions. Finally, our data revealed network motifs in the form of feed-forward loops involving transcriptional regulators, mRNAs and miRNAs. Additional information obtained from integrating time-series mRNA and miRNA data may represent an important step towards understanding the regulatory principles of gene expression.

Nazarov PV; Reinsbach SE; Muller A; Nicot N; Philippidou D; Vallar L; Kreis S

2013-03-01

196

Interplay of microRNAs, transcription factors and target genes: linking dynamic expression changes to function.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small non-coding RNAs that, in most cases, negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in fine-tuning fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, cell death and cell cycle control and are believed to confer robustness to biological responses. Here, we investigated simultaneously the transcriptional changes of miRNA and mRNA expression levels over time after activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway by interferon-? stimulation of melanoma cells. To examine global miRNA and mRNA expression patterns, time-series microarray data were analysed. We observed delayed responses of miRNAs (after 24-48 h) with respect to mRNAs (12-24 h) and identified biological functions involved at each step of the cellular response. Inference of the upstream regulators allowed for identification of transcriptional regulators involved in cellular reactions to interferon-? stimulation. Linking expression profiles of transcriptional regulators and miRNAs with their annotated functions, we demonstrate the dynamic interplay of miRNAs and upstream regulators with biological functions. Finally, our data revealed network motifs in the form of feed-forward loops involving transcriptional regulators, mRNAs and miRNAs. Additional information obtained from integrating time-series mRNA and miRNA data may represent an important step towards understanding the regulatory principles of gene expression. PMID:23335783

Nazarov, Petr V; Reinsbach, Susanne E; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Philippidou, Demetra; Vallar, Laurent; Kreis, Stephanie

2013-01-17

197

miRConnect:Identifying effector genes of miRNAs and miRNA families in cancer cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

micro(mi)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of most mRNAs. They are powerful regulators of various differentiation stages, and the expression of genes that either negatively or positively correlate with expressed miRNAs is expected to hold information on the biological state of the cell and, hence, of the function of the expressed miRNAs. We have compared the large amount of available gene array data on the steady state system of the NCI60 cell lines to two different data sets containing information on the expression of 583 individual miRNAs. In addition, we have generated custom data sets containing expression information of 54 miRNA families sharing the same seed match. We have developed a novel strategy for correlating miRNAs with individual genes based on a summed Pearson Correlation Coefficient (sPCC) that mimics an in silico titration experiment. By focusing on the genes that correlate with the expression of miRNAs without necessarily being direct targets of miRNAs, we have clustered miRNAs into different functional groups. This has resulted in the identification of three novel miRNAs that are linked to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in addition to the known EMT regulators of the miR-200 miRNA family. In addition, an analysis of gene signatures associated with EMT, c-MYC activity, and ribosomal protein gene expression allowed us to assign different activities to each of the functional clusters of miRNAs. All correlation data are available via a web interface that allows investigators to identify genes whose expression correlates with the expression of single miRNAs or entire miRNA families. miRConnect.org will aid in identifying pathways regulated by miRNAs without requiring specific knowledge of miRNA targets.

Hua, Youjia; Duan, Shiwei

2011-01-01

198

miRConnect: Identifying Effector Genes of miRNAs and miRNA Families in Cancer Cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

micro(mi)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of most mRNAs. They are powerful regulators of various differentiation stages, and the expression of genes that either negatively or positively correlate with expressed miRNAs is expected to hold information on the biological state of the cell and, hence, of the function of the expressed miRNAs. We have compared the large amount of available gene array data on the steady state system of the NCI60 cell lines to two different data sets containing information on the expression of 583 individual miRNAs. In addition, we have generated custom data sets containing expression information of 54 miRNA families sharing the same seed match. We have developed a novel strategy for correlating miRNAs with individual genes based on a summed Pearson Correlation Coefficient (sPCC) that mimics an in silico titration experiment. By focusing on the genes that correlate with the expression of miRNAs without necessarily being direct targets of miRNAs, we have clustered miRNAs into different functional groups. This has resulted in the identification of three novel miRNAs that are linked to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in addition to the known EMT regulators of the miR-200 miRNA family. In addition, an analysis of gene signatures associated with EMT, c-MYC activity, and ribosomal protein gene expression allowed us to assign different activities to each of the functional clusters of miRNAs. All correlation data are available via a web interface that allows investigators to identify genes whose expression correlates with the expression of single miRNAs or entire miRNA families. miRConnect.org will aid in identifying pathways regulated by miRNAs without requiring specific knowledge of miRNA targets.

Hua, Youjia; Duan, Shiwei

2011-01-01

199

GTI: a novel algorithm for identifying outlier gene expression profiles from integrated microarray datasets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of gene expression microarray datasets presents significant challenges for statistical analysis. We developed and validated a new bioinformatic method for the identification of genes upregulated in subsets of samples of a given tumour type ('outlier genes'), a hallmark of potential oncogenes. METHODOLOGY: A new statistical method (the gene tissue index, GTI) was developed by modifying and adapting algorithms originally developed for statistical problems in economics. We compared the potential of the GTI to detect outlier genes in meta-datasets with four previously defined statistical methods, COPA, the OS statistic, the t-test and ORT, using simulated data. We demonstrated that the GTI performed equally well to existing methods in a single study simulation. Next, we evaluated the performance of the GTI in the analysis of combined Affymetrix gene expression data from several published studies covering 392 normal samples of tissue from the central nervous system, 74 astrocytomas, and 353 glioblastomas. According to the results, the GTI was better able than most of the previous methods to identify known oncogenic outlier genes. In addition, the GTI identified 29 novel outlier genes in glioblastomas, including TYMS and CDKN2A. The over-expression of these genes was validated in vivo by immunohistochemical staining data from clinical glioblastoma samples. Immunohistochemical data were available for 65% (19 of 29) of these genes, and 17 of these 19 genes (90%) showed a typical outlier staining pattern. Furthermore, raltitrexed, a specific inhibitor of TYMS used in the therapy of tumour types other than glioblastoma, also effectively blocked cell proliferation in glioblastoma cell lines, thus highlighting this outlier gene candidate as a potential therapeutic target. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these results support the GTI as a novel approach to identify potential oncogene outliers and drug targets. The algorithm is implemented in an R package (Text S1).

Mpindi JP; Sara H; Haapa-Paananen S; Kilpinen S; Pisto T; Bucher E; Ojala K; Iljin K; Vainio P; Björkman M; Gupta S; Kohonen P; Nees M; Kallioniemi O

2011-01-01

200

Differential expression of sex-linked and autosomal germ-cell-specific genes during spermatogenesis in the mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have examined expression during spermatogenesis in the mouse of three Y-linked genes, 11 X-linked genes and 22 autosomal genes, all previously shown to be germ-cell-specific and expressed in premeiotic spermatogonia, plus another 21 germ-cell-specific autosomal genes that initiate expression in meiotic spermatocytes. Our data demonstrate that, like sex-linked housekeeping genes, germ-cell-specific sex-linked genes are subject to meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Although all the sex-linked genes we investigated underwent MSCI, 14 of the 22 autosomal genes expressed in spermatogonia showed no decrease in expression in meiotic spermatocytes. This along with our observation that an additional 21 germ-cell-specific autosomal genes initiate or significantly up-regulate expression in spermatocytes confirms that MSCI is indeed a sex-chromosome-specific effect. Our results further demonstrate that the chromosome-wide repression imposed by MSCI is limited to meiotic spermatocytes and that postmeiotic expression of sex-linked genes is variable. Thus, 13 of the 14 sex-linked genes we examined showed some degree of postmeiotic reactivation. The extent of postmeiotic reactivation of germ-cell-specific X-linked genes did not correlate with proximity to the X inactivation center or the Xist gene locus. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to differential gene regulation and the function of MSCI during spermatogenesis, including epigenetic programming of the future paternal genome during spermatogenesis.

Wang PJ; Page DC; McCarrey JR

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Differential expression of sex-linked and autosomal germ-cell-specific genes during spermatogenesis in the mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have examined expression during spermatogenesis in the mouse of three Y-linked genes, 11 X-linked genes and 22 autosomal genes, all previously shown to be germ-cell-specific and expressed in premeiotic spermatogonia, plus another 21 germ-cell-specific autosomal genes that initiate expression in meiotic spermatocytes. Our data demonstrate that, like sex-linked housekeeping genes, germ-cell-specific sex-linked genes are subject to meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Although all the sex-linked genes we investigated underwent MSCI, 14 of the 22 autosomal genes expressed in spermatogonia showed no decrease in expression in meiotic spermatocytes. This along with our observation that an additional 21 germ-cell-specific autosomal genes initiate or significantly up-regulate expression in spermatocytes confirms that MSCI is indeed a sex-chromosome-specific effect. Our results further demonstrate that the chromosome-wide repression imposed by MSCI is limited to meiotic spermatocytes and that postmeiotic expression of sex-linked genes is variable. Thus, 13 of the 14 sex-linked genes we examined showed some degree of postmeiotic reactivation. The extent of postmeiotic reactivation of germ-cell-specific X-linked genes did not correlate with proximity to the X inactivation center or the Xist gene locus. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to differential gene regulation and the function of MSCI during spermatogenesis, including epigenetic programming of the future paternal genome during spermatogenesis. PMID:16118233

Wang, P Jeremy; Page, David C; McCarrey, John R

2005-08-23

202

Global methylation analysis identifies prognostically important epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in multiple myeloma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcome in multiple myeloma is highly variable and a better understanding of the factors that influence disease biology is essential to understand and predict behavior in individual patients. In the present study, we analyzed combined genomewide DNA methylation and gene expression data of patients treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial. We used these data to identify epigenetically repressed tumor suppressor genes with prognostic relevance in myeloma. We identified 195 genes with changes in methylation status that were significantly associated with prognosis. Combining DNA methylation and gene expression data led to the identification of the epigenetically regulated tumor modulating genes GPX3, RBP1, SPARC, and TGFBI. Hypermethylation of these genes was associated with significantly shorter overall survival, independent of age, International Staging System score, and adverse cytogenetics. The 4 differentially methylated and expressed genes are known to mediate important tumor suppressive functions including response to chemotherapy (TGFBI), interaction with the microenvironment (SPARC), retinoic acid signaling (RBP1), and the response to oxidative stress (GPX3), which could explain the prognostic impact of their differential methylation. Assessment of the DNA methylation status of the identified genes could contribute to the molecular characterization of myeloma, which is prerequisite for an individualized treatment approach. PMID:23699600

Kaiser, Martin F; Johnson, David C; Wu, Ping; Walker, Brian A; Brioli, Annamaria; Mirabella, Fabio; Wardell, Christopher P; Melchor, Lorenzo; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

2013-05-22

203

Global methylation analysis identifies prognostically important epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor genes in multiple myeloma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Outcome in multiple myeloma is highly variable and a better understanding of the factors that influence disease biology is essential to understand and predict behavior in individual patients. In the present study, we analyzed combined genomewide DNA methylation and gene expression data of patients treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial. We used these data to identify epigenetically repressed tumor suppressor genes with prognostic relevance in myeloma. We identified 195 genes with changes in methylation status that were significantly associated with prognosis. Combining DNA methylation and gene expression data led to the identification of the epigenetically regulated tumor modulating genes GPX3, RBP1, SPARC, and TGFBI. Hypermethylation of these genes was associated with significantly shorter overall survival, independent of age, International Staging System score, and adverse cytogenetics. The 4 differentially methylated and expressed genes are known to mediate important tumor suppressive functions including response to chemotherapy (TGFBI), interaction with the microenvironment (SPARC), retinoic acid signaling (RBP1), and the response to oxidative stress (GPX3), which could explain the prognostic impact of their differential methylation. Assessment of the DNA methylation status of the identified genes could contribute to the molecular characterization of myeloma, which is prerequisite for an individualized treatment approach.

Kaiser MF; Johnson DC; Wu P; Walker BA; Brioli A; Mirabella F; Wardell CP; Melchor L; Davies FE; Morgan GJ

2013-07-01

204

Gene expression profiling combined with bioinformatics analysis identify biomarkers for Parkinson disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parkinson disease (PD) progresses relentlessly and affects approximately 4% of the population aged over 80 years old. It is difficult to diagnose in its early stages. The purpose of our study is to identify molecular biomarkers for PD initiation using a computational bioinformatics analysis of gene expression. We downloaded the gene expression profile of PD from Gene Expression Omnibus and identified differentially coexpressed genes (DCGs) and dysfunctional pathways in PD patients compared to controls. Besides, we built a regulatory network by mapping the DCGs to known regulatory data between transcription factors (TFs) and target genes and calculated the regulatory impact factor of each transcription factor. As the results, a total of 1004 genes associated with PD initiation were identified. Pathway enrichment of these genes suggests that biological processes of protein turnover were impaired in PD. In the regulatory network, HLF, E2F1 and STAT4 were found have altered expression levels in PD patients. The expression levels of other transcription factors, NKX3-1, TAL1, RFX1 and EGR3, were not found altered. However, they regulated differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we suggest that HLF, E2F1 and STAT4 may be used as molecular biomarkers for PD; however, more work is needed to validate our result.

Diao H; Li X; Hu S; Liu Y

2012-01-01

205

Gene expression analysis in cardiac tissues from infants identifies candidate agents for tetralogy of fallot.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic heart defect and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome. Although great progress has been made, the molecular mechanisms of TOF are far from being fully understood, and treatment of this disease remains palliative. In this study, we downloaded gene expression data of TOF subjects with those of normally developing subjects from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and employed computational bioinformatics analyses to compare their gene expression patterns. Furthermore, small molecules that induce inverse gene changes to TOF were identified. A total of 2,274 genes involved in energy metabolism and protein binding were differentially expressed in TOF samples compared with samples from normal controls. Pathways associated with cellular oxygen tension were dysfunctional. In addition, we identified a group of small molecules that may be exploited as adjuvant drug to alleviate some symptoms for TOF patients. These drugs are clearly a direction that warrants additional consideration.

Yang D; Li J; Yuan Z

2013-10-01

206

Gene expression analysis in cardiac tissues from infants identifies candidate agents for tetralogy of fallot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common cyanotic heart defect and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome. Although great progress has been made, the molecular mechanisms of TOF are far from being fully understood, and treatment of this disease remains palliative. In this study, we downloaded gene expression data of TOF subjects with those of normally developing subjects from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and employed computational bioinformatics analyses to compare their gene expression patterns. Furthermore, small molecules that induce inverse gene changes to TOF were identified. A total of 2,274 genes involved in energy metabolism and protein binding were differentially expressed in TOF samples compared with samples from normal controls. Pathways associated with cellular oxygen tension were dysfunctional. In addition, we identified a group of small molecules that may be exploited as adjuvant drug to alleviate some symptoms for TOF patients. These drugs are clearly a direction that warrants additional consideration. PMID:23563574

Yang, Dicheng; Li, Jing; Yuan, Zhongxiang

2013-04-07

207

METHODS OF IDENTIFYING PUTATIVE GENE PRODUCTS BY INTERSPECIES SEQUENCE COMPARISON AND BIOMOLECULAR SEQUENCES UNCOVERED THEREBY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of identifying alternatively spliced exons is provided. The method comprising, scoring each of a plurality of exon sequences derived from genes of a species according to at least one sequence parameter, wherein exon sequences of the plurality of exon sequences scoring above a predetermined threshold represent alternatively spliced exons, thereby identifying the alternatively spliced exons.

SOREK Rotem; POLLOCK Sarah; DIBER Alex; LEVINE Zurit; NEMZER Sergey; KOL Guy; WOOL Assaf; HAVIV Ami; COHEN Yuval; COHEN Yossi; SHEMESH Ronen; SAVITSKY Kinneret

208

Methods of identifying putative gene products by interspecies sequence comparison and biomolecular sequences uncovered thereby  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of identifying alternatively spliced exons is provided. The method comprising, scoring each of a plurality of exon sequences derived from genes of a species according to at least one sequence parameter, wherein exon sequences of the plurality of exon sequences scoring above a predetermined threshold represent alternatively spliced exons, thereby identifying the alternatively spliced exons.

SOREK ROTEM; POLLOCK SARAH; DIBER ALEX; LEVINE ZURIT; NEMZER SERGEY; KOL GUY; WOOL ASSAF; HAVIV AMI; COHEN YUVAL; COHEN YOSSI; SHEMESH RONEN; SAVITSKY KINNERET

209

A stochastic model for identifying differential gene pair co-expression patterns in prostate cancer progression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of gene differential co-expression patterns between cancer stages is a newly developing method to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Most researches of this subject lack an algorithm useful for performing a statistical significance assessment involving cancer progression. Lacking this specific algorithm is apparently absent in identifying precise gene pairs correlating to cancer progression. Results In this investigation we studied gene pair co-expression change by using a stochastic process model for approximating the underlying dynamic procedure of the co-expression change during cancer progression. Also, we presented a novel analytical method named 'Stochastic process model for Identifying differentially co-expressed Gene pair' (SIG method). This method has been applied to two well known prostate cancer data sets: hormone sensitive versus hormone resistant, and healthy versus cancerous. From these data sets, 428,582 gene pairs and 303,992 gene pairs were identified respectively. Afterwards, we used two different current statistical methods to the same data sets, which were developed to identify gene pair differential co-expression and did not consider cancer progression in algorithm. We then compared these results from three different perspectives: progression analysis, gene pair identification effectiveness analysis, and pathway enrichment analysis. Statistical methods were used to quantify the quality and performance of these different perspectives. They included: Re-identification Scale (RS) and Progression Score (PS) in progression analysis, True Positive Rate (TPR) in gene pair analysis, and Pathway Enrichment Score (PES) in pathway analysis. Our results show small values of RS and large values of PS, TPR, and PES; thus, suggesting that gene pairs identified by the SIG method are highly correlated with cancer progression, and highly enriched in disease-specific pathways. From this research, several gene interaction networks inferred could provide clues for the mechanism of prostate cancer progression. Conclusion The SIG method reliably identifies cancer progression correlated gene pairs, and performs well both in gene pair ontology analysis and in pathway enrichment analysis. This method provides an effective means of understanding the molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis by appropriately tracking down the process of cancer progression.

Mo Wen; Fu Xu; Han Xiao; Yang Guang; Zhang Ji; Guo Feng; Huang Yan; Mao Yu; Li Yao; Xie Yi

2009-01-01

210

Mixed modeling and sample size calculations for identifying housekeeping?genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Normalization of gene expression data using internal control genes that have biologically stable expression levels is an important process for analyzing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data. We propose a three-way linear mixed-effects model to select optimal housekeeping genes. The mixed-effects model can accommodate multiple continuous and/or categorical variables with sample random effects, gene fixed effects, systematic effects, and gene by systematic effect interactions. We propose using the intraclass correlation coefficient among gene expression levels as the stability measure to select housekeeping genes that have low within-sample variation. Global hypothesis testing is proposed to ensure that selected housekeeping genes are free of systematic effects or gene by systematic effect interactions. A gene combination with the highest lower bound of 95% confidence interval for intraclass correlation coefficient and no significant systematic effects is selected for normalization. Sample size calculation based on the estimation accuracy of the stability measure is offered to help practitioners design experiments to identify housekeeping genes. We compare our methods with geNorm and NormFinder by using three case studies. A free software package written in SAS (Cary, NC, U.S.A.) is available at http://d.web.umkc.edu/daih under software tab. PMID:23444319

Dai, Hongying; Charnigo, Richard; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Jones, Bridgette L; Bhandary, Madhusudan

2013-02-26

211

Efficient Gene Transfection into Mammalian Cells Mediated by Cross-linked Polyethylenimine  

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Full Text Available 25 kDa branched polyethylenimine (PEI) has successfully been used for in vitroand in vivo gene delivery approaches, but it is cytotoxic. Smaller PEIs are usually non-cytotoxic but less efficient. In order to enhance the gene delivery efficiency and minimizecytotoxicity of PEI, we explored to synthesize cross-linked PEIs with degradable bonds byreacting amines of small branched 2000 Da PEI with small diacrylate (1,4-butanedioldiacrylate or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) for 2-6 hours. The efficiency of the cross-linkedPEIs during in vitro delivering plasmid containing enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) gene reporter and their cytotoxicity were assessed in melanoma B16F10 cell andother cell lines. In vivo gene delivery efficiency was evaluated by direct injection delivery ofthe EGFP plasmid/ cross-linked PEI complexes into mice and by estimating the EGFPexpression in animal muscles. Compared to commercially available 25-kDa branched PEI,the cross-linked PEIs reported here could mediate more efficient expression of reporter genethan the 25-kDa PEI control, 19-fold more efficiently in B16F10 cells, 17-fold in 293T cells, 2.3-fold in 3T3 cells, and they exhibited essentially nontoxic at their optimized condition for gene delivery. Furthermore the transfection activity of polyplexs was preserved in the presence of serum proteins. The muscle transfected with the cross-linked PEI prepared here exhibited normal morphology and excellent gene expression. The cross-linked PEIs reported here were evidently more efficient than the commercial 25-kD PEI control and had less cytotoxicity in gene delivery in vitro and in vivo.

