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Sample records for identifying genes linked

  1. Link-based quantitative methods to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhi-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential coexpression analysis (DCEA is increasingly used for investigating the global transcriptional mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Current DCEA methods mostly adopt a gene connectivity-based strategy to estimate differential coexpression, which is characterized by comparing the numbers of gene neighbors in different coexpression networks. Although it simplifies the calculation, this strategy mixes up the identities of different coexpression neighbors of a gene, and fails to differentiate significant differential coexpression changes from those trivial ones. Especially, the correlation-reversal is easily missed although it probably indicates remarkable biological significance. Results We developed two link-based quantitative methods, DCp and DCe, to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene pairs (links. Bearing the uniqueness of exploiting the quantitative coexpression change of each gene pair in the coexpression networks, both methods proved to be superior to currently popular methods in simulation studies. Re-mining of a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D expression dataset from the perspective of differential coexpression analysis led to additional discoveries than those from differential expression analysis. Conclusions This work pointed out the critical weakness of current popular DCEA methods, and proposed two link-based DCEA algorithms that will make contribution to the development of DCEA and help extend it to a broader spectrum.

  2. IDENTIFYING GENES CONTROLLING FERULATE CROSS-LINKING FORMATION IN GRASS CELL WALLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de O Buanafina, Marcia Maria

    2013-10-16

    DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties. Currently, the genes underlying AX feruloylation have not been identified and the isolation of such genes could be of great importance in manipulating ferulates accretion to the wall. Mutation of the feruloyl transferase gene(s) should lead to less ferulates secreted to the cell wall and reduced ferulate cross-linking. Our current research is based on the hypothesis that controlling the level of total feruloylation will have a direct impact on the level of cross-linking and in turn impact biomass utility for forage and biofuel production. Our results/accomplishments for this project so far include: 1. Mutagenised Brachypodium population. We have developed EMS mutagenized populations of model grass species Brachypodium distachyon. EMS populations have been developed from over 28,000 mutagenized seeds generating 5,184 M2 families. A total of 20,793 plants have been screened and 1,233 were originally selected. 2. Selected Brachypodium mutants: Potential mutants on their levels of cell wall ferulates and cell wall AX ? have been selected from 708 M2 families. A total of 303 back-crosses to no-mutagenized parental stock have been done, followed by selfing selected genotypes in order to confirm heritability of traits and to remove extraneous mutations generated by EMS mutagenesis. We are currently growing 12 F5 and F6 populations in order to assess CW composition. If low level of ferulates are confirmed in the candidate lines selected the mutation could be altered in different in one or several kinds of genes such as genes encoding an AX feruloyl transferase; genes encoding the arabinosyl transferase; genes encoding the synthesis of the xylan backbone; genes encoding enzymes of the monolignol pathway affecting FA formation or genes encoding transcription factors that control feruloylation. So it will require further investigations to confirm if we have a mutation on the ferulloyltransferase gene(s). We have also identified severe phenotypes which showed a significant change in the level of cell wall ferulates and sugars and have not survived. As this genotype did not reach flowering stage there was no seed production and so further analysis could not be done. 3. Candidate Gene Approach: Because of the likely long time expected to generate and identify candidate with mutation(s) on the feruloyltransferase gene, from our screening, we have in addition taken a bioinformatics approach in order to try to identify candidates gene(s) involved in feruloylation. Homologues of the rice feruloyl transferase genes belonging to Pfam PF02458 family were identified in Brachypodium distachyon by blasting EST sequences of putative rice arabinoxylan feruloyl transferase genes against Brachypodium and homologous sequences identified were tested for their expression level in Brachypodium. Sequences of the two Brachypodium genes, which showed highest expression and similarity to rice sequences, were used to design primers for construction of RNAi and over-expression vectors. These were transformed into Brachypodium using Agrobacterium transformation and plants generated have been analyzed for levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates over generations T0 to T2 or T3. Our data shows a significant reduction if ferulates monomers and dimers from plants generated from RNAi::BdAT2 over 2-3 generations indicating that this gene might be a positive candidate for feruloylation in Brachypodium. However when BdAT2 was up regulated there was not much increase in the level of ferulates as would be expected. This lack of effect on the level of cell wall ferulates could be due to the CaMV::35S promoter used to drive the expression of the putative BdAT2 gene. We have shown previously that Aspergillus FAEA expression in tall fescue under CaMV::35S resulted in 1.9 fold decrease in activity compared to ac

  3. A Systems Approach Identifies Networks and Genes Linking Sleep and Stress: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of biotechnological relevance.

  5. Gene expression profiling after carbon ion irradiation in experimental murine tumors for identifying genes linked to its effectiveness using microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify molecular mechanism of effectiveness induced by carbon-ion radiotherapy, we investigated expression profiles of murine tumors, which have various radiosensitivity for gamma irradiation, using microarrays consisting of 55k genes. Six murine tumors (squamous cell carcinoma: NR-S1, SCCVII, Fibrosarcoma: NFSa, no.8520, and Mammary carcinoma: MCano.4, MMCa) were transplanted in hind legs of C3H/Henirs mice and solid tumors were irradiated with either carbon-ion beam or gamma-ray. Growth rate of tumor, diminishing rate of tumor, recurrence rate, and cure rate were investigated as phenotype of radiosensitivity. Principal compornent analysis (PCA) was used to investigate similarity among expression profiles. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the intensity of each tumor to evaluate significant differences. Pairwise comparisons were made by Wilcoxon test. All recurred tumors showed different profiles from non-irradiation control tumors and expression change of several hundreds genes were identified to be specific to recurred tumors. We detected several tens of genes, whose expressions were significantly up-regulated after carbon-irradiation for squamous cell carcinomas. Comparison of those expression intensity between radiosensitive (SCC-VII) and radioresistant (NR-S1) tumors revealed that carbon-irradiation caused differentially expressed genes, which were related with cell cycle arrest, Redox, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, between radiosensitiveactor (TNF) family, between radiosensitive tumors and radioresistant tumors. (author)

  6. Genome-Wide Association Identifies TBX5 as Candidate Gene for Osteochondrosis Providing a Functional Link to Cartilage Perfusion as Initial Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Rangkasenee, Noppawan; Murani, Eduard; Brunner, Ronald M.; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Luther, Henning; Hofer, Andreas; Stoll, Monika; Witten, Anika; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is an orthopedic syndrome of the joints that occurs in children and adolescents and domestic animals, particularly pigs, horses, and dogs. OC is the most frequent cause of leg weakness in rapidly growing pigs causing animal welfare issues and economic losses. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using the Porcine 60k SNPChip in animals of the breed Large White (n?=?298) to identify chromosome regions and candidate genes associated with O...

  7. Gene expression profiling: can we identify the right target genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Loyd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling allows the simultaneous monitoring of the transcriptional behaviour of thousands of genes, which may potentially be involved in disease development. Several studies have been performed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, which aim to define genetic links to the disease in an attempt to improve the current understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disease and target pathways for intervention. Expression profiling has shown a clear difference in gene expression between IPF and normal lung tissue, and has identified a wide range of candidate genes, including those known to encode for proteins involved in extracellular matrix formation and degradation, growth factors and chemokines. Recently, familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts have been examined in an attempt to detect specific genetic mutations associated with IPF. To date, these studies have identified families in which IPF is associated with mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C, or with mutations in genes encoding components of telomerase. Although rare and clearly not responsible for the disease in all individuals, the nature of these mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the potential for gene expression profiling in helping to advance the current understanding of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Linking the salt transcriptome with physiological responses of a salt-resistant Populus species as a strategy to identify genes important for stress acclimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Brinker, Monika; Brosche?, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A.; Cullmann, Andreas D.; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasja?rvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. T...

  9. Stratified gene expression analysis identifies major amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ashley R; Troakes, Claire; King, Andrew; Sahni, Vibhu; De Jong, Simone; Bossers, Koen; Papouli, Efterpi; Mirza, Muddassar; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Shaw, Christopher E; Shaw, Pamela J; Kirby, Janine; Veldink, Jan H; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis. Gene expression studies of ALS only rarely identify the same gene pathways as gene association studies. We hypothesized that analyzing tissues by matching on degree of disease severity would identify different patterns of gene expression from a traditional case-control comparison. We analyzed gene expression changes in 4 postmortem central nervous system regions, stratified by severity of motor neuron loss. An overall comparison of cases (n = 6) and controls (n = 3) identified known ALS gene, SOX5, as showing differential expression (log2 fold change = 0.09, p = 5.5 × 10(-5)). Analyses stratified by disease severity identified expression changes in C9orf72 (p = 2.77 × 10(-3)), MATR3 (p = 3.46 × 10(-3)), and VEGFA (p = 8.21 × 10(-4)), all implicated in ALS through genetic studies, and changes in other genes in pathways involving RNA processing and immune response. These findings suggest that analysis of gene expression stratified by disease severity can identify major ALS genes and may be more efficient than traditional case-control comparison. PMID:25801576

  10. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer-associated somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are known. Currently, one of the challenges is to identify the molecular downstream effects of these variants. Although several SCNAs are known to change gene expression levels, it is not clear whether each individual SCNA affects gene expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles for these components, we observed that the residual expression levels (in 'functional genomic mRNA' profiling) correlated strongly with copy number. DNA copy number correlated positively with expression levels for 99% of all abundantly expressed human genes, indicating global gene dosage sensitivity. By applying this method to 16,172 patient-derived tumor samples, we replicated many loci with aberrant copy numbers and identified recurrently disrupted genes in genomically unstable cancers.

  11. Identifying disease associated genes by network propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Yu; Besenbacher, Soren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies have identified many individual genes associated with complex traits. However, pathway and network information have not been fully exploited in searches for genetic determinants, and including this information may increase our understanding of the underlying biology of common diseases.RESULTS:In this study, we propose a framework to address this problem in a principled way, with the underlying hypothesis that complex disease operates through multiple connected genes. Associations inferred from GWAS are translated into prior scores for vertices in a protein-protein interaction network, and these scores are propagated through the network. Permutation is used to select genes that are guilty-by-association and thus consistently obtain high scores after network propagation. We apply the approach to data of Crohn's disease and call candidate genes that have been reported by other independent GWAS, but not in the analysed data set. A prediction model based on these candidate genes show good predictive power as measured by Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) in 10 fold cross-validations.CONCLUSIONS:Our network propagation method applied to a genome-wide association study increases association findings over other approaches.

  12. MHC-linked and un-linked class I genes in the wallaby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrow Jennifer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MHC class I antigens are encoded by a rapidly evolving gene family comprising classical and non-classical genes that are found in all vertebrates and involved in diverse immune functions. However, there is a fundamental difference between the organization of class I genes in mammals and non-mammals. Non-mammals have a single classical gene responsible for antigen presentation, which is linked to the antigen processing genes, including TAP. This organization allows co-evolution of advantageous class Ia/TAP haplotypes. In contrast, mammals have multiple classical genes within the MHC, which are separated from the antigen processing genes by class III genes. It has been hypothesized that separation of classical class I genes from antigen processing genes in mammals allowed them to duplicate. We investigated this hypothesis by characterizing the class I genes of the tammar wallaby, a model marsupial that has a novel MHC organization, with class I genes located within the MHC and 10 other chromosomal locations. Results Sequence analysis of 14 BACs containing 15 class I genes revealed that nine class I genes, including one to three classical class I, are not linked to the MHC but are scattered throughout the genome. Kangaroo Endogenous Retroviruses (KERVs were identified flanking the MHC un-linked class I. The wallaby MHC contains four non-classical class I, interspersed with antigen processing genes. Clear orthologs of non-classical class I are conserved in distant marsupial lineages. Conclusion We demonstrate that classical class I genes are not linked to antigen processing genes in the wallaby and provide evidence that retroviral elements were involved in their movement. The presence of retroviral elements most likely facilitated the formation of recombination hotspots and subsequent diversification of class I genes. The classical class I have moved away from antigen processing genes in eutherian mammals and the wallaby independently, but both lineages appear to have benefited from this loss of linkage by increasing the number of classical genes, perhaps enabling response to a wider range of pathogens. The discovery of non-classical orthologs between distantly related marsupial species is unusual for the rapidly evolving class I genes and may indicate an important marsupial specific function.

  13. Identifying Gene Interaction Enrichment for Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jigang; LI, Jian; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Gene set analysis allows the inclusion of knowledge from established gene sets, such as gene pathways, and potentially improves the power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, conventional methods of gene set analysis focus on gene marginal effects in a gene set, and ignore gene interactions which may contribute to complex human diseases. In this study, we propose a method of gene interaction enrichment analysis, which incorporates knowledge of predefined gene sets (e.g. gene ...

  14. A Glucose-to-Gene Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey C. Rathmell (Duke University Medical Center; )

    2009-05-22

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Eukaryotic cell growth demands an increase in glucose uptake and metabolism to support energetic and biosynthetic needs, accompanied by changes in gene expression that control cell lineage or fate. These gene expression patterns are determined by lineage-specific or differentiation stageâ??specific transcription factors, as well as by modifications of chromatin (the complex of nucleic acids and proteins that constitute chromosomes) that regulate access of transcription factors to specific DNA loci. On page 1076 of this issue, Wellen et al. propose a new mechanism to link glucose metabolism to chromatin modification and global transcriptional control via the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase and production of acetylâ??coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) (1).

  15. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abel, Frida

    2011-04-14

    Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and\\/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher\\'s exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group\\'s specific characteristics.

  16. NIH Researchers Identify New Gene Mutation Associated with ALS and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH researchers identify new gene mutation associated with ALS and dementia April 7, 2014 A rare mutation ... cell, has been linked with development of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This finding, from a research team led ...

  17. [Identifying and preventing pain linked to an invasive care procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    Preventing pain linked to the invasive nature of a care procedure is a shared inter-disciplinary responsibility where the doctor and nurse play a central role. It is necessary to identify the foreseeable circumstances for its occurrence and to find operational implementation strategies. The attention given to the nurse-patient relationship, to the methods of pain relief, to the organisation before, during and after the care procedure, as well as the assessment of practices, are integral parts of the approach. PMID:26043634

  18. Expression profiling identifies genes involved in emphysema severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Rayleen V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in emphysema severity in COPD patients. Gene expression profiling was performed on total RNA extracted from non-tumor lung tissue from 30 smokers with emphysema. Class comparison analysis based on gas transfer measurement was performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Genes were then selected for technical validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR if also represented on microarray platforms used in previously published emphysema studies. Genes technically validated advanced to tests of biological replication by qRT-PCR using an independent test set of 62 lung samples. Class comparison identified 98 differentially expressed genes (p p Gene expression profiling of lung from emphysema patients identified seven candidate genes associated with emphysema severity including COL6A3, SERPINF1, ZNHIT6, NEDD4, CDKN2A, NRN1 and GSTM3.

  19. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulfiqar, Asma, E-mail: asmazulfiqar08@yahoo.com [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Paulose, Bibin, E-mail: bpaulose@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chhikara, Sudesh, E-mail: sudesh@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dhankher, Om Parkash, E-mail: parkash@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: > Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. > We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. > 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. > Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. > This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  20. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods. PMID:25617670

  1. MHC-linked and un-linked class I genes in the wallaby

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow Jennifer; Wong Emily SW; Cheng Yuanyuan; Hart Elizabeth; Coggill Penny; Deakin Janine E; Siddle Hannah V; Beck Stephan; Belov Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background MHC class I antigens are encoded by a rapidly evolving gene family comprising classical and non-classical genes that are found in all vertebrates and involved in diverse immune functions. However, there is a fundamental difference between the organization of class I genes in mammals and non-mammals. Non-mammals have a single classical gene responsible for antigen presentation, which is linked to the antigen processing genes, including TAP. This organization allows co-evolu...

  2. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: ? Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. ? We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. ? 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. ? Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. ? This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop w transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  3. Gene-based Association Approach Identify Genes Across Stress Traits in Fruit Flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    Identification of genes explaining variation in quantitative traits or genetic risk factors of human diseases requires both good phenotypic- and genotypic data, but also efficient statistical methods. Genome-wide association studies may reveal association between phenotypic variation and variation at nucleotide level, thus potentially identify genetic variants. However, testing million of polymorphic nucleotide positions requires conservative correction for multiple testing which lowers the probability of finding genes with small to moderate effects. To alleviate this, we apply a gene based association approach grouping variants accordingly to gene position, thus lowering the number of statistical tests performed and increasing the probability of identifying genes with small to moderate effects. Using this approach we identify numerous genes associated with different types of stresses in Drosophila melanogaster, but also identify common genes that affects the stress traits.

  4. Scientists Identify Four Candidate Obesity Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2011-09-06

    Press release on a recent study where researchers developed a strain of mice more likely to be obese and then, using this strain, identified four genes in mouse chromosome 7 that may relate to obesity. This study, Â?Four Out of Eight Genes in a Mouse Chromosome 7 Congenic Donor Region are Candidate Obesity Genes,Â? was conducted by Craig H. Warden, Kari A. Sarahan, and Janis S. Fisler of the University of California, Davis. The study is published in Physiologic Genomics.

  5. Haplotype Analysis in Multiple Crosses to Identify a QTL Gene

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, XIAOSONG; Korstanje, Ron; Higgins, David; Paigen, Beverly

    2004-01-01

    Identifying quantitative trait locus (QTL) genes is a challenging task. Herein, we report using a two-step process to identify Apoa2 as the gene underlying Hdlq5, a QTL for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels on mouse chromosome 1. First, we performed a sequence analysis of the Apoa2 coding region in 46 genetically diverse mouse strains and found five different APOA2 protein variants, which we named APOA2a to APOA2e. Second, we conducted a haplotype analysis of the strain...

  6. Genes to Diseases (G2D) Computational Method to Identify Asthma Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, K.; Lemire, M.; Potvin, C.; Tremblay, A.; Hunninghake, G.M.; Raby, B.A.; Hudson, T.J.; Perez-Iratxeta, C.; Andrade-Navarro, M.A.; Laprise, C

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is a complex trait for which different strategies have been used to identify its environmental and genetic predisposing factors. Here, we describe a novel methodological approach to select candidate genes for asthma genetic association studies. In this regard, the Genes to Diseases (G2D) computational tool has been used in combination with a genome-wide scan performed in a sub-sample of the Saguenay?Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) asthmatic familial collection (n?=?609) to identify candidate genes ...

  7. Application of an Efficient Gene Targeting System Linking Secondary Metabolites to their Biosynthetic Genes in Aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Knox, Benjamin P.; Sanchez, James F.; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-07-19

    Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillusterreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP related melanin synthetase was also identified in this species.

  8. A genomic strategy for the functional validation of colorectal cancer genes identifies potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hummon, Amanda B.; Camps, Jordi; Emons, Georg; Spitzner, Melanie; Gaedcke, Jochen; Hoermann, Patrick; Ebner, Reinhard; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Caplen, Natasha J.; Ried, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Summary/Abstract Genes that are highly overexpressed in tumor cells can be required for tumor cell survival, and have the potential to be selective therapeutic targets. In an attempt to identify such targets, we combined a functional genomics and a systems biology approach to assess the consequences of RNAi-mediated silencing of overexpressed genes that were selected from 140 gene expression profiles from colorectal cancers (CRC) and matched normal mucosa. In order to identify credible models for in-depth functional analysis, we first confirmed the overexpression of these genes in 25 different CRC cell lines. We then identified five candidate genes that profoundly reduced the viability of CRC cell lines when silenced with either siRNAs or shRNAs, i.e., HMGA1, TACSTD2, RRM2, RPS2, and NOL5A. These genes were further studied by systematic analysis of comprehensive gene expression profiles generated following siRNA-mediated silencing. Exploration of these RNAi-specific gene expression signatures allowed the identification of the functional space in which the five genes operate, and showed enrichment for cancer specific signaling pathways, some known to be involved in CRC. By comparing the expression of the RNAi signature genes with their respective expression levels in an independent set of primary rectal carcinomas we could recapitulate these defined RNAi signatures, therefore establishing the biologically relevance of our observations. This strategy identified the signaling pathways that are affected by the prominent oncogenes HMGA1 and TACSTD2, established a yet unknown link between RRM2 and PLK1, and identified RPS2 and NOL5A as promising potential therapeutic targets in CRC. PMID:20473941

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Manmathan, Harish; Shaner, Dale; Snelling, Jacob; Tisserat, Ned; Lapitan, Nora

    2013-01-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways i...

  10. Efficient large-scale protein sequence comparison and gene matching to identify orthologs and co-orthologs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Khalid; Webb, Geoffrey I.; Song, Jiangning; Whisstock, James C.; Konagurthu, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly, computational approaches for ortholog assignment is a three steps process: (i) identify all putative homologs between the genomes, (ii) identify gene anchors and (iii) link anchors to identify best gene matches given their order and context. In this article, we engineer two methods to improve two important aspects of this pipeline [specifically steps (ii) and (iii)]. First, computing sequence similarity data [step (i)] is a computationally intensive task for large sequence sets, crea...

  11. Identifying root system genes using induced mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root systems play an important role in plant growth and development. They absorb water and nutrients, anchor plant in the soil and affect plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Despite their importance, the progress in understanding the molecular processes underlying root development has been achieved only in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was accomplished through detailed analysis of root mutants with the use of advanced molecular, genomic and bioinformatic tools. Recently, similar studies performed with rice and maize root mutants have led to the identification of homologous and novel genes controlling root system formation in monocots. The collection of barley mutants with changes in root system development and morphology has been developed in our Department after mutagenic treatments of spring barley varieties with N-methyl N-nitosourea (MNU) and sodium azide. Among these mutants, the majority was characterized by seminal roots significantly shorter than roots of a parent variety throughout a whole vegetation period. Additionally, several mutants with root hairs impaired at different stages of development have been identified. These mutants have become the material of studies aimed at genetic and molecular dissection of seminal root and root hair formation in barley. The studies included the molecular mapping of genes responsible for mutant phenotype using DNA markers and root transcriptome analysis in the mutant/parent variety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we riety system. Using cDNA RDA approach, we have identified the HvEXPB1 gene encoding root specific beta expansin related to the root hair initiation in barley. We have also initiated the database search for barley sequences homologous to the known Arabodopsis, maize and rice genes. The identified homologous ESTs are now used for isolation of the complete coding sequences and gene function will be validated through identification of mutations related to the altered phenotype. This work was supported by the IAEA Research Contracts 12611 and 12849, and Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grant 2 P04C 056 30. (author)

  12. Identifying polymorphism in enamelin gene in amelogenesis imperfecta (AI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, V K; Yoong, Tan Pang; Yean, Chan Yean; Ravichandran, M

    2008-10-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a developmental defect of dental enamel formation. This enamel defect can be caused by mutation in ENAM gene. Hence this study investigated the molecular defect in the enamelin gene in a patient with the clinical features of AI. The genomic DNA was extracted from patient's whole blood samples and the DNA was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence of 16 pairs of oligonucleotide primers specifically designed to amplify all the 10 exons, g2382, g6395 and g8344 of the enamelin (ENAM) gene in the long arm of the chromosome 4. The PCR products were gel purified and sequenced to identify any mutation. The ENAM gene sequences from the patient were aligned with the reference sequence (GenBank accession no. AY167999) using VectorNTI software. We identified a single base difference at location g359 A-->G on exon 1 between the reference sequence and patient's sequence. We successfully ruled out any possible mutation on exon 2, exon 3, exon 4, exon 5, exon 6, exon 7, exon 8, exon 9, exon 10, g2382, g6395 and g8344. PMID:18466877

  13. Axon Regeneration Genes Identified by RNAi Screening in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Nix, Paola; Hammarlund, Marc; Hauth, Linda; Lachnit, Martina; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Bastiani, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Axons of the mammalian CNS lose the ability to regenerate soon after development due to both an inhibitory CNS environment and the loss of cell-intrinsic factors necessary for regeneration. The complex molecular events required for robust regeneration of mature neurons are not fully understood, particularly in vivo. To identify genes affecting axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans, we performed both an RNAi-based screen for defective motor axon regeneration in unc-70/?-spectrin mutants...