Wei Dong; Shufeng Li; Guanghui Jin; Qiming Sun; Dingyuan Ma; Zichun Hua

2007-01-01

212

Genome-wide Methylation Analysis and Epigenetic Unmasking Identify Tumor Suppressor Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To identify clinically relevant tumor suppressor genes silenced by DNA methylation in HCC, we integrated DNA methylation data from human primary HCC samples with data on up-regulation of gene expression following epigenetic unmasking. METHODS: We performed genome-wide methylation analysis of 71 human HCC samples using the Illumina HumanBeadchip27K array; data were combined with those from microarray analysis of gene re-expression in 4 liver cancer cell lines following their exposure to reagents that reverse DNA methylation (epigenetic unmasking). RESULTS: Based on DNA methylation in primary HCC and gene re-expression in cell lines following epigenetic unmasking, we identified 13 candidate tumor suppressor genes. Subsequent validation led us to focus on functionally characterizing 2 candidates, SMPD3 and NEFH, which we found to behave as tumor suppressor genes in HCC. Overexpression of SMPD3 and NEFH by stable transfection of inducible constructs into an HCC cell line reduced cell proliferation by 50% and 20%, respectively (SMPD3, P=.003 and NEFH, P=.003). Conversely, knocking down expression of these genes with small hairpin RNA promoted cell invasion and migration in vitro (SMPD3, P=.0001, NEFH P=.022), and increased their ability to form tumors following subcutaneous injection or orthotopic transplant into mice, confirming their role as tumor suppressor genes in HCC cells. Low levels of SMPD3 were associated with early recurrence of HCC after curative surgery in an independent patient cohort (P = .001; hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-6.5 in multivariate analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Integrative genomic analysis identified SMPD3 and NEFH as tumor suppressor genes in HCC. We provide evidence that SMPD3 is a potent tumor suppressor gene that could affect tumor aggressiveness; a reduced level of SMPD3 is an independent prognostic factor for early recurrence of HCC.

Revill K; Wang T; Lachenmayer A; Kojima K; Harrington A; Li J; Hoshida Y; Llovet JM; Powers S

2013-09-01

213

ModuleFinder and CoReg: alternative tools for linking gene expression modules with promoter sequences motifs to uncover gene regulation mechanisms in plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the key sequence elements in gene promoters that regulate the expression of plant genomes is a huge task that will require a series of complementary methods for prediction, substantial innovations in experimental validation and a much greater understanding of the role of combinatorial control in the regulation of plant gene expression. Results To add to this larger process and to provide alternatives to existing prediction methods, we have developed several tools in the statistical package R. ModuleFinder identifies sets of genes and treatments that we have found to form valuable sets for analysis of the mechanisms underlying gene co-expression. CoReg then links the hierarchical clustering of these co-expressed sets with frequency tables of promoter elements. These promoter elements can be drawn from known elements or all possible combinations of nucleotides in an element of various lengths. These sets of promoter elements represent putative cis-acting regulatory elements common to sets of co-expressed genes and can be prioritised for experimental testing. We have used these new tools to analyze the response of transcripts for nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in Arabidopsis to a range of chemical stresses. ModuleFinder provided a subset of co-expressed gene modules that are more logically related to biological functions than did subsets derived from traditional hierarchical clustering techniques. Importantly ModuleFinder linked responses in transcripts for electron transport chain components, carbon metabolism enzymes and solute transporter proteins. CoReg identified several promoter motifs that helped to explain the patterns of expression observed. Conclusion ModuleFinder identifies sets of genes and treatments that form useful sets for analysis of the mechanisms behind co-expression. CoReg links the clustering tree of expression-based relationships in these sets with frequency tables of promoter elements. These sets of promoter elements represent putative cis-acting regulatory elements for sets of genes, and can then be tested experimentally. We consider these tools, both built on an open source software product to provide valuable, alternative tools for the prioritisation of promoter elements for experimental analysis.

Holt Kathryn E; Millar A Harvey; Whelan James

2006-01-01

214

Comparative Genomics and Gene Expression Analysis Identifies BBS9, a New Bardet-Biedl Syndrome Gene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic human disorder characterized by obesity, retinopathy, polydactyly, renal and cardiac malformations, learning disabilities, and hypogenitalism. Eight BBS genes representing all known mapped loci have been id...

Nishimura, Darryl Y.; Swiderski, Ruth E.; Searby, Charles C.; Berg, Erik M.; Ferguson, Amanda L.; Hennekam, Raoul

215

Extracting gene expression patterns and identifying co-expressed genes from microarray data reveals biologically responsive processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A common observation in the analysis of gene expression data is that many genes display similarity in their expression patterns and therefore appear to be co-regulated. However, the variation associated with microarray data and the complexity of the experimental designs make the acquisition of co-expressed genes a challenge. We developed a novel method for Extracting microarray gene expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes, designated as EPIG. The approach utilizes the underlying structure of gene expression data to extract patterns and identify co-expressed genes that are responsive to experimental conditions. Results Through evaluation of the correlations among profiles, the magnitude of variation in gene expression profiles, and profile signal-to-noise ratio's, EPIG extracts a set of patterns representing co-expressed genes. The method is shown to work well with a simulated data set and microarray data obtained from time-series studies of dauer recovery and L1 starvation in C. elegans and after ultraviolet (UV) or ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage in diploid human fibroblasts. With the simulated data set, EPIG extracted the appropriate number of patterns which were more stable and homogeneous than the set of patterns that were determined using the CLICK or CAST clustering algorithms. However, CLICK performed better than EPIG and CAST with respect to the average correlation between clusters/patterns of the simulated data. With real biological data, EPIG extracted more dauer-specific patterns than CLICK. Furthermore, analysis of the IR/UV data revealed 18 unique patterns and 2661 genes out of approximately 17,000 that were identified as significantly expressed and categorized to the patterns by EPIG. The time-dependent patterns displayed similar and dissimilar responses between IR and UV treatments. Gene Ontology analysis applied to each pattern-related subset of co-expressed genes revealed underlying biological processes affected by IR- and/or UV- induced DNA damage. Conclusion EPIG competed with CLICK and performed better than CAST in extracting patterns from simulated data. EPIG extracted more biological informative patterns and co-expressed genes from both C. elegans and IR/UV-treated human fibroblasts. Using Gene Ontology analysis of the genes in the patterns extracted by EPIG, several key biological categories related to p53-dependent cell cycle control were revealed from the IR/UV data. Among them were mitotic cell cycle, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint, and G0-like status transition. EPIG can be applied to data sets from a variety of experimental designs.

Chou Jeff W; Zhou Tong; Kaufmann William K; Paules Richard S; Bushel Pierre R

2007-01-01

216

Identifying Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence-linked asexual protein 3 (CLAG 3) sequences that specifically bind to C32 cells and erythrocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adhesion of mature asexual stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite-infected erythrocytes (iRBC) to the vascular endothelium is a critical event in the pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It has been suggested that the clag gene family is essential in cytoadherence to endothelial receptors. Primers used in PCR and RT-PCR assays allowed us to determine that the gene encoding CLAG 3 (GenBank accession no. NP_473155) is transcribed in the Plasmodium falciparum FCB2 strain. Western blot showed that antisera produced against polymerized synthetic peptides from this protein recognized a 142-kDa band in P. falciparum schizont lysate. Seventy-one 20-amino-acid-long nonoverlapping peptides, spanning the CLAG 3 (cytoadherence-linked asexual protein on chromosome 3) sequence were tested in C32 cell and erythrocyte binding assays. Twelve CLAG peptides specifically bound to C32 cells (which mainly express CD36) with high affinity, hereafter referred to as high-affinity binding peptides (HABPs). Five of them also bound to erythrocytes. HABP binding to C32 cells and erythrocytes was independent of peptide charge or peptide structure. Affinity constants were between 100 nM and 800 nM. Cross-linking and SDS-PAGE analysis allowed two erythrocyte binding proteins of around 26 kDa and 59 kDa to be identified, while proteins of around 53 kDa were identified as possible receptor sites for C-32 cells. The HABPs' role in Plasmodium falciparum invasion inhibition was determined. Such an approach analyzing various CLAG 3 regions may elucidate their functions and may help in the search for new antigens important for developing antimalarial vaccines.

Ocampo M; Rodríguez LE; Curtidor H; Puentes A; Vera R; Valbuena JJ; López R; García JE; Ramírez LE; Torres E; Cortes J; Tovar D; López Y; Patarroyo MA; Patarroyo ME

2005-02-01

217

Analysis of IFT74 as a candidate gene for chromosome 9p-linked ALS-FTD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A new locus for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) has recently been ascribed to chromosome 9p. Methods We identified chromosome 9p segregating haplotypes within two families with ALS-FTD (F476 and F2) and undertook mutational screening of candidate genes within this locus. Results Candidate gene sequencing at this locus revealed the presence of a disease segregating stop mutation (Q342X) in the intraflagellar transport 74 (IFT74) gene in family 476 (F476), but no mutation was detected within IFT74 in family 2 (F2). While neither family was sufficiently informative to definitively implicate or exclude IFT74 mutations as a cause of chromosome 9-linked ALS-FTD, the nature of the mutation observed within F476 (predicted to truncate the protein by 258 amino acids) led us to sequence the open reading frame of this gene in a large number of ALS and FTD cases (n = 420). An additional sequence variant (G58D) was found in a case of sporadic semantic dementia. I55L sequence variants were found in three other unrelated affected individuals, but this was also found in a single individual among 800 Human Diversity Gene Panel samples. Conclusion Confirmation of the pathogenicity of IFT74 sequence variants will require screening of other chromosome 9p-linked families.

Momeni Parastoo; Schymick Jennifer; Jain Shushant; Cookson Mark R; Cairns Nigel J; Greggio Elisa; Greenway Matthew J; Berger Stephen; Pickering-Brown Stuart; Chiň Adriano; Fung Hon; Holtzman David M; Huey Edward D; Wassermann Eric M; Adamson Jennifer; Hutton Michael L; Rogaeva Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop Peter; Rothstein Jeffrey D; Hardiman Orla; Grafman Jordan; Singleton Andrew; Hardy John; Traynor Bryan J

2006-01-01

218

Analysis of IFT74 as a candidate gene for chromosome 9p-linked ALS-FTD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A new locus for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis--frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) has recently been ascribed to chromosome 9p. METHODS: We identified chromosome 9p segregating haplotypes within two families with ALS-FTD (F476 and F2) and undertook mutational screening of candidate genes within this locus. RESULTS: Candidate gene sequencing at this locus revealed the presence of a disease segregating stop mutation (Q342X) in the intraflagellar transport 74 (IFT74) gene in family 476 (F476), but no mutation was detected within IFT74 in family 2 (F2). While neither family was sufficiently informative to definitively implicate or exclude IFT74 mutations as a cause of chromosome 9-linked ALS-FTD, the nature of the mutation observed within F476 (predicted to truncate the protein by 258 amino acids) led us to sequence the open reading frame of this gene in a large number of ALS and FTD cases (n = 420). An additional sequence variant (G58D) was found in a case of sporadic semantic dementia. I55L sequence variants were found in three other unrelated affected individuals, but this was also found in a single individual among 800 Human Diversity Gene Panel samples. CONCLUSION: Confirmation of the pathogenicity of IFT74 sequence variants will require screening of other chromosome 9p-linked families.

Momeni P; Schymick J; Jain S; Cookson MR; Cairns NJ; Greggio E; Greenway MJ; Berger S; Pickering-Brown S; Chiň A; Fung HC; Holtzman DM; Huey ED; Wassermann EM; Adamson J; Hutton ML; Rogaeva E; St George-Hyslop P; Rothstein JD; Hardiman O; Grafman J; Singleton A; Hardy J; Traynor BJ

2006-01-01

219

Linking toxicant physiological mode of action with induced gene expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Physiologically based modelling using DEBtox (dynamic energy budget in toxicology) and transcriptional profiling were used in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify how physiological modes of action, as indicated by effects on system level resource allocation were associated with changes in gene expression following exposure to three toxic chemicals: cadmium, fluoranthene (FA) and atrazine (AZ). RESULTS: For Cd, the physiological mode of action as indicated by DEBtox model fitting was an effect on energy assimilation from food, suggesting that the transcriptional response to exposure should be dominated by changes in the expression of transcripts associated with energy metabolism and the mitochondria. While evidence for effect on genes associated with energy production were seen, an ontological analysis also indicated an effect of Cd exposure on DNA integrity and transcriptional activity. DEBtox modelling showed an effect of FA on costs for growth and reproduction (i.e. for production of new and differentiated biomass). The microarray analysis supported this effect, showing an effect of FA on protein integrity and turnover that would be expected to have consequences for rates of somatic growth. For AZ, the physiological mode of action predicted by DEBtox was increased cost for maintenance. The transcriptional analysis demonstrated that this increase resulted from effects on DNA integrity as indicated by changes in the expression of genes chromosomal repair. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have established that outputs from process based models and transcriptomics analyses can help to link mechanisms of action of toxic chemicals with resulting demographic effects. Such complimentary analyses can assist in the categorisation of chemicals for risk assessment purposes.

Swain S; Wren JF; Stürzenbaum SR; Kille P; Morgan AJ; Jager T; Jonker MJ; Hankard PK; Svendsen C; Owen J; Hedley BA; Blaxter M; Spurgeon DJ

2010-01-01

220

Linking toxicant physiological mode of action with induced gene expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiologically based modelling using DEBtox (dynamic energy budget in toxicology) and transcriptional profiling were used in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify how physiological modes of action, as indicated by effects on system level resource allocation were associated with changes in gene expression following exposure to three toxic chemicals: cadmium, fluoranthene (FA) and atrazine (AZ). Results For Cd, the physiological mode of action as indicated by DEBtox model fitting was an effect on energy assimilation from food, suggesting that the transcriptional response to exposure should be dominated by changes in the expression of transcripts associated with energy metabolism and the mitochondria. While evidence for effect on genes associated with energy production were seen, an ontological analysis also indicated an effect of Cd exposure on DNA integrity and transcriptional activity. DEBtox modelling showed an effect of FA on costs for growth and reproduction (i.e. for production of new and differentiated biomass). The microarray analysis supported this effect, showing an effect of FA on protein integrity and turnover that would be expected to have consequences for rates of somatic growth. For AZ, the physiological mode of action predicted by DEBtox was increased cost for maintenance. The transcriptional analysis demonstrated that this increase resulted from effects on DNA integrity as indicated by changes in the expression of genes chromosomal repair. Conclusions Our results have established that outputs from process based models and transcriptomics analyses can help to link mechanisms of action of toxic chemicals with resulting demographic effects. Such complimentary analyses can assist in the categorisation of chemicals for risk assessment purposes.

Swain Suresh; Wren Jodie F; Stürzenbaum Stephen R; Kille Peter; Morgan A John; Jager Tjalling; Jonker Martijs J; Hankard Peter K; Svendsen Claus; Owen Jenifer; Hedley B Ann; Blaxter Mark; Spurgeon David J

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Meta-Analysis Approach identifies Candidate Genes and associated Molecular Networks for Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple functional genomics data for complex human diseases have been published and made available by researchers worldwide. The main goal of these studies is the detailed analysis of a particular aspect of the disease. Complementary, meta-analysis approaches try to extract supersets of disease genes and interaction networks by integrating and combining these individual studies using statistical approaches. Results Here we report on a meta-analysis approach that integrates data of heterogeneous origin in the domain of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Different data sources such as DNA microarrays and, complementing, qualitative data covering several human and mouse tissues are integrated and analyzed with a Bootstrap scoring approach in order to extract disease relevance of the genes. The purpose of the meta-analysis is two-fold: on the one hand it identifies a group of genes with overall disease relevance indicating common, tissue-independent processes related to the disease; on the other hand it identifies genes showing specific alterations with respect to a single study. Using a random sampling approach we computed a core set of 213 T2DM genes across multiple tissues in human and mouse, including well-known genes such as Pdk4, Adipoq, Scd, Pik3r1, Socs2 that monitor important hallmarks of T2DM, for example the strong relationship between obesity and insulin resistance, as well as a large fraction (128) of yet barely characterized novel candidate genes. Furthermore, we explored functional information and identified cellular networks associated with this core set of genes such as pathway information, protein-protein interactions and gene regulatory networks. Additionally, we set up a web interface in order to allow users to screen T2DM relevance for any – yet non-associated – gene. Conclusion In our paper we have identified a core set of 213 T2DM candidate genes by a meta-analysis of existing data sources. We have explored the relation of these genes to disease relevant information and – using enrichment analysis – we have identified biological networks on different layers of cellular information such as signaling and metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks and protein-protein interactions. The web interface is accessible via http://t2dm-geneminer.molgen.mpg.de.

Rasche Axel; Al-Hasani Hadi; Herwig Ralf

2008-01-01

222

IL4 and IL4Ralpha genes are not linked or associated with type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown the immunoregulatory functions IL-4 in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the genes involved in the IL-4 regulatory pathway are candidates for diabetes susceptibility genes. Here we have evaluated IL4 and the alpha subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL4Ralpha) genes using the affected sibpair (ASP) and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT). We analyzed 309 diabetic families from the United States and 87 families from various European countries. There was no evidence that either of these two genes are linked or associated with type 1 diabetes. Means by which IL-4 directed signals could indirectly alter diabetes susceptibility are proposed. PMID:10674354

Reimsnider, S K; Eckenrode, S E; Marron, M P; Muir, A; She, J X

2000-02-01

223

Use of RFLPs to identify genes for aluminium tolerance in maize  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to identify restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to quantitative trait loci that control Al tolerance in maize. The strategy used was bulked segregant analysis, which is based on selecting for bulk bred true F2 individuals. The genetic material used consisted of an F2 population derived from a cross between Al susceptible (L53) and Al tolerant (L1327) maize inbred lines. Both lines were developed in the maize breeding programme of the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Milho e Sorgo. The relative seminal root length (RSRL) index was used as the phenotypic measure of tolerance. The frequency distribution of RSRL showed continuous distribution, which is typical of a quantitatively inherited character, with a tendency towards Al susceptible individuals. The estimated heritability [(?2F2 - ?2E)/?2F2] was found to be 60%. This moderately high heritability value suggests that, although the character has a quantitative nature, it may be controlled by a small number of genes. Those seedlings of the F2 population that scored the highest and lowest values for RSRL were subsequently selfed to obtain the F3 families. These families were evaluated in nutrient solution to identify those that were not segregating. On the basis of the results, five individuals were chosen for each bulk. Sixty-five probes were selected at an average interval of 30 cM, covering all ten maize chromosomes. For the hybridization work, a non-radioactive labelling system, using dig-dUTP and alkaline phosphatase, proved to be quite efficient and reliable, resulting in Southern blots with good resolution and allowing the membranes to be stripped and reprobed at least three times. Twenty-three markers showed a co-drominant effect, identifying 40 RFLP loci that could distinguish the parental inbred lines. These 23 probes are now being hybridized with DNA from the two contrasting bulks. Also, a search for other informative markers is being carried out to increase genome coverage. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

1995-01-01

224

Analysis of anther transcriptomes to identify genes contributing to meiosis and male gametophyte development in rice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the anther is the site of male gametophyte development. Two major events in the development of the male germline are meiosis and the asymmetric division in the male gametophyte that gives rise to the vegetative and generative cells, and the following mitotic division in the generative cell that produces two sperm cells. Anther transcriptomes have been analyzed in many plant species at progressive stages of development by using microarray and sequence-by synthesis-technologies to identify genes that regulate anther development. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of rice anther transcriptomes at four distinct stages, focusing on identifying regulatory components that contribute to male meiosis and germline development. Further, these transcriptomes have been compared with the transcriptomes of 10 stages of rice vegetative and seed development to identify genes that express specifically during anther development. Results Transcriptome profiling of four stages of anther development in rice including pre-meiotic (PMA), meiotic (MA), anthers at single-celled (SCP) and tri-nucleate pollen (TPA) revealed about 22,000 genes expressing in at least one of the anther developmental stages, with the highest number in MA (18,090) and the lowest (15,465) in TPA. Comparison of these transcriptome profiles to an in-house generated microarray-based transcriptomics database comprising of 10 stages/tissues of vegetative as well as reproductive development in rice resulted in the identification of 1,000 genes specifically expressed in anther stages. From this sub-set, 453 genes were specific to TPA, while 78 and 184 genes were expressed specifically in MA and SCP, respectively. The expression pattern of selected genes has been validated using real time PCR and in situ hybridizations. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of stage-specific genes revealed that those encoding transcription factors and components of protein folding, sorting and degradation pathway genes dominated in MA, whereas in TPA, those coding for cell structure and signal transduction components were in abundance. Interestingly, about 50% of the genes with anther-specific expression have not been annotated so far. Conclusions Not only have we provided the transcriptome constituents of four landmark stages of anther development in rice but we have also identified genes that express exclusively in these stages. It is likely that many of these candidates may therefore contribute to specific aspects of anther and/or male gametophyte development in rice. In addition, the gene sets that have been produced will assist the plant reproductive community in building a deeper understanding of underlying regulatory networks and in selecting gene candidates for functional validation.

Deveshwar Priyanka; Bovill William D; Sharma Rita; Able Jason A; Kapoor Sanjay

2011-01-01

225

Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behavior has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na(+) channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction, or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis, and the degradation of ion channel a-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking. The aim of this review is to inventory, through the description of few representative examples, the role of these different biogenic mechanisms in arrhythmogenesis, HF and SCD in order to help the researcher to identify all the processes that could lead to arrhythmias. Identification of novel targets for drug intervention should result from further understanding of these fundamental mechanisms.

Jagu B; Charpentier F; Toumaniantz G

2013-01-01

226

Potential biomarkers of nonobstructive azoospermia identified in microarray gene expression analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential biomarkers of azoospermia to determine a particular stage of spermatogenetic differentiation. DESIGN: GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray with validation at mRNA and protein levels. SETTING: Basic research laboratory. PATIENT(S): Men with various types of nonobstructive azoospermia (n = 18) and with normal spermatogenesis (n = 4). INTERVENTION(S): Obtaining 31 testicular biopsy samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Gene expression analysis using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays on 14 selected genes according to the highest fold change, verified with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and on independent set of microarray samples. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were additionally performed. RESULT(S): The comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in the infertile and control groups resulted in the selection of 4,946 differentially expressed genes. AKAP4, UBQLN3, CAPN11, GGN, SPACA4, SPATA3, and FAM71F1 were the most significantly down-regulated genes in infertile patients. Global analysis also led to identification of up-regulated genes-WBSCR28, ADCY10, TMEM225, SPATS1, FSCN3, GTSF1L, and GSG1-in men with late maturation arrest. Moreover, the results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot largely confirmed the microarray data. CONCLUSION(S): The set of selected genes can be used to create a molecular diagnostic tool to determine the degree of spermatogenic impairment for men with idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia.

Malcher A; Rozwadowska N; Stokowy T; Kolanowski T; Jedrzejczak P; Zietkowiak W; Kurpisz M

2013-09-01

227

Integrating multiple types of data to identify microRNA-gene co-modules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and genes work cooperatively to form the kernel part of gene regulatory system and affect many crucial biological processes. However, the detailed combinatorial roles of most miRNAs and genes in cellular processes and diseases are still unclear. The huge amount of diverse functional genomic data provides unprecedented opportunities to study the miRNA-gene co-regulations. How to integrate diverse genomic data to identify the regulatory modules of miRNAs and genes is a challenging problem in computational biology. Recently, we have proposed a mathematical data integration framework to discover the miRNA-gene regulatory co-modules. We have applied the proposed method to integrate a set of heterogeneous data sources including the expression profiles of miRNAs and genes on 385 human ovarian cancer samples as well as miRNA-gene interactions and gene-gene interactions. The revealed co-modules show significant biological relevance and potential associations with ovarian cancers and others.

Zhang S

2013-01-01

228

Haplotype Association Mapping Identifies a Candidate Gene Region in Mice Infected With Staphylococcus aureus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus has a variety of outcomes, from asymptomatic colonization to fatal infection. Strong evidence suggests that host genetics play an important role in susceptibility, but the specific host genetic factors involved are not known. The availability of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for inbred Mus musculus strains means that haplotype association mapping can be used to identify candidate susceptibility genes. We applied haplotype association mapping to Perlegen SNP data and kidney bacterial counts from Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice from 13 inbred strains and detected an associated block on chromosome 7. Strong experimental evidence supports the result: a separate study demonstrated the presence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 7 using consomic mice. The associated block contains no genes, but lies within the gene cluster of the 26-member extended kallikrein gene family, whose members have well-recognized roles in the generation of antimicrobial peptides and the regulation of inflammation. Efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) testing of all SNPs with two alleles and located within the gene cluster boundaries finds two significant associations: one of the three polymorphisms defining the associated block and one in the gene closest to the block, Klk1b11. In addition, we find that 7 of the 26 kallikrein genes are differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant mice, including the Klk1b11 gene. These genes represent a promising set of candidate genes influencing susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus.

Johnson NV; Ahn SH; Deshmukh H; Levin MK; Nelson CL; Scott WK; Allen A; Fowler VG Jr; Cowell LG

2012-06-01

229

Haplotype Association Mapping Identifies a Candidate Gene Region in Mice Infected With Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus has a variety of outcomes, from asymptomatic colonization to fatal infection. Strong evidence suggests that host genetics play an important role in susceptibility, but the specific host genetic factors involved are not known. The availability of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for inbred Mus musculus strains means that haplotype association mapping can be used to identify candidate susceptibility genes. We applied haplotype association mapping to Perlegen SNP data and kidney bacterial counts from Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice from 13 inbred strains and detected an associated block on chromosome 7. Strong experimental evidence supports the result: a separate study demonstrated the presence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 7 using consomic mice. The associated block contains no genes, but lies within the gene cluster of the 26-member extended kallikrein gene family, whose members have well-recognized roles in the generation of antimicrobial peptides and the regulation of inflammation. Efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) testing of all SNPs with two alleles and located within the gene cluster boundaries finds two significant associations: one of the three polymorphisms defining the associated block and one in the gene closest to the block, Klk1b11. In addition, we find that 7 of the 26 kallikrein genes are differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant mice, including the Klk1b11 gene. These genes represent a promising set of candidate genes influencing susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:22690378

Johnson, Nicole V; Ahn, Sun Hee; Deshmukh, Hitesh; Levin, Mikhail K; Nelson, Charlotte L; Scott, William K; Allen, Andrew; Fowler, Vance G; Cowell, Lindsay G

2012-06-01

230

Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression analysis to identify developmentally regulated genes in filamentous fungi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ascomycetes differentiate four major morphological types of fruiting bodies (apothecia, perithecia, pseudothecia and cleistothecia) that are derived from an ancestral fruiting body. Thus, fruiting body differentiation is most likely controlled by a set of common core genes. One way to identify such genes is to search for genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), we selected differentially expressed transcripts in Pyronema confluens (Pezizales) by comparing two cDNA libraries specific for sexual and for vegetative development, respectively. The expression patterns of selected genes from both libraries were verified by quantitative real time PCR. Expression of several corresponding homologous genes was found to be conserved in two members of the Sordariales (Sordaria macrospora and Neurospora crassa), a derived group of ascomycetes that is only distantly related to the Pezizales. Knockout studies with N. crassa orthologues of differentially regulated genes revealed a functional role during fruiting body development for the gene NCU05079, encoding a putative MFS peptide transporter. These data indicate conserved gene expression patterns and a functional role of the corresponding genes during fruiting body development; such genes are candidates of choice for further functional analysis.

Gesing S; Schindler D; Nowrousian M

2013-09-01

231

A systems genetics approach identifies genes and pathways for type 2 diabetes in human islets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Using 48 genes located near T2D risk variants, we identified gene coexpression and protein-protein interaction networks that were strongly associated with islet insulin secretion and HbA(1c). We integrated our data to form a rank list of putative T2D genes, of which CHL1, LRFN2, RASGRP1, and PPM1K were validated in INS-1 cells to influence insulin secretion, whereas GPR120 affected apoptosis in islets. Expression variation of the top 20 genes explained 24% of the variance in HbA(1c) with no claim of the direction. The data present a global map of genes associated with islet dysfunction and demonstrate the value of systems genetics for the identification of genes potentially involved in T2D.

Taneera, Jalal; Lang, Stefan

2012-01-01

232

A graph-search framework for associating gene identifiers with documents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One step in the model organism database curation process is to find, for each article, the identifier of every gene discussed in the article. We consider a relaxation of this problem suitable for semi-automated systems, in which each article is associated with a ranked list of possible gene identifiers, and experimentally compare methods for solving this geneId ranking problem. In addition to baseline approaches based on combining named entity recognition (NER) systems with a "soft dictionary" of gene synonyms, we evaluate a graph-based method which combines the outputs of multiple NER systems, as well as other sources of information, and a learning method for reranking the output of the graph-based method. RESULTS: We show that named entity recognition (NER) systems with similar F-measure performance can have significantly different performance when used with a soft dictionary for geneId-ranking. The graph-based approach can outperform any of its component NER systems, even without learning, and learning can further improve the performance of the graph-based ranking approach. CONCLUSION: The utility of a named entity recognition (NER) system for geneId-finding may not be accurately predicted by its entity-level F1 performance, the most common performance measure. GeneId-ranking systems are best implemented by combining several NER systems. With appropriate combination methods, usefully accurate geneId-ranking systems can be constructed based on easily-available resources, without resorting to problem-specific, engineered components.

Cohen WW; Minkov E

2006-01-01

233

Microarray expression profiling identifies genes with altered expression in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is considered a complex genetic disease, in which malfunctioning or dysregulation of one or more genes has been proposed to be responsible for the expressed phenotype. However, to date, no disease causing genes has been identified and the pathogenesis of AIS remains unknown. The aim of this study is, therefore, to identify specific molecules with differing expression patterns in AIS compared to healthy individuals. METHODS: Microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR have examined differences in the gene transcription profile between primary osteoblasts derived from spinal vertebrae of AIS patients and those of healthy individuals. RESULTS: There are 145 genes differentially expressed in AIS osteoblasts. A drastic and significant change has been noted particularly in the expression levels of Homeobox genes (HOXB8, HOXB7, HOXA13, HOXA10), ZIC2, FAM101A, COMP and PITX1 in AIS compared to controls. Clustering analysis revealed the interaction of these genes in biological pathways crucial for bone development, in particular in the differentiation of skeletal elements and structural integrity of the vertebrae. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports on the expression of molecules that have not been described previously in AIS. We also provide for the first time gene interaction pathways in AIS pathogenesis. These genes are involved in various bone regulatory and developmental pathways and many of them can be grouped into clusters to participate in a particular biological pathway. Further studies can be built on our findings to further elucidate the association between different biological pathways and the pathogenesis of AIS.

Fendri K; Patten SA; Kaufman GN; Zaouter C; Parent S; Grimard G; Edery P; Moldovan F

2013-06-01

234

A systems genetics approach identifies genes and pathways for type 2 diabetes in human islets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Using 48 genes located near T2D risk variants, we identified gene coexpression and protein-protein interaction networks that were strongly associated with islet insulin secretion and HbA(1c). We integrated our data to form a rank list of putative T2D genes, of which CHL1, LRFN2, RASGRP1, and PPM1K were validated in INS-1 cells to influence insulin secretion, whereas GPR120 affected apoptosis in islets. Expression variation of the top 20 genes explained 24% of the variance in HbA(1c) with no claim of the direction. The data present a global map of genes associated with islet dysfunction and demonstrate the value of systems genetics for the identification of genes potentially involved in T2D.

Taneera J; Lang S; Sharma A; Fadista J; Zhou Y; Ahlqvist E; Jonsson A; Lyssenko V; Vikman P; Hansson O; Parikh H; Korsgren O; Soni A; Krus U; Zhang E; Jing XJ; Esguerra JL; Wollheim CB; Salehi A; Rosengren A; Renström E; Groop L

2012-07-01

235

Ectopic activation of germline and placental genes identifies aggressive metastasis-prone lung cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of normally silent tissue-specific genes and the resulting cell "identity crisis" are the unexplored consequences of malignant epigenetic reprogramming. We designed a strategy for investigating this reprogramming, which consisted of identifying a large number of tissue-restricted genes that are epigenetically silenced in normal somatic cells and then detecting their expression in cancer. This approach led to the demonstration that large-scale "off-context" gene activations systematically occur in a variety of cancer types. In our series of 293 lung tumors, we identified an ectopic gene expression signature associated with a subset of highly aggressive tumors, which predicted poor prognosis independently of the TNM (tumor size, node positivity, and metastasis) stage or histological subtype. The ability to isolate these tumors allowed us to reveal their common molecular features characterized by the acquisition of embryonic stem cell/germ cell gene expression profiles and the down-regulation of immune response genes. The methodical recognition of ectopic gene activations in cancer cells could serve as a basis for gene signature-guided tumor stratification, as well as for the discovery of oncogenic mechanisms, and expand the understanding of the biology of very aggressive tumors. PMID:23698379

Rousseaux, Sophie; Debernardi, Alexandra; Jacquiau, Baptiste; Vitte, Anne-Laure; Vesin, Aurélien; Nagy-Mignotte, Hélčne; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Brichon, Pierre-Yves; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Hainaut, Pierre; Laffaire, Julien; de Reyničs, Aurélien; Beer, David G; Timsit, Jean-François; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Khochbin, Saadi

2013-05-22

236

Ectopic activation of germline and placental genes identifies aggressive metastasis-prone lung cancers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activation of normally silent tissue-specific genes and the resulting cell "identity crisis" are the unexplored consequences of malignant epigenetic reprogramming. We designed a strategy for investigating this reprogramming, which consisted of identifying a large number of tissue-restricted genes that are epigenetically silenced in normal somatic cells and then detecting their expression in cancer. This approach led to the demonstration that large-scale "off-context" gene activations systematically occur in a variety of cancer types. In our series of 293 lung tumors, we identified an ectopic gene expression signature associated with a subset of highly aggressive tumors, which predicted poor prognosis independently of the TNM (tumor size, node positivity, and metastasis) stage or histological subtype. The ability to isolate these tumors allowed us to reveal their common molecular features characterized by the acquisition of embryonic stem cell/germ cell gene expression profiles and the down-regulation of immune response genes. The methodical recognition of ectopic gene activations in cancer cells could serve as a basis for gene signature-guided tumor stratification, as well as for the discovery of oncogenic mechanisms, and expand the understanding of the biology of very aggressive tumors.

Rousseaux S; Debernardi A; Jacquiau B; Vitte AL; Vesin A; Nagy-Mignotte H; Moro-Sibilot D; Brichon PY; Lantuejoul S; Hainaut P; Laffaire J; de Reyničs A; Beer DG; Timsit JF; Brambilla C; Brambilla E; Khochbin S

2013-05-01

237

Identification of SCAR markers linked to Rca 2 anthracnose resistance gene and their assessment in strawberry germ plasm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bulked segregant analysis combined with AFLPs was used to identify molecular markers linked to the Rca 2 gene conferring resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum pathogenicity group 2 which causes anthracnose in the octoploid strawberry Fragaria x ananassa. DNA bulks originating from a cross between the resistant cultivar 'Capitola' and the susceptible cultivar 'Pajaro' were screened with 110 EcoRI/M se IAFLP combinations. Four AFLP markers were found linked in coupling phase to Rca 2 with recombination percentages between 0% and 17.7%. Among the four markers linked to the resistance gene, two were converted into SCAR markers (STS-Rca 2417 and STS-Rca 2240) and screened in a large segregating population including 179 genotypes. The Rca 2 resistance gene was estimated to be 0.6 cM from STS-Rca 2417 and 2.8 cM from STS-Rca 2240. The presence/absence of the two SCAR markers was further studied in 43 cultivars of F. x ananassa, including 14 susceptible, 28 resistant, and one intermediate genotype. Results showed that 81.4% and 62.8% of the resistant/susceptible genotypes were correctly predicted by using STS-Rca 2417 and STS-Rca 2240, respectively. The 14 susceptible genotypes showed no amplification for either SCARs. These developed SCARs constitute new tools for indirect selection criteria of anthracnose resistance genotypes in strawberry breeding programs.

Lerceteau-Köhler E; Guérin G; Denoyes-Rothan B

2005-09-01

238

A novel metatranscriptomic approach to identify gene expression dynamics during extracellular electron transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial respiration via extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a ubiquitous reaction that occurs throughout anoxic environments and is a driving force behind global biogeochemical cycling of metals. Here we identify specific EET-active microbes and genes in a diverse biofilm using an innovative approach to analyse the dynamic community-wide response to changing EET rates. We find that the most significant gene expression responses to applied EET stimuli occur in only two microbial groups, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfuromonadales. Metagenomic analyses reveal high coverage draft genomes of these abundant and active microbes. Our metatranscriptomic results show known and unknown genes that are highly responsive to EET stimuli and associated with our identified draft genomes. This new approach yields a comprehensive image of functional microbes and genes related to EET activity in a diverse community, representing the next step towards unravelling complex microbial roles within a community and how microbes adapt to specific environmental stimuli. PMID:23511466

Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Tenney, Aaron; Chain, Patrick S G; Scholz, Matthew B; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

2013-01-01

239

A novel metatranscriptomic approach to identify gene expression dynamics during extracellular electron transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbial respiration via extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a ubiquitous reaction that occurs throughout anoxic environments and is a driving force behind global biogeochemical cycling of metals. Here we identify specific EET-active microbes and genes in a diverse biofilm using an innovative approach to analyse the dynamic community-wide response to changing EET rates. We find that the most significant gene expression responses to applied EET stimuli occur in only two microbial groups, Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfuromonadales. Metagenomic analyses reveal high coverage draft genomes of these abundant and active microbes. Our metatranscriptomic results show known and unknown genes that are highly responsive to EET stimuli and associated with our identified draft genomes. This new approach yields a comprehensive image of functional microbes and genes related to EET activity in a diverse community, representing the next step towards unravelling complex microbial roles within a community and how microbes adapt to specific environmental stimuli.

Ishii S; Suzuki S; Norden-Krichmar TM; Tenney A; Chain PS; Scholz MB; Nealson KH; Bretschger O

2013-01-01

240

Harnessing single cell sorting to identify cell division genes and regulators in bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cell division is an essential cellular process that requires an array of known and unknown proteins for its spatial and temporal regulation. Here we develop a novel, high-throughput screening method for the identification of bacterial cell division genes and regulators. The method combines the over-expression of a shotgun genomic expression library to perturb the cell division process with high-throughput flow cytometry sorting to screen many thousands of clones. Using this approach, we recovered clones with a filamentous morphology for the model bacterium, Escherichia coli. Genetic analysis revealed that our screen identified both known cell division genes, and genes that have not previously been identified to be involved in cell division. This novel screening strategy is applicable to a wide range of organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, where cell division genes and regulators are attractive drug targets for antibiotic development.

Burke C; Liu M; Britton W; Triccas JA; Thomas T; Smith AL; Allen S; Salomon R; Harry E

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Identifying gene set association enrichment using the coefficient of intrinsic dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gene set testing problem has become the focus of microarray data analysis. A gene set is a group of genes that are defined by a priori biological knowledge. Several statistical methods have been proposed to determine whether functional gene sets express differentially (enrichment and/or deletion) in variations of phenotypes. However, little attention has been given to analyzing the dependence structure among gene sets. In this study, we have proposed a novel statistical method of gene set association analysis to identify significantly associated gene sets using the coefficient of intrinsic dependence. The simulation studies show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional methods to detect general forms of association in terms of control of type I error and power. The correlation of intrinsic dependence has been applied to a breast cancer microarray dataset to quantify the un-supervised relationship between two sets of genes in the tumor and non-tumor samples. It was observed that the existence of gene-set association differed across various clinical cohorts. In addition, a supervised learning was employed to illustrate how gene sets, in signaling transduction pathways or subnetworks regulated by a set of transcription factors, can be discovered using microarray data. In conclusion, the coefficient of intrinsic dependence provides a powerful tool for detecting general types of association. Hence, it can be useful to associate gene sets using microarray expression data. Through connecting relevant gene sets, our approach has the potential to reveal underlying associations by drawing a statistically relevant network in a given population, and it can also be used to complement the conventional gene set analysis.

Tsai CA; Liu LY

2013-01-01

242

Expression profiling of serum inducible genes identifies a subset of SRF target genes that are MKL dependent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum Response Factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that is required for the expression of many genes including immediate early genes, cytoskeletal genes, and muscle-specific genes. SRF is activated in response to extra-cellular signals by its association with a diverse set of co-activators in different cell types. In the case of the ubiquitously expressed immediate early genes, the two sets of SRF binding proteins that regulate its activity are the TCF family of proteins that include Elk1, SAP1 and SAP2 and the myocardin-related MKL family of proteins that include MKL1 and MKL2 (also known as MAL, MRTF-A and -B and BSAC). In response to serum or growth factors these two classes of co-activators are activated by different upstream signal transduction pathways. However, it is not clear how they differentially activate SRF target genes. Results In order to identify the serum-inducible SRF target genes that are specifically dependent on the MKL pathway, we have performed microarray experiments using a cell line that expresses dominant negative MKL1. This approach was used to identify SRF target genes whose activation is MKL-dependent. Twenty-eight of 150 serum-inducible genes were found to be MKL-dependent. The promoters of the serum-inducible genes were analyzed for SRF binding sites and other common regulatory elements. Putative SRF binding sites were found at a higher rate than in a mouse promoter database but were only identified in 12% of the serum-inducible promoters analyzed. Additional partial matches to the consensus SRF binding site were found at a higher than expected rate in the MKL-dependent gene promoters. The analysis for other common regulatory elements is discussed. Conclusions These results suggest that a subset of immediate early and SRF target genes are activated by the Rho-MKL pathway. MKL may also contribute to the induction of other SRF target genes however its role is not essential, possibly due to other activation mechanisms such as MAPK phosphorylation of TCFs.