  14. Links between core promoter and basic gene features influence gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinvani Hadar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diversity in rates of gene expression is essential for basic cell functions and is controlled by a variety of intricate mechanisms. Revealing general mechanisms that control gene expression is important for understanding normal and pathological cell functions and for improving the design of expression systems. Here we analyzed the relationship between general features of genes and their contribution to expression levels. Results Genes were divided into four groups according to their core promoter type and their characteristics analyzed statistically. Surprisingly we found that small variations in the TATA box are linked to large differences in gene length. Genes containing canonical TATA are generally short whereas long genes are associated with either non-canonical TATA or TATA-less promoters. These differences in gene length are primarily determined by the size and number of introns. Generally, gene expression was found to be tightly correlated with the strength of the TATA-box. However significant reduction in gene expression levels were linked with long TATA-containing genes (canonical and non-canonical whereas intron length hardly affected the expression of TATA-less genes. Interestingly, features associated with high translation are prevalent in TATA-containing genes suggesting that their protein production is also more efficient. Conclusion Our results suggest that interplay between core promoter type and gene size can generate significant diversity in gene expression.

  15. HYBRID ENSEMBLE GENE SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR IDENTIFYING BIOMARKERS FROM BREAST CANCER GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES?

    OpenAIRE

    DR. S. ARUNA; DR. L.V. NANDAKISHORE

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major health hazard in the world. DNA gene expression profiles plays an importantrole in identifying the biomarkers for cancer which not only help in accurate diagnosis of the disease, also indiscovering drugs, minimizing the toxicity thus help in the effective management of the disease. In this paper wepropose an algorithm for determining the biomarkers. Our hybrid ensemble gene selection algorithm wasexperimented over breast cancer gene expression data of 24481 g...

  16. On Y-Linked Genes and Bisexual Branching Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M.; Gutierrez, C.; Mota, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we survey the results concerning the extinction problem for a two-allele Y-linked gene in a two-sex monogamic population, with a preference of females for males carrying one of the two alleles of the gene. First we give the mathematical definition of the Y-linked bisexual branching process to model this situation and study some of its relevant properties. Then, we research the extinction of the population and also the survival of each genotype depending on the behaviour of the o...

  17. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Horikoshi M, Yaghootkar H, Mook-Kanamori DO, Sovio U, Taal HR, Hennig BJ, Bradfield JP, St Pourcain B, Evans DM, Charoen P, Kaakinen M, Cousminer DL, Lehtim\\xe4ki T, Kreiner-M\\xf8ller E, Warrington NM, Hottenga JJ, de Geus EJ, Vink JM, Willemsen G, MAGIC, Boomsma DI, Wid\\xe9n E, Hakonarson H, Uitterlinden AG, Pouta A, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Frayling TM, McCarthy MI, Grant SF, Jaddoe VW, Jarvelin MR, Timpson NJ, Prokopenko I, Freathy RM; Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium; Horikoshi M; Yaghootkar H; Mook-Kanamori DO; Sovio U; Taal HR; Hennig BJ; Bradfield JP; St Pourcain B; Evans DM; Charoen P; Kaakinen M; Cousminer DL; Lehtim\\xe4ki T

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-anal...

  18. Identification of DNA markers linked to a blast resistance gene in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of DNA markers closely linked to a blast (Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) resistance gene and establishment of an indirect selection method for the blast resistance gene based on linked DNA markers are reported. A pair of near isogenic lines, K80R and K79S, were developed using a local Chinese indica rice cultivar, Hong-jiao-zhan, as the resistant donor and IR24 as the recurrent parent. Ten putatitvely positive markers were identified by screening 177 mapped DNA markers. Using 143 plants composed of the F2 population of K80R/K79S, three restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (RG81, RG869 and RZ397) on chromosome 12 of rice were verified to be closely linked to the blast resistance gene. The resistance genotypes of each F2 resistant individual were determined by inoculation of the F3 lines. RG869 was found to be most closely linked to the resistance gene, with a genetic distance of 5.1 cM. To fine map this gene with more DNA markers, the bulk segregation analysis procedure was employed to identify the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to the resistance gene. Six of 199 arbitrary primers were able to produce positive RAPD bands. Tight linkage between the resistance gene and the three RAPD bands, each from a different primer, was confirmed after amplification of the DNA of all the F2 individuals. The linked DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced. The results of specific amplificatienced. The results of specific amplification were in agreement with those of RAPD analysis. The half-seed RAPD analysis procedure for blast resistance detection was established. The amplified DNA patterns on the extract from the endosperm half of the mature seeds were identical to those of the total DNA from the leaves. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  19. RAPD markers linked to a block of genes conferring rust resistance to the common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleiro Fábio Gelape

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus, may cause a significant loss to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield. RAPD markers tightly linked to the resistance genes may be used in breeding programs to aid the development of rust-resistant bean cultivars. In this sense, the objective of the present work was to identify RAPD markers linked to a rust resistance gene block present in the cultivar Ouro Negro. Two hundred and fourteen F2 individuals from a cross between the resistant cultivar Ouro Negro and the susceptible cultivar US Pinto 111 were inoculated with a mixture of eight races of U. appendiculatus. The segregation ratio obtained suggested that resistance is monogenic and dominant. Bulked segregant analysis was used in conjunction with the RAPD technique to search for markers linked to rust resistance genes. Two molecular markers flanking the rust resistance gene block were identified, one at 5.8 ± 1.6 cM (OX11(630 and the other at 7.7 ± 1.7 cM (OF10(1,050 of the gene. Simulated indirect selection efficiency in the F2 population using the two markers was 100%. The molecular markers identified in this work are currently being used for the selection of disease-resistant plants in the commom bean breeding program of the Federal University of Viçosa.

  20. Information Extraction as Link Prediction: Using Curated Citation Networks to Improve Gene Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew; Cohen, William W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the usefulness of various types of publication-related metadata, such as citation networks and curated databases, for the task of identifying genes in academic biomedical publications. Specifically, we examine whether knowing something about which genes an author has previously written about, combined with information about previous coauthors and citations, can help us predict which new genes the author is likely to write about in the future. Framed in this way, the problem becomes one of predicting links between authors and genes in the publication network. We show that this solely social-network based link prediction technique outperforms various baselines, including those relying only on non-social biological information. PMID:21234278

  1. RAPD markers linked to the Vf gene for scab resistance in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarini, S

    1996-05-01

    Scab (Venturia inaequalis) is one of the most harmful diseases of apple, significantly affecting world apple production. The identification and early selection of resistant genotypes by molecular markers would greatly improve breeding strategies. Bulked segregant analysis was chosen for the identification of RAPD markers linked to the Vf scab resistant gene. Five different RAPD markers, derived from the wild species Malus floribunda. 821, were identified, and their genetic distance from Vf gene was estimated. The markers OPAM192200 and OPAL07580 were found to be very closely linked to the Vf gene. This result was indirectly confirmed by the analysis of resistant genotypes collected from various breeding programmes. Except for cv 'Murray', which carries the Vm gene, all these resistant genotypes showed the markers OPAM192200 and OPAL07580. PMID:24166544

  2. Identification of gene ontologies linked to prefrontal-hippocampal functional coupling in the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixson, Luanna; Walter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Functional interactions between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during working memory have been studied extensively as an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. Coupling abnormalities have been found in patients, their unaffected siblings, and carriers of common genetic variants associated with schizophrenia, but the global genetic architecture of this imaging phenotype is unclear. To achieve genome-wide hypothesis-free identification of genes and pathways associated with prefrontal-hippocampal interactions, we combined gene set enrichment analysis with whole-genome genotyping and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 269 healthy German volunteers. We found significant enrichment of the synapse organization and biogenesis gene set. This gene set included known schizophrenia risk genes, such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM) and calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit (CACNB2), as well as genes with well-defined roles in neurodevelopmental and plasticity processes that are dysfunctional in schizophrenia and have mechanistic links to prefrontal-hippocampal functional interactions. Our results demonstrate a readily generalizable approach that can be used to identify the neurogenetic basis of systems-level phenotypes. Moreover, our findings identify gene sets in which genetic variation may contribute to disease risk through altered prefrontal-hippocampal functional interactions and suggest a link to both ongoing and developmental synaptic plasticity.

  3. Identification of RAPD markers linked to a black leaf spot resistance gene in Chinese elm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, H; Guries, R P; Boury, S; Smalley, E B

    1995-06-01

    Black leaf spot (Stegophora ulmea) is a common foliage disease on Chinese (Ulmus parvifolia) and Siberian elms (U. pumila), two species which have been widely used as sources of Dutch-elm disease-resistance genes for interspecific elm hybrids. A dominant gene controlling resistance to black leaf spot was identified in a population derived from self-pollination of a single U. parvifolia tree. Using RAPD markers, in combination with bulked segregant analysis, we have identified three markers linked to this resistance gene. A survey of Chinese-elm hybrids revealed that the same gene is likely to confer a high level of resistance to black leaf spot in interspecific elm hybrids, although other genetic factors may also be involved in the determination of a disease phenotype. PMID:24173064

  4. Identifying sexual differentiation genes that affect Drosophila life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tower John

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual differentiation often has significant effects on life span and aging phenotypes. For example, males and females of several species have different life spans, and genetic and environmental manipulations that affect life span often have different magnitude of effect in males versus females. Moreover, the presence of a differentiated germ-line has been shown to affect life span in several species, including Drosophila and C. elegans. Methods Experiments were conducted to determine how alterations in sexual differentiation gene activity might affect the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila females heterozygous for the tudor[1] mutation produce normal offspring, while their homozygous sisters produce offspring that lack a germ line. To identify additional sexual differentiation genes that might affect life span, the conditional transgenic system Geneswitch was employed, whereby feeding adult flies or developing larvae the drug RU486 causes the over-expression of selected UAS-transgenes. Results In this study germ-line ablation caused by the maternal tudor[1] mutation was examined in a long-lived genetic background, and was found to increase life span in males but not in females, consistent with previous reports. Fitting the data to a Gompertz-Makeham model indicated that the maternal tudor[1] mutation increases the life span of male progeny by decreasing age-independent mortality. The Geneswitch system was used to screen through several UAS-type and EP-type P element mutations in genes that regulate sexual differentiation, to determine if additional sex-specific effects on life span would be obtained. Conditional over-expression of transformer female isoform (traF during development produced male adults with inhibited sexual differentiation, however this caused no significant change in life span. Over-expression of doublesex female isoform (dsxF during development was lethal to males, and produced a limited number of female escapers, whereas over-expression of dsxF specifically in adults greatly reduced both male and female life span. Similarly, over-expression of fruitless male isoform A (fru-MA during development was lethal to both males and females, whereas over-expression of fru-MA in adults greatly reduced both male and female life span. Conclusion Manipulation of sexual differentiation gene expression specifically in the adult, after morphological sexual differentiation is complete, was still able to affect life span. In addition, by manipulating gene expression during development, it was possible to significantly alter morphological sexual differentiation without a significant effect on adult life span. The data demonstrate that manipulation of sexual differentiation pathway genes either during development or in adults can affect adult life span.

  5. Crossref an update on article level linking and digital object identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Description of the CrossRef initiative, "an independent non-profit membership organization that was established by the publishing community to permit article linking based on digital object identifiers (DOIs)" (1 page).

  6. The Vf gene for scrab resistance in apple is linked to sub-lethal genes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z.S.; Weg, W.E., van de

    2006-01-01

    V f is the most widely used resistance gene in the breeding for scab resistant apple cultivars. Distorted segregation ratios for V f -resistance have frequently been reported. Here we revealed that sub-lethal genes caused the distorted segregation. The inheritance of V f was examined in six progenies by testing linked molecular markers. Three progenies showed distorted segregations that could be explained by three sub-lethal genes (sl1, sl2 and sl3), of which sl1, sl2 were closely linked to V...

  7. PhenoLink - a web-tool for linking phenotype to ~omics data for bacteria: application to gene-trait matching for Lactobacillus plantarum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayjanov Jumamurat R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linking phenotypes to high-throughput molecular biology information generated by ~omics technologies allows revealing cellular mechanisms underlying an organism's phenotype. ~Omics datasets are often very large and noisy with many features (e.g., genes, metabolite abundances. Thus, associating phenotypes to ~omics data requires an approach that is robust to noise and can handle large and diverse data sets. Results We developed a web-tool PhenoLink (http://bamics2.cmbi.ru.nl/websoftware/phenolink/ that links phenotype to ~omics data sets using well-established as well new techniques. PhenoLink imputes missing values and preprocesses input data (i to decrease inherent noise in the data and (ii to counterbalance pitfalls of the Random Forest algorithm, on which feature (e.g., gene selection is based. Preprocessed data is used in feature (e.g., gene selection to identify relations to phenotypes. We applied PhenoLink to identify gene-phenotype relations based on the presence/absence of 2847 genes in 42 Lactobacillus plantarum strains and phenotypic measurements of these strains in several experimental conditions, including growth on sugars and nitrogen-dioxide production. Genes were ranked based on their importance (predictive value to correctly predict the phenotype of a given strain. In addition to known gene to phenotype relations we also found novel relations. Conclusions PhenoLink is an easily accessible web-tool to facilitate identifying relations from large and often noisy phenotype and ~omics datasets. Visualization of links to phenotypes offered in PhenoLink allows prioritizing links, finding relations between features, finding relations between phenotypes, and identifying outliers in phenotype data. PhenoLink can be used to uncover phenotype links to a multitude of ~omics data, e.g., gene presence/absence (determined by e.g.: CGH or next-generation sequencing, gene expression (determined by e.g.: microarrays or RNA-seq, or metabolite abundance (determined by e.g.: GC-MS.

  8. Identifying Gene Clusters by Discovering Common Intervals in Indeterminate Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, Daniel; Stoye, Jens; Böcker, Sebastian; Jahn, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comparative analyses of chromosomal gene orders are successfully used to predict gene clusters in bacterial and fungal genomes. Present models for detecting sets of co-localized genes in chromosomal sequences require prior knowledge of gene family assignments of genes in the dataset of interest. These families are often computationally predicted on the basis of sequence similarity or higher order features of gene products. Errors introduced in this process amplify in s...

  9. Molecular markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vbj derived from Malus baccata jackii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gygax, M; Gianfranceschi, L; Liebhard, R; Kellerhals, M; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2004-11-01

    Breeding for scab-resistant apple cultivars by pyramiding several resistance genes in the same genetic background is a promising way to control apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. To achieve this goal, DNA markers linked to the genes of interest are required in order to select seedlings with the desired resistance allele combinations. For several apple scab resistance genes, molecular markers are already available; but until now, none existed for the apple scab resistance gene Vbj originating from the crab apple Malus baccata jackii. Using bulk segregant analysis, three RAPD markers linked to Vbj were first identified. These markers were transformed into more reliable sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers that proved to be co-dominant. In addition, three SSR markers and one SCAR were identified by comparing homologous linkage groups of existing genetic maps. Discarding plants showing genotype-phenotype incongruence (GPI plants) plants, a linkage map was calculated. Vbj mapped between the markers CH05e03 (SSR) and T6-SCAR, at 0.6 cM from CH05e03 and at 3.9 cM from T6-SCAR. Without the removal of the GPI plants, Vbj was placed 15 cM away from the closest markers. Problems and pitfalls due to GPI plants and the consequences for mapping the resistance gene accurately are discussed. Finally, the usefulness of co-dominant markers for pedigree analysis is also demonstrated. PMID:15365630

  10. Analysis of the retinal gene expression profile after hypoxic preconditioning identifies candidate genes for neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal degeneration is a main cause of blindness in humans. Neuroprotective therapies may be used to rescue retinal cells and preserve vision. Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes the transcription factor HIF-1? in the retina and strongly protects photoreceptors in an animal model of light-induced retinal degeneration. To address the molecular mechanisms of the protection, we analyzed the transcriptome of the hypoxic retina using microarrays and real-time PCR. Results Hypoxic exposure induced a marked alteration in the retinal transcriptome with significantly different expression levels of 431 genes immediately after hypoxic exposure. The normal expression profile was restored within 16 hours of reoxygenation. Among the differentially regulated genes, several candidates for neuroprotection were identified like metallothionein-1 and -2, the HIF-1 target gene adrenomedullin and the gene encoding the antioxidative and cytoprotective enzyme paraoxonase 1 which was previously not known to be a hypoxia responsive gene in the retina. The strongly upregulated cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21 was excluded from being essential for neuroprotection. Conclusion Our data suggest that neuroprotection after hypoxic preconditioning is the result of the differential expression of a multitude of genes which may act in concert to protect visual cells against a toxic insult.

  11. FROM GENES TO PHENOTYPE IN A FLY: A DEFICIENCY SCREEN TO IDENTIFY GENE REGIONS AFFECTING FEMALE FERTILITY IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhD Margaret C Bloch-Qazi (Gustavus Adolphus College Biology)

    2009-01-28

    This series of laboratory exercises engages students in the scholarship of discovery by having them conduct a deficiency screen to identify genes affecting Drosophila female fertility. Students are also introduced to bioinformatics as they use FlyBase to identify genes within a deficiency region and develop hypotheses regarding specific gene effects on female sperm storage.

  12. Sex-dimorphic gene expression and ineffective dosage compensation of Z-linked genes in gastrulating chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of sex determination and dosage compensation mechanisms in model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and M. musculus. Strikingly, the mechanism involved in sex determination and dosage compensation are very different among these three model organisms. Birds present yet another situation where the heterogametic sex is the female. Sex determination is still poorly understood in birds and few key determinants have so far been identified. In contrast to most other species, dosage compensation of bird sex chromosomal genes appears rather ineffective. Results By comparing microarrays from microdissected primitive streak from single chicken embryos, we identified a large number of genes differentially expressed between male and female embryos at a very early stage (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 4, long before any sexual differentiation occurs. Most of these genes are located on the Z chromosome, which indicates that dosage compensation is ineffective in early chicken embryos. Gene ontology analyses, using an enhanced annotation tool for Affymetrix probesets of the chicken genome developed in our laboratory (called Manteia, show that among these male-biased genes found on the Z chromosome, more than 20 genes play a role in sex differentiation. Conclusions These results corroborate previous studies demonstrating the rather inefficient dosage compensation for Z chromosome in birds and show that this sexual dimorphism in gene regulation is observed long before the onset of sexual differentiation. These data also suggest a potential role of non-compensated Z-linked genes in somatic sex differentiation in birds.

  13. VeryGene: linking tissue-specific genes to diseases, drugs, and beyond for knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqin; Ye, Yun; Wang, Guiping; Huang, Hong; Yu, Dekuang; Liang, Shuang

    2011-04-27

    In addition to many other genes, tissue-specific genes (TSGs) represent a set of genes of great importance for human physiology. However, the links among TSGs, diseases, and potential therapeutic agents are often missing, hidden, or too scattered to find. There is a need to establish a knowledgebase for researchers to share this and additional information in order to speed up discovery and clinical practice. As an initiative toward systems biology, the VeryGene web server was developed to fill this gap. A significant effort has been made to integrate TSGs from two large-scale data analyses with respective information on subcellular localization, Gene Ontology, Reactome, KEGG pathway, Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Mammalian Phenotype, disease association, and targeting drugs. The current release carefully selected 3,960 annotated TSGs derived from 127 normal human tissues and cell types, including 5,672 gene-disease and 2,171 drug-target relationships. In addition to being a specialized source for TSGs, VeryGene can be used as a discovery tool by generating novel inferences. Some inherently useful but hidden relations among genes, diseases, drugs, and other important aspects can be inferred to form testable hypotheses. VeryGene is available online at http://www.verygene.com. PMID:21245417

  14. Development of a SCAR marker linked to the I gene in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melotto, M; Afanador, L; Kelly, J D

    1996-12-01

    Two 24-mer SCAR primers (SW13) were developed from a previously identified 10-mer RAPD primer (OW13(690)) linked to the I gene, which conditions resistance to bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean. Linkage between SW13 and the I gene was tested in three F2 populations segregating for both SW13 and the I gene: N84004/Michelite (1.0 +/- 0.7 cM), Seafarer/UI-114 (1.3 +/- 0.8 cM), and G91201/Alpine (5.0 +/- 2.2 cM). SW13 proved to be more specific and reproducible than the OW13(690) RAPD marker. Using different heat-stable DNA polymerases, SW13 amplified a single 690-bp fragment linked to the I gene that more consistently permitted the identification of resistant plants. In addition, the presence of the I gene was detected using SW13 in genotypes originating from different gene pools of Phaseolus vulgaris L., indicating a broad utility of this marker for bean breeding programs. PMID:8983191

  15. Identifying Subspace Gene Clusters from Microarray Data Using Low-Rank Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yan; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Identifying subspace gene clusters from the gene expression data is useful for discovering novel functional gene interactions. In this paper, we propose to use low-rank representation (LRR) to identify the subspace gene clusters from microarray data. LRR seeks the lowest-rank representation among all the candidates that can represent the genes as linear combinations of the bases in the dataset. The clusters can be extracted based on the block diagonal representation matrix obtained using LRR,...

  16. Genome-wide analysis of clustered Dorsal binding sites identifies putative target genes in the Drosophila embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Markstein, Michele; Markstein, Peter; Markstein, Vicky; Michael S Levine

    2001-01-01

    Metazoan genomes contain vast tracts of cis-regulatory DNA that have been identified typically through tedious functional assays. As a result, it has not been possible to uncover a cis-regulatory code that links primary DNA sequences to gene expression patterns. In an initial effort to determine whether coordinately regulated genes share a common “grammar,” we have examined the distribution of Dorsal recognition sequences in the Drosophila genome. Dorsal is one of the best-characterized s...

  17. Autism-Linked Genes May Be Tied to Slightly Higher IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151441.html Autism-Linked Genes May Be Tied to Slightly Higher ... News) -- Genes believed to increase the risk of autism may also be linked with higher intelligence, a ...

  18. Using Frequent Co-expression Network to Identify Gene Clusters for Breast Cancer Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jie ZHANG; Huang, Kun; Xiang, Yang; Jin, Ruoming

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the use of gene co-expression network analyses to identify potential biomarkers for breast carcinoma prognosis. The network mining algorithm CODENSE is used to identify highly connected genome-wide gene co-expression networks among a variety of cancer types, and the resulted gene clusters are applied to a series of breast cancer microarray sets to categorize the patients into different groups. As a result, we have identified a set of genes that are potential bio...

  19. Description of X-linked megalocornea with identification of the gene locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, D A; Buttery, R G; Wise, G M; Denton, M J

    1991-06-01

    We studied the clinical appearance and inheritance in five families with X-linked megalocornea. Affected male subjects had corneal diameters between 13.0 and 16.5 mm. Arcus juvenilis, mosaic corneal dystrophy, and cataracts were found only in adult affected male subjects. No carrier female abnormality was identified. The gene locus for the X-linked form is in the region Xq12-q26. This is near the locus described for Aarskog (facial-digital-genital) syndrome, Xq12-13. PMID:2043071

  20. A bi-ordering approach to linking gene expression with clinical annotations in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leckie Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the study of cancer genomics, gene expression microarrays, which measure thousands of genes in a single assay, provide abundant information for the investigation of interesting genes or biological pathways. However, in order to analyze the large number of noisy measurements in microarrays, effective and efficient bioinformatics techniques are needed to identify the associations between genes and relevant phenotypes. Moreover, systematic tests are needed to validate the statistical and biological significance of those discoveries. Results In this paper, we develop a robust and efficient method for exploratory analysis of microarray data, which produces a number of different orderings (rankings of both genes and samples (reflecting correlation among those genes and samples. The core algorithm is closely related to biclustering, and so we first compare its performance with several existing biclustering algorithms on two real datasets - gastric cancer and lymphoma datasets. We then show on the gastric cancer data that the sample orderings generated by our method are highly statistically significant with respect to the histological classification of samples by using the Jonckheere trend test, while the gene modules are biologically significant with respect to biological processes (from the Gene Ontology. In particular, some of the gene modules associated with biclusters are closely linked to gastric cancer tumorigenesis reported in previous literature, while others are potentially novel discoveries. Conclusion In conclusion, we have developed an effective and efficient method, Bi-Ordering Analysis, to detect informative patterns in gene expression microarrays by ranking genes and samples. In addition, a number of evaluation metrics were applied to assess both the statistical and biological significance of the resulting bi-orderings. The methodology was validated on gastric cancer and lymphoma datasets.