Selvaraj Ahalya; Prywes Ron

2004-01-01

243

Gene interaction enrichment and network analysis to identify dysregulated pathways and their interactions in complex diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular behavior of biological systems can be described in terms of three fundamental components: (i) the physical entities, (ii) the interactions among these entities, and (iii) the dynamics of these entities and interactions. The mechanisms that drive complex disease can be productively viewed in the context of the perturbations of these components. One challenge in this regard is to identify the pathways altered in specific diseases. To address this challenge, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and others have been developed, which focus on alterations of individual properties of the entities (such as gene expression). However, the dynamics of the interactions with respect to disease have been less well studied (i.e., properties of components ii and iii). Results Here, we present a novel method called Gene Interaction Enrichment and Network Analysis (GIENA) to identify dysregulated gene interactions, i.e., pairs of genes whose relationships differ between disease and control. Four functions are defined to model the biologically relevant gene interactions of cooperation (sum of mRNA expression), competition (difference between mRNA expression), redundancy (maximum of expression), or dependency (minimum of expression) among the expression levels. The proposed framework identifies dysregulated interactions and pathways enriched in dysregulated interactions; points out interactions that are perturbed across pathways; and moreover, based on the biological annotation of each type of dysregulated interaction gives clues about the regulatory logic governing the systems level perturbation. We demonstrated the potential of GIENA using published datasets related to cancer. Conclusions We showed that GIENA identifies dysregulated pathways that are missed by traditional enrichment methods based on the individual gene properties and that use of traditional methods combined with GIENA provides coverage of the largest number of relevant pathways. In addition, using the interactions detected by GIENA, specific gene networks both within and across pathways associated with the relevant phenotypes are constructed and analyzed.

Liu Yu; Koyutürk Mehmet; Barnholtz-Sloan Jill S; Chance Mark R

2012-01-01

244

Flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux for identifying gene amplification targets  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to reduce time and efforts to develop microbial strains with better capability of producing desired bioproducts, genome-scale metabolic simulations have proven useful in identifying gene knockout and amplification targets. Constraints-based flux analysis has successfully been employed for such simulation, but is limited in its ability to properly describe the complex nature of biological systems. Gene knockout simulations are relatively straightforward to implement, simply by constraining the flux values of the target reaction to zero, but the identification of reliable gene amplification targets is rather difficult. Here, we report a new algorithm which incorporates physiological data into a model to improve the model’s prediction capabilities and to capitalize on the relationships between genes and metabolic fluxes. Results We developed an algorithm, flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux (FVSEOF) with grouping reaction (GR) constraints, in an effort to identify gene amplification targets by considering reactions that co-carry flux values based on physiological omics data via “GR constraints”. This method scans changes in the variabilities of metabolic fluxes in response to an artificially enforced objective flux of product formation. The gene amplification targets predicted using this method were validated by comparing the predicted effects with the previous experimental results obtained for the production of shikimic acid and putrescine in Escherichia coli. Moreover, new gene amplification targets for further enhancing putrescine production were validated through experiments involving the overexpression of each identified targeted gene under condition-controlled batch cultivation. Conclusions FVSEOF with GR constraints allows identification of gene amplification targets for metabolic engineering of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of desired bioproducts. The algorithm was validated through the experiments on the enhanced production of putrescine in E. coli, in addition to the comparison with the previously reported experimental data. The FVSEOF strategy with GR constraints will be generally useful for developing industrially important microbial strains having enhanced capabilities of producing chemicals of interest.

Park Jong; Park Hye; Kim Won; Kim Hyun; Kim Tae; Lee Sang

2012-01-01

245

Identifying overrepresented concepts in gene lists from literature: a statistical approach based on Poisson mixture model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genomic studies often identify large gene lists, for example, the genes sharing the same expression patterns. The interpretation of these gene lists is generally achieved by extracting concepts overrepresented in the gene lists. This analysis often depends on manual annotation of genes based on controlled vocabularies, in particular, Gene Ontology (GO). However, the annotation of genes is a labor-intensive process; and the vocabularies are generally incomplete, leaving some important biological domains inadequately covered. Results We propose a statistical method that uses the primary literature, i.e. free-text, as the source to perform overrepresentation analysis. The method is based on a statistical framework of mixture model and addresses the methodological flaws in several existing programs. We implemented this method within a literature mining system, BeeSpace, taking advantage of its analysis environment and added features that facilitate the interactive analysis of gene sets. Through experimentation with several datasets, we showed that our program can effectively summarize the important conceptual themes of large gene sets, even when traditional GO-based analysis does not yield informative results. Conclusions We conclude that the current work will provide biologists with a tool that effectively complements the existing ones for overrepresentation analysis from genomic experiments. Our program, Genelist Analyzer, is freely available at: http://workerbee.igb.uiuc.edu:8080/BeeSpace/Search.jsp

He Xin; Sarma Moushumi; Ling Xu; Chee Brant; Zhai Chengxiang; Schatz Bruce

2010-01-01

246

Microarray analysis during adipogenesis identifies new genes altered by antiretroviral drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathogenesis of HAART-associated lipodystrophy, by investigating the effects of antiretroviral drugs on adipocyte differentiation and gene expression profile. DESIGN AND METHODS: Analysis of gene expression profile by DNA microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) lamivudine, zidovudine, stavudine, and zalcitabine, and with the protease inhibitors (PI) indinavir, saquinavir, and lopinavir during maturation into adipocytes. RESULTS: Under standard adipogenic differentiation protocols, PI significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by cell viability assay and Oil Red O staining and quantification, whereas NRTI had mild effects on adipogenesis. Gene expression profile analysis showed that treatment with NRTI modulated the expression of transcription factors, such as Aebp1, Pou5f1 and Phf6, which could play a key role in the determination of the adipocyte phenotype. PI also modulated gene expression toward inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, with up-regulation of the Wnt signaling gene Wnt10a and down-regulation of the expression of genes encoding master adipogenic transcription factors (e.g., C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma), oestrogen receptor beta, and adipocyte-specific markers (e.g., Adiponectin, Leptin, Mrap, Cd36, S100A8). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies new genes modulated by PI and NRTI in differentiating adipocytes. Abnormal expression of these genes, which include master adipogenic transcription factors and genes involved in lipid metabolism and cell cycle control, could contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of HAART-associated lipodystrophy.

Pacenti M; Barzon L; Favaretto F; Fincati K; Romano S; Milan G; Vettor R; Palů G

2006-08-01

247

Two novel mutations of the MYBPC3 gene identified in Chinese families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common genetic cardiovascular disorders. Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene are one of the most frequent genetic causes of HCM. OBJECTIVES: To screen MYBPC3 gene mutations in Chinese patients with HCM, and analyze the correlation between the genotype and the phenotype. METHODS: The 35 exons of the MYBPC3 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction in the 11 consecutive unrelated Chinese pedigrees. The sequences of the products were analyzed and the mutation sites were determined. The clinical data of genotype-positive families were collected, and the correlation between genotype and phenotype was analyzed. RESULTS: Two mutations of the MYBPC3 gene were confirmed among 11 pedigrees. A frameshift mutation (Pro459fs) was identified in exon 17 in family H8, and a splice mutation (IVS5+5G?>C) was identified in intron 5 in family H3. These two mutations were first identified in Chinese patients with familial HCM and were absent in 110 chromosomes of healthy controls. Seven known polymorphisms were found in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with what was reported abroad, the MYBPC3 gene is a common pathogenic gene responsible for HCM in Chinese patients, and the phenotypes of these two mutations in their respective families may have their own clinical characteristics.

Lin J; Zheng DD; Tao Q; Yang JH; Jiang WP; Yang XJ; Song JP; Jiang TB; Li X

2010-12-01

248

Identifying genes related to radiation resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioresistance is one of the main determinants of treatment outcome in oral cancer, but the prediction of radioresistance is difficult. The authors aimed to establish radioresistant oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines to identify genes with altered expression in response to radioresistance. To induce radioresistant cell lines, the authors treated OSCC cell lines with an accumulated dosage of 60Gy over 30 cycles of radiotherapy. They compared the results from cDNA arrays and proteomics between non-radiated and radioresistant cell lines in order to identify changes in gene expression. Western blot analysis was used to validate the results. The cDNA array revealed 265 commonly up-regulated genes and 268 commonly down-regulated genes in radioresistant cell lines, 30 of which were cancer-related genes. Proteomics identified 51 proteins with commonly altered expression in radioresistant cell lines, 18 of which were cancer-related proteins. Both the cDNA array and proteomics indicated that NM23-H1 and PA2G4 were over-expressed. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of NM23-H1, but not PA2G4, in radioresistant cell lines. The authors concluded that NM23-H1 may be a radioresistance-related gene and over-expression of NM23-H1 could serve as a biomarker to predict radioresistance in OSCC. PMID:23196067

Lee, S Y; Park, H R; Cho, N H; Choi, Y P; Rha, S Y; Park, S W; Kim, S H

2012-11-26

249

Identifying genes related to radiation resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radioresistance is one of the main determinants of treatment outcome in oral cancer, but the prediction of radioresistance is difficult. The authors aimed to establish radioresistant oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines to identify genes with altered expression in response to radioresistance. To induce radioresistant cell lines, the authors treated OSCC cell lines with an accumulated dosage of 60Gy over 30 cycles of radiotherapy. They compared the results from cDNA arrays and proteomics between non-radiated and radioresistant cell lines in order to identify changes in gene expression. Western blot analysis was used to validate the results. The cDNA array revealed 265 commonly up-regulated genes and 268 commonly down-regulated genes in radioresistant cell lines, 30 of which were cancer-related genes. Proteomics identified 51 proteins with commonly altered expression in radioresistant cell lines, 18 of which were cancer-related proteins. Both the cDNA array and proteomics indicated that NM23-H1 and PA2G4 were over-expressed. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of NM23-H1, but not PA2G4, in radioresistant cell lines. The authors concluded that NM23-H1 may be a radioresistance-related gene and over-expression of NM23-H1 could serve as a biomarker to predict radioresistance in OSCC.

Lee SY; Park HR; Cho NH; Choi YP; Rha SY; Park SW; Kim SH

2013-02-01

250

A genome-wide screen for identifying all regulators of a target gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed a new screening methodology for identifying all genes that control the expression of a target gene through genetic or metabolic interactions. The screen combines mutant libraries with luciferase reporter constructs, whose expression can be monitored in vivo and over time in different environmental conditions. We apply the method to identify the genes that control the expression of the gene acs, encoding the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase, in Escherichia coli. We confirm most of the known genetic regulators, including CRP-cAMP, IHF and components of the phosphotransferase system. In addition, we identify new regulatory interactions, many of which involve metabolic intermediates or metabolic sensing, such as the genes pgi, pfkA, sucB and lpdA, encoding enzymes in glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Some of these novel interactions were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. More generally, we observe that a large number of mutants directly or indirectly influence acs expression, an effect confirmed for a second promoter, sdhC. The method is applicable to any promoter fused to a luminescent reporter gene in combination with a deletion mutant library.

Baptist G; Pinel C; Ranquet C; Izard J; Ropers D; de Jong H; Geiselmann J

2013-07-01

251

Tetarimycin A, an MRSA-active antibiotic identified through induced expression of environmental DNA gene clusters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The propagation of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples in laboratory-grown bacteria provides a means to study natural products encoded in the genomes of uncultured bacteria. However, gene silencing often hampers the functional characterization of gene clusters captured on environmental DNA clones. Here we show that the overexpression of transcription factors found in sequenced environmental DNA-derived biosynthetic gene clusters, in conjunction with traditional culture-broth extract screening, can be used to identify new bioactive secondary metabolites from otherwise-silent gene clusters. Tetarimycin A, a tetracyclic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active antibiotic, was isolated from the culture-broth extract of Streptomyces albus cultures cotransformed with an environmentally derived type-II polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster and its pathway-specific Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) cloned under the control of the constitutive ermE* promoter.

Kallifidas D; Kang HS; Brady SF

2012-12-01

252

Tetarimycin A, an MRSA-active antibiotic identified through induced expression of environmental DNA gene clusters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The propagation of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples in laboratory-grown bacteria provides a means to study natural products encoded in the genomes of uncultured bacteria. However, gene silencing often hampers the functional characterization of gene clusters captured on environmental DNA clones. Here we show that the overexpression of transcription factors found in sequenced environmental DNA-derived biosynthetic gene clusters, in conjunction with traditional culture-broth extract screening, can be used to identify new bioactive secondary metabolites from otherwise-silent gene clusters. Tetarimycin A, a tetracyclic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active antibiotic, was isolated from the culture-broth extract of Streptomyces albus cultures cotransformed with an environmentally derived type-II polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster and its pathway-specific Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) cloned under the control of the constitutive ermE* promoter. PMID:23157252

Kallifidas, Dimitris; Kang, Hahk-Soo; Brady, Sean F

2012-11-27

253

Candidate gene linkage approach to identify DNA variants that predispose to preterm birth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants contributing to preterm birth (PTB) using a linkage candidate gene approach. METHODS: We studied 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 33 genes in 257 families with PTBs segregating. Nonparametric and parametric analyses were used. Premature infants and mothers of premature infants were defined as affected cases in independent analyses. RESULTS: Analyses with the infant as the case identified two genes with evidence of linkage: CRHR1 (P = 0.0012) and CYP2E1 (P = 0.0011). Analyses with the mother as the case identified four genes with evidence of linkage: ENPP1 (P = 0.003), IGFBP3 (P = 0.006), DHCR7 (P = 0.009), and TRAF2 (P = 0.01). DNA sequence analysis of the coding exons and splice sites for CRHR1 and TRAF2 identified no new likely etiologic variants. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the involvement of six genes acting through the infant and/or the mother in the etiology of PTB.

Bream EN; Leppellere CR; Cooper ME; Dagle JM; Merrill DC; Christensen K; Simhan HN; Fong CT; Hallman M; Muglia LJ; Marazita ML; Murray JC

2013-02-01

254

Candidate gene linkage approach to identify DNA variants that predispose to preterm birth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants contributing to preterm birth (PTB) using a linkage candidate gene approach. METHODS: We studied 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 33 genes in 257 families with PTBs segregating. Nonparametric and parametric analyses were used. Premature infants and mothers of premature infants were defined as affected cases in independent analyses. RESULTS: Analyses with the infant as the case identified two genes with evidence of linkage: CRHR1 (P = 0.0012) and CYP2E1 (P = 0.0011). Analyses with the mother as the case identified four genes with evidence of linkage: ENPP1 (P = 0.003), IGFBP3 (P = 0.006), DHCR7 (P = 0.009), and TRAF2 (P = 0.01). DNA sequence analysis of the coding exons and splice sites for CRHR1 and TRAF2 identified no new likely etiologic variants. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the involvement of six genes acting through the infant and/or the mother in the etiology of PTB.

Bream, Elise N A; Leppellere, Cara R

2013-01-01

255

Candidate agents for papillary thyroid cancer identified by gene expression analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is needed to manage these patients effectively. Our objectives were to expand our understanding of this disease, and to identify biologically active small molecules capable to reverse PTC. We downloaded gene expression data of PTC from Gene Expression Omnibus database and employed computational bioinformatics analysis to compare gene expression patterns with normal tissues. Small molecules that induced inverse gene changes to the PTC were identified. A total of 2,154 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a false discovery rate of 0.01 were identified. These 2,154 DEGs were significantly enriched in 17 pathways, including pathways associated with signal transduction, tumorigenesis and lipid or amino acid metabolism. In addition, we identified large amount of small molecules that capable to reverse PTC. We found a group of small molecules that can provide new ideas for the therapeutic studies in PTC. These drugs are clearly a direction that warrants additional consideration. PMID:23519608

Zhu, Wei; Li, Chen; Ai, Zhilong

2013-03-22

256

Identifying differentially methylated genes using mixed effect and generalized least square models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays an important role in the process of tumorigenesis. Identifying differentially methylated genes or CpG islands (CGIs) associated with genes between two tumor subtypes is thus an important biological question. The methylation status of all CGIs in the whole genome can be assayed with differential methylation hybridization (DMH) microarrays. However, patient samples or cell lines are heterogeneous, so their methylation pattern may be very different. In addition, neighboring probes at each CGI are correlated. How these factors affect the analysis of DMH data is unknown. Results We propose a new method for identifying differentially methylated (DM) genes by identifying the associated DM CGI(s). At each CGI, we implement four different mixed effect and generalized least square models to identify DM genes between two groups. We compare four models with a simple least square regression model to study the impact of incorporating random effects and correlations. Conclusions We demonstrate that the inclusion (or exclusion) of random effects and the choice of correlation structures can significantly affect the results of the data analysis. We also assess the false discovery rate of different models using CGIs associated with housekeeping genes.

Sun Shuying; Yan Pearlly S; Huang Tim HM; Lin Shili

2009-01-01

257

Detection of large gene rearrangements in X-linked genes by dosage analysis: identification of novel ?-galactosidase A (GLA) deletions causing Fabry disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

For most Mendelian disorders, targeted genome sequencing is an effective method to detect causative mutations. However, sequencing PCR-amplified exonic regions and their intronic boundaries can miss large deletions or duplications and mutations that lead to PCR failures in autosomal dominant disorders and in heterozygote detection for X-linked diseases. Here, a method is described for detecting large (>50?bp) deletions/duplications in the X-linked ?-galactosidase A (GLA) gene, which cause Fabry disease. Briefly, multiplex PCR mixtures were designed to amplify each GLA exon and an unrelated internal control exon to normalize GLA exonic amplicon peak heights. For each normalized GLA amplicon, the normal control female to male peak-height ratios were 1.8 to 2.2 (expected 2.0), whereas the expected ratios for deletions or duplications would be ?1.0 or 3.0, respectively. Using this method, three novel deletions, c.369+3_547+954del4096insT, c.194+2049_369+773del2619insCG, and c.207_369+651del814ins231, were detected in unrelated women with signs and/or symptoms suggestive of Fabry disease, but no "sequencing-detectable" mutations. The deletions were confirmed by sequencing their respective GLA RT-PCR products. This method can identify gene rearrangements that may be cryptic to genomic DNA sequencing and can be readily adapted to other X-linked or autosomal dominant genes. PMID:21305660

Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina; Kim, Jungmin; Doheny, Dana; Desnick, Robert J

2011-03-29

258

Identifying the Common Target Genes for miR-21 Using Functional Enrichment Analysis  

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Full Text Available miR-21 is a well-studied microRNA which hasbeen implicated in many cancers. However, it is still noconsensus pertaining to its target genes. This study employed afunctional enrichment analysis to identify the common targetgenes for miR-21. Genomic data were compared using threedifferent algorithms to identify the common target genes formiR-21. Our results enhance the understanding of the targetgenes and the relevant cellular pathways for the miR-21-relateddiseases.

Sim-Hui Tee

2013-01-01

259

Identifying pathogenicity genes in the rubber tree anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides through random insertional mutagenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenesis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used to identify mutants of C. gloeosporioides impaired in pathogenicity. An ATMT library of 4128 C. gloeosporioides transformants was generated. Transformants were screened for defects in pathogenicity with a detached copper brown leaf assay. 32 mutants showing reproducible pathogenicity defects were obtained. Southern blot analysis showed 60.4% of the transformants had single-site T-DNA integrations. 16 Genomic sequences flanking T-DNA were recovered from mutants by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and were used to isolate the tagged genes from the genome sequence of wild-type C. gloeosporioides by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool searches against the local genome database of the wild-type C. gloeosporioides. One potential pathogenicity genes encoded calcium-translocating P-type ATPase. Six potential pathogenicity genes had no known homologs in filamentous fungi and were likely to be novel fungal virulence factors. Two putative genes encoded Glycosyltransferase family 28 domain-containing protein and Mov34/MPN/PAD-1 family protein, respectively. Five potential pathogenicity genes had putative function matched with putative protein of other Colletotrichum species. Two known C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity genes were also identified, the encoding Glomerella cingulata hard-surface induced protein and C. gloeosporioides regulatory subunit of protein kinase A gene involved in cAMP-dependent PKA signal transduction pathway.

Cai Z; Li G; Lin C; Shi T; Zhai L; Chen Y; Huang G

2013-07-01

260

Integration of QTL and bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes for triglycerides in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To identify genetic loci influencing lipid levels, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis between inbred mouse strains MRL/MpJ and SM/J, measuring triglyceride levels at 8 weeks of age in F2 mice fed a chow diet. We identified one significant QTL on chromosome (Chr) 15 and three suggestive QTL on Chrs 2, 7, and 17. We also carried out microarray analysis on the livers of parental strains of 282 F2 mice and used these data to find cis-regulated expression QTL. We then narrowed the list of candidate genes under significant QTL using a "toolbox" of bioinformatic resources, including haplotype analysis; parental strain comparison for gene expression differences and nonsynonymous coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); cis-regulated eQTL in livers of F2 mice; correlation between gene expression and phenotype; and conditioning of expression on the phenotype. We suggest Slc25a7 as a candidate gene for the Chr 7 QTL and, based on expression differences, five genes (Polr3 h, Cyp2d22, Cyp2d26, Tspo, and Ttll12) as candidate genes for Chr 15 QTL. This study shows how bioinformatics can be used effectively to reduce candidate gene lists for QTL related to complex traits.

Leduc MS; Hageman RS; Verdugo RA; Tsaih SW; Walsh K; Churchill GA; Paigen B

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Use of tiling array data and RNA secondary structure predictions to identify noncoding RNA genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the last decade a large number of noncoding RNA genes have been identified, but this may only be the tip of the iceberg. Using comparative genomics a large number of sequences that have signals concordant with conserved RNA secondary structures have been discovered in the human genome. Moreover, genome wide transcription profiling with tiling arrays indicate that the majority of the genome is transcribed. Results We have combined tiling array data with genome wide structural RNA predictions to search for novel noncoding and structural RNA genes that are expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-AS. Using this strategy, we identify thousands of human candidate RNA genes. To further verify the expression of these genes, we focused on candidate genes that had a stable hairpin structures or a high level of covariance. Using northern blotting, we verify the expression of 2 out of 3 of the hairpin structures and 3 out of 9 high covariance structures in SK-N-AS cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that many human noncoding, structured and conserved RNA genes remain to be discovered and that tissue specific tiling array data can be used in combination with computational predictions of sequences encoding structural RNAs to improve the search for such genes.