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manmathan, Harish; Shaner, Dale; Snelling, Jacob; Tisserat, Ned; Lapitan, Nora

    2013-03-01

    In a non-model staple crop like wheat (Triticum aestivumI L.), functional validation of potential drought stress responsive genes identified in Arabidopsis could provide gene targets for breeding. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of genes of interest can overcome the inherent problems of polyploidy and limited transformation potential that hamper functional validation studies in wheat. In this study, three potential candidate genes shown to be involved in abiotic stress response pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for VIGS experiments in wheat. These include Era1 (enhanced response to abscisic acid), Cyp707a (ABA 8'-hydroxylase), and Sal1 (inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase). Gene homologues for these three genes were identified in wheat and cloned in the viral vector barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in the antisense direction, followed by rub inoculation of BSMV viral RNA transcripts onto wheat plants. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated wheat plants had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. When VIGS-treated plants generated for Era1 and Sal1 were subjected to limiting water conditions, they showed increased relative water content, improved water use efficiency, reduced gas exchange, and better vigour compared to water-stressed control plants inoculated with RNA from the empty viral vector (BSMV0). In comparison, the Cyp707a-silenced plants showed no improvement over BSMV0-inoculated plants under limited water condition. These results indicate that Era1 and Sal1 play important roles in conferring drought tolerance in wheat. Other traits affected by Era1 silencing were also studied. Delayed seed germination in Era1-silenced plants suggests this gene may be a useful target for developing resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. PMID:23364940

  2. GeneFriends: An online co-expression analysis tool to identify novel gene targets for aging and complex diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dam Sipko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many diseases have been well characterized at the molecular level, the underlying mechanisms are often unknown. Nearly half of all human genes remain poorly studied, yet these genes may contribute to a number of disease processes. Genes involved in common biological processes and diseases are often co-expressed. Using known disease-associated genes in a co-expression analysis may help identify and prioritize novel candidate genes for further study. Results We have created an online tool, called GeneFriends, which identifies co-expressed genes in over 1,000 mouse microarray datasets. GeneFriends can be used to assign putative functions to poorly studied genes. Using a seed list of disease-associated genes and a guilt-by-association method, GeneFriends allows users to quickly identify novel genes and transcription factors associated with a disease or process. We tested GeneFriends using seed lists for aging, cancer, and mitochondrial complex I disease. We identified several candidate genes that have previously been predicted as relevant targets. Some of the genes identified are already being tested in clinical trials, indicating the effectiveness of this approach. Co-expressed transcription factors were investigated, identifying C/ebp genes as candidate regulators of aging. Furthermore, several novel candidate genes, that may be suitable for experimental or clinical follow-up, were identified. Two of the novel candidates of unknown function that were co-expressed with cancer-associated genes were selected for experimental validation. Knock-down of their human homologs (C1ORF112 and C12ORF48 in HeLa cells slowed growth, indicating that these genes of unknown function, identified by GeneFriends, may be involved in cancer. Conclusions GeneFriends is a resource for biologists to identify and prioritize novel candidate genes involved in biological processes and complex diseases. It is an intuitive online resource that will help drive experimentation. GeneFriends is available online at: http://genefriends.org/.

  3. Identifying multiple causative genes at a single GWAS locus

    OpenAIRE

    Flister, Michael J.; Tsaih, Shirng-wern; O Meara, Caitlin C.; Endres, Bradley; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Geurts, Aron M.; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Lazar, Jozef; Jacob, Howard J.; Moreno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are useful for nominating candidate genes, but typically are unable to establish disease causality or differentiate between the effects of variants in linkage disequilibrium (LD). Additionally, some GWAS loci might contain multiple causative variants or genes that contribute to the overall disease susceptibility at a single locus. However, the majority of current GWAS lack the statistical power to test whether multiple causative genes underlie the same l...

  4. Identifying novel genes in C. elegans using SAGE tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nansheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive efforts devoted to predicting protein-coding genes in genome sequences, many bona fide genes have not been found and many existing gene models are not accurate in all sequenced eukaryote genomes. This situation is partly explained by the fact that gene prediction programs have been developed based on our incomplete understanding of gene feature information such as splicing and promoter characteristics. Additionally, full-length cDNAs of many genes and their isoforms are hard to obtain due to their low level or rare expression. In order to obtain full-length sequences of all protein-coding genes, alternative approaches are required. Results In this project, we have developed a method of reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences based on short expressed sequence tags which is called sequence tag-based amplification of cDNA ends (STACE. Expressed tags are used as anchors for retrieving full-length transcripts in two rounds of PCR amplification. We have demonstrated the application of STACE in reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences using expressed tags mined in an array of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE of C. elegans cDNA libraries. We have successfully applied STACE to recover sequence information for 12 genes, for two of which we found isoforms. STACE was used to successfully recover full-length cDNA sequences for seven of these genes. Conclusions The STACE method can be used to effectively reconstruct full-length cDNA sequences of genes that are under-represented in cDNA sequencing projects and have been missed by existing gene prediction methods, but their existence has been suggested by short sequence tags such as SAGE tags.

  5. GeneFriends: An online co-expression analysis tool to identify novel gene targets for aging and complex diseases

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam Sipko; Cordeiro Rui; Craig Thomas; van Dam Jesse; Wood Shona H; de Magalhães João

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although many diseases have been well characterized at the molecular level, the underlying mechanisms are often unknown. Nearly half of all human genes remain poorly studied, yet these genes may contribute to a number of disease processes. Genes involved in common biological processes and diseases are often co-expressed. Using known disease-associated genes in a co-expression analysis may help identify and prioritize novel candidate genes for further study. Results We have...

  6. Sparse canonical correlation analysis for identifying, connecting and completing gene-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwinderman Aeilko H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We generalized penalized canonical correlation analysis for analyzing microarray gene-expression measurements for checking completeness of known metabolic pathways and identifying candidate genes for incorporation in the pathway. We used Wold's method for calculation of the canonical variates, and we applied ridge penalization to the regression of pathway genes on canonical variates of the non-pathway genes, and the elastic net to the regression of non-pathway genes on the canonical variates of the pathway genes. Results We performed a small simulation to illustrate the model's capability to identify new candidate genes to incorporate in the pathway: in our simulations it appeared that a gene was correctly identified if the correlation with the pathway genes was 0.3 or more. We applied the methods to a gene-expression microarray data set of 12, 209 genes measured in 45 patients with glioblastoma, and we considered genes to incorporate in the glioma-pathway: we identified more than 25 genes that correlated > 0.9 with canonical variates of the pathway genes. Conclusion We concluded that penalized canonical correlation analysis is a powerful tool to identify candidate genes in pathway analysis.

  7. Gene expression profiling identifies molecular pathways associated with collagen VI deficiency and provides novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paco, Sonia; Kalko, Susana G; Jou, Cristina; Rodríguez, María A; Corbera, Joan; Muntoni, Francesco; Feng, Lucy; Rivas, Eloy; Torner, Ferran; Gualandi, Francesca; Gomez-Foix, Anna M; Ferrer, Anna; Ortez, Carlos; Nascimento, Andrés; Colomer, Jaume; Jimenez-Mallebrera, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), caused by collagen VI deficiency, is a common congenital muscular dystrophy. At present, the role of collagen VI in muscle and the mechanism of disease are not fully understood. To address this we have applied microarrays to analyse the transcriptome of UCMD muscle and compare it to healthy muscle and other muscular dystrophies. We identified 389 genes which are differentially regulated in UCMD relative to controls. In addition, there were 718 genes differentially expressed between UCMD and dystrophin deficient muscle. In contrast, only 29 genes were altered relative to other congenital muscular dystrophies. Changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time PCR. The set of regulated genes was analysed by Gene Ontology, KEGG pathways and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to reveal the molecular functions and gene networks associated with collagen VI defects. The most significantly regulated pathways were those involved in muscle regeneration, extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation. We characterised the immune response in UCMD biopsies as being mainly mediated via M2 macrophages and the complement pathway indicating that anti-inflammatory treatment may be beneficial to UCMD as for other dystrophies. We studied the immunolocalisation of ECM components and found that biglycan, a collagen VI interacting proteoglycan, was reduced in the basal lamina of UCMD patients. We propose that biglycan reduction is secondary to collagen VI loss and that it may be contributing towards UCMD pathophysiology. Consequently, strategies aimed at over-expressing biglycan and restore the link between the muscle cell surface and the extracellular matrix should be considered. PMID:24223098

  8. Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Siegel, T Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Antigenic variation of the Plasmodium falciparum multicopy var gene family enables parasite evasion of immune destruction by host antibodies. Expression of a particular var subgroup, termed upsA, is linked to the obstruction of blood vessels in the brain and to the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria. The mechanism determining upsA activation remains unknown. Here we show that an entirely new type of gene silencing mechanism involving an exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA controls the silencing of genes linked to severe malaria. We identify a novel chromatin-associated exoribonuclease, termed PfRNase II, that controls the silencing of upsA var genes by marking their transcription start site and intron-promoter regions leading to short-lived cryptic RNA. Parasites carrying a deficient PfRNase II gene produce full-length upsA var transcripts and intron-derived antisense long non-coding RNA. The presence of stable upsA var transcripts overcomes monoallelic expression, resulting in the simultaneous expression of both upsA and upsC type PfEMP1 proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. In addition, we observe an inverse relationship between transcript levels of PfRNase II and upsA-type var genes in parasites from severe malaria patients, implying a crucial role of PfRNase II in severe malaria. Our results uncover a previously unknown type of post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in malaria parasites with repercussions for other organisms. Additionally, the identification of RNase II as a parasite protein controlling the expression of virulence genes involved in pathogenesis in patients with severe malaria may provide new strategies for reducing malaria mortality.

  9. Similar interstitial deletions of the KAL-1 gene in two Brazilian families with X-linked Kallmann Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Barbosa Trarbach

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the KAL-1 gene localized at Xp22.3 have been shown to be responsible for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome (KS, a disorder characterized by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. In this paper, we describe the investigation of two families with X-linked KS, in which similar interstitial deletions ning exons 5 to 10 of the KAL-1 gene were identified. The presence of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences within the KAL-1 gene might have predisposed to this type of mutation.

  10. Similar interstitial deletions of the KAL-1 gene in two Brazilian families with X-linked Kallmann Syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ericka Barbosa, Trarbach; Isabella Lopes, Monlleo; Carlos Guilherme Gaelzer, Porciuncula; Marshall Italo Barros, Fontes; Maria Teresa Mathias, Baptista; Christine, Hackel.

    Full Text Available Mutations in the KAL-1 gene localized at Xp22.3 have been shown to be responsible for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome (KS), a disorder characterized by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. In this paper, we describe the investigation of two families with X-linked KS, in which [...] similar interstitial deletions ning exons 5 to 10 of the KAL-1 gene were identified. The presence of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences within the KAL-1 gene might have predisposed to this type of mutation.

  11. Similar interstitial deletions of the KAL-1 gene in two Brazilian families with X-linked Kallmann Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ericka Barbosa Trarbach; Isabella Lopes Monlleo; Carlos Guilherme Gaelzer Porciuncula; Marshall Italo Barros Fontes; Maria Teresa Mathias Baptista; Christine Hackel

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the KAL-1 gene localized at Xp22.3 have been shown to be responsible for the X-linked Kallmann syndrome (KS), a disorder characterized by the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia. In this paper, we describe the investigation of two families with X-linked KS, in which similar interstitial deletions ning exons 5 to 10 of the KAL-1 gene were identified. The presence of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences within the KAL-1 gene might have predisposed to this type...

  12. [Expression of bioinformatically identified genes in skin of psoriasis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Gene expression analysis for EPHA2 (EPH receptor A2), EPHB2 (EPH receptor B2), S100A9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9), PBEF(nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase), LILRB2 (leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily B (with TM and ITIM domains), member 2), PLAUR (plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor), LTB (lymphotoxin beta (TNF superfamily, member 3)), WNT5A (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A) has been conducted using real-time polymerase chain reaction in specimens affected by psoriasis versus visually intact skin in 18 patients. It was revealed that the expression of the nine examined genes was upregulated in the affected by psoriasis compared to visually intact skin specimens. The highest expression was observed for S100A9, S100AS, PBEF, WNT5A2, and EPHB2 genes. S100A9 and S100A8 gene expression in the affected by psoriasis skin was 100-fold higher versus visually intact skin while PBEF, WNT5A, and EPHB2 gene expression was upregulated more than five-fold. We suggested that the high expression of these genes might be associated with the state of the pathological process in psoriasis. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of these genes might serve a molecular indicator of the efficacy of treatment in psoriasis. PMID:25508677

  13. Homeobox genes: a molecular link between development and cancer Genes homeobox: uma relação molecular entre o desenvolvimento e o câncer

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Daumas Nunes; Fernanda Campos Souza de Almeida; Renata Tucci; Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de Sousa

    2003-01-01

    Homeobox genes are regulatory genes encoding nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors, regulating aspects of morphogenesis and cell differentiation during normal embryonic development of several animals. Vertebrate homeobox genes can be divided in two subfamilies: clustered, or HOX genes, and nonclustered, or divergent, homeobox genes. During the last decades, several homeobox genes, clustered and nonclustered ones, were identified in normal tissue, in malignant cells, and in differ...

  14. A direct molecular link between the autism candidate gene RORa and the schizophrenia candidate MIR137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanna, Paolo; Vernes, Sonja C.

    2014-02-01

    Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha gene (RORa) and the microRNA MIR137 have both recently been identified as novel candidate genes for neuropsychiatric disorders. RORa encodes a ligand-dependent orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional regulator and miR-137 is a brain enriched small non-coding RNA that interacts with gene transcripts to control protein levels. Given the mounting evidence for RORa in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MIR137 in schizophrenia and ASD, we investigated if there was a functional biological relationship between these two genes. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-137 targets the 3'UTR of RORa in a site specific manner. We also provide further support for MIR137 as an autism candidate by showing that a large number of previously implicated autism genes are also putatively targeted by miR-137. This work supports the role of MIR137 as an ASD candidate and demonstrates a direct biological link between these previously unrelated autism candidate genes.

  15. RAPD markers linked to a block of genes conferring rust resistance to the common bean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Gelape, Faleiro; Wender Santos, Vinhadelli; Vilmar Antonio, Ragagnin; Ronan Xavier, Corrêa; Maurilio Alves, Moreira; Everaldo Gonçalves de, Barros.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem, causada pelo fungo Uromyces appendiculatus, pode ocasionar perdas significativas na produtividade do feijoeiro-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Marcadores RAPD fortemente ligados a genes de resistência à ferrugem podem ser usados em programas de melhoramento para auxiliar no desenvolviment [...] o de cultivares resistentes. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de identificar marcadores RAPD ligados a um bloco de genes de resistência à ferrugem presente no cultivar Ouro Negro. Para isso, foram utilizados 214 indivíduos F2 originados do cruzamento Ouro Negro (resistente) x US Pinto 111 (suscetível universal). As plantas foram inoculadas com uma mistura de 8 raças de U. appendiculatus e a análise da segregação revelou uma herança monogênica dominante. Foi empregada a metodologia de bulk segregant analysis. Os bulks foram amplificados pela técnica de RAPD com 1280 primers. Foram encontrados dois marcadores flanqueando o bloco gênico que confere resistência à ferrugem: OX11(630) (5,8 ± 1,6 cM) e OF10(1050) (7,7 ± 1,7 cM). Considerando os indivíduos F2, a seleção indireta de plantas resistentes com base no uso dos dois marcadores simultaneamente leva a 100% de eficiência. Os marcadores identificados nesse trabalho estão sendo extremamente úteis no programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Abstract in english Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus, may cause a significant loss to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yield. RAPD markers tightly linked to the resistance genes may be used in breeding programs to aid the development of rust-resistant bean cultivars. In this sense, the objective of [...] the present work was to identify RAPD markers linked to a rust resistance gene block present in the cultivar Ouro Negro. Two hundred and fourteen F2 individuals from a cross between the resistant cultivar Ouro Negro and the susceptible cultivar US Pinto 111 were inoculated with a mixture of eight races of U. appendiculatus. The segregation ratio obtained suggested that resistance is monogenic and dominant. Bulked segregant analysis was used in conjunction with the RAPD technique to search for markers linked to rust resistance genes. Two molecular markers flanking the rust resistance gene block were identified, one at 5.8 ± 1.6 cM (OX11(630)) and the other at 7.7 ± 1.7 cM (OF10(1,050)) of the gene. Simulated indirect selection efficiency in the F2 population using the two markers was 100%. The molecular markers identified in this work are currently being used for the selection of disease-resistant plants in the commom bean breeding program of the Federal University of Viçosa.

  16. Three novel PHEX gene mutations in four Chinese families with X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Qing-lin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Xu, Jia [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu province 215000 (China); Zhang, Zeng [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); He, Jin-wei [Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Lu, Lian-song [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu province 215000 (China); Fu, Wen-zhen [Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhang, Zhen-lin, E-mail: zzl2002@medmail.com.cn [Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Diseases, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai 200233 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In our study, all of the patients were of Han Chinese ethnicity, which were rarely reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified three novel PHEX gene mutations in four unrelated families with XLH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that the relationship between the phenotype and genotype of the PHEX gene was not invariant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found that two PHEX gene sites, p.534 and p.731, were conserved. -- Abstract: Background: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common form of inherited rickets, is a dominant disorder that is characterized by renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia, abnormal bone mineralization, short stature, and rachitic manifestations. The related gene with inactivating mutations associated with XLH has been identified as PHEX, which is a phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome. In this study, a variety of PHEX mutations were identified in four Chinese families with XLH. Methods: We investigated four unrelated Chinese families who exhibited typical features of XLH by using PCR to analyze mutations that were then sequenced. The laboratory and radiological investigations were conducted simultaneously. Results: Three novel mutations were found in these four families: one frameshift mutation, c.2033dupT in exon 20, resulting in p.T679H; one nonsense mutation, c.1294A > T in exon 11, resulting in p.K432X; and one missense mutation, c.2192T > C in exon 22, resulting in p.F731S. Conclusions: We found that the PHEX gene mutations were responsible for XLH in these Chinese families. Our findings are useful for understanding the genetic basis of Chinese patients with XLH.

  17. Three novel PHEX gene mutations in four Chinese families with X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? In our study, all of the patients were of Han Chinese ethnicity, which were rarely reported. ? We identified three novel PHEX gene mutations in four unrelated families with XLH. ? We found that the relationship between the phenotype and genotype of the PHEX gene was not invariant. ? We found that two PHEX gene sites, p.534 and p.731, were conserved. -- Abstract: Background: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common form of inherited rickets, is a dominant disorder that is characterized by renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia, abnormal bone mineralization, short stature, and rachitic manifestations. The related gene with inactivating mutations associated with XLH has been identified as PHEX, which is a phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome. In this study, a variety of PHEX mutations were identified in four Chinese families with XLH. Methods: We investigated four unrelated Chinese families who exhibited typical features of XLH by using PCR to analyze mutations that were then sequenced. The laboratory and radiological investigations were conducted simultaneously. Results: Three novel mutations were found in these four families: one frameshift mutation, c.2033dupT in exon 20, resulting in p.T679H; one nonsense mutation, c.1294A > T in exon 11, resulting in p.K432X; and one missense mutation, c.2192T > C in exon 22, resulting in p.F731S. Conclusions: We found that the PHEX gene mutations were responsible for XLH in these Chinese families. Our findings are useful for understanding the genetic basis of Chinese patients with XLH.

  18. A transcription map of the 6p22.3 reading disability locus identifying candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruen Jeffrey R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reading disability (RD is a common syndrome with a large genetic component. Chromosome 6 has been identified in several linkage studies as playing a significant role. A more recent study identified a peak of transmission disequilibrium to marker JA04 (G72384 on chromosome 6p22.3, suggesting that a gene is located near this marker. Results In silico cloning was used to identify possible candidate genes located near the JA04 marker. The 2 million base pairs of sequence surrounding JA04 was downloaded and searched against the dbEST database to identify ESTs. In total, 623 ESTs from 80 different tissues were identified and assembled into 153 putative coding regions from 19 genes and 2 pseudogenes encoded near JA04. The identified genes were tested for their tissue specific expression by RT-PCR. Conclusions In total, five possible candidate genes for RD and other diseases mapping to this region were identified.

  19. Identifying and Prioritizing Genes involved in Bovine Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Li

    2010-01-01

    In the "omics" era, identification of biological entities underlying complex traits or common diseases is characterized by the integration of high-throughput experiments and knowledge that have benn published or refined in biomedical repositories. Studies in this thesis generate, collect and integrate different layers of biological data, attempting to make a systematic inference of underlying genes to bovine mastitis. Robust and flexible methods have been implemented in data summarization and integration for gene prioritization, which can be applied to study various complex traits in different species

  20. Meiotic Drive Impacts Expression and Evolution of X-Linked Genes in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Josephine A.; Brand, Cara L.; Paczolt, Kimberly A.; Johns, Philip M.; Baker, Richard H.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Although sex chromosome meiotic drive has been observed in a variety of species for over 50 years, the genes causing drive are only known in a few cases, and none of these cases cause distorted sex-ratios in nature. In stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni), driving X chromosomes are commonly found at frequencies approaching 30% in the wild, but the genetic basis of drive has remained elusive due to reduced recombination between driving and non-driving X chromosomes. Here, we used RNAseq to identify transcripts that are differentially expressed between males carrying either a driving X (XSR) or a standard X chromosome (XST), and found hundreds of these, the majority of which are X-linked. Drive-associated transcripts show increased levels of sequence divergence (dN/dS) compared to a control set, and are predominantly expressed either in testes or in the gonads of both sexes. Finally, we confirmed that XSR and XST are highly divergent by estimating sequence differentiation between the RNAseq pools. We found that X-linked transcripts were often strongly differentiated (whereas most autosomal transcripts were not), supporting the presence of a relatively large region of recombination suppression on XSR presumably caused by one or more inversions. We have identified a group of genes that are good candidates for further study into the causes and consequences of sex-chromosome drive, and demonstrated that meiotic drive has had a profound effect on sequence evolution and gene expression of X-linked genes in this species. PMID:24832132

  1. Identify the signature genes for diagnose of uveal melanoma by weight gene co-expression network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify and understand the relationship between co-expression pattern and clinic traits in uveal melanoma, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA is applied to investigate the gene expression levels and patient clinic features. Uveal melanoma is the most common primary eye tumor in adults. Although many studies have identified some important genes and pathways that were relevant to progress of uveal melanoma, the relationship between co-expression and clinic traits in systems level of uveal melanoma is unclear yet. We employ WGCNA to investigate the relationship underlying molecular and phenotype in this study. METHODS: Gene expression profile of uveal melanoma and patient clinic traits were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. The gene co-expression is calculated by WGCNA that is the R package software. The package is used to analyze the correlation between pairs of expression levels of genes. The function of the genes were annotated by gene ontology (GO. RESULTS: In this study, we identified four co-expression modules significantly correlated with clinic traits. Module blue positively correlated with radiotherapy treatment. Module purple positively correlates with tumor location (sclera and negatively correlates with patient age. Module red positively correlates with sclera and negatively correlates with thickness of tumor. Module black positively correlates with the largest tumor diameter (LTD. Additionally, we identified the hug gene (top connectivity with other genes in each module. The hub gene RPS15A, PTGDS, CD53 and MSI2 might play a vital role in progress of uveal melanoma. CONCLUSION: From WGCNA analysis and hub gene calculation, we identified RPS15A, PTGDS, CD53 and MSI2 might be target or diagnosis for uveal melanoma.

  2. Quantitative cell array screening to identify regulators of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainth, Pinay; Andrews, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade or so, advances in genome-scale technologies have allowed systematic and detailed analysis of gene function. The experimental accessibility of budding yeast makes it a test-bed for technology development and application of new functional genomic tools and resources that pave the way for comparable efforts in higher eukaryotes. In this article, we review advances in reporter screening technology to discover trans-acting regulators of promoters (or cis-elements) of interest in the context of a novel functional genomics approach called Reporter Synthetic Genetic Array (R-SGA) analysis. We anticipate that this methodology will enable researchers to collect quantitative data on hundreds of gene expression pathways in an effort to better understand transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:19952074

  3. An integrative approach to identify Bacillus weihenstephanensis resistance biomarkers using gene expression quantification throughout acid inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desriac, Noémie; Coroller, Louis; Sohier, Danièle; Postollec, Florence

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to define an integrative approach to identify resistance biomarkers using gene expression quantification and mathematical modelling. Mid-exponentially growing cells were transferred into acid conditions (BHI, pH 4.6) to obtain inactivation kinetics, performed in triplicate. The inactivation curve was fitted with a mixed Weibull model. This model allowed to differentiate two subpopulations with various acid resistances among the initial population. In parallel, differential gene expression was quantified by RT-qPCR. While narL was down-regulated throughout acid inactivation, sigB and katA were up-regulated. sigB expression up-regulation peak was correlated to the less resistant subpopulation when katA up-regulation, was correlated to the more resistant subpopulation. Moreover, differences in population structure were highlighted between each replicate. The higher proportion of the more resistant subpopulation was linked to a higher katA gene expression. These results suggest that sigB and katA might be used as different types of biomarkers, for instance to track moderate and high acid-resistance, respectively. The use of this approach combining RT-qPCR and predictive modelling to track cellular biomarker variations appears as an interesting tool to take into account physiological cell responses into mathematical modelling, allowing an accurate prediction of microbial behaviour. PMID:22850389

  4. Identifying paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in linked administrative health data

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    Wilson Sally

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the contribution of the quality of nursing care to patient outcomes. Due to different casemix and risk profiles, algorithms for administrative health data that identify nursing-sensitive outcomes in adult hospitalised patients may not be applicable to paediatric patients. The study purpose was to test adult algorithms in a paediatric hospital population and make amendments to increase the accuracy of identification of hospital acquired events. The study also aimed to determine whether the use of linked hospital records improved the likelihood of correctly identifying patient outcomes as nursing sensitive rather than being related to their pre-morbid conditions. Methods Using algorithms developed by Needleman et al. (2001, proportions and rates of records that identified nursing-sensitive outcomes for pressure ulcers, pneumonia and surgical wound infections were determined from administrative hospitalisation data for all paediatric patients discharged from a tertiary paediatric hospital in Western Australia between July 1999 and June 2009. The effects of changes to inclusion and exclusion criteria for each algorithm on the calculated proportion or rate in the paediatric population were explored. Linked records were used to identify comorbid conditions that increased nursing-sensitive outcome risk. Rates were calculated using algorithms revised for paediatric patients. Results Linked records of 129,719 hospital separations for 79,016 children were analysed. Identification of comorbid conditions was enhanced through access to prior and/or subsequent hospitalisation records (43% of children with pressure ulcers had a form of paralysis recorded only on a previous admission. Readmissions with a surgical wound infection were identified for 103 (4.8/1,000 surgical separations using linked data. After amendment of each algorithm for paediatric patients, rates of pressure ulcers and pneumonia reduced by 53% and 15% (from 1.3 to 0.6 and from 9.1 to 7.7 per 10,000 patient days respectively, and an 84% increase in the proportion of surgical wound infection (from 5.7 to 10.4 per 1,000 separations. Conclusions Algorithms for nursing-sensitive outcomes used in adult populations have to be amended before application to paediatric populations. Using unlinked individual hospitalisation records to estimate rates of nursing-sensitive outcomes is likely to result in inaccurate rates.

  5. Quantitative cell array screening to identify regulators of gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kainth, Pinay; Andrews, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade or so, advances in genome-scale technologies have allowed systematic and detailed analysis of gene function. The experimental accessibility of budding yeast makes it a test-bed for technology development and application of new functional genomic tools and resources that pave the way for comparable efforts in higher eukaryotes. In this article, we review advances in reporter screening technology to discover trans-acting regulators of promoters (or cis-elements) of interest i...

  6. Extragenic Suppressors of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Prp4 Mutations Identify a Negative Regulator of Prp Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Maddock, J. R.; Weidenhammer, E. M.; Adams, C. C.; Lunz, R. L.; Woolford-jr, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The PRP4 gene encodes a protein that is a component of the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle and is necessary for both spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. To identify genes whose products interact with the PRP4 gene or gene product, we isolated second-site suppressors of temperature-sensitive prp4 mutations. We limited ourselves to suppressors with a distinct phenotype, cold sensitivity, to facilitate analysis of mutants. Ten independent recessive suppressors were obtaine...

  7. Identification of AFLP Molecular Markers Linked to Row-Type Gene in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the two- and six-rowed types in barley is predominantly controlled by alleles at a single locus (vrs1 which is located in long arm of chromosome 2H. This gene is a key character on the study of barley domestication and yield. Near-isogenic lines (NILs of barley were produced from crosses between Kanto Nakate Gold (tow-rowed and Azumamugi (six-rowed. The selected lines were used for screening of AFLP polymorphic bands which are linked to vrs1 locus. After screening of a total of 1792 primer combination, five polymorphic bands were identified. A construction of high resolution map around the vrs1 locus was made using recombinant inbred lines. These markers can be used for a map-based cloning of the genes at the vrs1 locus.

  8. TM4SF10 gene sequencing in XLMR patients identifies common polymorphisms but no disease-associated mutation

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    Holinski-Feder Elke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TM4SF10 gene encodes a putative four-transmembrane domains protein of unknown function termed Brain Cell Membrane Protein 1 (BCMP1, and is abundantly expressed in the brain. This gene is located on the short arm of human chromosome X at p21.1. The hypothesis that mutations in the TM4SF10 gene are associated with impaired brain function was investigated by sequencing the gene in individuals with hereditary X-linked mental retardation (XLMR. Methods The coding region (543 bp of TM4SF10, including intronic junctions, and the long 3' untranslated region (3 233 bp, that has been conserved during evolution, were sequenced in 16 male XLMR patients from 14 unrelated families with definite, or suggestive, linkage to the TM4SF10 gene locus, and in 5 normal males. Results Five sequence changes were identified but none was found to be associated with the disease. Two of these changes correspond to previously known SNPs, while three other were novel SNPs in the TM4SF10 gene. Conclusion We have investigated the majority of the known MRX families linked to the TM4SF10 gene region. In the absence of mutations detected, our study indicates that alterations of TM4SF10 are not a frequent cause of XLMR.

  9. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be identified by a gene expression profile that partly overlaps with human breast cancer profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummel Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures associated with mammary tumor metastasis and asked for parallels with the human equivalent. Methods Messenger RNA expression profiles of twenty-seven lymph node metastasis positive or negative canine mammary carcinomas were established by microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were functionally characterized and associated with molecular pathways. The findings were also correlated with published data on human breast cancer. Results Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas had 1,011 significantly differentially expressed genes when compared to non-metastatic carcinomas. Metastatic carcinomas had a significant up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, matrix modulation, protein folding and proteasomal degradation whereas cell differentiation genes, growth factor pathway genes and regulators of actin organization were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, 265 of the 1,011 differentially expressed canine genes are also related to human breast cancer and, vice versa, parts of a human prognostic gene signature were identified in the expression profiles of the metastatic canine tumors. Conclusions Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be discriminated from non-metastatic carcinomas by their gene expression profiles. More than one third of the differentially expressed genes are also described of relevance for human breast cancer. Many of the differentially expressed genes are linked to functions and pathways which appear to be relevant for the induction and maintenance of metastatic progression and may represent new therapeutic targets. Furthermore, dogs are in some aspects suitable as a translational model for human breast tumors in order to identify prognostic molecular signatures and potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Network Analysis Reveals Functional Cross-links between Disease and Inflammation Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Fan, Huihui; Xu, Juan; Xiao, Yun; Xu, Yanjun; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Connections between inflammation and diseases are suggested important in understanding the genetic mechanisms of diseases. However, studies on the functional cross-links between inflammation and disease genes are still in their early stages. We integrated the protein–protein interaction (PPI), inflammation genes, and gene–disease associations to construct a disease-inflammation network (DIN). We found that nodes, which are both inflammation and disease genes (namely inter-genes), are topo...

  11. An in vivo RNA interference screen identifies gene networks controlling Drosophila melanogaster blood cell homeostasis

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    Augé Benoit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In metazoans, the hematopoietic system plays a key role both in normal development and in defense of the organism. In Drosophila, the cellular immune response involves three types of blood cells: plasmatocytes, crystal cells and lamellocytes. This last cell type is barely present in healthy larvae, but its production is strongly induced upon wasp parasitization or in mutant contexts affecting larval blood cell homeostasis. Notably, several zygotic mutations leading to melanotic mass (or "tumor" formation in larvae have been associated to the deregulated differentiation of lamellocytes. To gain further insights into the gene regulatory network and the mechanisms controlling larval blood cell homeostasis, we conducted a tissue-specific loss of function screen using hemocyte-specific Gal4 drivers and UAS-dsRNA transgenic lines. Results By targeting around 10% of the Drosophila genes, this in vivo RNA interference screen allowed us to recover 59 melanotic tumor suppressor genes. In line with previous studies, we show that melanotic tumor formation is associated with the precocious differentiation of stem-cell like blood progenitors in the larval hematopoietic organ (the lymph gland and the spurious differentiation of lamellocytes. We also find that melanotic tumor formation can be elicited by defects either in the fat body, the embryo-derived hemocytes or the lymph gland. In addition, we provide a definitive confirmation that lymph gland is not the only source of lamellocytes as embryo-derived plasmatocytes can differentiate into lamellocytes either upon wasp infection or upon loss of function of the Friend of GATA cofactor U-shaped. Conclusions In this study, we identify 55 genes whose function had not been linked to blood cell development or function before in Drosophila. Moreover our analyses reveal an unanticipated plasticity of embryo-derived plasmatocytes, thereby shedding new light on blood cell lineage relationship, and pinpoint the Friend of GATA transcription cofactor U-shaped as a key regulator of the plasmatocyte to lamellocyte transformation.

  12. ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Andreas; Salway, Fiona; Dressman, Holly K; Kröner-Lux, Gabriele; Hafner, Mathias; Day, Philip JR; Marchuk, Douglas A; Garland, John

    2006-01-01

    Background TGF-?1 is an important angiogenic factor involved in the different aspects of angiogenesis and vessel maintenance. TGF-? signalling is mediated by the T?RII/ALK5 receptor complex activating the Smad2/Smad3 pathway. In endothelial cells TGF-? utilizes a second type I receptor, ALK1, activating the Smad1/Smad5 pathway. Consequently, a perturbance of ALK1, ALK5 or T?RII activity leads to vascular defects. Mutations in ALK1 cause the vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methods The identification of ALK1 and not ALK5 regulated genes in endothelial cells, might help to better understand the development of HHT. Therefore, the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 was infected with a recombinant constitutively active ALK1 adenovirus, and gene expression was studied by using gene arrays and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results After 24 hours, 34 genes were identified to be up-regulated by ALK1 signalling. Analysing ALK1 regulated gene expression after 4 hours revealed 13 genes to be up- and 2 to be down-regulated. Several of these genes, including IL-8, ET-1, ID1, HPTP? and TEAD4 are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. Evaluation of ALK1 regulated gene expression in different human endothelial cell types was not in complete agreement. Further on, disparity between constitutively active ALK1 and TGF-?1 induced gene expression in HMEC-1 cells and primary HUVECs was observed. Conclusion Gene array analysis identified 49 genes to be regulated by ALK1 signalling and at least 14 genes are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. There was substantial agreement between the gene array and quantitative real-time PCR data. The angiogenesis related genes might be potential HHT modifier genes. In addition, the results suggest endothelial cell type specific ALK1 and TGF-? signalling. PMID:16594992

  13. Reverse Engineering Gene Network Identifies New Dysferlin-interacting Proteins*

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciottolo, Mafalda; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Laval, Steve; Bushby, Kate; Di Bernardo, Diego; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Dysferlin (DYSF) is a type II transmembrane protein implicated in surface membrane repair of muscle. Mutations in dysferlin lead to Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B), Miyoshi Myopathy (MM), and Distal Myopathy with Anterior Tibialis onset (DMAT). The DYSF protein complex is not well understood, and only a few protein-binding partners have been identified thus far. To increase the set of interacting protein partners for DYSF we recovered a list of predicted interacting protein through...

  14. N-acetylated ?-linked acidic dipeptidase is identified as an antigen of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Ochiai, Eri; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-13

    Histoplasmosis, one of the most important mycoses, needs to be diagnosed rapidly and accurately. The main method used to diagnose histoplasmosis is serological detection of antibodies to the Histoplasma capsulatum H and M antigens. Several other protein antigens have been reported in H. capsulatum; however, they have not been used for diagnosis. In this study, we explored novel antigens that were detected during H. capsulatum infection. We obtained a protein mixture from H. capsulatum yeast cells after vigorous mixing in a 0.1% Triton X-100 solution. From the resultant pool, we detected nine spots that reacted with sera from patients with histoplasmosis and identified eight seroactive proteins with mass spectrometry. The seroactive proteins were purified, and their antigenicities were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ELISA revealed that the titer of the patients' sera to N-acetylated ?-linked acidic dipeptidase was significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). These data indicate that N-acetylated ?-linked acidic dipeptidase of H. capsulatum is recognized as a major antigen during histoplasmosis. PMID:25680469

  15. Identification of RAPD Markers Linked to the Male Sterility Gene in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei asl

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic male sterility is controlled by one pair of ressesive allele (aa in sugar beet. This trait is used in most breeding programes. The exsistance of the character in a line or population facilitates transfer of important trait to the breeding material (for example resistance to plant disease. Also, it is possible to increase genetic diversity of monogerm populations by using genetic male sterility. The time and cost of transferring of this gene will be decreased, if the character is tagged with a molecular marker. Bulked segregant analysis using 302 RAPD primers in two F2 populations (231 and 261 population was performed for the the identification of RAPD markers linked to the genetic male sterility gene. DNA preparation from 8 male fertile and male sterile plants were separately mixed. At first, the primers were tested on bulks. The primers with polymorphic bands were tested on individual plants of the bulks. Only if the polymorphism of the primers was confirmed, they were tested on the other individual plants. Finally, 10 and 6 markers were identified in 231 and 261 populations, respectively, which their distances to male sterility gene were lower than 50 cM. AB-8-18-600r marker was the nearest marker to male sterility gene. This marker showed only 3 and 1 recombination in 231 and 261 populations, respectively. The distance of this marker and genetic male sterility locus was estimated as 5.3 cM in combined F2 populations.

  16. Novel ISCR1-linked resistance genes found in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengping; Wu, Kuihai; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Qian; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Rui, Yongyu

    2012-11-01

    Non-duplicate multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (n=1329) isolated from southern China between January 2008 and December 2009 were investigated for the presence of ISCR1 as well as characterisation of ISCR1-linked resistance genes. Of 433 ISCR1-positive strains, 151 appeared to carry ISCR1-linked resistance genes. Seven different ISCR1-linked resistance gene arrays were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing analysis. Many of these arrays are reported in some species for the first time. A total of 12 genes, including a novel ABC transporter (GenBank accession no. GU944725), qnrA1, qnrB2, qnrB6, bla(DHA-1), ampR, bla(CTX-M-9), bla(PER-1), insB, sapA-like peptide transport periplasmic protein, putative glutathione S-transferase and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase, were detected. This study was the first to employ PCR-RFLP using HinfI and RsaI to analyse ISCR1-linked genes. ISCR1 was widely disseminated among MDR Gram-negative bacteria and was in close association with quinolone resistance and ?-lactamase genes (class A and class C) in southern China. PMID:22890194

  17. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppönen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jørgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M.T.; Tönjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Körner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Mònica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widén, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, André G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2012-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood1. Previous genome-wide association studies identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes, and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits2. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study (up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of genome-wide significant loci to seven, accounting for a similar proportion of variance to maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes; ADRB1 with adult blood pressure; and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism. PMID:23202124

  18. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2 diabetes and a second variant, near CCNL1, with no obvious link to adult traits. In an expanded genome-wide association meta-analysis and follow-up study of birth weight (of up to 69,308 individuals of European descent from 43 studies), we have now extended the number of loci associated at genome-wide significance to 7, accounting for a similar proportion of variance as maternal smoking. Five of the loci are known to be associated with other phenotypes: ADCY5 and CDKAL1 with type 2 diabetes, ADRB1 with adult blood pressure and HMGA2 and LCORL with adult height. Our findings highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism.

  19. Paradata for 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'

    Science.gov (United States)

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-? and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression'

  20. Cartilage-selective genes identified in genome-scale analysis of non-cartilage and cartilage gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Zachary A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cartilage plays a fundamental role in the development of the human skeleton. Early in embryogenesis, mesenchymal cells condense and differentiate into chondrocytes to shape the early skeleton. Subsequently, the cartilage anlagen differentiate to form the growth plates, which are responsible for linear bone growth, and the articular chondrocytes, which facilitate joint function. However, despite the multiplicity of roles of cartilage during human fetal life, surprisingly little is known about its transcriptome. To address this, a whole genome microarray expression profile was generated using RNA isolated from 18–22 week human distal femur fetal cartilage and compared with a database of control normal human tissues aggregated at UCLA, termed Celsius. Results 161 cartilage-selective genes were identified, defined as genes significantly expressed in cartilage with low expression and little variation across a panel of 34 non-cartilage tissues. Among these 161 genes were cartilage-specific genes such as cartilage collagen genes and 25 genes which have been associated with skeletal phenotypes in humans and/or mice. Many of the other cartilage-selective genes do not have established roles in cartilage or are novel, unannotated genes. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the unique pattern of gene expression observed by microarray analysis. Conclusion Defining the gene expression pattern for cartilage has identified new genes that may contribute to human skeletogenesis as well as provided further candidate genes for skeletal dysplasias. The data suggest that fetal cartilage is a complex and transcriptionally active tissue and demonstrate that the set of genes selectively expressed in the tissue has been greatly underestimated.

  1. Adipose Co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Blake E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High serum triglyceride (TG levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation. Methods Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA. Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher’s Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network. Results We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1 reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals. Conclusions This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations.

  2. Description and interpretation of various SNPs identified by BRCA2 gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnosis for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC involves systematic DNA sequencing of predisposition genes like BRCA1 or BRCA2. Deleterious mutations within such genes are responsible for developing the disease, but other sequence variants can also be identified. Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs are usually present in human genome, defining alleles whose frequencies widely vary in different populations. Either intragenic or intronic, silent or generating aminoacid substitutions, SNPs cannot be afforded themselves a predisposition status. However, prevalent SNPs can be used to define gene haplotypes, with also various frequencies. Since some mutation can easily be assigned to haplotypes (such is the case for BRCA1 gene, SNPs can therefore provide usual information in interpreting gene mutations effects on hereditary predisposition to cancer. Here we describe 10 BRCA2 SNPs identified by complete gene sequencing

  3. GeneLink: a database to facilitate genetic studies of complex traits

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfsberg Tyra G; Trout Ken; Ibay Grace; Freas-Lutz Diana; Klein Alison P; Jones Mary; Duggal Priya; Umayam Lowell; Gildea Derek; Masiello Anthony; Gillanders Elizabeth M; Trent Jeffrey M; Bailey-Wilson Joan E; Baxevanis Andreas D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In contrast to gene-mapping studies of simple Mendelian disorders, genetic analyses of complex traits are far more challenging, and high quality data management systems are often critical to the success of these projects. To minimize the difficulties inherent in complex trait studies, we have developed GeneLink, a Web-accessible, password-protected Sybase database. Results GeneLink is a powerful tool for complex trait mapping, enabling genotypic data to be easily merged wi...

  4. Epigenetic characterization of the growth hormone gene identifies SmcHD1 as a regulator of autosomal gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massah, Shabnam; Hollebakken, Robert; Labrecque, Mark P; Kolybaba, Addie M; Beischlag, Timothy V; Prefontaine, Gratien G

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory elements for the mouse growth hormone (GH) gene are located distally in a putative locus control region (LCR) in addition to key elements in the promoter proximal region. The role of promoter DNA methylation for GH gene regulation is not well understood. Pit-1 is a POU transcription factor required for normal pituitary development and obligatory for GH gene expression. In mammals, Pit-1 mutations eliminate GH production resulting in a dwarf phenotype. In this study, dwarf mice illustrated that Pit-1 function was obligatory for GH promoter hypomethylation. By monitoring promoter methylation levels during developmental GH expression we found that the GH promoter became hypomethylated coincident with gene expression. We identified a promoter differentially methylated region (DMR) that was used to characterize a methylation-dependent DNA binding activity. Upon DNA affinity purification using the DMR and nuclear extracts, we identified structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain containing -1 (SmcHD1). To better understand the role of SmcHD1 in genome-wide gene expression, we performed microarray analysis and compared changes in gene expression upon reduced levels of SmcHD1 in human cells. Knock-down of SmcHD1 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells revealed a disproportionate number of up-regulated genes were located on the X-chromosome, but also suggested regulation of genes on non-sex chromosomes. Among those, we identified several genes located in the protocadherin ? cluster. In addition, we found that imprinted genes in the H19/Igf2 cluster associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (BWS & SRS) were dysregulated. For the first time using human cells, we showed that SmcHD1 is an important regulator of imprinted and clustered genes. PMID:24818964

  5. Microarray analysis identifies distinct gene expression profiles associated with histological subtype in human osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubista, Bernd; Klinglmueller, Florian; Bilban, Martin; Pfeiffer, Martin; Lass, Richard; Giurea, Alexander; Funovics, Phillipp T.; Toma, Cyril; Dominkus, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Thalhammer, Theresia; TRIEB, KLEMENS; Zettl, Teresa; Singer, Christian F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour. Currently osteosarcoma classification is based on histological appearance. It was the aim of this study to use a more systematic approach to osteosarcoma classification based on gene expression analysis and to identify subtype specific differentially expressed genes. We analysed the global gene expression profiles of ten osteosarcoma samples using Affymetrix U133A arrays (five osteoblastic and five non-osteoblastic osteosarcoma pa...

  6. A Genome-wide Approach to Identify the Genes Involved in Biofilm Formation in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Naka, Yoshiaki; Nagase, Megumi; Mori, Hirotada; Kitakawa, Madoka

    2007-01-01

    Biofilm forming cells are distinctive from the well-investigated planktonic cells and exhibit a different type of gene expression. Several new Escherichia coli genes related to biofilm formation have recently been identified through genomic approaches such as DNA microarray analysis. However, many others involved in this process might have escaped detection due to poor expression, regulatory mechanism, or genetic backgrounds. Here, we screened a collection of single-gene deletion mutants of E...

  7. The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cedric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sorensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theilsen, Gunter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loque, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2011-04-28

    We report the genome sequence of the nonseed vascular plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and by comparative genomics identify genes that likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular plants and their subsequent evolution

  8. Microarray Analysis Identifies Cerebellar Genes Sensitive to Chronic Ethanol Treatment in PKC? Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Barbara J.; Radcliffe, Richard A.; Smith, Amy M.; Miyamoto-ditmon, Jill; Wehner, Jeanne M.

    2006-01-01

    Neuroadaptive changes that occur in the development of ethanol tolerance may be the result of alterations in gene expression. We have shown that PKC? wild-type mice develop tolerance to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol after chronic ethanol treatment; whereas, mutant mice do not, making these genotypes a suitable model for identifying changes in gene expression related t...