Weile Christian; Gardner Paul P; Hedegaard Mads M; Vinther Jeppe

2007-01-01

262

Use of tiling array data and RNA secondary structure predictions to identify noncoding RNA genes.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Within the last decade a large number of noncoding RNA genes have been identified, but this may only be the tip of the iceberg. Using comparative genomics a large number of sequences that have signals concordant with conserved RNA secondary structures have been discovered in the human genome. Moreover, genome wide transcription profiling with tiling arrays indicate that the majority of the genome is transcribed. RESULTS: We have combined tiling array data with genome wide structural RNA predictions to search for novel noncoding and structural RNA genes that are expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-AS. Using this strategy, we identify thousands of human candidate RNA genes. To further verify the expression of these genes, we focused on candidate genes that had a stable hairpin structures or a high level of covariance. Using northern blotting, we verify the expression of 2 out of 3 of the hairpin structures and 3 out of 9 high covariance structures in SK-N-AS cells. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that many human noncoding, structured and conserved RNA genes remain to be discovered and that tissue specific tiling array data can be used in combination with computational predictions of sequences encoding structural RNAs to improve the search for such genes. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null

Weile, Christian; Gardner, Paul P

2007-01-01

263

A genome-wide regulatory framework identifies maize pericarp color1 controlled genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pericarp Color1 (P1) encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor responsible for the accumulation of insecticidal flavones in maize (Zea mays) silks and red phlobaphene pigments in pericarps and other floral tissues, which makes P1 an important visual marker. Using genome-wide expression analyses (RNA sequencing) in pericarps and silks of plants with contrasting P1 alleles combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing, we show here that the regulatory functions of P1 are much broader than the activation of genes corresponding to enzymes in a branch of flavonoid biosynthesis. P1 modulates the expression of several thousand genes, and ?1500 of them were identified as putative direct targets of P1. Among them, we identified F2H1, corresponding to a P450 enzyme that converts naringenin into 2-hydroxynaringenin, a key branch point in the P1-controlled pathway and the first step in the formation of insecticidal C-glycosyl flavones. Unexpectedly, the binding of P1 to gene regulatory regions can result in both gene activation and repression. Our results indicate that P1 is the major regulator for a set of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and a minor modulator of the expression of a much larger gene set that includes genes involved in primary metabolism and production of other specialized compounds.

Morohashi K; Casas MI; Falcone Ferreyra ML; Falcone Ferreyra L; Mejía-Guerra MK; Pourcel L; Yilmaz A; Feller A; Carvalho B; Emiliani J; Rodriguez E; Pellegrinet S; McMullen M; Casati P; Grotewold E

2012-07-01

264

Microarray and differential display identify genes involved in jasmonate-dependent anther development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Jasmonate (JA) is a signaling compound essential for anther development and pollen fertility in Arabidopsis. Mutations that block the pathway of JA synthesis result into male sterility. To understand the processes of anther and pollen maturation, we used microarray and differential display approaches to compare gene expression pattern in anthers of wild-type Arabidopsis and the male-sterile mutant, opr3. Microarray experiment revealed 25 genes that were up-regulated more than 1.8-fold in wild-type anthers as compared to mutant anthers. Experiments based on differential display identified 13 additional genes up-regulated in wild-type anthers compared to opr3 for a total of 38 differentially expressed genes. Searches of the Arabidopsis and non-redundant databases disclosed known or likely functions for 28 of the 38 genes identified, while 10 genes encode proteins of unknown function. Northern blot analysis of eight representative clones as probes confirmed low expression in opr3 anthers compared with wild-type anthers. JA responsiveness of these same genes was also investigated by northern blot analysis of anther RNA isolated from wild-type and opr3 plants, In these experiments, four genes were induced in opr3 anthers within 0.5-1 h of JA treatment while the remaining genes were up-regulated only 1-8 h after JA application. None of these genes was induced by JA in anthers of the coil mutant that is deficient in JA responsiveness. The four early-induced genes in opr3 encode lipoxygenase, a putative bHLH transcription factor, epithiospecifier protein and an unknown protein. We propose that these and other early components may be involved in JA signaling and in the initiation of developmental processes. The four late genes encode an extensin-like protein, a peptide transporter and two unknown proteins, which may represent components required later in anther and pollen maturation. Transcript profiling has provided a successful approach to identify genes involved in anther and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis.

Mandaokar A; Kumar VD; Amway M; Browse J

2003-07-01

265

Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

Martínez-García PJ; Fresnedo-Ramírez J; Parfitt DE; Gradziel TM; Crisosto CH

2013-01-01

266

Gene Expression Profiling using Nanostring Digital RNA Counting to Identify Potential Target Antigens for Melanoma Immunotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The success of immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic cancer is contingent on the identification of appropriate target antigens. Potential targets must be expressed on tumors but show restricted expression on normal tissues. To maximize patient eligibility, ideal target antigens should be expressed on a high percentage of tumors within a histology and, potentially, in multiple different malignancies. Design: A Nanostring probeset was designed containing 97 genes, 72 of which are considered potential candidate genes for immunotherapy. Five established melanoma cell lines, 59 resected metastatic melanoma tumors, and 31 normal tissue samples were profiled and analyzed using Nanostring technology. RESULTS: Of the 72 potential target genes, 33 were overexpressed in more than 20% of studied melanoma tumor samples. Twenty of those genes were identified as differentially expressed between normal tissues and tumor samples by ANOVA analysis. Analysis of normal tissue gene expression identified seven genes with limited normal tissue expression that warrant further consideration as potential immunotherapy target antigens: CSAG2, MAGEA3, MAGEC2, IL13RA2, PRAME, CSPG4, and SOX10. These genes were highly overexpressed on a large percentage of the studied tumor samples, with expression in a limited number of normal tissue samples at much lower levels. CONCLUSION: The application of Nanostring RNA counting technology was used to directly quantitate the gene expression levels of multiple potential tumor antigens. Analysis of cell lines, 59 tumors, and normal tissues identified seven potential immunotherapy targets for the treatment of melanoma that could increase the number of patients potentially eligible for adoptive immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res; 19(18); 4941-50. ©2013 AACR.

Beard RE; Abate-Daga D; Rosati SF; Zheng Z; Wunderlich JR; Rosenberg SA; Morgan RA

2013-09-01

267

Yeast-based assay identifies novel Shh/Gli target genes in vertebrate development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of developmental events and molecular mechanisms associated with the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway from Drosophila to vertebrates, suggest that gene regulation is crucial for diverse cellular responses, including target genes not yet described. Although several high-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded information at the genomic, transcriptional and proteomic levels, the specificity of Gli binding sites related to direct target gene activation still remain elusive. This study aims to identify novel putative targets of Gli transcription factors through a protein-DNA binding assay using yeast, and validating a subset of targets both in-vitro and in-vivo. Testing in different Hh/Gli gain- and loss-of-function scenarios we here identified known (e.g., ptc1) and novel Hh-regulated genes in zebrafish embryos. Results The combined yeast-based screening and MEME/MAST analysis were able to predict Gli transcription factor binding sites, and position mapping of these sequences upstream or in the first intron of promoters served to identify new putative target genes of Gli regulation. These candidates were validated by qPCR in combination with either the pharmacological Hh/Gli antagonist cyc or the agonist pur in Hh-responsive C3H10T1/2 cells. We also used small-hairpin RNAs against Gli proteins to evaluate targets and confirm specific Gli regulation their expression. Taking advantage of mutants that have been identified affecting different components of the Hh/Gli signaling system in the zebrafish model, we further analyzed specific novel candidates. Studying Hh function with pharmacological inhibition or activation complemented these genetic loss-of-function approaches. We provide evidence that in zebrafish embryos, Hh signaling regulates sfrp2, neo1, and c-myc expression in-vivo. Conclusion A recently described yeast-based screening allowed us to identify new Hh/Gli target genes, functionally important in different contexts of vertebrate embryonic development.

Milla Luis A; Cortés Claudio R; Hodar Q Christian; Ońate Maritza G; Cambiazo Veronica; Burgess Shawn M; Palma Verónica

2012-01-01

268

Large-Scale Gene-Centric Meta-analysis across 32 Studies Identifies Multiple Lipid Loci  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ?50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ?2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids.

Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guo, Yiran; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Lange, Leslie A.; Almoguera, Berta; Appelman, Yolande E.; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gong, Yan; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Mingyao; Li, Yun R.; Liu, Kiang; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Middelberg, Rita P.S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Nelson, Christopher P.; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P.R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Smith, Erin N.; Tischfield, Sam E.; van der Most, Peter J.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Volcik, Kelly A.; Zhang, Li; Bailey, Kent R.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bauer, Florianne; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Braund, Peter S.; Burt, Amber; Burton, Paul R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; deJong, Jonas S.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Fornage, Myriam; Furlong, Clement E.; Glazer, Nicole; Gums, John G.; Hastie, Claire; Holmes, Michael V.; Illig, Thomas; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kumari, Meena; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mallela, Laya; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Ordovas, Jose; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Post, Wendy S.; Saxena, Richa; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shah, Tina; Shields, Denis C.; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Topol, Eric J.; Toskala, Elina; van Pelt, Joost L.; van Setten, Jessica; Yusuf, Salim; Whittaker, John C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Anand, Sonia S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Clarke, Robert; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Davidson, Karina W.; Day, Ian N.M.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaess, Bernhard M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Marz, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Murray, Sarah S.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce; Redline, Susan; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schunkert, Heribert; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Stanton, Alice; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, Ellen; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Watkins, Hugh; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Whitfield, John B.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Reilly, Muredach P.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wilson, James G.; Rader, Daniel J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elbers, Clara C.; Keating, Brendan J.; Drenos, Fotios

2012-01-01

269

Combining Pareto-optimal clusters using supervised learning for identifying co-expressed genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The landscape of biological and biomedical research is being changed rapidly with the invention of microarrays which enables simultaneous view on the transcription levels of a huge number of genes across different experimental conditions or time points. Using microarray data sets, clustering algorithms have been actively utilized in order to identify groups of co-expressed genes. This article poses the problem of fuzzy clustering in microarray data as a multiobjective optimization problem which simultaneously optimizes two internal fuzzy cluster validity indices to yield a set of Pareto-optimal clustering solutions. Each of these clustering solutions possesses some amount of information regarding the clustering structure of the input data. Motivated by this fact, a novel fuzzy majority voting approach is proposed to combine the clustering information from all the solutions in the resultant Pareto-optimal set. This approach first identifies the genes which are assigned to some particular cluster with high membership degree by most of the Pareto-optimal solutions. Using this set of genes as the training set, the remaining genes are classified by a supervised learning algorithm. In this work, we have used a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier for this purpose. Results The performance of the proposed clustering technique has been demonstrated on five publicly available benchmark microarray data sets, viz., Yeast Sporulation, Yeast Cell Cycle, Arabidopsis Thaliana, Human Fibroblasts Serum and Rat Central Nervous System. Comparative studies of the use of different SVM kernels and several widely used microarray clustering techniques are reported. Moreover, statistical significance tests have been carried out to establish the statistical superiority of the proposed clustering approach. Finally, biological significance tests have been carried out using a web based gene annotation tool to show that the proposed method is able to produce biologically relevant clusters of co-expressed genes. Conclusion The proposed clustering method has been shown to perform better than other well-known clustering algorithms in finding clusters of co-expressed genes efficiently. The clusters of genes produced by the proposed technique are also found to be biologically significant, i.e., consist of genes which belong to the same functional groups. This indicates that the proposed clustering method can be used efficiently to identify co-expressed genes in microarray gene expression data. Supplementary Website The pre-processed and normalized data sets, the matlab code and other related materials are available at http://anirbanmukhopadhyay.50webs.com/mogasvm.html.

Maulik Ujjwal; Mukhopadhyay Anirban; Bandyopadhyay Sanghamitra

2009-01-01

270

[Identification of molecular markers linked to the fertility restoring gene for the CMS Capsicum annuum L].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bulked segregant analysis method was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the fertility restoring gene for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) capsicum annum L. Totally 336 random primers were screened on the DNA samples of restorer and sterile bulks. Primer S418 produced a special band in restorer line. It was about 3000 bp, including two fragments 1515 bp and 1162 bp. Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) indicated the fragment of 1515 bp only existed in restorer line.It was designed to S418(1515). Analysis of the sequence indicated S418(1515) was unknown before. The homology of blastn was less than 40%, however the homology of tBlastx indicated this sequence was high homologous with the part sequences of rice which were distributed on 2,4,7,10 chromosomes. It suggested this sequence might have the similar function with them. This result offered a good foundation to research the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration for CMS capsicum. Based on the sequence, special primers were designed to transform the RAPD marker to PCR marker. The result indicated that these primers could be used to screen the restorer lines from a large quantitive of candidate lines.

Chang CT; Wang CG; Chen CB; Wu F; Sun de L

2005-06-01

271

[Identification of molecular markers linked to the fertility restoring gene for the CMS Capsicum annuum L].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bulked segregant analysis method was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the fertility restoring gene for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) capsicum annum L. Totally 336 random primers were screened on the DNA samples of restorer and sterile bulks. Primer S418 produced a special band in restorer line. It was about 3000 bp, including two fragments 1515 bp and 1162 bp. Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) indicated the fragment of 1515 bp only existed in restorer line.It was designed to S418(1515). Analysis of the sequence indicated S418(1515) was unknown before. The homology of blastn was less than 40%, however the homology of tBlastx indicated this sequence was high homologous with the part sequences of rice which were distributed on 2,4,7,10 chromosomes. It suggested this sequence might have the similar function with them. This result offered a good foundation to research the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration for CMS capsicum. Based on the sequence, special primers were designed to transform the RAPD marker to PCR marker. The result indicated that these primers could be used to screen the restorer lines from a large quantitive of candidate lines. PMID:16044916

Chang, Cai Tao; Wang, Chun Guo; Chen, Cheng Bin; Wu, Feng; Sun, De Ling

2005-06-01

272

OncodriveCLUST: exploiting the positional clustering of somatic mutations to identify cancer genes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MOTIVATION: Gain-of-function mutations often cluster in specific protein regions, a signal that those mutations provide an adaptive advantage to cancer cells and consequently are positively selected during clonal evolution of tumours. We sought to determine the overall extent of this feature in cancer and the possibility to use this feature to identify drivers. RESULTS: We have developed OncodriveCLUST, a method to identify genes with a significant bias towards mutation clustering within the protein sequence. This method constructs the background model by assessing coding-silent mutations, which are assumed not to be under positive selection and thus may reflect the baseline tendency of somatic mutations to be clustered. OncodriveCLUST analysis of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer retrieved a list of genes enriched by the Cancer Gene Census, prioritizing those with dominant phenotypes but also highlighting some recessive cancer genes, which showed wider but still delimited mutation clusters. Assessment of datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas demonstrated that OncodriveCLUST selected cancer genes that were nevertheless missed by methods based on frequency and functional impact criteria. This stressed the benefit of combining approaches based on complementary principles to identify driver mutations. We propose OncodriveCLUST as an effective tool for that purpose. AVAILABILITY: OncodriveCLUST has been implemented as a Python script and is freely available from http://bg.upf.edu/oncodriveclust CONTACT: nuria.lopez@upf.edu or abel.gonzalez@upf.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Tamborero D; Gonzalez-Perez A; Lopez-Bigas N

2013-09-01

273

Identifying novel genes for atherosclerosis through mouse-human comparative genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Susceptibility to atherosclerosis is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. Its genetic determinants have been studied by use of quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) analysis. So far, 21 atherosclerosis QTLs have been identified in the mouse: 7 in a high-fat-diet model only, 9 in a sensitized model (apolipoprotein E- or LDL [low-density lipoprotein] receptor-deficient mice) only, and 5 in both models, suggesting that different gene sets operate in each model and that a subset operates in both. Among the 27 human atherosclerosis QTLs reported, 17 (63%) are located in regions homologous (concordant) to mouse QTLs, suggesting that these mouse and human atherosclerosis QTLs have the same underlying genes. Therefore, genes regulating human atherosclerosis will be found most efficiently by first finding their orthologs in concordant mouse QTLs. Novel mouse QTL genes will be found most efficiently by using a combination of the following strategies: identifying QTLs in new crosses performed with previously unused parental strains; inducing mutations in large-scale, high-throughput mutagenesis screens; and using new genomic and bioinformatics tools. Once QTL genes are identified in mice, they can be tested in human association studies for their relevance in human atherosclerotic disease. PMID:15931593

Wang, Xiaosong; Ishimori, Naoki; Korstanje, Ron; Rollins, Jarod; Paigen, Beverly

2005-05-19

274

Identifying novel genes for atherosclerosis through mouse-human comparative genetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Susceptibility to atherosclerosis is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. Its genetic determinants have been studied by use of quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) analysis. So far, 21 atherosclerosis QTLs have been identified in the mouse: 7 in a high-fat-diet model only, 9 in a sensitized model (apolipoprotein E- or LDL [low-density lipoprotein] receptor-deficient mice) only, and 5 in both models, suggesting that different gene sets operate in each model and that a subset operates in both. Among the 27 human atherosclerosis QTLs reported, 17 (63%) are located in regions homologous (concordant) to mouse QTLs, suggesting that these mouse and human atherosclerosis QTLs have the same underlying genes. Therefore, genes regulating human atherosclerosis will be found most efficiently by first finding their orthologs in concordant mouse QTLs. Novel mouse QTL genes will be found most efficiently by using a combination of the following strategies: identifying QTLs in new crosses performed with previously unused parental strains; inducing mutations in large-scale, high-throughput mutagenesis screens; and using new genomic and bioinformatics tools. Once QTL genes are identified in mice, they can be tested in human association studies for their relevance in human atherosclerotic disease.

Wang X; Ishimori N; Korstanje R; Rollins J; Paigen B

2005-07-01

275

GO-2D: identifying 2-dimensional cellular-localized functional modules in Gene Ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid progress in high-throughput biotechnologies (e.g. microarrays) and exponential accumulation of gene functional knowledge make it promising for systematic understanding of complex human diseases at functional modules level. Based on Gene Ontology, a large number of automatic tools have been developed for the functional analysis and biological interpretation of the high-throughput microarray data. Results Different from the existing tools such as Onto-Express and FatiGO, we develop a tool named GO-2D for identifying 2-dimensional functional modules based on combined GO categories. For example, it refines biological process categories by sorting their genes into different cellular component categories, and then extracts those combined categories enriched with the interesting genes (e.g., the differentially expressed genes) for identifying the cellular-localized functional modules. Applications of GO-2D to the analyses of two human cancer datasets show that very specific disease-relevant processes can be identified by using cellular location information. Conclusion For studying complex human diseases, GO-2D can extract functionally compact and detailed modules such as the cellular-localized ones, characterizing disease-relevant modules in terms of both biological processes and cellular locations. The application results clearly demonstrate that 2-dimensional approach complementary to current 1-dimensional approach is powerful for finding modules highly relevant to diseases.

Zhu Jing; Wang Jing; Guo Zheng; Zhang Min; Yang Da; Li Yanhui; Wang Dong; Xiao Guohua

2007-01-01

276

Gene expression profiling of breast cell lines identifies potential new basal markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A better molecular characterization of breast cell lines (BCL) may help discover new markers to apply to tumour samples. We performed gene and protein expression profiling of 31 BCL using whole-genome DNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 'cell microarrays' (CMA), respectively. Global hierarchical clustering discriminated two groups of BCL: group I corresponded to luminal cell lines, group II to basal and mesenchymal cell lines. Correlations with centroids calculated from a published 'intrinsic 500-gene set' assigned 15 cell lines as luminal, eight as basal and four as mesenchymal. A set of 1.233 genes was differentially expressed between basal and luminal samples. Mesenchymal and basal subtypes were rather similar and discriminated by only 227 genes. The expression of 10 proteins (CAV1, CD44, EGFR, MET, ETS1, GATA3, luminal cytokeratin CK19, basal cytokeratin CK5/6, CD10, and ERM protein moesin) encoded by luminal vs basal discriminator genes confirmed the subtype classification and the validity of the identified markers. Our BCL basal/luminal signature correctly re-classified the published series of tumour samples that originally served to identify the molecular subtypes, suggesting that the identified markers should be useful for tumour classification and might represent promising targets for disease management. PMID:16288205

Charafe-Jauffret, E; Ginestier, C; Monville, F; Finetti, P; Adélaďde, J; Cervera, N; Fekairi, S; Xerri, L; Jacquemier, J; Birnbaum, D; Bertucci, F

2006-04-01

277

Linking Yeast Gcn5p Catalytic Function and Gene Regulation Using a Quantitative, Graded Dominant Mutant Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Establishing causative links between protein functional domains and global gene regulation is critical for advancements in genetics, biotechnology, disease treatment, and systems biology. This task is challenging for multifunctional proteins when relying on traditional approaches such as gene deleti...