  9. Microarray Analysis Identifies Cerebellar Genes Sensitive to Chronic Ethanol Treatment in PKC? Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Barbara J.; Radcliffe, Richard A.; Smith, Amy M.; Miyamoto-Ditmon, Jill; Wehner, Jeanne M.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroadaptive changes that occur in the development of ethanol tolerance may be the result of alterations in gene expression. We have shown that PKC? wild-type mice develop tolerance to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol after chronic ethanol treatment; whereas, mutant mice do not, making these genotypes a suitable model for identifying changes in gene expression related to tolerance development. Using a two-stage process, several genes were initially identified using microarray analyses of cerebellar tissue from ethanol-treated PKC? mutant and wild-type mice. Subsequent confirmation of a subset of these genes using qRT-PCR was done to verify gene expression changes. A total of 109 genes from different functional classifications were identified in these groups on the microarrays. Eight genes were selected for verification: three, Twik-1, Plp, and Adk2, were chosen as genes related to tolerance; another three, Hsp70.2, Bdnf, and Th, were chosen as genes related to resistance to tolerance; and two genes, JunB and Nur77, were selected as candidate genes sensitive to chronic ethanol. The results from the verification experiments indicated that Twik-1, which codes for a potassium channel, was associated with tolerance and appeared to be dependent on the presence of PKC?. No genes were confirmed to be related to resistance to tolerance; however, expression of two of these, Hsp70.2 and Th, were found to be sensitive to chronic ethanol and were added to the transcription factors, JunB and Nur77, confirmed by qRT-PCR, as a subset of genes that respond to chronic ethanol. PMID:17157717

  10. A screen for nuclear transcripts identifies two linked noncoding RNAs associated with SC35 splicing domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Christopher R

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noncoding RNA species play a diverse set of roles in the eukaryotic cell. While much recent attention has focused on smaller RNA species, larger noncoding transcripts are also thought to be highly abundant in mammalian cells. To search for large noncoding RNAs that might control gene expression or mRNA metabolism, we used Affymetrix expression arrays to identify polyadenylated RNA transcripts displaying nuclear enrichment. Results This screen identified no more than three transcripts; XIST, and two unique noncoding nuclear enriched abundant transcripts (NEAT RNAs strikingly located less than 70 kb apart on human chromosome 11: NEAT1, a noncoding RNA from the locus encoding for TncRNA, and NEAT2 (also known as MALAT-1. While the two NEAT transcripts share no significant homology with each other, each is conserved within the mammalian lineage, suggesting significant function for these noncoding RNAs. NEAT2 is extraordinarily well conserved for a noncoding RNA, more so than even XIST. Bioinformatic analyses of publicly available mouse transcriptome data support our findings from human cells as they confirm that the murine homologs of these noncoding RNAs are also nuclear enriched. RNA FISH analyses suggest that these noncoding RNAs function in mRNA metabolism as they demonstrate an intimate association of these RNA species with SC35 nuclear speckles in both human and mouse cells. These studies show that one of these transcripts, NEAT1 localizes to the periphery of such domains, whereas the neighboring transcript, NEAT2, is part of the long-sought polyadenylated component of nuclear speckles. Conclusion Our genome-wide screens in two mammalian species reveal no more than three abundant large non-coding polyadenylated RNAs in the nucleus; the canonical large noncoding RNA XIST and NEAT1 and NEAT2. The function of these noncoding RNAs in mRNA metabolism is suggested by their high levels of conservation and their intimate association with SC35 splicing domains in multiple mammalian species.

  11. Sequence-Based Methods for Identifying Epidemiologically Linked Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily Toth; Koelle, David M.; Byrd, Benjamin; Huang, Meei-Li; Vieira, Jeffrey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for confirming the identity of herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolates use restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). However, RFLP is less amenable to high-throughput analyses of many samples, and the extent to which small differences in RFLP patterns distinguish between different viral strains remains unclear. Viral HSV type 2 (HSV-2) DNA isolates from 14 persons experiencing a primary HSV-2 infection and from their sexual partners were analyzed by RFLP and heteroduplex mobility assays. We also compared the HSV-2 sequences from seven regions, including noncoding regions between UL19 and UL20, UL24 and UL25, UL37 and UL38, and UL41 and UL42 and coding segments of the gC, gB, and gG genes. Although the resulting RFLP patterns of the couples were almost identical, minor banding differences existed between the source and susceptible partners in five couples. Heteroduplex mobility assays were unable to distinguish between unrelated strains. Overall, 22 sites of sequence variation were found in 1,482 bp of analyzed sequence. The DNA sequences differentiated between all unrelated infections, and epidemiologically related isolates had identical sequences in all but two pairs. Our results suggest that a multilocus assay based on several DNA sequences has the potential to be an informative tool for identifying epidemiologically related HSV-2 strains. PMID:16825377

  12. A functional siRNA screen identifies genes modulating angiotensin II-mediated EGFR transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amee J; Purdue, Brooke W; Gould, Cathryn M; Thomas, Daniel W; Handoko, Yanny; Qian, Hongwei; Quaife-Ryan, Gregory A; Morgan, Kylie A; Simpson, Kaylene J; Thomas, Walter G; Hannan, Ross D

    2013-12-01

    The angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to mediate cellular growth, however, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. To address this, we performed a functional siRNA screen of the human kinome in human mammary epithelial cells that demonstrate a robust AT1R-EGFR transactivation. We identified a suite of genes encoding proteins that both positively and negatively regulate AT1R-EGFR transactivation. Many candidates are components of EGFR signalling networks, whereas others, including TRIO, BMX and CHKA, have not been previously linked to EGFR transactivation. Individual knockdown of TRIO, BMX or CHKA attenuated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR by angiotensin II stimulation, but this did not occur following direct stimulation of the EGFR with EGF, indicating that these proteins function between the activated AT1R and the EGFR. Further investigation of TRIO and CHKA revealed that their activity is likely to be required for AT1R-EGFR transactivation. CHKA also mediated EGFR transactivation in response to another G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand, thrombin, indicating a pervasive role for CHKA in GPCR-EGFR crosstalk. Our study reveals the power of unbiased, functional genomic screens to identify new signalling mediators important for tissue remodelling in cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:24046455

  13. Gene expression: The missing link in evolutionary computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargupta, H.

    1997-09-01

    This paper points out that the traditional perspective of evolutionary computation may not provide the complete picture of evolutionary search. This paper focuses on gene expression-- transformations of representation (DNA->RNA->Protein) from a the perspective of relation construction. It decomposes the complex process of gene expression into several steps, namely (1) expression control of DNA base pairs, (2) alphabet transformations during transcription and translation, and (3) folding of the proteins from sequence representation to Euclidean space. Each of these steps is investigated on grounds of relation construction and search efficiency. At the end these pieces of the puzzle are put together to develope a possibly crude and cartoon computational description of gene expression.

  14. Extracting gene expression patterns and identifying co-expressed genes from microarray data reveals biologically responsive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paules Richard S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common observation in the analysis of gene expression data is that many genes display similarity in their expression patterns and therefore appear to be co-regulated. However, the variation associated with microarray data and the complexity of the experimental designs make the acquisition of co-expressed genes a challenge. We developed a novel method for Extracting microarray gene expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes, designated as EPIG. The approach utilizes the underlying structure of gene expression data to extract patterns and identify co-expressed genes that are responsive to experimental conditions. Results Through evaluation of the correlations among profiles, the magnitude of variation in gene expression profiles, and profile signal-to-noise ratio's, EPIG extracts a set of patterns representing co-expressed genes. The method is shown to work well with a simulated data set and microarray data obtained from time-series studies of dauer recovery and L1 starvation in C. elegans and after ultraviolet (UV or ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA damage in diploid human fibroblasts. With the simulated data set, EPIG extracted the appropriate number of patterns which were more stable and homogeneous than the set of patterns that were determined using the CLICK or CAST clustering algorithms. However, CLICK performed better than EPIG and CAST with respect to the average correlation between clusters/patterns of the simulated data. With real biological data, EPIG extracted more dauer-specific patterns than CLICK. Furthermore, analysis of the IR/UV data revealed 18 unique patterns and 2661 genes out of approximately 17,000 that were identified as significantly expressed and categorized to the patterns by EPIG. The time-dependent patterns displayed similar and dissimilar responses between IR and UV treatments. Gene Ontology analysis applied to each pattern-related subset of co-expressed genes revealed underlying biological processes affected by IR- and/or UV- induced DNA damage. Conclusion EPIG competed with CLICK and performed better than CAST in extracting patterns from simulated data. EPIG extracted more biological informative patterns and co-expressed genes from both C. elegans and IR/UV-treated human fibroblasts. Using Gene Ontology analysis of the genes in the patterns extracted by EPIG, several key biological categories related to p53-dependent cell cycle control were revealed from the IR/UV data. Among them were mitotic cell cycle, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoint, and G0-like status transition. EPIG can be applied to data sets from a variety of experimental designs.

  15. Novel X-linked genes revealed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the green anole, Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanová, Marie; Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-11-01

    The green anole, Anolis carolinensis (ACA), is the model reptile for a vast array of biological disciplines. It was the first nonavian reptile to have its genome fully sequenced. During the genome project, the XX/XY system of sex chromosomes homologous to chicken chromosome 15 (GGA15) was revealed, and 106 X-linked genes were identified. We selected 38 genes located on eight scaffolds in ACA and having orthologs located on GGA15, then tested their linkage to ACA X chromosome by using comparative quantitative fluorescent real-time polymerase chain reaction applied to male and female genomic DNA. All tested genes appeared to be X-specific and not present on the Y chromosome. Assuming that all genes located on these scaffolds should be localized to the ACA X chromosome, we more than doubled the number of known X-linked genes in ACA, from 106 to 250. While demonstrating that the gene content of chromosome X in ACA and GGA15 is largely conserved, we nevertheless showed that numerous interchromosomal rearrangements had occurred since the splitting of the chicken and anole evolutionary lineages. The presence of many ACA X-specific genes localized to distinct contigs indicates that the ACA Y chromosome should be highly degenerated, having lost a large amount of its original gene content during evolution. The identification of novel genes linked to the X chromosome and absent on the Y chromosome in the model lizard species contributes to ongoing research as to the evolution of sex determination in reptiles and provides important information for future comparative and functional genomics. PMID:25172916

  16. Generalist Genes: Genetic Links between Brain, Mind, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Genetics contributes importantly to learning abilities and disabilities--not just to reading, the target of most genetic research, but also to mathematics and other academic areas as well. One of the most important recent findings from quantitative genetic research such as twin studies is that the same set of genes is largely responsible for…

  17. Identifying and prioritizing disease-related genes based on the network topological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Chao; Lai, Yan-Hua; Chen, Li-Li; Xie, Yun; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiao-Yong

    2014-08-23

    Identifying and prioritizing disease-related genes are the most important steps for understanding the pathogenesis and discovering the therapeutic targets. The experimental examination of these genes is very expensive and laborious, and usually has a higher false positive rate. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop computational methods for the identification and prioritization of disease-related genes. In this study, we develop a powerful method to identify and prioritize candidate disease genes. The novel network topological features with local and global information are proposed and adopted to characterize genes. The performance of these novel features is verified based on the 10-fold cross-validation test and leave-one-out cross-validation test. The proposed features are compared with the published features, and fused strategy is investigated by combining the current features with the published features. And, these combination features are also utilized to identify and prioritize Parkinson's disease-related genes. The results indicate that identified genes are highly related to some molecular process and biological function, which provides new clues for researching pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The source code of Matlab is freely available on request from the authors. PMID:25183318

  18. A Generally Applicable Translational Strategy Identifies S100A4 as a Candidate Gene in Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Sören; Fang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The identification of diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidate genes in common diseases is complicated by the involvement of thousands of genes. We hypothesized that genes co-regulated with a key gene in allergy, IL13, would form a module that could help to identify candidate genes. We identified a T helper 2 (TH2) cell module by small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of 25 putative IL13-regulating transcription factors followed by expression profiling. The module contained candidate genes whose diagnostic potential was supported by clinical studies. Functional studies of human TH2 cells as well as mouse models of allergy showed that deletion of one of the genes, S100A4, resulted in decreased signs of allergy including TH2 cell activation, humoral immunity, and infiltration of effector cells. Specifically, dendritic cells required S100A4 for activating T cells. Treatment with an anti-S100A4 antibody resulted in decreased signs of allergy in the mouse model as well as in allergen-challenged T cells from allergic patients. This strategy, which may be generally applicable to complex diseases, identified and validated an important diagnostic and therapeutic candidate gene in allergy.

  19. A generally applicable translational strategy identifies S100A4 as a candidate gene in allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Sören; Fang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The identification of diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidate genes in common diseases is complicated by the involvement of thousands of genes. We hypothesized that genes co-regulated with a key gene in allergy, IL13, would form a module that could help to identify candidate genes. We identified a T helper 2 (TH2) cell module by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of 25 putative IL13-regulating transcription factors followed by expression profiling. The module contained candidate genes whose diagnostic potential was supported by clinical studies. Functional studies of human TH2 cells as well as mouse models of allergy showed that deletion of one of the genes, S100A4, resulted in decreased signs of allergy including TH2 cell activation, humoral immunity, and infiltration of effector cells. Specifically, dendritic cells required S100A4 for activating T cells. Treatment with an anti-S100A4 antibody resulted in decreased signs of allergy in the mouse model as well as in allergen-challenged T cells from allergic patients. This strategy, which may be generally applicable to complex diseases, identified and validated an important diagnostic and therapeutic candidate gene in allergy.

  20. Next-generation sequencing identifies transportin 3 as the causative gene for LGMD1F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Annalaura; Fanin, Marina; Mutarelli, Margherita; Peterle, Enrico; Del Vecchio Blanco, Francesca; Rispoli, Rossella; Savarese, Marco; Garofalo, Arcomaria; Piluso, Giulio; Morandi, Lucia; Ricci, Giulia; Siciliano, Gabriele; Angelini, Corrado; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous conditions. We investigated a large family with autosomal dominant transmission pattern, previously classified as LGMD1F and mapped to chromosome 7q32. Affected members are characterized by muscle weakness affecting earlier the pelvic girdle and the ileopsoas muscles. We sequenced the whole exome of four family members and identified a shared heterozygous frame-shift variant in the Transportin 3 (TNPO3) gene, encoding a member of the importin-? super-family. The TNPO3 gene is mapped within the LGMD1F critical interval and its 923-amino acid human gene product is also expressed in skeletal muscle. In addition, we identified an isolated case of LGMD with a new missense mutation in the same gene. We localized the mutant TNPO3 around the nucleus, but not inside. The involvement of gene related to the nuclear transport suggests a novel disease mechanism leading to muscular dystrophy. PMID:23667635

  1. A bi-ordering approach to linking gene expression with clinical annotations in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie Christopher; Shi Fan; MacIntyre Geoff; Haviv Izhak; Boussioutas Alex; Kowalczyk Adam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the study of cancer genomics, gene expression microarrays, which measure thousands of genes in a single assay, provide abundant information for the investigation of interesting genes or biological pathways. However, in order to analyze the large number of noisy measurements in microarrays, effective and efficient bioinformatics techniques are needed to identify the associations between genes and relevant phenotypes. Moreover, systematic tests are needed to validate the ...

  2. A Computational Approach to Identifying Gene-microRNA Modules in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Daeyong; Lee, Hyunju

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the initiation and progression of various cancers by regulating genes. Regulatory interactions between genes and miRNAs are complex, as multiple miRNAs can regulate multiple genes. In addtion, these interactions vary from patient to patient and even among patients with the same cancer type, as cancer development is a heterogeneous process. These relationships are more complicated because transcription factors and other regulatory molecules can also regulate miRNAs and genes. Hence, it is important to identify the complex relationships between genes and miRNAs in cancer. In this study, we propose a computational approach to constructing modules that represent these relationships by integrating the expression data of genes and miRNAs with gene-gene interaction data. First, we used a biclustering algorithm to construct modules consisting of a subset of genes and a subset of samples to incorporate the heterogeneity of cancer cells. Second, we combined gene-gene interactions to include genes that play important roles in cancer-related pathways. Then, we selected miRNAs that are closely associated with genes in the modules based on a Gaussian Bayesian network and Bayesian Information Criteria. When we applied our approach to ovarian cancer and glioblastoma (GBM) data sets, 33 and 54 modules were constructed, respectively. In these modules, 91% and 94% of ovarian cancer and GBM modules, respectively, were explained either by direct regulation between genes and miRNAs or by indirect relationships via transcription factors. In addition, 48.4% and 74.0% of modules from ovarian cancer and GBM, respectively, were enriched with cancer-related pathways, and 51.7% and 71.7% of miRNAs in modules were ovarian cancer-related miRNAs and GBM-related miRNAs, respectively. Finally, we extensively analyzed significant modules and showed that most genes in these modules were related to ovarian cancer and GBM. PMID:25611546

  3. Screening of 38 genes identifies mutations in 62% of families with nonsyndromic deafness in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Duygu; Sirmaci, Asli; Cengiz, F Basak; Ozdag, Hilal; Tekin, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    More than 60% of prelingual deafness is genetic in origin, and of these up to 95% are monogenic autosomal recessive traits. Causal mutations have been identified in 1 of 38 different genes in a subset of patients with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive deafness. In this study, we screened 49 unrelated Turkish families with at least three affected children born to consanguineous parents. Probands from all families were negative for mutations in the GJB2 gene, two large deletions in the GJB6 gene, and the 1555A>G substitution in the mitochondrial DNA MTRNR1 gene. Each family was subsequently screened via autozygosity mapping with genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays. If the phenotype cosegregated with a haplotype flanking one of the 38 genes, mutation analysis of the gene was performed. We identified 22 different autozygous mutations in 11 genes, other than GJB2, in 26 of 49 families, which overall explains deafness in 62% of families. Relative frequencies of genes following GJB2 were MYO15A (9.9%), TMIE (6.6%), TMC1 (6.6%), OTOF (5.0%), CDH23 (3.3%), MYO7A (3.3%), SLC26A4 (1.7%), PCDH15 (1.7%), LRTOMT (1.7%), SERPINB6 (1.7%), and TMPRSS3 (1.7%). Nineteen of 22 mutations are reported for the first time in this study. Unknown rare genes for deafness appear to be present in the remaining 23 families. PMID:21117948

  4. A Genome-wide screen identifies frequently methylated genes in haematological and epithelial cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Eamonn R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic as well as epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of both epithelial and haematological malignancies. High throughput screens are required to identify epigenetic markers that can be useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes across malignancies. Results Here we report for the first time the use of the MIRA assay (methylated CpG island recovery assay in combination with genome-wide CpG island arrays to identify epigenetic molecular markers in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL on a genome-wide scale. We identified 30 genes demonstrating methylation frequencies of ?25% in childhood ALL, nine genes showed significantly different methylation frequencies in B vs T-ALL. For majority of the genes expression could be restored in methylated leukemia lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Forty-four percent of the genes represent targets of the polycomb complex. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML two of the genes, (TFAP2A and EBF2, demonstrated increased methylation in blast crisis compared to chronic phase (P ATG16L2 was associated with poorer prognosis in terms of molecular response to Imatinib treatment. Lastly we demonstrated that ten of these genes were also frequently methylated in common epithelial cancers. Conclusion In summary we have identified a large number of genes showing frequent methylation in childhood ALL, methylation status of two of these genes is associated with advanced disease in CML and methylation status of another gene is associated with prognosis. In addition a subset of these genes may act as epigenetic markers across hematological malignancies as well as common epithelial cancers.

  5. Feature selection and classification for microarray data analysis: Evolutionary methods for identifying predictive genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitken Stuart

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the clinical context, samples assayed by microarray are often classified by cell line or tumour type and it is of interest to discover a set of genes that can be used as class predictors. The leukemia dataset of Golub et al. 1 and the NCI60 dataset of Ross et al. 2 present multiclass classification problems where three tumour types and nine cell lines respectively must be identified. We apply an evolutionary algorithm to identify the near-optimal set of predictive genes that classify the data. We also examine the initial gene selection step whereby the most informative genes are selected from the genes assayed. Results In the absence of feature selection, classification accuracy on the training data is typically good, but not replicated on the testing data. Gene selection using the RankGene software 3 is shown to significantly improve performance on the testing data. Further, we show that the choice of feature selection criteria can have a significant effect on accuracy. The evolutionary algorithm is shown to perform stably across the space of possible parameter settings – indicating the robustness of the approach. We assess performance using a low variance estimation technique, and present an analysis of the genes most often selected as predictors. Conclusion The computational methods we have developed perform robustly and accurately, and yield results in accord with clinical knowledge: A Z-score analysis of the genes most frequently selected identifies genes known to discriminate AML and Pre-T ALL leukemia. This study also confirms that significantly different sets of genes are found to be most discriminatory as the sample classes are refined.

  6. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingsong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Methods Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Results Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1 from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3 from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P? Conclusions The two libraries of differentially expressed genes may provide the basis for new insights or clues for finding novel lung cancer-related genes; several genes were newly found in lung cancer with ERGIC3 seeming a novel lung cancer-related gene. ERGIC3 may play an active role in the development and progression of lung cancer.

  7. Novel X-Linked Genes Revealed by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rovatsos, Michail; Altmanova?, Marie; Pokorna?, Martina Johnson; Kratochvi?l, Luka?s?

    2014-01-01

    The green anole, Anolis carolinensis (ACA), is the model reptile for a vast array of biological disciplines. It was the first nonavian reptile to have its genome fully sequenced. During the genome project, the XX/XY system of sex chromosomes homologous to chicken chromosome 15 (GGA15) was revealed, and 106 X-linked genes were identified. We selected 38 genes located on eight scaffolds in ACA and having orthologs located on GGA15, then tested their linkage to ACA X chromosome by using comparat...

  8. X-Linked Megalocornea Caused by Mutations in CHRDL1 Identifies an Essential Role for Ventroptin in Anterior Segment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tom R.; Matarin, Mar; Gardner, Jessica C.; Kelberman, Dan; Hassan, Hala; Ang, Wei; Michaelides, Michel; Ruddle, Jonathan B.; Pennell, Craig E.; Yazar, Seyhan; Khor, Chiea C.; Aung, Tin; Yogarajah, Mahinda; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Moore, Anthony T.; Sowden, Jane C.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Mackey, David A.; Tuft, Stephen J.; Hardcastle, Alison J.

    2012-01-01

    X-linked megalocornea (MGC1) is an ocular anterior segment disorder characterized by an increased cornea diameter and deep anterior chamber evident at birth and later onset of mosaic corneal degeneration (shagreen), arcus juvenilis, and presenile cataracts. We identified copy-number variation, frameshift, missense, splice-site and nonsense mutations in the Chordin-like 1 gene (CHRDL1) on Xq23 as the cause of the condition in seven MGC1 families. CHRDL1 encodes ventroptin, a bone morphogenic protein antagonist with a proposed role in specification of topographic retinotectal projections. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed mild generalized cone system dysfunction and, in one patient, an interhemispheric asymmetry in visual evoked potentials. We show that CHRDL1 is expressed in the developing human cornea and anterior segment in addition to the retina. We explored the impact of loss of ventroptin function on brain function and morphology in vivo. CHRDL1 is differentially expressed in the human fetal brain, and there is high expression in cerebellum and neocortex. We show that MGC1 patients have a superior cognitive ability despite a striking focal loss of myelination of white matter. Our findings reveal an unexpected requirement for ventroptin during anterior segment development and the consequences of a lack of function in the retina and brain. PMID:22284829

  9. GeneLink: a database to facilitate genetic studies of complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfsberg Tyra G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to gene-mapping studies of simple Mendelian disorders, genetic analyses of complex traits are far more challenging, and high quality data management systems are often critical to the success of these projects. To minimize the difficulties inherent in complex trait studies, we have developed GeneLink, a Web-accessible, password-protected Sybase database. Results GeneLink is a powerful tool for complex trait mapping, enabling genotypic data to be easily merged with pedigree and extensive phenotypic data. Specifically designed to facilitate large-scale (multi-center genetic linkage or association studies, GeneLink securely and efficiently handles large amounts of data and provides additional features to facilitate data analysis by existing software packages and quality control. These include the ability to download chromosome-specific data files containing marker data in map order in various formats appropriate for downstream analyses (e.g., GAS and LINKAGE. Furthermore, an unlimited number of phenotypes (either qualitative or quantitative can be stored and analyzed. Finally, GeneLink generates several quality assurance reports, including genotyping success rates of specified DNA samples or success and heterozygosity rates for specified markers. Conclusions GeneLink has already proven an invaluable tool for complex trait mapping studies and is discussed primarily in the context of our large, multi-center study of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC. GeneLink is freely available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/genelink.

  10. Mutations in the gene for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in patients with different clinical phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.; Ambach, H.; Kammerer, S.; Rolinski, B.; Roscher, A.; Rabl, W. [Univ. of Munich (Germany); Stoeckler, S. [Univ. of Graz (Germany); Gaertner, J. [Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany); Zierz, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the gene for the most common peroxisomal disorder, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), has been described encoding a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein. We analyzed the entire protein-coding sequence of this gene by reverse-transcription PCR, SSCP, and DNA sequencing in five patients with different clinical expressions were cerebral childhood ALD, adrenomyecloneuropathy (AMN), and {open_quotes}Addison disease only{close_quotes} (AD) phenotype. In the three patients exhibiting the classical picture of severe childhood ALD we identified in the 5{prime} portion of the X-ALD gene a 38-bp deletion that causes a frameshift mutation, a 3-bp deletion leading to a deletion of an amino acid in the ATP-binding domain of the ALD protein, and a missense mutation. In the patient with the clinical phenotype of AMN, a nonsense mutation in codon 212, along with a second site mutation at codon 178, was observed. Analysis of the patient with the ADO phenotype revealed a further missense mutation at a highly conserved position in the ALDP/PMP70 comparison. The disruptive nature of two mutations (i.e., the frameshift and the nonsense mutation) in patients with biochemically proved childhood ALD and AMN further strongly supports the hypothesis that alterations in this gene play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of X-ALD. Since the current biochemical techniques for X-ALD carrier detection in affected families lack sufficient reliability, our procedure described for systematic mutation scanning is also capable of improving genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Integrating GWASs and human protein interaction networks identifies a gene subnetwork underlying alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shizhong; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Kranzler, Henry R; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Potash, James B; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-12-01

    Despite a significant genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD), few AD-risk genes have been identified to date. In the current study, we aimed to integrate genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and human protein interaction networks to investigate whether a subnetwork of genes whose protein products interact with one another might collectively contribute to AD. By using two discovery GWAS data sets of the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) and the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we identified a subnetwork of 39 genes that not only was enriched for genes associated with AD, but also collectively associated with AD in both European Americans (p disorders (bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and type 2 diabetes) and found no significant associations. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the gene subnetwork was enriched for genes involved in cation transport, synaptic transmission, and transmission of nerve impulses, all of which are biologically meaningful processes that may underlie the risk for AD. In conclusion, we identified a gene subnetwork underlying AD that is biologically meaningful and highly reproducible, providing important clues for future research into AD etiology and treatment. PMID:24268660

  12. miRConnect: Identifying Effector Genes of miRNAs and miRNA Families in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Youjia; Duan, Shiwei

    2011-01-01

    micro(mi)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of most mRNAs. They are powerful regulators of various differentiation stages, and the expression of genes that either negatively or positively correlate with expressed miRNAs is expected to hold information on the biological state of the cell and, hence, of the function of the expressed miRNAs. We have compared the large amount of available gene array data on the steady state system of the NCI60 cell lines to two different data sets containing information on the expression of 583 individual miRNAs. In addition, we have generated custom data sets containing expression information of 54 miRNA families sharing the same seed match. We have developed a novel strategy for correlating miRNAs with individual genes based on a summed Pearson Correlation Coefficient (sPCC) that mimics an in silico titration experiment. By focusing on the genes that correlate with the expression of miRNAs without necessarily being direct targets of miRNAs, we have clustered miRNAs into different functional groups. This has resulted in the identification of three novel miRNAs that are linked to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in addition to the known EMT regulators of the miR-200 miRNA family. In addition, an analysis of gene signatures associated with EMT, c-MYC activity, and ribosomal protein gene expression allowed us to assign different activities to each of the functional clusters of miRNAs. All correlation data are available via a web interface that allows investigators to identify genes whose expression correlates with the expression of single miRNAs or entire miRNA families. miRConnect.org will aid in identifying pathways regulated by miRNAs without requiring specific knowledge of miRNA targets.

  13. miRConnect:Identifying effector genes of miRNAs and miRNA families in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Youjia; Duan, Shiwei

    2011-01-01

    micro(mi)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of most mRNAs. They are powerful regulators of various differentiation stages, and the expression of genes that either negatively or positively correlate with expressed miRNAs is expected to hold information on the biological state of the cell and, hence, of the function of the expressed miRNAs. We have compared the large amount of available gene array data on the steady state system of the NCI60 cell lines to two different data sets containing information on the expression of 583 individual miRNAs. In addition, we have generated custom data sets containing expression information of 54 miRNA families sharing the same seed match. We have developed a novel strategy for correlating miRNAs with individual genes based on a summed Pearson Correlation Coefficient (sPCC) that mimics an in silico titration experiment. By focusing on the genes that correlate with the expression of miRNAs without necessarily being direct targets of miRNAs, we have clustered miRNAs into different functional groups. This has resulted in the identification of three novel miRNAs that are linked to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in addition to the known EMT regulators of the miR-200 miRNA family. In addition, an analysis of gene signatures associated with EMT, c-MYC activity, and ribosomal protein gene expression allowed us to assign different activities to each of the functional clusters of miRNAs. All correlation data are available via a web interface that allows investigators to identify genes whose expression correlates with the expression of single miRNAs or entire miRNA families. miRConnect.org will aid in identifying pathways regulated by miRNAs without requiring specific knowledge of miRNA targets.

  14. A systems genetics approach identifies genes and pathways for type 2 diabetes in human islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taneera, Jalal; Lang, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Close to 50 genetic loci have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but they explain only 15% of the heritability. In an attempt to identify additional T2D genes, we analyzed global gene expression in human islets from 63 donors. Using 48 genes located near T2D risk variants, we identified gene coexpression and protein-protein interaction networks that were strongly associated with islet insulin secretion and HbA(1c). We integrated our data to form a rank list of putative T2D genes, of which CHL1, LRFN2, RASGRP1, and PPM1K were validated in INS-1 cells to influence insulin secretion, whereas GPR120 affected apoptosis in islets. Expression variation of the top 20 genes explained 24% of the variance in HbA(1c) with no claim of the direction. The data present a global map of genes associated with islet dysfunction and demonstrate the value of systems genetics for the identification of genes potentially involved in T2D.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies MMP-12 and ADAMDEC1 as Potential Pathogenic Mediators of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouser, Elliott D.; Culver, Daniel A.; Knox, Kenneth S.; Julian, Mark W.; Shao, Guohong; Abraham, Susamma; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Macre, Jennifer E.; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Ross, Patrick; Abbas, Abbas; Eng, Charis

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Little is known about the genetic regulation of granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis. Objectives: To determine if tissue gene array analysis would identify novel genes engaged in inflammation and lung remodeling in patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: Gene expression analysis was performed on tissues obtained from patients with sarcoidosis at the time of diagnosis (untreated) (n = 6) compared with normal lung tissue (n = 6). Expression of select genes was further confirmed in lung tissue from a second series of patients with sarcoidosis and disease-free control subjects (n = 11 per group) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Interactive gene networks were identified in patients with sarcoidosis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity Systems, Inc., Redwood, CA) software. The expression of proteins corresponding to selected overexpressed genes was determined using fluorokine multiplex analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Selected genes and proteins were then analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in an independent series of patients with sarcoidosis (n = 36) and control subjects (n = 12). Measurements and Main Results: A gene network engaged in Th1-type responses was most significantly overexpressed in the sarcoidosis lung tissues, including genes not previously reported in the context of sarcoidosis (e.g., IL-7). MMP-12 and ADAMDEC1 transcripts were most highly expressed (> 25-fold) in sarcoidosis lung tissues, corresponding with increased protein expression by immunohistochemistry. MMP-12 and ADAMDEC1 gene and protein expression were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from patients with sarcoidosis, correlating with disease severity. Conclusions: Tissue gene expression analyses provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. MMP-12 and ADAMDEC1 emerge as likely mediators of lung damage and/or remodeling and may serve as markers of disease activity. PMID:19218196

  16. Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Freude, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of polyglutamine expansion diseases. Our findings link this gene to XLMR and shed more light on the pathogenesis of this common disorder.

  17. Identifying the most suitable endogenous control for determining gene expression in hearts from organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Enrique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a useful tool for assessing gene expression in different tissues, but the choice of adequate controls is critical to normalise the results, thereby avoiding differences and maximizing sensitivity and accuracy. So far, many genes have been used as a single reference gene, without having previously verified their value as controls. This practice can lead to incorrect conclusions and recent evidence indicates a need to use the geometric mean of data from several control genes. Here, we identified an appropriate set of genes to be used as an endogenous reference for quantifying gene expression in human heart tissue. Results Our findings indicate that out of ten commonly used reference genes (GADPH, PPIA, ACTB, YWHAZ, RRN18S, B2M, UBC, TBP, RPLP and HPRT, PPIA, RPLP and GADPH show the most stable gene transcription levels in left ventricle specimens obtained from organ donors, as assessed using geNorm and Normfinder software. The expression of TBP was found to be highly regulated. Conclusion We propose the use of PPIA, RPLP and GADPH as reference genes for the accurate normalisation of qRT-PCR performed on heart tissue. TBP should not be used as a control in this type of tissue.

  18. Molecular markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vbj derived from Malus baccata jackii

    OpenAIRE

    GIANFRANCESCHI, LUCA ENRICO ANGELO

    2004-01-01

    Breeding for scab-resistant apple cultivars by pyramiding several resistance genes in the same genetic background is a promising way to control apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. To achieve this goal, DNA markers linked to the genes of interest are required in order to select seedlings with the desired resistance allele combinations. For several apple scab resistance genes, molecular markers are already available; but until now, none existed for the apple scab resistance gen...

  19. Pharmacological Validation of Candidate Causal Sleep Genes Identified in an N2 Cross

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Joseph I.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Millstein, Joshua; Garson, Susan; Binns, Jacquelyn; Fox, Steven V.; Savitz, Alan T.; Yang, He S.; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Zhou, Lili; Owens, Joseph R.; Webber, Andrea L.; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Uebele, Victor N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the substantial impact of sleep disturbances on human health and the many years of study dedicated to understanding sleep pathologies, the underlying genetic mechanisms that govern sleep and wake largely remain unknown. Recently, we completed large scale genetic and gene expression analyses in a segregating inbred mouse cross and identified candidate causal genes that regulate the mammalian sleep-wake cycle, across multiple traits including total sleep time, amounts of REM, non-REM, s...

  20. Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID): An Annotation Tool for Identifying Immune Genes in Insect Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Brucker, Robert M.; Funkhouser, Lisa J.; Setia, Shefali; Pauly, Rini; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system is an ancient component of host defense. Since innate immunity pathways are well conserved throughout many eukaryotes, immune genes in model animals can be used to putatively identify homologous genes in newly sequenced genomes of non-model organisms. With the initiation of the “i5k” project, which aims to sequence 5,000 insect genomes by 2016, many novel insect genomes will soon become publicly available, yet few annotation resources are currently available for i...

  1. Integrating GWASs and Human Protein Interaction Networks Identifies a Gene Subnetwork Underlying Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Shizhong; Yang, Bao-zhu; Kranzler, Henry R.; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A.; BOERWINKLE, Eric; Potash, James B.; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Despite a significant genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD), few AD-risk genes have been identified to date. In the current study, we aimed to integrate genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and human protein interaction networks to investigate whether a subnetwork of genes whose protein products interact with one another might collectively contribute to AD. By using two discovery GWAS data sets of the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) and the Collaborative Study...

  2. Gene co-expression networks in human brain identify epigenetic modifications in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev, Igor; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse causes widespread changes in gene expression in human brain, some of which contribute to alcohol dependence. Previous microarray studies identified individual genes as candidates for alcohol phenotypes, but efforts to generate an integrated view of molecular and cellular changes underlying alcohol addiction are lacking. Here, we applied a novel systems approach to transcriptome profiling in postmortem human brains and generated a systemic view of brain alterations associated wit...

  3. Senescence Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with a Defect in Telomere Replication Identify Three Additional Est Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lendvay, T. S.; Morris, D. K.; Sah, J.; Balasubramanian, B.; Lundblad, V.

    1996-01-01

    The primary determinant for telomere replication is the enzyme telomerase, responsible for elongating the G-rich strand of the telomere. The only component of this enzyme that has been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the TLC1 gene, encoding the telomerase RNA subunit. However, a yeast strain defective for the EST1 gene exhibits the same phenotypes (progressively shorter telomeres and a senescence phenotype) as a strain deleted for TLC1, suggesting that EST1 encodes either a componen...

  4. Identifying tumor origin using a gene expression-based classification map.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardelli, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Identifying the primary site in cases of metastatic carcinoma of unknown origin has profound clinical importance in managing cancer patients. Although transcriptional profiling promises molecular solutions to this clinical challenge, simpler and more reliable methods for this purpose are needed. A training set of 11 serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries was analyzed using a combination of supervised and unsupervised computational methods to select a small group of candidate gene...

  5. Combining Pareto-optimal clusters using supervised learning for identifying co-expressed genes

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay Sanghamitra; Mukhopadhyay Anirban; Maulik Ujjwal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The landscape of biological and biomedical research is being changed rapidly with the invention of microarrays which enables simultaneous view on the transcription levels of a huge number of genes across different experimental conditions or time points. Using microarray data sets, clustering algorithms have been actively utilized in order to identify groups of co-expressed genes. This article poses the problem of fuzzy clustering in microarray data as a multiobjective opti...

  6. Highly conserved gene order and numerous novel repetitive elements in genomic regions linked to wing pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Georg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With over 20 parapatric races differing in their warningly colored wing patterns, the butterfly Heliconius erato provides a fascinating example of an adaptive radiation. Together with matching races of its co-mimic Heliconius melpomene, H. erato also represents a textbook case of Müllerian mimicry, a phenomenon where common warning signals are shared amongst noxious organisms. It is of great interest to identify the specific genes that control the mimetic wing patterns of H. erato and H. melpomene. To this end we have undertaken comparative mapping and targeted genomic sequencing in both species. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of genomic sequences linked to color pattern mimicry genes in Heliconius. Results Scoring AFLP polymorphisms in H. erato broods allowed us to survey loci at approximately 362 kb intervals across the genome. With this strategy we were able to identify markers tightly linked to two color pattern genes: D and Cr, which were then used to screen H. erato BAC libraries in order to identify clones for sequencing. Gene density across 600 kb of BAC sequences appeared relatively low, although the number of predicted open reading frames was typical for an insect. We focused analyses on the D- and Cr-linked H. erato BAC sequences and on the Yb-linked H. melpomene BAC sequence. A comparative analysis between homologous regions of H. erato (Cr-linked BAC and H. melpomene (Yb-linked BAC revealed high levels of sequence conservation and microsynteny between the two species. We found that repeated elements constitute 26% and 20% of BAC sequences from H. erato and H. melpomene respectively. The majority of these repetitive sequences appear to be novel, as they showed no significant similarity to any other available insect sequences. We also observed signs of fine scale conservation of gene order between Heliconius and the moth Bombyx mori, suggesting that lepidopteran genome architecture may be conserved over very long evolutionary time scales. Conclusion Here we have demonstrated the tractability of progressing from a genetic linkage map to genomic sequence data in Heliconius butterflies. We have also shown that fine-scale gene order is highly conserved between distantly related Heliconius species, and also between Heliconius and B. mori. Together, these findings suggest that genome structure in macrolepidoptera might be very conserved, and show that mapping and positional cloning efforts in different lepidopteran species can be reciprocally informative.

  7. Functional characterization of two newly identified Human Endogenous Retrovirus coding envelope genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidmann Thierry

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent in silico search for coding sequences of retroviral origin present in the human genome has unraveled two new envelope genes that add to the 16 genes previously identified. A systematic search among the latter for a fusogenic activity had led to the identification of two bona fide genes, named syncytin-1 and syncytin-2, most probably co-opted by primate genomes for a placental function related to the formation of the syncytiotrophoblast by cell-cell fusion. Here, we show that one of the newly identified envelope gene, named envP(b, is fusogenic in an ex vivo assay, but that its expression – as quantified by real-time RT-PCR on a large panel of human tissues – is ubiquitous, albeit with a rather low value in most tissues. Conversely, the second envelope gene, named envV, discloses a placenta-specific expression, but is not fusogenic in any of the cells tested. Altogether, these results suggest that at least one of these env genes may play a role in placentation, but most probably through a process different from that of the two previously identified syncytins.

  8. Changes in gene expression linked with adult reproductive diapause in a northern malt fly species: a candidate gene microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoikkala Anneli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect diapause is an important biological process which involves many life-history parameters important for survival and reproductive fitness at both individual and population level. Drosophila montana, a species of D. virilis group, has a profound photoperiodic reproductive diapause that enables the adult flies to survive through the harsh winter conditions of high latitudes and altitudes. We created a custom-made microarray for D. montana with 101 genes known to affect traits important in diapause, photoperiodism, reproductive behaviour, circadian clock and stress tolerance in model Drosophila species. This array gave us a chance to filter out genes showing expression changes during photoperiodic reproductive diapause in a species adapted to live in northern latitudes with high seasonal changes in environmental conditions. Results Comparisons among diapausing, reproducing and young D. montana females revealed expression changes in 24 genes on microarray; for example in comparison between diapausing and reproducing females one gene (Drosophila cold acclimation gene, Dca showed up-regulation and 15 genes showed down-regulation in diapausing females. Down-regulation of seven of these genes was specific to diapause state while in five genes the expression changes were linked with the age of the females rather than with their reproductive status. Also, qRT-PCR experiments confirmed couch potato (cpo gene to be involved in diapause of D. montana. Conclusions A candidate gene microarray proved to offer a practical and cost-effective way to trace genes that are likely to play an important role in photoperiodic reproductive diapause and further in adaptation to seasonally varying environmental conditions. The present study revealed two genes, Dca and cpo, whose role in photoperiodic diapause in D. montana is worth of studying in more details. Also, further studies using the candidate gene microarray with more specific experimental designs and target tissues may reveal additional genes with more restricted expression patterns.

  9. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A

    OpenAIRE

    Bus, V.G.M.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Weg, W.E., van de; Rusholme, R.L.; Gardiner, S.E.; Bassett, H.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in the pathogen. A novel gene-for-gene interaction between V. inaequalis and Malus was identified. The locus of the scab-resistance gene Vh8 is linked with, or possibly allelic to, that of the Vh2 g...

  10. Use of tiling array data and RNA secondary structure predictions to identify noncoding RNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinther Jeppe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the last decade a large number of noncoding RNA genes have been identified, but this may only be the tip of the iceberg. Using comparative genomics a large number of sequences that have signals concordant with conserved RNA secondary structures have been discovered in the human genome. Moreover, genome wide transcription profiling with tiling arrays indicate that the majority of the genome is transcribed. Results We have combined tiling array data with genome wide structural RNA predictions to search for novel noncoding and structural RNA genes that are expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-AS. Using this strategy, we identify thousands of human candidate RNA genes. To further verify the expression of these genes, we focused on candidate genes that had a stable hairpin structures or a high level of covariance. Using northern blotting, we verify the expression of 2 out of 3 of the hairpin structures and 3 out of 9 high covariance structures in SK-N-AS cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that many human noncoding, structured and conserved RNA genes remain to be discovered and that tissue specific tiling array data can be used in combination with computational predictions of sequences encoding structural RNAs to improve the search for such genes.

  11. Use of tiling array data and RNA secondary structure predictions to identify noncoding RNA genes.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Christian; Gardner, Paul P

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last decade a large number of noncoding RNA genes have been identified, but this may only be the tip of the iceberg. Using comparative genomics a large number of sequences that have signals concordant with conserved RNA secondary structures have been discovered in the human genome. Moreover, genome wide transcription profiling with tiling arrays indicate that the majority of the genome is transcribed. RESULTS: We have combined tiling array data with genome wide structural RNA predictions to search for novel noncoding and structural RNA genes that are expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-AS. Using this strategy, we identify thousands of human candidate RNA genes. To further verify the expression of these genes, we focused on candidate genes that had a stable hairpin structures or a high level of covariance. Using northern blotting, we verify the expression of 2 out of 3 of the hairpin structures and 3 out of 9 high covariance structures in SK-N-AS cells. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that many human noncoding, structured and conserved RNA genes remain to be discovered and that tissue specific tiling array data can be used in combination with computational predictions of sequences encoding structural RNAs to improve the search for such genes. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null

  12. The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesinger, Christoph; Eichler, Florian S; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD). A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs. PMID:25999754

  13. Comparative gene expression in sexual and apomictic ovaries of Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielle-Calzada, J P; Nuccio, M L; Budiman, M A; Thomas, T L; Burson, B L; Hussey, M A; Wing, R A

    1996-12-01

    Limited emphasis has been given to the molecular study of apomixis, an asexual method of reproduction where seeds are produced without fertilization. Most buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn = Cenchrus ciliaris L.) genotypes reproduce by obligate apomixis (apospory); however, rare sexual plants have been recovered. A modified differential display procedure was used to compare gene expression in unpollinated ovaries containing ovules with either sexual or apomictic female gametophytes. The modification incorporated end-labeled poly(A)+ anchored primers as the only isotopic source, and was a reliable and consistent approach for detecting differentially displayed transcripts. Using 20 different decamers and two anchor primers, 2268 cDNA fragments between 200 and 600 bp were displayed. From these, eight reproducible differentially displayed cDNAs were identified and cloned. Based on northern analysis, one cDNA was detected in only the sexual ovaries, two cDNAs in only apomictic ovaries and one cDNA was present in both types of ovaries. Three fragments could not be detected and one fragment was detected in ovaries, stems, and leaves. Comparison of gene expression during sexual and apomictic development in buffelgrass represents a new model system and a strategy for investigating female reproductive development in the angiosperms. PMID:9002607

  14. Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID): an annotation tool for identifying immune genes in insect genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Robert M; Funkhouser, Lisa J; Setia, Shefali; Pauly, Rini; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system is an ancient component of host defense. Since innate immunity pathways are well conserved throughout many eukaryotes, immune genes in model animals can be used to putatively identify homologous genes in newly sequenced genomes of non-model organisms. With the initiation of the "i5k" project, which aims to sequence 5,000 insect genomes by 2016, many novel insect genomes will soon become publicly available, yet few annotation resources are currently available for insects. Thus, we developed an online tool called the Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID) to provide an open access resource for insect immunity and comparative biology research (http://www.vanderbilt.edu/IIID). The database provides users with simple exploratory tools to search the immune repertoires of five insect models (including Nasonia), spanning three orders, for specific immunity genes or genes within a particular immunity pathway. As a proof of principle, we used an initial database with only four insect models to annotate potential immune genes in the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia. Results specify 306 putative immune genes in the genomes of N. vitripennis and its two sister species N. giraulti and N. longicornis. Of these genes, 146 were not found in previous annotations of Nasonia immunity genes. Combining these newly identified immune genes with those in previous annotations, Nasonia possess 489 putative immunity genes, the largest immune repertoire found in insects to date. While these computational predictions need to be complemented with functional studies, the IIID database can help initiate and augment annotations of the immune system in the plethora of insect genomes that will soon become available. PMID:22984621

  15. Use of amplified fragment length polymorphism to identify radiation induced genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This year, the entire human genome sequence was determined. This huge body of information allows a comprehensive understanding of the network incorporating all the genes and their products expressed in certain cells. We have attempted to develop a gene expression profiling method based on RFLP fragment length polymorphism and PCR to observe almost all expressed genes and to determine their expression frequency. RNA eluted from the cell of interest is converted to cDNA and digested by appropriate restriction enzymes. Adopters are ligated on both sides of the digested cDNA fragment, and PCR is performed with selective primers labelled by fluorescence. Then the PCR products are analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. The peaks represent each gene, while peak-height indicates the expression frequency of a gene. Using this method, we have detected more than 80% of expressed genes. In addition, we detected the known ionizing radiation inducible genes p21, mdm2, gadd45 and cyclin G which are controlled by p53. This fact confirms that our method provides high coverage and that it is capable of detecting the differences in gene expression. Using the methods, we identified more than 100 kinds of radiation Induced gene, and currently we are trying to identify the genes which are controlled by DNA-PKcs or ATM with the knockout cells. This method is superior to the micro array technology in terms of coverage, cost and sensitivity. I would like to report our high coverage. I would like to report our high coverage expression profile (HiCEP) analysis method

  16. Candidate gene linkage approach to identify DNA variants that predispose to preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bream, Elise N A; Leppellere, Cara R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants contributing to preterm birth (PTB) using a linkage candidate gene approach. METHODS: We studied 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 33 genes in 257 families with PTBs segregating. Nonparametric and parametric analyses were used. Premature infants and mothers of premature infants were defined as affected cases in independent analyses. RESULTS: Analyses with the infant as the case identified two genes with evidence of linkage: CRHR1 (P = 0.0012) and CYP2E1 (P = 0.0011). Analyses with the mother as the case identified four genes with evidence of linkage: ENPP1 (P = 0.003), IGFBP3 (P = 0.006), DHCR7 (P = 0.009), and TRAF2 (P = 0.01). DNA sequence analysis of the coding exons and splice sites for CRHR1 and TRAF2 identified no new likely etiologic variants. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the involvement of six genes acting through the infant and/or the mother in the etiology of PTB.