Lanza, Amanda M.; Blazeck, John J.; Crook, Nathan C.; Alper, Hal S.

278

Identifying context-specific transcription factor targets from prior knowledge and gene expression data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous methodologies, assays, and databases presently provide candidate targets of transcription factors (TFs). However, TFs rarely regulate their targets universally. The context of activation of a TF can change the transcriptional response of targets. Direct multiple regulation typical to mammalian genes complicates direct inference of TF targets from gene expression data. We present a novel statistic that infers context-specific TF regulation based upon the CoGAPS algorithm, which infers overlapping gene expression patterns resulting from coregulation. Numerical experiments with simulated data showed that this statistic correctly inferred targets that are common to multiple TFs, except in cases where the signal from a TF is negligible relative to noise level and signal from other TFs. The statistic is robust to moderate levels of error in the simulated gene sets, identifying fewer false positives than false negatives. Significantly, the regulatory statistic refines the number of TF targets relevant to cell signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to genes consistent with the phosphorylation patterns of TFs identified in previous studies. As formulated, the proposed regulatory statistic has wide applicability to inferring set membership in integrated datasets. This statistic could be naturally extended to account for prior probabilities of set membership or to add candidate gene targets. PMID:23694699

Fertig, Elana J; Favorov, Alexander V; Ochs, Michael F

2013-05-16

279

Microarray Profiling of Mononuclear Peripheral Blood Cells Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Related to Chemoradiation Response in Rectal Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Preoperative chemoradiation significantly improves oncological outcome in locally advanced rectal cancer. However there is no effective method of predicting tumor response to chemoradiation in these patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells have emerged recently as pathology markers of cancer and other diseases, making possible their use as therapy predictors. Furthermore, the importance of the immune response in radiosensivity of solid organs led us to hypothesized that microarray gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells could identify patients with response to chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Thirty five 35 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were recruited initially to perform the study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before neaodjuvant treatment. RNA was extracted and purified to obtain cDNA and cRNA for hybridization of microarrays included in Human WG CodeLink bioarrays. Quantitative real time PCR was used to validate microarray experiment data. Results were correlated with pathological response, according to Mandard´s criteria and final UICC Stage (patients with tumor regression grade 1–2 and downstaging being defined as responders and patients with grade 3–5 and no downstaging as non-responders). Twenty seven out of 35 patients were finally included in the study. We performed a multiple t-test using Significance Analysis of Microarrays, to find those genes differing significantly in expression, between responders (n?=?11) and non-responders (n?=?16) to CRT. The differently expressed genes were: BC 035656.1, CIR, PRDM2, CAPG, FALZ, HLA-DPB2, NUPL2, and ZFP36. The measurement of FALZ (p?=?0.029) gene expression level determined by qRT-PCR, showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Gene expression profiling reveals novel genes in peripheral blood samples of mononuclear cells that could predict responders and non-responders to chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Moreover, our investigation added further evidence to the importance of mononuclear cells’ mediated response in the neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer.

Conde-Muino, Raquel; Olmedo, Carmen; Cano, Carlos; Segura-Jimenez, Inmaculada; Blanco, Armando; Bueno, Pablo; Ferron, J. Antonio; Medina, Pedro

2013-01-01

280

Identifying the Viral Genes Encoding Envelope Glycoproteins for Differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Isolates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable tar...

Jee Eun Han; Ji Hyung Kim; Tristan Renault; Casiano Choresca Jr.; Sang Phil Shin; Jin Woo Jun; Se Chang Park

 
 
 
 
281

Identifying the viral genes encoding envelope glycoproteins for differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable tar...

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Choresca, Casiano; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

282

Genetic research on complex behaviors: an examination of attempts to identify genes for smoking.  

Science.gov (United States)

A conference on the conduct of genomic research on complex behaviors was convened at the University of Michigan to demystify genetic research by describing the tools and methodologies for identifying genes and to assess the feasibility of conducting genomic research on smoking, a complex behavior with major public health import. These proceedings are excerpts based on the presentations at the conference. PMID:17654301

Pomerleau, Ovide F; Burmeister, Margit; Madden, Pamela; Long, Jeffrey C; Swan, Gary E; Kardia, Sharon L R

2007-08-01

283

Cloning of the Arabidopsis WIGGUM gene identifies a role for farnesylation in meristem development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Control of cellular proliferation in plant meristems is important for maintaining the correct number and position of developing organs. One of the genes identified in the control of floral and apical meristem size and floral organ number in Arabidopsis thaliana is WIGGUM. In wiggum mutants, one of t...

Ziegelhoffer, Eva C.; Medrano, Leonard J.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

284

Tomato tos1 mutation identifies a gene essential for osmotic tolerance and abscisic acid sensitivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osmotic stress severely limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. We have used mutagenesis to identify plant genes that are required for osmotic stress tolerance in tomato. , This work was supported by a grant from the Universidad de Málaga and Junta de Andalucía (grant AGR-168). , Peer reviewed

Borsani, Omar; Cuartero, Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Botella, Miguel A.

285

Clustering biological annotations and gene expression data to identify putatively co-regulated biological processes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MOTIVATION: Functional profiling is a key step of microarray gene expression data analysis. Identifying co-regulated biological processes could help for better understanding of underlying biological interactions within the studied biological frame. RESULTS: We present herein an original approach des...

Henegar, Corneliu; Cancello, Raffaella; Rome, Sophie; Vidal, Hubert; Clément, Karine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel

286

Using the tannase gene to rapidly and simply identify Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a bacterium similar to Staphylococcus aureus, produces tannase that degrades tannin. We developed a polymerase chain reaction-based method to rapidly and simply identify this species by detecting the tanA gene for S. lugdunensis tannase.

Noguchi N; Goto K; Ro T; Narui K; Ko M; Nasu Y; Utsumi K; Takazawa K; Moriyasu F; Sasatsu M

2010-01-01

287

Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore are pathogenic, precludes targeted healthcare for both carriers and their relatives. To facilitate the identification of pathogenic VUS, we have developed an in cellulo genetic screen-based procedure for the large-scale mutagenization, identification, and cataloging of residues of MMR genes critical for MMR gene function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated and validated a prototypic reverse diagnosis catalog for the MMR gene MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) by mutagenizing, identifying, and cataloging 26 deleterious mutations in 23 amino acids. Extensive in vivo and in vitro analysis of mutants listed in the catalog revealed both recessive and dominant-negative phenotypes. Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare.

Drost M; Lützen A; van Hees S; Ferreira D; Calléja F; Zonneveld JB; Nielsen FC; Rasmussen LJ; de Wind N

2013-06-01

288

Using the tannase gene to rapidly and simply identify Staphylococcus lugdunensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a bacterium similar to Staphylococcus aureus, produces tannase that degrades tannin. We developed a polymerase chain reaction-based method to rapidly and simply identify this species by detecting the tanA gene for S. lugdunensis tannase. PMID:19446981

Noguchi, Norihisa; Goto, Keiko; Ro, Tokihiro; Narui, Koji; Ko, Mari; Nasu, Yutaka; Utsumi, Kenta; Takazawa, Kenji; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Sasatsu, Masanori

2009-05-15

289

Identification of microsatellite markers (SSR) linked to a new bacterial blight resistance gene xa33(t) in rice cultivar ‘Ba7’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempts to identify a new source of bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene and microsatellite makers (SSR) linked to it. A total number of 139 F2 progenies generated from a cross between the resistant donor ‘Ba7’and ‘Pin Kaset’ were developed and used for this study. A Thai Xoo isolate, TXO16, collected from Phitsanulok province, was used to evaluate the resistance reaction in the F2 population. The segregation ratio of resistance (R) and susceptibility (S) was statistically fitted to 1R:3S model indicating single recessive gene segregation. Twenty F2 individuals consisting of 10 resistant and 10 susceptible plants were chosen for DNA analysis. Sixty-two polymorphic markers covering all rice chromosomes were used to identify the location and linked markers of the resistance gene. Four SSR markers, viz. RM30, RM7243, RM5509 and RM400, located on the long arm of rice chromosome 6, could clearly discriminate between resistant and susceptible phenotypes, and 161 BC2F2:3 individuals carrying BB resistance gene were developed through MAS using these SSR markers. This population was inoculated with TXO16 to validate and confirm the location of the gene and linked markers. The segregation ratio was statistically fitted to 1R:3S model confirming a recessive nature of the gene action in this germplasm. Phenotypic-genotypic association including five additional markers suggested that RM20590 was tightly linked to this resistance gene (R2=59.12 %). The BB phenotype was controlled by a recessive gene with incomplete dominance of susceptible allele providing intermediate resistance to Xoo pathogen in heterozygotes. The location of the gene was in the vicinity of a dominant gene, Xa7, which was previously reported. However, the resistance gene identified here was different from Xa7 because of the different nature of gene action. Consequently, this gene was tentatively designated as xa33(t). The resistance gene from rice cultivar ‘Ba7’ and the closely linked markers found in this study will be useful for rice breeders as a source to improve BB resistance through MAS in rice breeding programs.

Theerayut Toojinda

2009-01-01

290

Comparative genome sequencing identifies a prophage-associated genomic island linked to host adaptation of Lawsonia intracellularis infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE). The disease is endemic in pigs, emerging in horses and has also been reported in a variety of other animal species, including nonhuman primates. Comparing the whole genome sequences of a homologous porcine L. intracellularis isolate cultivated for 10 and 60 passages in vitro, we identified a 18-kb prophage-associated genomic island in the passage 10 (pathogenic variant) that was lost in the passage 60 (non-pathogenic variant). This chromosomal island comprises 15 genes downstream from the prophage DLP12 integrase gene. The prevalence of this genetic element was evaluated in 12 other L. intracellularis isolates and in 53 infected animals and was found to be conserved in all porcine isolates cultivated for up to 20 passages and was lost in isolates cultivated for more than 40 passages. Furthermore, the prophage region was also present in 26 fecal samples derived from pigs clinically affected with both acute and chronic forms of the disease. Nevertheless, equine L. intracellularis isolates evaluated did not harbor this genomic island regardless of the passage in vitro. Additionally, fecal samples from 21 clinically affected horses and four wild rabbits trapped in horse farms experiencing PE outbreaks did not show this prophage-associated island. Although the presence of this prophage-associated island was not essential for a virulent L. intracellularis phenotype, this genetic element was porcine isolate-specific and potentially contributed to the ecological specialization of this organism for the swine host.

Vannucci FA; Kelley MR; Gebhart CJ

2013-01-01

291

Isolation and characterization of a calcium channel gene, Cacna1f, the murine orthologue of the gene for incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mutant L-type calcium channel alpha(1)-subunit gene, CACNA1F, was recently identified as the gene responsible for incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness. The 6070-bp mRNA transcript is predicted to encode a 1977-amino-acid pore-forming protein with cytoplasmic amino- and carboxyl-termini separated by four homologous repeat domains, each consisting of six transmembrane segments. CACNA1F has been shown to be preferentially expressed in the retina, indicative of a specific functional role in visual processing. We have established the complete sequence of the murine orthologue of CACNA1F, namely Cacna1f. The total length of the mRNA transcript of the murine gene was established to be 6080 bp with an open reading frame that translates into a 1985-amino-acid protein. Cacna1f is highly homologous to the human sequence, with 90% identity at the amino acid level and almost perfect conservation between the functional domains. Furthermore, as in the human gene, the 3' end of the Cacna1f gene maps within 5 kb of the 5' end of the mouse synaptophysin gene in a region orthologous to Xp11.23. Using in situ hybridization, Cacna1f was found to be expressed in the inner and outer nuclear layers and the ganglion cell layer of the retina.

Naylor MJ; Rancourt DE; Bech-Hansen NT

2000-06-01

292

Potential candidate genes for alveolar hypoxia identified by transcriptome network analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND. Alveolar hypoxia is an important condition related to many disorders such as chronic pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vasoconstriction, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. The aim of present study was to disclose the biological response and the potential transcriptome networks regulating the hypoxia response in the lungs. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In this study, the microarray dataset GSE11341 was used to construct a regulatory network and identify the potential genes related to alveolar hypoxia. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analyses were also performed. RESULTS. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-?B) were to be the hub nodes in the transcriptome network. HIF-1? may regulate potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member (5KCNA5), solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member (1SLC2A1), and heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1) expression through the regulation of membrane potential, glucose metabolism, and anti-inflammation pathways. HMOX-1 mediates signaling pathways that relate to NF-?B. CCND1 (cyclin D1) expression could be regulated by PPAR? and HIF-1? via the cell cycle pathway. In addition, new transcriptional factors and target genes, such as phosphofructokinase (PFKL, liver), aldolase A (ALDOA, fructose-bisphosphate), and trefoil factor 3 (intestinal) (TFF3), were also identified. CONCLUSIONS. Transcriptome network analysis is a helpful method for the identification of the candidate genes in alveolar hypoxia. The KEGG pathway and GO term analysis are beneficial in the prediction of the underlying molecular mechanism of these identified genes in alveolar hypoxia.

Zhang BL; Xu RL; Qin YW; Zheng X; Wu H; You XH; Cao J; Hu JQ; Zhao XX

2012-01-01

293

Molecular triangulation: bridging linkage and molecular-network information for identifying candidate genes in Alzheimer's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major challenge in human genetics is identifying the molecular basis of common heritable disorders. In contrast to rare single-gene diseases, multifactorial disorders are thought to arise from the combined effect of multiple gene variants, such that any single variant may have only a modest effect on disease susceptibility. We present a method to identify genes that may harbor a significant proportion of the genetic variation that predisposes individuals to a given multifactorial disorder. First, we perform an automated literature analysis that predicts physical interactions (edges) among candidate disease genes (seed nodes, selected on the basis of prior information) and other molecular entities. We derive models of molecular networks from this analysis and map the seed nodes to them. We then compute the graph-theoretic distance (the minimum number of edges that must be traversed) between the seed nodes and all other nodes in the network. We assume that nodes that are found in close proximity to multiple seed nodes are the best disease-related candidate genes. To evaluate this approach, we selected four seed genes, each with a proven role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The method performed well in predicting additional network nodes that match AD gene candidates identified manually by an expert. We also show that the method prioritizes among the seed nodes themselves, rejecting false-positive seeds that are derived from (noisy) whole-genome genetic-linkage scans. We propose that this strategy will provide a valuable means to bridge genetic and genomic knowledge in the search for genetic determinants of multifactorial disorders.

Krauthammer M; Kaufmann CA; Gilliam TC; Rzhetsky A

2004-10-01

294

Integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling identifies chromosomal loci with altered gene expression in cervical cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

For a better understanding of the consequences of recurrent chromosomal alterations in cervical carcinomas, we integrated genome-wide chromosomal and transcriptional profiles of 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 5 adenocarcinomas (AdCAs) and 6 normal controls. Previous genomic profiling showed that gains at chromosome arms 1q, 3q, and 20q as well as losses at 8q, 10q, 11q, and 13q were common in cervical carcinomas. Altered regions spanned multiple megabases, and the extent to which expression of genes located there is affected remains unclear. Expression analysis of these previously chromosomally profiled carcinomas yielded 83 genes with significantly differential expression between carcinomas and normal epithelium. Application of differential gene locus mapping (DIGMAP) analysis and the array CGH expression integration tool (ACE-it) identified hotspots within large chromosomal alterations in which gene expression was altered as well. Chromosomal gains of the long arms of chromosome 1, 3, and 20 resulted in increased expression of genes located at 1q32.1-32.2, 3q13.32-23, 3q26.32-27.3, and 20q11.21-13.33, whereas a chromosomal loss of 11q22.3-25 was related to decreased expression of genes located in this region. Overexpression of DTX3L, PIK3R4, ATP2C1, and SLC25A36, all located at 3q21.1-23 and identified by DIGMAP, ACE-it or both, was confirmed in an independent validation sample set consisting of 12 SCCs and 13 normal ectocervical samples. In conclusion, integrated chromosomal and transcriptional profiling identified chromosomal hotspots at 1q, 3q, 11q, and 20q with altered gene expression within large commonly altered chromosomal regions in cervical cancer. PMID:18618715

Wilting, Saskia M; de Wilde, Jillian; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes; Yi, Yajun; van Wieringen, Wessel N; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Meijer, Gerrit A; Ylstra, Bauke; Snijders, Peter J F; Steenbergen, Renske D M

2008-10-01

295

MADGene: retrieval and processing of gene identifier lists for the analysis of heterogeneous microarray datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary: MADGene is a software environment comprising a web-based database and a java application. This platform aims at unifying gene identifiers (ids) and performing gene set analysis. MADGene allows the user to perform inter-conversion of clone and gene ids over a large range of nomenclatures relative to 17 species. We propose a set of 23 functions to facilitate the analysis of gene sets and we give two microarray applications to show how MADGene can be used to conduct meta-analyses. Availability: The MADGene resources are freely available online from http://www.madtools.org, a website dedicated to the analysis and annotation of DNA microarray data. Contact: gerard.ramstein@univ-nantes.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Baron, Daniel; Bihouee, Audrey; Teusan, Raluca; Dubois, Emeric; Savagner, Frederique; Steenman, Marja; Houlgatte, Remi; Ramstein, Gerard

2011-01-01

296

Using BLAST for identifying gene and protein names in journal articles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a system which automatically identifies gene and protein names in journal articles, an important and non-trivial first step in knowledge extraction of protein and gene actions. Our system uses a database of gene and protein names and is based on BLAST [Altschul et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (1997) 3389-3402], a popular tool for DNA and protein sequence comparison. We describe a method that consists of mapping sequences of text characters into sequences of nucleotides that can be processed by BLAST. We demonstrate that this approach is feasible: the system matches gene and protein names with a recall of 78.8% and a precision of 71.7%, which includes names that are not part of the system database. An analysis of the results suggests techniques that can be used to improve performance further.

Krauthammer M; Rzhetsky A; Morozov P; Friedman C

2000-12-01

297

Comprehensively identifying and characterizing the missing gene sequences in human reference genome with integrated analytic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human reference genome is still incomplete and a number of gene sequences are missing from it. The approaches to uncover them, the reasons causing their absence and their functions are less explored. Here, we comprehensively identified and characterized the missing genes of human reference genome with RNA-Seq data from 16 different human tissues. By using a combined approach of genome-guided transcriptome reconstruction coupled with genome-wide comparison, we uncovered 3.78 and 2.37 Mb transcribed regions in the human genome assemblies of Celera and HuRef either missed from their homologous chromosomes of NCBI human reference genome build 37.2 or partially or entirely absent from the reference. We further identified a significant number of novel transcript contigs in each tissue from de novo transcriptome assembly that are unalignable to NCBI build 37.2 but can be aligned to at least one of the genomes from Celera, HuRef, chimpanzee, macaca or mouse. Our analyses indicate that the missing genes could result from genome misassembly, transposition, copy number variation, translocation and other structural variations. Moreover, our results further suggest that a large portion of these missing genes are conserved between human and other mammals, implying their important biological functions. Totally, 1,233 functional protein domains were detected in these missing genes. Collectively, our study not only provides approaches for uncovering the missing genes of a genome, but also proposes the potential reasons causing genes missed from the genome and highlights the importance of uncovering the missing genes of incomplete genomes. PMID:23572138

Chen, Geng; Wang, Charles; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Qu, Xiongfei; Chen, Jiwei; Yang, Jianmin; Shi, Caiping; Chen, Long; Zhou, Peiying; Lu, Bingxin; Shi, Tieliu

2013-04-10

298

A graph-search framework for associating gene identifiers with documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One step in the model organism database curation process is to find, for each article, the identifier of every gene discussed in the article. We consider a relaxation of this problem suitable for semi-automated systems, in which each article is associated with a ranked list of possible gene identifiers, and experimentally compare methods for solving this geneId ranking problem. In addition to baseline approaches based on combining named entity recognition (NER) systems with a "soft dictionary" of gene synonyms, we evaluate a graph-based method which combines the outputs of multiple NER systems, as well as other sources of information, and a learning method for reranking the output of the graph-based method. Results We show that named entity recognition (NER) systems with similar F-measure performance can have significantly different performance when used with a soft dictionary for geneId-ranking. The graph-based approach can outperform any of its component NER systems, even without learning, and learning can further improve the performance of the graph-based ranking approach. Conclusion The utility of a named entity recognition (NER) system for geneId-finding may not be accurately predicted by its entity-level F1 performance, the most common performance measure. GeneId-ranking systems are best implemented by combining several NER systems. With appropriate combination methods, usefully accurate geneId-ranking systems can be constructed based on easily-available resources, without resorting to problem-specific, engineered components.

Cohen William W; Minkov Einat

2006-01-01

299

[Screening and identifying cellulose degrading bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and cloning corresponding genes].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To screen, identify bacterial strains with high capability to degrade cellulose from bacteria associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and to clone related genes. METHODS: First, we collected B. xylophilus samples from pine wood nematode disease areas in Nanyang, Henan province, China. Then, we obtained the bacterial strains with high cellulase activities by primarily screening according to Congo red plate methods. The bacterial strain was classified by phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. We designed degenerate primes according to the known endoglucanase gene sequences in GenBank to carry out PCR, and analyzed the cloned sequence. RESULTS: We obtained seven bacterial strains with high cellulase activities. Among them, the bacterial strain numbered C8 showed the highest cellulase activities. The bacterium was classified to be Enterobacter genus. The full length of a cellulase gene cDNA (1104 bp) (GenBank JQ845065) coding region was successfully cloned. The homogeneous analysis demonstrated that the deduced nucleotide and amino acid of the gene separately shared 97% and 92% with the cellulase from E. aerogenes KCTC 2190, and 82% with the endo-1,4-D-glucanase gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 82% with the a cellulase gene from unculturable bacteria. CONCLUSION: It was a novel cellulose gene cloned from B. xylophilus associated bacteria.