  17. Gene expression differences between Noccaea caerulescens ecotypes help to identify candidate genes for metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimaa, Pauliina; Lin, Ya-Fen; Ahonen, Viivi H; Blande, Daniel; Clemens, Stephan; Gyenesei, Attila; Häikiö, Elina; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Laiho, Asta; Aarts, Mark G M; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Schat, Henk; Schmidt, Holger; Tuomainen, Marjo H; Tervahauta, Arja I

    2014-03-18

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically well-characterized N. caerulescens accessions, i.e., Ganges, La Calamine, and Monte Prinzera. Genes with possible contribution to zinc, cadmium, and nickel hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance were predicted. The most significant differences between the accessions were related to metal ion (di-, trivalent inorganic cation) transmembrane transporter activity, iron and calcium ion binding, (inorganic) anion transmembrane transporter activity, and antioxidant activity. Analysis of correlation between the expression profile of each gene and the metal-related characteristics of the accessions disclosed both previously characterized (HMA4, HMA3) and new candidate genes (e.g., for nickel IRT1, ZIP10, and PDF2.3) as possible contributors to the hyperaccumulation/tolerance phenotype. A number of unknown Noccaea-specific transcripts also showed correlation with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), or Ni(2+) hyperaccumulation/tolerance. This study shows that N. caerulescens populations have evolved great diversity in the expression of metal-related genes, facilitating adaptation to various metalliferous soils. The information will be helpful in the development of improved plants for metal phytoremediation. PMID:24559272

  18. A Sleeping Beauty forward genetic screen identifies new genes and pathways driving osteosarcoma development and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Branden S; Otto, George M; Rahrmann, Eric P; Rathe, Susan K; Wolf, Natalie K; Weg, Madison T; Manlove, Luke A; LaRue, Rebecca S; Temiz, Nuri A; Molyneux, Sam D; Choi, Kwangmin; Holly, Kevin J; Sarver, Aaron L; Scott, Milcah C; Forster, Colleen L; Modiano, Jaime F; Khanna, Chand; Hewitt, Stephen M; Khokha, Rama; Yang, Yi; Gorlick, Richard; Dyer, Michael A; Largaespada, David A

    2015-06-01

    Osteosarcomas are sarcomas of the bone, derived from osteoblasts or their precursors, with a high propensity to metastasize. Osteosarcoma is associated with massive genomic instability, making it problematic to identify driver genes using human tumors or prototypical mouse models, many of which involve loss of Trp53 function. To identify the genes driving osteosarcoma development and metastasis, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based forward genetic screen in mice with and without somatic loss of Trp53. Common insertion site (CIS) analysis of 119 primary tumors and 134 metastatic nodules identified 232 sites associated with osteosarcoma development and 43 sites associated with metastasis, respectively. Analysis of CIS-associated genes identified numerous known and new osteosarcoma-associated genes enriched in the ErbB, PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Lastly, we identified several oncogenes involved in axon guidance, including Sema4d and Sema6d, which we functionally validated as oncogenes in human osteosarcoma. PMID:25961939

  19. Gene expression analysis identifies new candidate genes associated with the development of black skin spots in Corriedale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Zorrilla, Pilar; Naya, Hugo; Robello, Carlos; Urioste, Jorge I

    2012-02-01

    The white coat colour of sheep is an important economic trait. For unknown reasons, some animals are born with, and others develop with time, black skin spots that can also produce pigmented fibres. The presence of pigmented fibres in the white wool significantly decreases the fibre quality. The aim of this work was to study gene expression in black spots (with and without pigmented fibres) and white skin by microarray techniques, in order to identify the possible genes involved in the development of this trait. Five unrelated Corriedale sheep were used and, for each animal, the three possible comparisons (three different hybridisations) between the three samples of interest were performed. Differential gene expression patterns were analysed using different t-test approaches. Most of the major genes with well-known roles in skin pigmentation, e.g. ASIP, MC1R and C-KIT, showed no significant difference in the gene expression between white skin and black spots. On the other hand, many of the differentially expressed genes (raw P-value?gene expression of C-FOS and KLF4, transcription factors involved in the cellular response to external factors such as ultraviolet light, was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This exploratory study provides a list of candidate genes that could be associated with the development of black skin spots that should be studied in more detail. Characterisation of these genes will enable us to discern the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this feature and, hence, increase our understanding of melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. In sheep, understanding this phenomenon is a first step towards developing molecular tools to assist in the selection against the presence of pigmented fibres in white wool. PMID:21952730

  20. A Genetic Screen Identifies Interferon-? Effector Genes Required to Suppress Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Dahlene N.; Brisac, Cynthia; John, Sinu P.; Huang, Yi-Wen; Chin, Christopher R.; Xie, Tiao; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Leiliang; Chevalier, Stephane; Wambua, Daniel; Lin, Wenyu; Peng, Lee; Chung, Raymond T.; Brass, Abraham L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Interferon (IFN)-? is an important component of anti-HCV therapy; it upregulates transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs)—many of which have been investigated for their anti-viral effects. However, all the genes required for the anti-viral function of IFN-? (IFN effector genes, IEGs) are not known. IEGs include not only ISGs, but other non-transcriptionally induced genes that are required for the anti-viral effect of IFN-?. In contrast to candidate approaches based on analyses mRNA expression, identification of IEGs requires a broad functional approach. Methods We performed an unbiased genome-wide small-interfering (si)RNA screen to identify IEGs that inhibit HCV. Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells were transfected with siRNAs, incubated with IFN-?, and then infected with JFH1 HCV. Cells were stained using HCV core antibody, imaged, and analyzed to determine the percent infection. Candidate IEGs detected in the screen were validated and analyzed further. Results The screen identified 120 previously unreported IEGs. From these, we more fully evaluated 9 (ALG10, BCHE, DPP4, GCKR, GUCY1B3, MYST1, PPP3CB, PDIP1, SLC27A2) and demonstrated that they enabled IFN-?–mediated suppression of HCV at multiple steps of its lifecycle. Expression of these genes had more potent effects against flaviviridae, because a subset were required for IFN-? to suppress dengue virus but not influenza A virus. Furthermore, many of the host genes detected in this screen (92%) were not transcriptionally stimulated by IFN-?; these genes represent a heretofore unknown class of non-ISG IEGs. Conclusion We performed a whole-genome loss-of-function screen to identify genes that mediate the effects of IFN-? against human pathogenic viruses. We found that IFN-? restricts HCV via actions of general and specific IEGs. PMID:23462180

  1. Linking toxicant physiological mode of action with induced gene expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svendsen Claus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiologically based modelling using DEBtox (dynamic energy budget in toxicology and transcriptional profiling were used in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify how physiological modes of action, as indicated by effects on system level resource allocation were associated with changes in gene expression following exposure to three toxic chemicals: cadmium, fluoranthene (FA and atrazine (AZ. Results For Cd, the physiological mode of action as indicated by DEBtox model fitting was an effect on energy assimilation from food, suggesting that the transcriptional response to exposure should be dominated by changes in the expression of transcripts associated with energy metabolism and the mitochondria. While evidence for effect on genes associated with energy production were seen, an ontological analysis also indicated an effect of Cd exposure on DNA integrity and transcriptional activity. DEBtox modelling showed an effect of FA on costs for growth and reproduction (i.e. for production of new and differentiated biomass. The microarray analysis supported this effect, showing an effect of FA on protein integrity and turnover that would be expected to have consequences for rates of somatic growth. For AZ, the physiological mode of action predicted by DEBtox was increased cost for maintenance. The transcriptional analysis demonstrated that this increase resulted from effects on DNA integrity as indicated by changes in the expression of genes chromosomal repair. Conclusions Our results have established that outputs from process based models and transcriptomics analyses can help to link mechanisms of action of toxic chemicals with resulting demographic effects. Such complimentary analyses can assist in the categorisation of chemicals for risk assessment purposes.

  2. Yeast-based assay identifies novel Shh/Gli target genes in vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of developmental events and molecular mechanisms associated with the Hedgehog (Hh pathway from Drosophila to vertebrates, suggest that gene regulation is crucial for diverse cellular responses, including target genes not yet described. Although several high-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded information at the genomic, transcriptional and proteomic levels, the specificity of Gli binding sites related to direct target gene activation still remain elusive. This study aims to identify novel putative targets of Gli transcription factors through a protein-DNA binding assay using yeast, and validating a subset of targets both in-vitro and in-vivo. Testing in different Hh/Gli gain- and loss-of-function scenarios we here identified known (e.g., ptc1 and novel Hh-regulated genes in zebrafish embryos. Results The combined yeast-based screening and MEME/MAST analysis were able to predict Gli transcription factor binding sites, and position mapping of these sequences upstream or in the first intron of promoters served to identify new putative target genes of Gli regulation. These candidates were validated by qPCR in combination with either the pharmacological Hh/Gli antagonist cyc or the agonist pur in Hh-responsive C3H10T1/2 cells. We also used small-hairpin RNAs against Gli proteins to evaluate targets and confirm specific Gli regulation their expression. Taking advantage of mutants that have been identified affecting different components of the Hh/Gli signaling system in the zebrafish model, we further analyzed specific novel candidates. Studying Hh function with pharmacological inhibition or activation complemented these genetic loss-of-function approaches. We provide evidence that in zebrafish embryos, Hh signaling regulates sfrp2, neo1, and c-myc expression in-vivo. Conclusion A recently described yeast-based screening allowed us to identify new Hh/Gli target genes, functionally important in different contexts of vertebrate embryonic development.

  3. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoi Lam C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP, to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. Results We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. Conclusions CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray experiments. Availability: CDEP is implemented in R and freely available at: http://genomebioinfo.musc.edu/CDEP/ Contact: zhengw@musc.edu

  4. Combining Pareto-optimal clusters using supervised learning for identifying co-expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Sanghamitra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The landscape of biological and biomedical research is being changed rapidly with the invention of microarrays which enables simultaneous view on the transcription levels of a huge number of genes across different experimental conditions or time points. Using microarray data sets, clustering algorithms have been actively utilized in order to identify groups of co-expressed genes. This article poses the problem of fuzzy clustering in microarray data as a multiobjective optimization problem which simultaneously optimizes two internal fuzzy cluster validity indices to yield a set of Pareto-optimal clustering solutions. Each of these clustering solutions possesses some amount of information regarding the clustering structure of the input data. Motivated by this fact, a novel fuzzy majority voting approach is proposed to combine the clustering information from all the solutions in the resultant Pareto-optimal set. This approach first identifies the genes which are assigned to some particular cluster with high membership degree by most of the Pareto-optimal solutions. Using this set of genes as the training set, the remaining genes are classified by a supervised learning algorithm. In this work, we have used a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier for this purpose. Results The performance of the proposed clustering technique has been demonstrated on five publicly available benchmark microarray data sets, viz., Yeast Sporulation, Yeast Cell Cycle, Arabidopsis Thaliana, Human Fibroblasts Serum and Rat Central Nervous System. Comparative studies of the use of different SVM kernels and several widely used microarray clustering techniques are reported. Moreover, statistical significance tests have been carried out to establish the statistical superiority of the proposed clustering approach. Finally, biological significance tests have been carried out using a web based gene annotation tool to show that the proposed method is able to produce biologically relevant clusters of co-expressed genes. Conclusion The proposed clustering method has been shown to perform better than other well-known clustering algorithms in finding clusters of co-expressed genes efficiently. The clusters of genes produced by the proposed technique are also found to be biologically significant, i.e., consist of genes which belong to the same functional groups. This indicates that the proposed clustering method can be used efficiently to identify co-expressed genes in microarray gene expression data. Supplementary Website The pre-processed and normalized data sets, the matlab code and other related materials are available at http://anirbanmukhopadhyay.50webs.com/mogasvm.html.

  5. Dissecting the Gene Network of Dietary Restriction to Identify Evolutionarily Conserved Pathways and New Functional Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Wuttke, Daniel; Connor, Richard; Vora, Chintan; Craig, Thomas; Li, Yang; Wood, Shona; Vasieva, Olga; Shmookler Reis, Robert; Tang, Fusheng; Magalha?es, Joa?o Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR–essential ...

  6. Investigating Convergent Actions of Genes Linked to Familial Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolozin, Benjamin; Saha, Shamol; Guillily, Maria; Ferree, Andrew; Riley, Misha

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in LRRK2 are among the most frequent genetic changes identified in Parkinson's disease (PD), but how LRRK2 contributes to the pathophysiology of PD is not known. Objectives To investigate how expressing wild-type or G2019S LRRK2 modifies cellular responses to rotenone, a mitochondrial toxin. Methods We investigated the vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins in Caenorhabditis elegans expressing wild-type or G2019S LRRK2. Results We observed a powerful role for LRRK2 in mitochondrial biology. Overexpressing LRRK2 strongly protects C. elegans against rotenone toxicity. The G2019S LRRK2 construct also protected LRRK2 against rotenone, but to a lesser degree than wild-type LRRK2. Knockdown of lrk-1 potentiated rotenone toxicity. Conclusions These data suggest that LRRK1/2 regulate mitochondrial physiology. PMID:18322385

  7. Analysis of IFT74 as a candidate gene for chromosome 9p-linked ALS-FTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaeva Ekaterina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new locus for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD has recently been ascribed to chromosome 9p. Methods We identified chromosome 9p segregating haplotypes within two families with ALS-FTD (F476 and F2 and undertook mutational screening of candidate genes within this locus. Results Candidate gene sequencing at this locus revealed the presence of a disease segregating stop mutation (Q342X in the intraflagellar transport 74 (IFT74 gene in family 476 (F476, but no mutation was detected within IFT74 in family 2 (F2. While neither family was sufficiently informative to definitively implicate or exclude IFT74 mutations as a cause of chromosome 9-linked ALS-FTD, the nature of the mutation observed within F476 (predicted to truncate the protein by 258 amino acids led us to sequence the open reading frame of this gene in a large number of ALS and FTD cases (n = 420. An additional sequence variant (G58D was found in a case of sporadic semantic dementia. I55L sequence variants were found in three other unrelated affected individuals, but this was also found in a single individual among 800 Human Diversity Gene Panel samples. Conclusion Confirmation of the pathogenicity of IFT74 sequence variants will require screening of other chromosome 9p-linked families.

  8. Application of network properties and signal strength to identify face-to-face links in an electronic dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Sekara, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how people interact and socialize is important in many contexts, from disease control to urban planning. Datasets that capture this specific aspect of human life have increased in size and availability over the last few years. We have yet to understand, however, to what extent such electronic datasets may serve as a valid proxy for real life face-to-face interactions. For an observational dataset, gathered by mobile phones, we attack the problem of identifying transient and non-important links, as well as how to highlight important interactions. Using the Bluetooth signal strength parameter to distinguish between observations, we demonstrate that weak links, compared to strong links, have a lower probability of being observed at later times, while such links--on average--also have lower link-weights and a lower probability of sharing an online friendship. Further, the role of link-strength is investigated in relation to social network properties.

  9. Identifying estrogen receptor ? target genes using integrated computational genomics and chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Victor X.; Leu, Yu-wei; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Sun, Hao; Fan, Meiyun; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Huang, Tim H. -m; Davuluri, Ramana V.

    2004-01-01

    The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) regulates gene expression by either direct binding to estrogen response elements or indirect tethering to other transcription factors on promoter targets. To identify these promoter sequences, we conducted a genome-wide screening with a novel microarray technique called ChIP-on-chip. A set of 70 candidate ER? loci were identified and the corresponding promoter sequences were analyzed by statistical pattern recognition and comparative genomics approaches. We fo...

  10. Analysis of All Protein Phosphatase Genes in Aspergillus nidulans Identifies a New Mitotic Regulator, Fcp1 ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Sunghun; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism of cell cycle control in which protein phosphatases counteract the activities of protein kinases. In Aspergillus nidulans, 28 protein phosphatase catalytic subunit genes were identified. Systematic deletion analysis identified four essential phosphatases and four required for normal growth. Conditional alleles of these were generated using the alcA promoter. The deleted phosphatase strain collection and regulatable versio...

  11. Identifying Context-Specific Transcription Factor Targets from Prior Knowledge and Gene Expression Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Elana J; Favorov, Alexander V; Ochs, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Numerous methodologies, assays, and databases presently provide candidate targets of transcription factors (TFs). However, TFs rarely regulate their targets universally. The context of activation of a TF can change the transcriptional response of targets. Direct multiple regulation typical to mammalian genes complicates direct inference of TF targets from gene expression data. We present a novel statistic that infers context-specific TF regulation based upon the CoGAPS algorithm, which infers overlapping gene expression patterns resulting from coregulation. Numerical experiments with simulated data showed that this statistic correctly inferred targets that are common to multiple TFs, except in cases where the signal from a TF is negligible relative to noise level and signal from other TFs. The statistic is robust to moderate levels of error in the simulated gene sets, identifying fewer false positives than false negatives. Significantly, the regulatory statistic refines the number of TF targets relevant to cell signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) to genes consistent with the phosphorylation patterns of TFs identified in previous studies. As formulated, the proposed regulatory statistic has wide applicability to inferring set membership in integrated datasets. This statistic could be naturally extended to account for prior probabilities of set membership or to add candidate gene targets. PMID:23694699

  12. Molecular patterns of X chromosome-linked color vision genes among 134 menof European ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors used Southern blot hybridization to study X chromosome-linked color vision genes encoding the apoproteins of red and green visual pigments in 134 unselected Caucasian men. One hundred and thirteen individuals (84.3%) had a normal arrangement of their color vision pigment genes. All had one red pigment gene; the number of green pigment genes ranged from one to five with a mode of two. The frequency of molecular genotypes indicative of normal color vision (84.3%) was significantly lower than had been observed in previous studies of color vision phenotypes. Color vision defects can be due to deletions of red or green pigment genes or due to formation of hybrid genes comprising portions of both red and green pigment genes. Characteristic anomalous patterns were seen in 15 (11.2%) individuals: 7 (5.2%) had patterns characteristic of deuteranomaly, 2 (1.5%) had patterns characteristic of deuteranopia, and 6 (4.5%) had protan patterns. Previously undescribed hybrid gene patterns consisting of both green and red pigment gene fragments in addition to normal red and green genes were observed in another 6 individuals (4.5%). Thus, DNA testing detected anomalous color vision pigment genes at a higher frequency than expected from phenotypic color vision tests

  13. Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore are pathogenic, precludes targeted healthcare for both carriers and their relatives. To facilitate the identification of pathogenic VUS, we have developed an in cellulo genetic screen-based procedure for the large-scale mutagenization, identification, and cataloging of residues of MMR genes critical for MMR gene function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated and validated a prototypic reverse diagnosis catalog for the MMR gene MutS Homolog 2 (Msh2) by mutagenizing, identifying, and cataloging 26 deleterious mutations in 23 amino acids. Extensive in vivo and in vitro analysis of mutants listed in the catalog revealed both recessive and dominant-negative phenotypes. Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare.

  14. Identifying Aflatoxin Resistance-Related Proteins/Genes Through Proteomics and RNAi Gene Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus Link ex. Fries, and A. prarasiticus Speare during infection of susceptible crops, such as maize, cottonseed, peanuts, and tree nuts. For maize, although genotypes resistant to A. flavus infection or aflatoxin pr...

  15. Organization of a Chinese hamster ovary dihydrofolate reductase gene identified by phenotypic rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrandt, J D; Azizkhan, J C; Greisen, K S; Hamlin, J L

    1983-07-01

    We have constructed a genomic DNA library from a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHOC 400) in the cosmid vector pHC79. By utilizing a murine dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cDNA clone, we have identified 66 DHFR+ clones among the 11,000 colonies screened by colony hybridization. To isolate a recombinant cosmid containing the entire DHFR gene, we have tested these colonies for their ability to rescue a DHFR- Chinese hamster ovary cell line, using the spheroplast fusion method of gene transfer developed by W. Schaffner (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:2163-2167, 1980). One clone (cH1) was able to transform DHFR- cells to the DHFR+ phenotype and was shown in hybridization studies to contain all of the gene except a small portion of the 3' untranslated region. We have mapped cosmid cH1 and several overlapping cosmids with a variety of restriction enzymes and have determined the approximate positions of the five (and possibly six) exons within the DHFR gene. Differences between the sizes of homologous genes in hamster cells (24.5 kilobases [kb]) and in mouse cells (31.5 kb) are shown to reside primarily in the length of the 3' intron, which is 8 kb in the hamster gene and 16 kb in length in the mouse gene. Our studies confirm the utility of cosmid libraries for the isolation of large genes, as previously shown by R. de Saint Vincent et al. (Cell 27:267-277, 1981). In addition, a cosmid that contains a functional DHFR gene will be a useful vector for the co-amplification and subsequent overexpression of other cloned genes. PMID:6310370

  16. Use of bacteriophage transposon Mu d1 to determine the orientation for three proC-linked phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genes in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, B. L.; Wieder, S.; McSharry, R

    1981-01-01

    We have previously used the bacteriophage transposon Mu d1 (which encodes the lacZY structural genes but without their promoter) to construct strains that have lacZY fused to phosphate-regulated promoters in Escherichia coli K-12. Among 18 identified phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genes, three (the phoA and two new genes: psiF and psiG) are closely linked to the proC region. The gene order (clockwise) is phoA psiF proC psiG phoB phoR. Using these mutants containing Mu d1 insertions, we ...

  17. Identifying essential genes in bacterial metabolic networks with machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eils Roland

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying essential genes in bacteria supports to identify potential drug targets and an understanding of minimal requirements for a synthetic cell. However, experimentally assaying the essentiality of their coding genes is resource intensive and not feasible for all bacterial organisms, in particular if they are infective. Results We developed a machine learning technique to identify essential genes using the experimental data of genome-wide knock-out screens from one bacterial organism to infer essential genes of another related bacterial organism. We used a broad variety of topological features, sequence characteristics and co-expression properties potentially associated with essentiality, such as flux deviations, centrality, codon frequencies of the sequences, co-regulation and phyletic retention. An organism-wise cross-validation on bacterial species yielded reliable results with good accuracies (area under the receiver-operator-curve of 75% - 81%. Finally, it was applied to drug target predictions for Salmonella typhimurium. We compared our predictions to the viability of experimental knock-outs of S. typhimurium and identified 35 enzymes, which are highly relevant to be considered as potential drug targets. Specifically, we detected promising drug targets in the non-mevalonate pathway. Conclusions Using elaborated features characterizing network topology, sequence information and microarray data enables to predict essential genes from a bacterial reference organism to a related query organism without any knowledge about the essentiality of genes of the query organism. In general, such a method is beneficial for inferring drug targets when experimental data about genome-wide knockout screens is not available for the investigated organism.

  18. A graph-search framework for associating gene identifiers with documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen William W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One step in the model organism database curation process is to find, for each article, the identifier of every gene discussed in the article. We consider a relaxation of this problem suitable for semi-automated systems, in which each article is associated with a ranked list of possible gene identifiers, and experimentally compare methods for solving this geneId ranking problem. In addition to baseline approaches based on combining named entity recognition (NER systems with a "soft dictionary" of gene synonyms, we evaluate a graph-based method which combines the outputs of multiple NER systems, as well as other sources of information, and a learning method for reranking the output of the graph-based method. Results We show that named entity recognition (NER systems with similar F-measure performance can have significantly different performance when used with a soft dictionary for geneId-ranking. The graph-based approach can outperform any of its component NER systems, even without learning, and learning can further improve the performance of the graph-based ranking approach. Conclusion The utility of a named entity recognition (NER system for geneId-finding may not be accurately predicted by its entity-level F1 performance, the most common performance measure. GeneId-ranking systems are best implemented by combining several NER systems. With appropriate combination methods, usefully accurate geneId-ranking systems can be constructed based on easily-available resources, without resorting to problem-specific, engineered components.