Niu Q; Zhang L; Chu X; Du F; Feng W; Hui F; Ke T; Fan Y

2012-11-01

300

De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities. PMID:22580955

Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

2012-05-12

 
 
 
 
301

De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities.

Hyun TK; Rim Y; Jang HJ; Kim CH; Park J; Kumar R; Lee S; Kim BC; Bhak J; Nguyen-Quoc B; Kim SW; Lee SY; Kim JY

2012-07-01

302

Resequencing 50 accessions of cultivated and wild rice yields markers for identifying agronomically important genes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rice is a staple crop that has undergone substantial phenotypic and physiological changes during domestication. Here we resequenced the genomes of 40 cultivated accessions selected from the major groups of rice and 10 accessions of their wild progenitors (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to >15 x raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation patterns in rice and obtained 6.5 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding sites with missing data in any accession. Using these population SNP data, we identified thousands of genes with significantly lower diversity in cultivated but not wild rice, which represent candidate regions selected during domestication. Some of these variants are associated with important biological features, whereas others have yet to be functionally characterized. The molecular markers we have identified should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in rice.

Xu, Xun; Liu, Xin

2012-01-01

303

Differentially expressed genes identified by microarray analysis following oxymatrine treatment of hepatic stellate cell  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of oxymatrine on the gene expression profile of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) and provide novel insights into the mechanism of oxymatrine against hepatic fibrosis. Methods: HSC was isolated from normal SD by in situ perfusion of collagenase and pronase and density Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. MTT colorimetry was used to study the effect of oxymatrine on the proliferation of HSC. Total RNA and mRNA of quiescent HSC, culture-activated HSC and oxymatrine treated HSC were extracted. Effect of oxymatrine on HSC gene expression profile was detected by oligonucleotide microarray analysis with Affymetrix gene chip rat U230A. Differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and analyzed with Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Results: Oxymatrine could inhibit the proliferation of HSC in a dose-dependent manner. A total of 4641 differentially expressed genes were identified by cDNA chip between activated and quiescent HSC, among which 2702 genes were upregulated, and 1939 genes were down-regulated in activated HSC. cDNA microarray uncovered downregulation of 56 genes in response to oxymatrine, the representative genes including alpha 2 type I procollagen, alpha-1 type I collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, interleukin 1 beta, early growth response 1, chemokine ligand 2, chemokine ligand 1, CTGF, TGF?1. The most enriched GO terms included response to wounding, inflammatory response, cell migration, cell motility, wound healing, TGF? receptor signaling pathway. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that oxymatrine affected the ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, cytokine-cytokine recaptor interaction, TGF? signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. There were 37 genes upregulated significantly following oxymatrine treatment. The most enriched GO terms included oxidation reduction, negative regulation of lipoprotein oxidation, regulation of lipoprotein oxidation, steroid metabolic process, regulation of lipase activity. Six genes were confirmed with QPCR, consistent with microarray. Conclusion: The mechanism of oxymatrine in inhibiting liver fibrogenesis is associated with multi-genes and multi-pathways regulation.

Junwei Hu; Shuang Dong; Qinqin Wang; Yicheng Jian; Lijuan Hu; Lijing Wang; Yi He; Genmei Yang; Jinjun Wang; Wujun Xiong

2013-01-01

304

Gene-expression profiling to identify genes related to spontaneous tumor regression in a canine cancer model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microarray transcriptome study in cancer has been commonly used to investigate tumorigenic mechanisms. The unique growth pattern of spontaneous regression (SR) after progressive (P) growth in canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) provides a valuable cancer model to study the genome-wide differences in samples between the two stages of growth. In this study, Affymetrix analysis was performed based on the canine genome to compare the gene expression profiles of CTVT P- and SR-phase tumors. A total of 459 (278 up-regulated and 181 down-regulated) genes were identified as being differentially-expressed during the SR phase by the 2-fold method. Further analysis of these genes revealed that the expression of three genes associated with IL-6 production -TIMD-4, GPNMB and PLTP - was significantly higher in SR-phase tumors than in P-phase tumors; these results were also confirmed by real time RT-PCR in tumor tissues of beagles. In addition, we found that Th17-related genes were over-expressed in the SR phase, suggesting autoimmune responses involvement in tumor regression. Although the interaction between CTVT and host immunity were partially investigated in previous studies, our results enable us to gain new insight into the genes and possible mechanisms involved in tumor regression and reveal potentially useful targets for cancer therapy.

Chiang HC; Liao AT; Jan TR; Wang YS; Lei HJ; Tsai MH; Chen MF; Lee CY; Lin YC; Chu RM; Lin CS

2013-02-01

305

Functional screening in Drosophila identifies Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes and implicates Tau-mediated mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we systematically evaluated 67 candidate genes based on AD-associated genomic loci (p<10(-4)) from published human genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genetic manipulation of 87 homologous fly genes was tested for modulation of neurotoxicity due to human Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangle pathology in AD. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting 9 genes enhanced Tau neurotoxicity, and in most cases reciprocal activation of gene expression suppressed Tau toxicity. Our screen implicates cindr, the fly ortholog of the human CD2AP AD susceptibility gene, as a modulator of Tau-mediated disease mechanisms. Importantly, we also identify the fly orthologs of FERMT2 and CELF1 as Tau modifiers, and these loci have been independently validated as AD susceptibility loci in the latest GWAS meta-analysis. Both CD2AP and FERMT2 have been previously implicated with roles in cell adhesion, and our screen additionally identifies a fly homolog of the human integrin adhesion receptors, ITGAM and ITGA9, as a modifier of Tau neurotoxicity. Our results highlight cell adhesion pathways as important in Tau toxicity and AD susceptibility and demonstrate the power of model organism genetic screens for the functional follow-up of human GWAS.

Shulman JM; Imboywa S; Giagtzoglou N; Powers MP; Hu Y; Devenport D; Chipendo P; Chibnik LB; Diamond A; Perrimon N; Brown NH; De Jager PL; Feany MB

2013-09-01

306

Genome-wide functional screen identifies a compendium of genes affecting sensitivity to tamoxifen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,487 genes on the cellular response to tamoxifen. This screen, along with subsequent validation experiments, identifies a compendium of genes whose silencing causes tamoxifen resistance (including BAP1, CLPP, GPRC5D, NAE1, NF1, NIPBL, NSD1, RAD21, RARG, SMC3, and UBA3) and also a set of genes whose silencing causes sensitivity to this endocrine agent (C10orf72, C15orf55/NUT, EDF1, ING5, KRAS, NOC3L, PPP1R15B, RRAS2, TMPRSS2, and TPM4). Multiple individual genes, including NF1, a regulator of RAS signaling, also correlate with clinical outcome after tamoxifen treatment. PMID:21482774

Mendes-Pereira, Ana M; Sims, David; Dexter, Tim; Fenwick, Kerry; Assiotis, Ioannis; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Hakas, Jarle; Zvelebil, Marketa; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan

2011-04-11

307

Clustering approaches to identifying gene expression patterns from DNA microarray data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The analysis of microarray data is essential for large amounts of gene expression data. In this review we focus on clustering techniques. The biological rationale for this approach is the fact that many co-expressed genes are co-regulated, and identifying co-expressed genes could aid in functional annotation of novel genes, de novo identification of transcription factor binding sites and elucidation of complex biological pathways. Co-expressed genes are usually identified in microarray experiments by clustering techniques. There are many such methods, and the results obtained even for the same datasets may vary considerably depending on the algorithms and metrics for dissimilarity measures used, as well as on user-selectable parameters such as desired number of clusters and initial values. Therefore, biologists who want to interpret microarray data should be aware of the weakness and strengths of the clustering methods used. In this review, we survey the basic principles of clustering of DNA microarray data from crisp clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering, K-means and self-organizing maps, to complex clustering algorithms like fuzzy clustering.

Do JH; Choi DK

2008-04-01

308

Evaluation of potential regulatory elements identified as DNase I hypersensitive sites in the CFTR gene  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene shows a complex pattern of expression, with temporal and spatial regulation that is not accounted for by elements in the promoter. One approach to identifying the regulatory elements for CFTR is the mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) within the locus. We previously identified at least 12 clusters of DHS across the CFTR gene and here further evaluate DHS in introns 2,3,10,16,17a, 18, 20 and 21 to assess their functional importance in regulation of CFTR gene expression. Transient transfections of enhancer/reporter constructs containing the DHS regions showed that those in introns 20 and 21 augmented the activity of the CFTR promoter. Structural analysis of the DNA sequence at the DHS suggested that only the one intron 21 might be caused by inherent DNA structures. Cell specificity of the DHS suggested a role for the DHS in introns 2 and 18 in CFTR expression in some pancreatic duct cells. Finally, regulatory elements at the DHS in introns 10 and 18 may contribute to upregulation of CFTR gene transcription by forskolin and mitomycin C, respectively. These data support a model of regulation of expression of the CFTR gene in which multiple elements contribute to tightly co-ordinated expression in vivo.

Phylactides, M.; Rowntree, R.

2002-01-01

309

Identifying gene locus associations with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies using immuno-TRAP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Important insights into nuclear function would arise if gene loci physically interacting with particular subnuclear domains could be readily identified. Immunofluorescence microscopy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (immuno-FISH), the method that would typically be used in such a study, is limited by spatial resolution and requires prior assumptions for selecting genes to probe. Our new technique, immuno-TRAP, overcomes these limitations. Using promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) as a model, we used immuno-TRAP to determine if specific genes localize within molecular dimensions with these bodies. Although we confirmed a TP53 gene-PML NB association, immuno-TRAP allowed us to uncover novel locus-PML NB associations, including the ABCA7 and TFF1 loci and, most surprisingly, the PML locus itself. These associations were cell type specific and reflected the cell's physiological state. Combined with microarrays or deep sequencing, immuno-TRAP provides powerful opportunities for identifying gene locus associations with potentially any nuclear subcompartment.

Ching RW; Ahmed K; Boutros PC; Penn LZ; Bazett-Jones DP

2013-04-01

310

A novel DNA replication origin identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A general and sensitive method for the mapping of initiation sites of DNA replication in vivo, developed by Vassilev and Johnson, has revealed replication origins in the region of simian virus 40 ori, in the regions upstream from the human c-myc gene and downstream from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene, and in the enhancer region of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Here we report that the region containing the promoter of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene was identified as a DNA replication origin in HeLa cells by this method. Several segments of the region were cloned into pUC19 and examined for autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity. The plasmids carrying the segments replicated episomally and semiconservatively when transfected into HeLa cells. The segments of ARS activity contained the sequences previously identified as binding sequences for a c-myc protein complex (T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1130:166-174, 1992). Mutations introduced within the c-myc protein complex binding sequences abolished the ARS activity. Moreover, the ARS plasmids stably replicated at episomal state for a long time in established cell lines. The results suggest that the promoter region of the human hsp70 gene plays a role in DNA replication as well as in transcription.

Taira T; Iguchi-Ariga SM; Ariga H

1994-09-01

311

Genome-wide functional screen identifies a compendium of genes affecting sensitivity to tamoxifen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,487 genes on the cellular response to tamoxifen. This screen, along with subsequent validation experiments, identifies a compendium of genes whose silencing causes tamoxifen resistance (including BAP1, CLPP, GPRC5D, NAE1, NF1, NIPBL, NSD1, RAD21, RARG, SMC3, and UBA3) and also a set of genes whose silencing causes sensitivity to this endocrine agent (C10orf72, C15orf55/NUT, EDF1, ING5, KRAS, NOC3L, PPP1R15B, RRAS2, TMPRSS2, and TPM4). Multiple individual genes, including NF1, a regulator of RAS signaling, also correlate with clinical outcome after tamoxifen treatment.

Mendes-Pereira AM; Sims D; Dexter T; Fenwick K; Assiotis I; Kozarewa I; Mitsopoulos C; Hakas J; Zvelebil M; Lord CJ; Ashworth A

2012-02-01

312

Comparison of Statistical Data Models for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes Using a Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test  

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Full Text Available Currently, statistical techniques for analysis of microarray-generated data sets have deficiencies due to limited understanding of errors inherent in the data. A generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test based on an error model has been recently proposed to identify differentially expressed genes from microarray experiments. However, the use of different error structures under the GLR test has not been evaluated, nor has this method been compared to commonly used statistical tests such as the parametric t-test. The concomitant effects of varying data signal-to-noise ratio and replication number on the performance of statistical tests also remain largely unexplored. In this study, we compared the effects of different underlying statistical error structures on the GLR test’s power in identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray data. We evaluated such variants of the GLR test as well as the one sample t-test based on simulated data by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Further, we used bootstrapping of ROC curves to assess statistical significance of differences between the areas under the curves. Our results showed that i) the GLR tests outperformed the t-test for detecting differential gene expression, ii) the identity of the underlying error structure was important in determining the GLR tests’ performance, and iii) signal-to-noise ratio was a more important contributor than sample replication in identifying statistically significant differential gene expression.

Kok-Yong Seng; Robb W. Glenny; David K. Madtes; Mary E. Spilker; Paolo Vicini; Sina A. Gharib

2008-01-01

313

GENETIC AND PHYSICAL MAPPING OF THE SOYBEAN RPG1-B DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE REVEALS A COMPLEX LOCUS CONTAINING SEVERAL TIGHTLY LINKED FAMILIES OF NBS-LRR-GENES  

Science.gov (United States)

Alleles, or tightly linked genes, at the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Rpg1 locus confer resistance to strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea that express the avirulence genes avrB or avrRpm1. We have previously mapped Rpg1-b (the gene specific for avrB) to a cluster of resistance genes (R-ge...

314

GENETIC AND PHYSICAL LOCALIZATION OF THE SOYBEAN RPG1-B DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE REVEALS A COMPLEX LOCUS CONTAINING SEVERAL TIGHTLY LINKED FAMILIES OF NBS-LRR GENES  

Science.gov (United States)

Alleles or tightly linked genes at the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Rpg1 locus confer resistance to strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea that express the avirulence genes avrB or avrRpm1. We have previously mapped Rpg1-b (the gene specific for avrB) to a cluster of resistance genes (R gen...

315

A cross-study gene set enrichment analysis identifies critical pathways in endometriosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease. Gene expression profiling of endometriosis has been used in several studies, but few studies went further to classify subtypes of endometriosis based on expression patterns and to identify possible pathways involved in endometriosis. Some of the observed pathways are more inconsistent between the studies, and these candidate pathways presumably only represent a fraction of the pathways involved in endometriosis. Methods We applied a standardised microarray preprocessing and gene set enrichment analysis to six independent studies, and demonstrated increased concordance between these gene datasets. Results We find 16 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated pathways common in ovarian endometriosis data sets, 22 up-regulated and one down-regulated pathway common in peritoneal endometriosis data sets. Among them, 12 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated were found consistent between ovarian and peritoneal endometriosis. The main canonical pathways identified are related to immunological and inflammatory disease. Early secretory phase has the most over-represented pathways in the three uterine cycle phases. There are no overlapping significant pathways between the dataset from human endometrial endothelial cells and the datasets from ovarian endometriosis which used whole tissues. Conclusion The study of complex diseases through pathway analysis is able to highlight genes weakly connected to the phenotype which may be difficult to detect by using classical univariate statistics. By standardised microarray preprocessing and GSEA, we have increased the concordance in identifying many biological mechanisms involved in endometriosis. The identified gene pathways will shed light on the understanding of endometriosis and promote the development of novel therapies.

Zhao Hongbo; Wang Qishan; Bai Chunyan; He Kan; Pan Yuchun

2009-01-01

316

Structure and evolution of protein interaction networks: a statistical model for link dynamics and gene duplications  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of molecular networks derives from dynamical processes on evolutionary time scales. For protein interaction networks, global statistical features of their structure can now be inferred consistently from several large-throughput datasets. Understanding the underlying evolutionary dynamics is crucial for discerning random parts of the network from biologically important properties shaped by natural selection. Results We present a detailed statistical analysis of the protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on several large-throughput datasets. Protein pairs resulting from gene duplications are used as tracers into the evolutionary past of the network. From this analysis, we infer rate estimates for two key evolutionary processes shaping the network: (i) gene duplications and (ii) gain and loss of interactions through mutations in existing proteins, which are referred to as link dynamics. Importantly, the link dynamics is asymmetric, i.e., the evolutionary steps are mutations in just one of the binding parters. The link turnover is shown to be much faster than gene duplications. Both processes are assembled into an empirically grounded, quantitative model for the evolution of protein interaction networks. Conclusions According to this model, the link dynamics is the dominant evolutionary force shaping the statistical structure of the network, while the slower gene duplication dynamics mainly affects its size. Specifically, the model predicts (i) a broad distribution of the connectivities (i.e., the number of binding partners of a protein) and (ii) correlations between the connectivities of interacting proteins, a specific consequence of the asymmetry of the link dynamics. Both features have been observed in the protein interaction network of S. cerevisiae.

Berg Johannes; Lässig Michael; Wagner Andreas

2004-01-01

317

Genome wide association analysis of a founder population identified TAF3 as a gene for MCHC in humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The red blood cell related traits are highly heritable but their genetics are poorly defined. Only 5-10% of the total observed variance is explained by the genetic loci found to date, suggesting that additional loci should be searched using approaches alternative to large meta analysis. GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study) for red blood cell traits in a founder population cohort from Northern Italy identified a new locus for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the TAF3 gene. The association was replicated in two cohorts (rs1887582, P?=?4.25E-09). TAF3 encodes a transcription cofactor that participates in core promoter recognition complex, and is involved in zebrafish and mouse erythropoiesis. We show here that TAF3 is required for transcription of the SPTA1 gene, encoding alpha spectrin, one of the proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. Mutations in SPTA1 are responsible for hereditary spherocytosis, a monogenic disorder of MCHC, as well as for the normal MCHC level. Based on our results, we propose that TAF3 is required for normal erythropoiesis in human and that it might have a role in controlling the ratio between hemoglobin (Hb) and cell volume and in the dynamics of RBC maturation in healthy individuals. Finally, TAF3 represents a potential candidate or a modifier gene for disorders of red cell membrane.

Pistis G; Okonkwo SU; Traglia M; Sala C; Shin SY; Masciullo C; Buetti I; Massacane R; Mangino M; Thein SL; Spector TD; Ganesh S; Pirastu N; Gasparini P; Soranzo N; Camaschella C; Hart D; Green MR; Toniolo D

2013-01-01

318

Upregulation of skeletal muscle inflammatory genes links inflammation with insulin resistance in women with the metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metabolic syndrome, a combination of interrelated metabolic risk factors, is associated with insulin resistance and promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a close link between inflammation and metabolic disease, but the responsible mechanisms remain elusive. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle tissue of women with the metabolic syndrome compared with healthy control women. Women with the metabolic syndrome (n = 19) and healthy control women (n = 20) were extensively phenotyped, insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, and a skeletal muscle biopsy was obtained. Gene expression levels were compared between the two groups by microarrays. The upregulated genes in skeletal muscle of the women with the metabolic syndrome were primarily enriched for inflammatory response-associated genes. The three most significantly upregulated of this group, interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R), histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) and CD97 molecule (CD97), were significantly correlated with insulin resistance. Taken together, these findings suggest an important role for a number of inflammatory-related genes in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. PMID:23771909

Poelkens, Fleur; Lammers, Gerwen; Pardoel, Elisabeth M; Tack, Cees J; Hopman, Maria T E

2013-06-14

319

Mayo Clinic study identifies optimal gene targets for new colon cancer test  

Science.gov (United States)

A study presented today by Mayo Clinic researchers at the American Association for Cancer Research(AACR) Annual Meeting 2012 in Chicago identified two genes that are optimal targets to be analyzed in a new noninvasive test for colorectal cancer developed by Mayo Clinic, in collaboration with Exact Sciences Corporation. The test uses a small sample of a patient's stool to check for specific DNA changes, known as gene methylation, that occur as cancer develops. The test can quickly detect both early stage cancer and precancerous polyps.

320

Genome wide transcriptome analysis of dendritic cells identifies genes with altered expression in psoriasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of dendritic cells by different pathogens induces the secretion of proinflammatory mediators resulting in local inflammation. Importantly, innate immunity must be properly controlled, as its continuous activation leads to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) induced tolerance, a phenomenon of transient unresponsiveness of cells to repeated or prolonged stimulation, proved valuable model for the study of chronic inflammation. Thus, the aim of this study was the identification of the transcriptional diversity of primary human immature dendritic cells (iDCs) upon PGN induced tolerance. Using SAGE-Seq approach, a tag-based transcriptome sequencing method, we investigated gene expression changes of primary human iDCs upon stimulation or restimulation with Staphylococcus aureus derived PGN, a widely used TLR2 ligand. Based on the expression pattern of the altered genes, we identified non-tolerizeable and tolerizeable genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (Kegg) analysis showed marked enrichment of immune-, cell cycle- and apoptosis related genes. In parallel to the marked induction of proinflammatory mediators, negative feedback regulators of innate immunity, such as TNFAIP3, TNFAIP8, Tyro3 and Mer are markedly downregulated in tolerant cells. We also demonstrate, that the expression pattern of TNFAIP3 and TNFAIP8 is altered in both lesional, and non-lesional skin of psoriatic patients. Finally, we show that pretreatment of immature dendritic cells with anti-TNF-? inhibits the expression of IL-6 and CCL1 in tolerant iDCs and partially releases the suppression of TNFAIP8. Our findings suggest that after PGN stimulation/restimulation the host cell utilizes different mechanisms in order to maintain critical balance between inflammation and tolerance. Importantly, the transcriptome sequencing of stimulated/restimulated iDCs identified numerous genes with altered expression to date not associated with role in chronic inflammation, underlying the relevance of our in vitro model for further characterization of IFN-primed iDCs. PMID:24039940

Filkor, Kata; Heged?s, Zoltán; Szász, András; Tubak, Vilmos; Kemény, Lajos; Kondorosi, Eva; Nagy, István

2013-09-09

 
 
 
 
321

Genome Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Dendritic Cells Identifies Genes with Altered Expression in Psoriasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of dendritic cells by different pathogens induces the secretion of proinflammatory mediators resulting in local inflammation. Importantly, innate immunity must be properly controlled, as its continuous activation leads to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) induced tolerance, a phenomenon of transient unresponsiveness of cells to repeated or prolonged stimulation, proved valuable model for the study of chronic inflammation. Thus, the aim of this study was the identification of the transcriptional diversity of primary human immature dendritic cells (iDCs) upon PGN induced tolerance. Using SAGE-Seq approach, a tag-based transcriptome sequencing method, we investigated gene expression changes of primary human iDCs upon stimulation or restimulation with Staphylococcus aureus derived PGN, a widely used TLR2 ligand. Based on the expression pattern of the altered genes, we identified non-tolerizeable and tolerizeable genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (Kegg) analysis showed marked enrichment of immune-, cell cycle- and apoptosis related genes. In parallel to the marked induction of proinflammatory mediators, negative feedback regulators of innate immunity, such as TNFAIP3, TNFAIP8, Tyro3 and Mer are markedly downregulated in tolerant cells. We also demonstrate, that the expression pattern of TNFAIP3 and TNFAIP8 is altered in both lesional, and non-lesional skin of psoriatic patients. Finally, we show that pretreatment of immature dendritic cells with anti-TNF-? inhibits the expression of IL-6 and CCL1 in tolerant iDCs and partially releases the suppression of TNFAIP8. Our findings suggest that after PGN stimulation/restimulation the host cell utilizes different mechanisms in order to maintain critical balance between inflammation and tolerance. Importantly, the transcriptome sequencing of stimulated/restimulated iDCs identified numerous genes with altered expression to date not associated with role in chronic inflammation, underlying the relevance of our in vitro model for further characterization of IFN-primed iDCs.

Szasz, Andras; Tubak, Vilmos; Kemeny, Lajos; Kondorosi, Eva; Nagy, Istvan

2013-01-01

322

Mutation pattern in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in 26 unrelated patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mutation pattern was characterized in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) in 26 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia, the first described immunoglobulin deficiency, and was related to BTK expression. A total of 24 different mutations were identified. Most BTK mutations were found to result in premature termination of the translation product. Mutations were detected in most BTK exons with a predominance of frameshift and nonsense mutations in the 5' end of the gene and missense mutations in its 3' part, corresponding to the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Nonsense and frameshift mutations were associated with diminished levels of BTK mRNA expression, except for a frameshift mutation in exon 17 and two nonsense mutations in exon 2, indicating that these cases are not confined to penultimate exons. One amino acid substitution (R28H) was found in the pleckstrin homology domain's residue, which is mutated in mice bearing the X-linked immunodeficiency phenotype; another substitution (R307G) was identified in the src homology domain 2. All remaining amino acid substitutions were found in the catalytic domain of Btk.

Vorechovský, I; Luo, L

1997-01-01

323

Mutation pattern in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in 26 unrelated patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutation pattern was characterized in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene (BTK) in 26 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia, the first described immunoglobulin deficiency, and was related to BTK expression. A total of 24 different mutations were identified. Most BTK mutations were found to result in premature termination of the translation product. Mutations were detected in most BTK exons with a predominance of frameshift and nonsense mutations in the 5' end of the gene and missense mutations in its 3' part, corresponding to the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Nonsense and frameshift mutations were associated with diminished levels of BTK mRNA expression, except for a frameshift mutation in exon 17 and two nonsense mutations in exon 2, indicating that these cases are not confined to penultimate exons. One amino acid substitution (R28H) was found in the pleckstrin homology domain's residue, which is mutated in mice bearing the X-linked immunodeficiency phenotype; another substitution (R307G) was identified in the src homology domain 2. All remaining amino acid substitutions were found in the catalytic domain of Btk. PMID:9143921

Vorechovský, I; Luo, L; Hertz, J M; Frřland, S S; Klemola, T; Fiorini, M; Quinti, I; Paganelli, R; Ozsahin, H; Hammarström, L; Webster, A D; Smith, C I

1997-01-01

324

A phospholipase A2 gene is linked to jack bean urease toxicity in the Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ureases are multifunctional enzymes that display biological activities independent of their enzymatic function, including exocytosis induction and insecticidal effects. The hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is one of the known susceptible models for this toxicity. It has been shown that jack bean urease (JBU) has deleterious effects on R. prolixus, and these effects are modulated by eicosanoids, which are synthesized in a cascade involving phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. METHODS: R. prolixus genome was screened for putative PLA2s and matching transcripts were cloned. Predicted amino acid sequences were analyzed and transcripts distribution among tissues was determined by qPCR. RNAi techniques were used and subsequent JBU toxicity assays were performed. RESULTS: Two PLA2 genes were identified, Rhopr-PLA2III and Rhopr-PLA2XII. The transcripts are widely distributed in the tissues but at different levels. The analyses fit the putative proteins into groups III and XII of secretory PLA2s. After 70% of Rhopr-PLA2XII expression was knocked down, JBU's toxicity was decreased by more than 50% on 5th instars R. prolixus. CONCLUSION: Rhopr-PLA2XII gene is linked to JBU's toxic effect in R. prolixus and our findings support previous studies demonstrating that eicosanoids modulate this toxicity. General significance Besides identifying and characterizing two PLA2 genes in the major Chagas' disease vector R. prolixus, we have shown that the potent toxicity of JBU is linked to one of these genes. Our results contribute to the general comprehension of urease's mechanisms of action in insects, and, potentially, to studies on the control of the Chagas' disease parasite transmission.

Defferrari MS; Lee DH; Fernandes CL; Orchard I; Carlini CR

2013-09-01

325

Comparison of Data Envelopment Analysis Models to Identify Potential Cancer Biomarker Genes for Colon Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of cancer biomarkers is critical to characterize, detect and understand the illness. In our research group, a novel method based on multiple criteria optimization has been proposed to detect potential cancer biomarker genes through the analysis of microarray data. More precisely, the multiple criteria optimization problem is approached through a technique called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Given a number of genes characterized by at least two performance measures, DEA is able to find those genes that are the best compromises among these measures. When using microarray data and quantifiers of significant differences of gene expression between healthy tissues and cancer tissues, those genes identified through DEA have been shown to have a high potential to be biomarkers. DEA is known to be efficient due to its structure based on linear optimization. Our studies have also shown that DEA can be very effective for the stated purpose. There are, however, several different DEA formulations that can be used. In this work, a comparison of these formulations is presented in terms of number and quality of the selection of genes for two publicly available colon cancer microarray databases. The results will provide some light on the different solutions that can be arrived to in multiple criteria optimization using DEA, to then establish what is most adequate to find cancer biomarkers.

Sanchez-Pena, M.E.; Isaza, C.E.; Cabrera-Rios, M.; Diaz-Candelas, P.

2011-01-01

326

Gene content differences across strains of Streptococcus uberis identified using oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. The organism is typically considered an environmental pathogen. In this study, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the degree and nature of genome flexibility between S. uberis strains. The 21 isolates examined in this study arise from a collection of 232 international isolates for which previous epidemiological and preliminary genotyping data existed. The microarray analysis resulted in an estimate of the core genome for S. uberis, consisting of 1530 ORFs, among 1855 tested, representing 82.5% of the S. uberis 0140J genome. The remaining ORFs were variable in gene content across the 21 tested strains. A total of 26 regions of difference (RDs), consisting of three or more contiguous ORFs, were identified among the variable genes. Core genes mainly encoded housekeeping functions, while the variable genes primarily fell within categories such as protection responses, degradation of small molecules, laterally acquired elements, and two component systems. Recombination detection procedures involving the MLST loci suggested S. uberis is a highly recombinant species, precluding accurate phylogenetic reconstructions involving these data. On the other hand, the microarray data did provide limited support for an association of gene content with strains found in multiple cows and/or multiple herds, suggesting the possibility of genes related to bovine transmissibility or host-adaptation.

Lang P; Lefébure T; Wang W; Zadoks RN; Schukken Y; Stanhope MJ

2009-03-01

327

Gene content differences across strains of Streptococcus uberis identified using oligonucleotide microarray comparative genomic hybridization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus uberis is one of the principal causative agents of bovine mastitis. The organism is typically considered an environmental pathogen. In this study, two multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes and whole genome DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the degree and nature of genome flexibility between S. uberis strains. The 21 isolates examined in this study arise from a collection of 232 international isolates for which previous epidemiological and preliminary genotyping data existed. The microarray analysis resulted in an estimate of the core genome for S. uberis, consisting of 1530 ORFs, among 1855 tested, representing 82.5% of the S. uberis 0140J genome. The remaining ORFs were variable in gene content across the 21 tested strains. A total of 26 regions of difference (RDs), consisting of three or more contiguous ORFs, were identified among the variable genes. Core genes mainly encoded housekeeping functions, while the variable genes primarily fell within categories such as protection responses, degradation of small molecules, laterally acquired elements, and two component systems. Recombination detection procedures involving the MLST loci suggested S. uberis is a highly recombinant species, precluding accurate phylogenetic reconstructions involving these data. On the other hand, the microarray data did provide limited support for an association of gene content with strains found in multiple cows and/or multiple herds, suggesting the possibility of genes related to bovine transmissibility or host-adaptation. PMID:19056519

Lang, Ping; Lefébure, Tristan; Wang, Wei; Zadoks, Ruth N; Schukken, Ynte; Stanhope, Michael J

2008-11-14

328

Comparative genome sequencing identifies a prophage-associated genomic island linked to host adaptation of Lawsonia intracellularis infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE). The disease is endemic in pigs, emerging in horses and has also been reported in a variety of other animal species, including nonhuman primates. Comparing the whole genome sequences of a homologous porcine L. intracellularis isolate cultivated for 10 and 60 passages in vitro, we identified a 18-kb prophage-associated genomic island in the passage 10 (pathogenic variant) that was lost in the passage 60 (non-pathogenic variant). This chromosomal island comprises 15 genes downstream from the prophage DLP12 integrase gene. The prevalence of this genetic element was evaluated in 12 other L. intracellularis isolates and in 53 infected animals and was found to be conserved in all porcine isolates cultivated for up to 20 passages and was lost in isolates cultivated for more than 40 passages. Furthermore, the prophage region was also present in 26 fecal samples derived from pigs clinically affected with both acute and chronic forms of the disease. Nevertheless, equine L. intracellularis isolates evaluated did not harbor this genomic island regardless of the passage in vitro. Additionally, fecal samples from 21 clinically affected horses and four wild rabbits trapped in horse farms experiencing PE outbreaks did not show this prophage-associated island. Although the presence of this prophage-associated island was not essential for a virulent L. intracellularis phenotype, this genetic element was porcine isolate-specific and potentially contributed to the ecological specialization of this organism for the swine host. PMID:23826661

Vannucci, Fabio A; Kelley, Molly R; Gebhart, Connie J

2013-07-04

329

Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For most of the genes, functions related to choriogenesis are postulated. The relatively high percentage of novel genes obtained and the practical absence of chorion genes typical of meroistic ovaries suggest that mechanisms regulating chorion formation in panoistic ovaries are significantly different from those of meroistic ones.

Irles Paula; Bellés Xavier; Piulachs M Dolors

2009-01-01

330

Epigenetic regulation identifies RASEF as a tumor-suppressor gene in uveal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Recently, a segregation study in families with uveal and cutaneous melanoma identified 9q21 as a potential locus harboring a tumor-suppressor gene (TSG). One of the genes in this area, RASEF, was then analyzed as a candidate TSG, but lack of point mutations and copy number changes could not confirm this. In this study, the RASEF gene was investigated for potential mutations and gene silencing by promoter methylation in uveal melanoma. METHODS: Eleven uveal melanoma cell lines and 35 primary uveal melanoma samples were screened for mutations in the RASEF gene by high-resolution melting-curve and digestion analysis. Expression of RASEF was determined by real-time RT-PCR in all cell lines and 16 primary uveal melanoma samples, and the methylation status of the promoter of the RASEF gene was analyzed and confirmed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Mutation screening revealed a known polymorphism (R262C; C-->T) in exon 5 of the RASEF gene that displayed a normal frequency (54%). Of the primary uveal melanomas, 46% presented a heterozygous genotype, and 10 (91%) of 11 cell lines showed a homozygous genotype. Melting-curve analysis indicated loss of heterozygosity in at least two primary tumors. Low RASEF expression in the cell lines and primary tumors correlated with methylation of the RASEF promoter region. Homozygosity and methylation of the RASEF gene in primary tumors were associated with decreased survival (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Homozygosity, in combination with methylation, appears to be the mechanism targeting RASEF in uveal melanoma, and allelic imbalance at this locus supports a TSG role for RASEF.

Maat W; Beiboer SH; Jager MJ; Luyten GP; Gruis NA; van der Velden PA

2008-04-01

331

A microarray approach to identify genes known only by their mutant phenotype  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Scandinavian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant collection contains 357 mutants representing 105 loci deficient in chloroplast development and chlorophyll biosynthesis. A few of the mutants are spontaneous, but the majority has been induced by various irradiation and chemical treatments. Less than ten of the loci (corresponding to 30 mutations) have been connected to a gene at the DNA level. In order to identify other genes deficient in the collection we have developed a cDNA microarray approach. Three barley mutant strains, xantha-h.57, xantha-f.27 and xantha-g.28, with known mutations in the genes encoding the three subunits of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme magnesium chelatase, were used for the development of the microarray method. The mutation xantha-h.57 prevents transcription of Xantha-h mRNA. Microarrays were prepared by robotic spotting of PCR products from 968 clones at 1760 positions. Most material was from cloned ESTs (expressed sequence tags). The barley Xantha-h gene was printed at six positions in duplicate. cDNA from the three mutant strains were differentially labeled with fluorescent nucleotides. Labeled cDNA from one mutant was mixed in equal amounts with labeled cDNA of another mutant and competitively hybridized to the microarrayed clones. The combination of labeled cDNA from xantha-h.57 with that of xantha-f.27 or xantha-g.28 specifically highlighted the positions representing the Xantha-h gene on the microarrays. We regard these experiments as a demonstration that microarrays provide a very promising method for screening large DNA libraries in order to clone genes known only through their mutant phenotype. This opens up a new way of using the microarray technology for cloning genes from eukaryotes with complex genomes for which genome sequencing is unlikely to proceed. Our results also put the many available plant mutant collections in focus as treasuries for gene hunters. (author)

2008-01-01

332

Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller set of lineages that can also be tested independently for species status with multiple nuclear gene approaches and other phenotypic characters.

Tavares Erika S; Baker Allan J

2008-01-01

333

Identifying the Viral Genes Encoding Envelope Glycoproteins for Differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Isolates  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies.

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Choresca, Casiano; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

2013-01-01

334

Identifying the Viral Genes Encoding Envelope Glycoproteins for Differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Isolates  

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Full Text Available Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies.

Jee Eun Han; Ji Hyung Kim; Tristan Renault; Casiano Choresca Jr.; Sang Phil Shin; Jin Woo Jun; Se Chang Park

2013-01-01

335

Identifying the viral genes encoding envelope glycoproteins for differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies. PMID:23435236

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Jr, Casiano Choresca; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

2013-01-31

336

Identifying the viral genes encoding envelope glycoproteins for differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies.

Han JE; Kim JH; Renault T; Jr CC; Shin SP; Jun JW; Park SC

2013-02-01

337

Microarray analyses to identify differentially expressed genes for assessing meat quality in swine  

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Full Text Available In order to identify candidate genes and molecular mechanisms that influence meat quality and production in pigs, microarray experiments were carried out to find differences in gene expression levels between two pools of six individuals, constituting the extreme tails of the Gaussian distribution of seven adjusted phenotypes of 100 Landrace and Large White animals. The phenotypes considered in this study were: muscle compactness, marbling, colour uniformity, fat covering, colour, dorsal fat, thickness, ham fat thickness. 437 differentially expressed ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were found, clustering in different pathways according to their ontology. In particular, 73 functional categories were identified and ten of them could have a role in meat quality. Among the ESTs belonging to these pathways, seven of them were selected to be validated in quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

I. Iacuaniello; B. Castiglioni; C. Gorni; A. Stella; P. Mariani; G. Pagnacco

2010-01-01

338

Genome-Wide association study identifies candidate genes for Parkinson's disease in an Ashkenazi Jewish population  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To date, nine Parkinson disease (PD) genome-wide association studies in North American, European and Asian populations have been published. The majority of studies have confirmed the association of the previously identified genetic risk factors, SNCA and MAPT, and two studies have identified three new PD susceptibility loci/genes (PARK16, BST1 and HLA-DRB5). In a recent meta-analysis of datasets from five of the published PD GWAS an additional 6 novel candidate genes (SYT11, ACMSD, STK39, MCCC1/LAMP3, GAK and CCDC62/HIP1R) were identified. Collectively the associations identified in these GWAS account for only a small proportion of the estimated total heritability of PD suggesting that an 'unknown' component of the genetic architecture of PD remains to be identified. Methods We applied a GWAS approach to a relatively homogeneous Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population from New York to search for both 'rare' and 'common' genetic variants that confer risk of PD by examining any SNPs with allele frequencies exceeding 2%. We have focused on a genetic isolate, the AJ population, as a discovery dataset since this cohort has a higher sharing of genetic background and historically experienced a significant bottleneck. We also conducted a replication study using two publicly available datasets from dbGaP. The joint analysis dataset had a combined sample size of 2,050 cases and 1,836 controls. Results We identified the top 57 SNPs showing the strongest evidence of association in the AJ dataset (p < 9.9 × 10-5). Six SNPs located within gene regions had positive signals in at least one other independent dbGaP dataset: LOC100505836 (Chr3p24), LOC153328/SLC25A48 (Chr5q31.1), UNC13B (9p13.3), SLCO3A1(15q26.1), WNT3(17q21.3) and NSF (17q21.3). We also replicated published associations for the gene regions SNCA (Chr4q21; rs3775442, p = 0.037), PARK16 (Chr1q32.1; rs823114 (NUCKS1), p = 6.12 × 10-4), BST1 (Chr4p15; rs12502586, p = 0.027), STK39 (Chr2q24.3; rs3754775, p = 0.005), and LAMP3 (Chr3; rs12493050, p = 0.005) in addition to the two most common PD susceptibility genes in the AJ population LRRK2 (Chr12q12; rs34637584, p = 1.56 × 10-4) and GBA (Chr1q21; rs2990245, p = 0.015). Conclusions We have demonstrated the utility of the AJ dataset in PD candidate gene and SNP discovery both by replication in dbGaP datasets with a larger sample size and by replicating association of previously identified PD susceptibility genes. Our GWAS study has identified candidate gene regions for PD that are implicated in neuronal signalling and the dopamine pathway.

2011-01-01

339

Combining Microarray Technology and Molecular Epidemiology to Identify Genes Associated with Invasive Group B Streptococcus  

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Full Text Available Many bacterial species function as both commensals and pathogens; we used this dual nature to develop a high-throughput molecular epidemiological approach to identifying bacterial virulence genes. We applied our approach to Group B Streptococcus (GBS). Three representative commensal and one invasive GBS isolates were selected as tester strains from a population-based collection. We used microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization to identify open reading frames (ORFs) present in two sequenced invasive strains, but absent or divergent in tester strains. We screened 23 variable ORFs against 949 GBS isolates using a GBS Library on a Slide (LOS) microarray platform. Four ORFs occurred more frequently in invasive than commensal isolates, and one appeared more frequently in commensal isolates. Comparative hybridization using an oligonucleotide microarray, combined with epidemiologic screening using the LOS microarray platform, enabled rapid identification of bacterial genes potentially associated with pathogenicity.

Lixin Zhang; Usha Reddi; Usha Srinivasan; Sheng Li; Stephanie M. Borchardt; Parvathy Pillai; Puja Mehta; Anne N. Styka; Joan DeBusscher; Carl F. Marrs; Betsy Foxman

2008-01-01