  19. Differentially expressed genes identified by microarray analysis following oxymatrine treatment of hepatic stellate cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Hu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of oxymatrine on the gene expression profile of hepatic stellate cell (HSC and provide novel insights into the mechanism of oxymatrine against hepatic fibrosis. Methods: HSC was isolated from normal SD by in situ perfusion of collagenase and pronase and density Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. MTT colorimetry was used to study the effect of oxymatrine on the proliferation of HSC. Total RNA and mRNA of quiescent HSC, culture-activated HSC and oxymatrine treated HSC were extracted. Effect of oxymatrine on HSC gene expression profile was detected by oligonucleotide microarray analysis with Affymetrix gene chip rat U230A. Differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and analyzed with Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Results: Oxymatrine could inhibit the proliferation of HSC in a dose-dependent manner. A total of 4641 differentially expressed genes were identified by cDNA chip between activated and quiescent HSC, among which 2702 genes were upregulated, and 1939 genes were down-regulated in activated HSC. cDNA microarray uncovered downregulation of 56 genes in response to oxymatrine, the representative genes including alpha 2 type I procollagen, alpha-1 type I collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, interleukin 1 beta, early growth response 1, chemokine ligand 2, chemokine ligand 1, CTGF, TGF?1. The most enriched GO terms included response to wounding, inflammatory response, cell migration, cell motility, wound healing, TGF? receptor signaling pathway. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that oxymatrine affected the ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, cytokine-cytokine recaptor interaction, TGF? signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway. There were 37 genes upregulated significantly following oxymatrine treatment. The most enriched GO terms included oxidation reduction, negative regulation of lipoprotein oxidation, regulation of lipoprotein oxidation, steroid metabolic process, regulation of lipase activity. Six genes were confirmed with QPCR, consistent with microarray. Conclusion: The mechanism of oxymatrine in inhibiting liver fibrogenesis is associated with multi-genes and multi-pathways regulation.

  20. Resequencing 50 accessions of cultivated and wild rice yields markers for identifying agronomically important genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Liu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Rice is a staple crop that has undergone substantial phenotypic and physiological changes during domestication. Here we resequenced the genomes of 40 cultivated accessions selected from the major groups of rice and 10 accessions of their wild progenitors (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to >15 x raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation patterns in rice and obtained 6.5 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding sites with missing data in any accession. Using these population SNP data, we identified thousands of genes with significantly lower diversity in cultivated but not wild rice, which represent candidate regions selected during domestication. Some of these variants are associated with important biological features, whereas others have yet to be functionally characterized. The molecular markers we have identified should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in rice.

  1. An unbiased approach to identify genes involved in development in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination

    OpenAIRE

    Chojnowski Jena L; Braun Edward L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). The initial cue in TSD is incubation temperature, unlike genotypic sex determination (GSD) where it is determined by the presence of specific alleles (or genetic loci). We used patterns of gene expression to identify candidates for genes with a role in TSD and other developmental processes without making a priori assumptions about the identity of these genes (ortholog-based approach). We identified genes ...

  2. NMD inhibition fails to identify tumour suppressor genes in microsatellite stable gastric cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylstra Bauke

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancers frequently show chromosomal alterations which can cause activation of oncogenes, and/or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes. In gastric cancer several chromosomal regions are described to be frequently lost, but for most of the regions, no tumour suppressor genes have been identified yet. The present study aimed to identify tumour suppressor genes inactivated by nonsense mutation and deletion in gastric cancer by means of GINI (gene identification by nonsense mediated decay inhibition and whole genome copy number analysis. Methods Two non-commercial gastric cancer cell lines, GP202 and IPA220, were transfected with siRNA directed against UPF1, to specifically inhibit the nonsense mediated decay (NMD pathway, and with siRNA directed against non-specific siRNA duplexes (CVII as a control. Microarray expression experiments were performed in triplicate on 4 × 44 K Agilent arrays by hybridizing RNA from UPF1-transfected cells against non-specific CVII-transfected cells. In addition, array CGH of the two cell lines was performed on 4 × 44K agilent arrays to obtain the DNA copy number profiles. Mutation analysis of GINI candidates was performed by sequencing. Results UPF1 expression was reduced for >70% and >80% in the GP202 and IPA220 gastric cancer cell lines, respectively. Integration of array CGH and microarray expression data provided a list of 134 and 50 candidate genes inactivated by nonsense mutation and deletion for GP202 and IPA220, respectively. We selected 12 candidate genes for mutation analysis. Of these, sequence analysis was performed on 11 genes. One gene, PLA2G4A, showed a silent mutation, and in two genes, CTSA and PTPRJ, missense mutations were detected. No nonsense mutations were detected in any of the 11 genes tested. Conclusion Although UPF1 was substantially repressed, thus resulting in the inhibition of the NMD system, we did not find genes inactivated by nonsense mutations. Our results show that the GINI strategy leads to a high number of false positives.

  3. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  4. In vivo RNAi screen identifies candidate signaling genes required for collective cell migration in Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Zuo, JunTao; Wu, Jing; Wan, Ping; Kang, Di; Xiang, Cong; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Jiong

    2015-04-01

    Collective migration of loosely or closely associated cell groups is prevalent in animal development, physiological events, and cancer metastasis. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of collective cell migration is incomplete. Drosophila border cells provide a powerful in vivo genetic model to study collective migration and identify essential genes for this process. Using border cell-specific RNAi-silencing in Drosophila, we knocked down 360 conserved signaling transduction genes in adult flies to identify essential pathways and genes for border cell migration. We uncovered a plethora of signaling genes, a large proportion of which had not been reported for border cells, including Rack1 (Receptor of activated C kinase) and brk (brinker), mad (mother against dpp), and sax (saxophone), which encode three components of TGF-? signaling. The RNAi knock down phenotype was validated by clonal analysis of Rack1 mutants. Our data suggest that inhibition of Src activity by Rack1 may be important for border cell migration and cluster cohesion maintenance. Lastly, results from our screen not only would shed light on signaling pathways involved in collective migration during embryogenesis and organogenesis in general, but also could help our understanding for the functions of conserved human genes involved in cancer metastasis. PMID:25528253

  5. Genome-wide functional screen identifies a compendium of genes affecting sensitivity to tamoxifen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Pereira, Ana M.; Sims, David; Dexter, Tim; Fenwick, Kerry; Assiotis, Ioannis; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Hakas, Jarle; Zvelebil, Marketa; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,487 genes on the cellular response to tamoxifen. This screen, along with subsequent validation experiments, identifies a compendium of genes whose silencing causes tamoxifen resistance (including BAP1, CLPP, GPRC5D, NAE1, NF1, NIPBL, NSD1, RAD21, RARG, SMC3, and UBA3) and also a set of genes whose silencing causes sensitivity to this endocrine agent (C10orf72, C15orf55/NUT, EDF1, ING5, KRAS, NOC3L, PPP1R15B, RRAS2, TMPRSS2, and TPM4). Multiple individual genes, including NF1, a regulator of RAS signaling, also correlate with clinical outcome after tamoxifen treatment. PMID:21482774

  6. Evaluation of potential regulatory elements identified as DNase I hypersensitive sites in the CFTR gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylactides, M.; Rowntree, R.

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene shows a complex pattern of expression, with temporal and spatial regulation that is not accounted for by elements in the promoter. One approach to identifying the regulatory elements for CFTR is the mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) within the locus. We previously identified at least 12 clusters of DHS across the CFTR gene and here further evaluate DHS in introns 2,3,10,16,17a, 18, 20 and 21 to assess their functional importance in regulation of CFTR gene expression. Transient transfections of enhancer/reporter constructs containing the DHS regions showed that those in introns 20 and 21 augmented the activity of the CFTR promoter. Structural analysis of the DNA sequence at the DHS suggested that only the one intron 21 might be caused by inherent DNA structures. Cell specificity of the DHS suggested a role for the DHS in introns 2 and 18 in CFTR expression in some pancreatic duct cells. Finally, regulatory elements at the DHS in introns 10 and 18 may contribute to upregulation of CFTR gene transcription by forskolin and mitomycin C, respectively. These data support a model of regulation of expression of the CFTR gene in which multiple elements contribute to tightly co-ordinated expression in vivo.

  7. Homeobox genes: a molecular link between development and cancer / Genes homeobox: uma relação molecular entre o desenvolvimento e o câncer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabio Daumas, Nunes; Fernanda Campos Souza de, Almeida; Renata, Tucci; Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado de, Sousa.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Os genes homeobox são genes reguladores que codificam proteínas nucleares as quais atuam como fatores de transcrição, regulando vários aspectos da morfogênese e da diferenciação celular durante o desenvolvimento embrionário normal de diversos animais. Os genes homeobox de vertebrados podem ser subdi [...] vididos em duas famílias: os agrupados, ou HOX, e os não agrupados, ou divergentes. Durante as últimas décadas, vários genes homeobox, agrupados e não agrupados, foram identificados em tecidos normais, em células malignas e em diferentes doenças e condições metabólicas. Os genes homeobox estão envolvidos, por exemplo, no desenvolvimento normal do dente e em agenesias dentárias de ocorrência familiar. O desenvolvimento normal e o câncer têm muito em comum, já que ambos envolvem proliferação celular e diferenciação. A literatura tem mostrado um número cada vez maior de trabalhos relacionando os genes homeobox à oncogênese. Muitos tipos de câncer exibem expressão ou alteração nos genes homeobox. Eles incluem leucemias, câncer de cólon, pele, próstata, mama e ovário, entre outros. Esta revisão objetiva levar os leitores a conhecer algumas das funções da família homeobox nos tecidos normais e especialmente no câncer. Abstract in english Homeobox genes are regulatory genes encoding nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors, regulating aspects of morphogenesis and cell differentiation during normal embryonic development of several animals. Vertebrate homeobox genes can be divided in two subfamilies: clustered, or HOX genes, [...] and nonclustered, or divergent, homeobox genes. During the last decades, several homeobox genes, clustered and nonclustered ones, were identified in normal tissue, in malignant cells, and in different diseases and metabolic alterations. Homeobox genes are involved in the normal teeth development and in familial teeth agenesis. Normal development and cancer have a great deal in common, as both processes involve shifts between cell proliferation and differentiation. The literature is accumulating evidences that homeobox genes play an important role in oncogenesis. Many cancers exhibit expression of or alteration in homeobox genes. Those include leukemias, colon, skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancers, among others. This review is aimed at introducing readers to some of the homeobox family functions in normal tissues and especially in cancer.

  8. Homeobox genes: a molecular link between development and cancer Genes homeobox: uma relação molecular entre o desenvolvimento e o câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daumas Nunes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes are regulatory genes encoding nuclear proteins that act as transcription factors, regulating aspects of morphogenesis and cell differentiation during normal embryonic development of several animals. Vertebrate homeobox genes can be divided in two subfamilies: clustered, or HOX genes, and nonclustered, or divergent, homeobox genes. During the last decades, several homeobox genes, clustered and nonclustered ones, were identified in normal tissue, in malignant cells, and in different diseases and metabolic alterations. Homeobox genes are involved in the normal teeth development and in familial teeth agenesis. Normal development and cancer have a great deal in common, as both processes involve shifts between cell proliferation and differentiation. The literature is accumulating evidences that homeobox genes play an important role in oncogenesis. Many cancers exhibit expression of or alteration in homeobox genes. Those include leukemias, colon, skin, prostate, breast and ovarian cancers, among others. This review is aimed at introducing readers to some of the homeobox family functions in normal tissues and especially in cancer.Os genes homeobox são genes reguladores que codificam proteínas nucleares as quais atuam como fatores de transcrição, regulando vários aspectos da morfogênese e da diferenciação celular durante o desenvolvimento embrionário normal de diversos animais. Os genes homeobox de vertebrados podem ser subdivididos em duas famílias: os agrupados, ou HOX, e os não agrupados, ou divergentes. Durante as últimas décadas, vários genes homeobox, agrupados e não agrupados, foram identificados em tecidos normais, em células malignas e em diferentes doenças e condições metabólicas. Os genes homeobox estão envolvidos, por exemplo, no desenvolvimento normal do dente e em agenesias dentárias de ocorrência familiar. O desenvolvimento normal e o câncer têm muito em comum, já que ambos envolvem proliferação celular e diferenciação. A literatura tem mostrado um número cada vez maior de trabalhos relacionando os genes homeobox à oncogênese. Muitos tipos de câncer exibem expressão ou alteração nos genes homeobox. Eles incluem leucemias, câncer de cólon, pele, próstata, mama e ovário, entre outros. Esta revisão objetiva levar os leitores a conhecer algumas das funções da família homeobox nos tecidos normais e especialmente no câncer.

  9. Methylation-sensitive linking libraries enhance gene-enriched sequencing of complex genomes and map DNA methylation domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Arvind K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plant genomes are resistant to whole-genome assembly due to an abundance of repetitive sequence, leading to the development of gene-rich sequencing techniques. Two such techniques are hypomethylated partial restriction (HMPR and methylation spanning linker libraries (MSLL. These libraries differ from other gene-rich datasets in having larger insert sizes, and the MSLL clones are designed to provide reads localized to "epigenetic boundaries" where methylation begins or ends. Results A large-scale study in maize generated 40,299 HMPR sequences and 80,723 MSLL sequences, including MSLL clones exceeding 100 kb. The paired end reads of MSLL and HMPR clones were shown to be effective in linking existing gene-rich sequences into scaffolds. In addition, it was shown that the MSLL clones can be used for anchoring these scaffolds to a BAC-based physical map. The MSLL end reads effectively identified epigenetic boundaries, as indicated by their preferential alignment to regions upstream and downstream from annotated genes. The ability to precisely map long stretches of fully methylated DNA sequence is a unique outcome of MSLL analysis, and was also shown to provide evidence for errors in gene identification. MSLL clones were observed to be significantly more repeat-rich in their interiors than in their end reads, confirming the correlation between methylation and retroelement content. Both MSLL and HMPR reads were found to be substantially gene-enriched, with the SalI MSLL libraries being the most highly enriched (31% align to an EST contig, while the HMPR clones exhibited exceptional depletion of repetitive DNA (to ~11%. These two techniques were compared with other gene-enrichment methods, and shown to be complementary. Conclusion MSLL technology provides an unparalleled approach for mapping the epigenetic status of repetitive blocks and for identifying sequences mis-identified as genes. Although the types and natures of epigenetic boundaries are barely understood at this time, MSLL technology flags both approximate boundaries and methylated genes that deserve additional investigation. MSLL and HMPR sequences provide a valuable resource for maize genome annotation, and are a uniquely valuable complement to any plant genome sequencing project. In order to make these results fully accessible to the community, a web display was developed that shows the alignment of MSLL, HMPR, and other gene-rich sequences to the BACs; this display is continually updated with the latest ESTs and BAC sequences.

  10. Helping Students Identify Base Words in Indonesian--Linking Learning Objects in an ICLL Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Ingrid; Davison, Janine

    2008-01-01

    For students of Indonesian, learning to identify base words is very important, but can often be quite tricky. This article describes how one of the authors used interactive digital content from The Le@rning Federation (TLF) together with an extensive range of offline activities within an intercultural language learning (ICLL) framework. It helps…

  11. Comprehensive regional and temporal gene expression profiling of the rat brain during the first 24 h after experimental stroke identifies dynamic ischemia-induced gene expression patterns, and reveals a biphasic activation of genes in surviving tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify biological processes relevant for cell death and survival in the brain following stroke, the postischemic brain transcriptome was studied by a large-scale cDNA array analysis of three peri-infarct brain regions at eight time points during the first 24 h of reperfusion following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. K-means cluster analysis revealed two distinct biphasic gene expression patterns that contained 44 genes (including 18 immediate early genes), involved in cell signaling and plasticity (i.e. MAP2K7, Sprouty2, Irs-2, Homer1, GPRC5B, Grasp). The first gene induction phase occurred at 0-3 h of reperfusion, and the second at 9-15 h, and was validated by in situ hybridization. Four gene clusters displayed a progressive increase in expression over time and included 50 genes linked to cell motility, lipid synthesis and trafficking (i.e. ApoD, NPC1, G3P-dehydrogenase1, and Choline kinase) or cell death-regulating genes such as mitochondrial CLIC. We conclude that a biphasic transcriptional up-regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways occurs in surviving tissue, concomitant with a progressive and persistent activation of cell proliferation signifying tissue regeneration, which provide the means for cell survival and postischemic brain plasticity.

  12. Back to the sea twice: identifying candidate plant genes for molecular evolution to marine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reusch Thorsten BH

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of monocotyledonous angiosperms that have adapted to a completely submerged lifestyle in marine waters. Here, we exploit two collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs of two wide-spread and ecologically important seagrass species, the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile and the eelgrass Zostera marina L., which have independently evolved from aquatic ancestors. This replicated, yet independent evolutionary history facilitates the identification of traits that may have evolved in parallel and are possible instrumental candidates for adaptation to a marine habitat. Results In our study, we provide the first quantitative perspective on molecular adaptations in two seagrass species. By constructing orthologous gene clusters shared between two seagrasses (Z. marina and P. oceanica and eight distantly related terrestrial angiosperm species, 51 genes could be identified with detection of positive selection along the seagrass branches of the phylogenetic tree. Characterization of these positively selected genes using KEGG pathways and the Gene Ontology uncovered that these genes are mostly involved in translation, metabolism, and photosynthesis. Conclusions These results provide first insights into which seagrass genes have diverged from their terrestrial counterparts via an initial aquatic stage characteristic of the order and to the derived fully-marine stage characteristic of seagrasses. We discuss how adaptive changes in these processes may have contributed to the evolution towards an aquatic and marine existence.

  13. X chromosome-linked Kallmann syndrome: stop mutations validate the candidate gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardelin, J P; Levilliers, J; del Castillo, I; Cohen-Salmon, M; Legouis, R.; BLANCHARD, S.; Compain, S; Bouloux, P.; Kirk, J; Moraine, C

    1992-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome represents the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia. This syndrome is from a defect in the embryonic migratory pathway of gonadotropin-releasing hormone synthesizing neurons and olfactory axons. A candidate gene for the X chromosome-linked form of the syndrome was recently isolated by using a positional cloning strategy based on deletion mapping in the Xp22.3 region. With the PCR, two exons of this candidate gene were amplified on the genomic DNAs from 1...

  14. Faced with inequality: chicken do not have a general dosage compensation of sex-linked genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kultima Kim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contrasting dose of sex chromosomes in males and females potentially introduces a large-scale imbalance in levels of gene expression between sexes, and between sex chromosomes and autosomes. In many organisms, dosage compensation has thus evolved to equalize sex-linked gene expression in males and females. In mammals this is achieved by X chromosome inactivation and in flies and worms by up- or down-regulation of X-linked expression, respectively. While otherwise widespread in systems with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the case of dosage compensation in birds (males ZZ, females ZW remains an unsolved enigma. Results Here, we use a microarray approach to show that male chicken embryos generally express higher levels of Z-linked genes than female birds, both in soma and in gonads. The distribution of male-to-female fold-change values for Z chromosome genes is wide and has a mean of 1.4–1.6, which is consistent with absence of dosage compensation and sex-specific feedback regulation of gene expression at individual loci. Intriguingly, without global dosage compensation, the female chicken has significantly lower expression levels of Z-linked compared to autosomal genes, which is not the case in male birds. Conclusion The pronounced sex difference in gene expression is likely to contribute to sexual dimorphism among birds, and potentially has implication to avian sex determination. Importantly, this report, together with a recent study of sex-biased expression in somatic tissue of chicken, demonstrates the first example of an organism with a lack of global dosage compensation, providing an unexpected case of a viable system with large-scale imbalance in gene expression between sexes.

  15. Gene expression profiling during increased fetal lung expansion identifies genes likely to regulate development of the distal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozo, Foula; Wallace, Megan J; Zahra, Valerie A; Filby, Caitlin E; Hooper, Stuart B

    2006-01-12

    Growth and development of the fetal lungs is critically dependent on the degree to which the lungs are expanded by liquid; increases in fetal lung expansion accelerate lung growth, whereas reductions in lung expansion cause lung growth to cease. The mechanisms mediating expansion-induced lung growth are unknown but likely include alterations in the expression of genes that regulate lung cell proliferation. Our aim was to isolate and identify genes that are up- or downregulated by increased fetal lung expansion. In chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 126 days gestational age (GA), the left lung was expanded for 36 h, while the right lung remained at a control level of expansion. Subtraction hybridization was used to isolate genes differentially expressed between the left and right lungs. Screening of approximately 6,000 clones identified 1,138 and 118 cDNA fragments that were up- and downregulated by increased lung expansion, respectively. Northern blot analyses in separate groups of control fetuses and fetuses exposed to increased lung expansion were used to verify differential expression. Increased fetal lung expansion upregulated heat shock protein 47, thrombospondin-1, TROP2, tropoelastin, and tubulin-alpha3 in fetal lung tissue by approximately 200-300%; connective tissue growth factor and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 were increased by 20-30%. Genes downregulated by increased fetal lung expansion included CCSP-related protein-1, elongation factor-1alpha and vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1. We conclude that an increase in fetal lung expansion differentially regulates the expression of numerous genes in lung tissue, many of which have important putative roles in lung development, while the functions of others are currently unknown. PMID:16249314

  16. The NIF LinkOut broker: a web resource to facilitate federated data integration using NCBI identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Martone, Maryann E; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the NIF LinkOut Broker (NLB) that has been built as part of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project. The NLB is designed to coordinate the assembly of links to neuroscience information items (e.g., experimental data, knowledge bases, and software tools) that are (1) accessible via the Web, and (2) related to entries in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI's) Entrez system. The NLB collects these links from each resource and passes them to the NCBI which incorporates them into its Entrez LinkOut service. In this way, an Entrez user looking at a specific Entrez entry can LinkOut directly to related neuroscience information. The information stored in the NLB can also be utilized in other ways. A second approach, which is operational on a pilot basis, is for the NLB Web server to create dynamically its own Web page of LinkOut links for each NCBI identifier in the NLB database. This approach can allow other resources (in addition to the NCBI Entrez) to LinkOut to related neuroscience information. The paper describes the current NLB system and discusses certain design issues that arose during its implementation. PMID:18975149

  17. Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellés Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For most of the genes, functions related to choriogenesis are postulated. The relatively high percentage of novel genes obtained and the practical absence of chorion genes typical of meroistic ovaries suggest that mechanisms regulating chorion formation in panoistic ovaries are significantly different from those of meroistic ones.

  18. The genetic landscape of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: inheritance, mutations, modifier genes, and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesinger C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Wiesinger,1 Florian S Eichler,2 Johannes Berger1 1Department of Pathobiology of the Nervous System, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department for Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding a peroxisomal ABC transporter. In this review, we compare estimates of incidence derived from different populations in order to provide an overview of the worldwide incidence of X-ALD. X-ALD presents with heterogeneous phenotypes ranging from adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN to inflammatory demyelinating cerebral ALD (CALD. A large number of different mutations has been described, providing a unique opportunity for analysis of functional domains within ABC transporters. Yet the molecular basis for the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms is still largely unresolved, as no correlation between genotype and phenotype exists in X-ALD. Beyond ABCD1, environmental triggers and other genetic factors have been suggested as modifiers of the disease course. Here, we summarize the findings of numerous reports that aimed at identifying modifier genes in X-ALD and discuss potential problems and future approaches to address this issue. Different options for prenatal diagnosis are summarized, and potential pitfalls when applying next-generation sequencing approaches are discussed. Recently, the measurement of very long-chain fatty acids in lysophosphatidylcholine for the identification of peroxisomal disorders was included in newborn screening programs. Keywords: X-ALD, AMN, mutations, incidence, prenatal diagnosis, newborn screening

  19. Identifying the Signs of Currency Speculation in Hong Kong's Linked exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kui-wai

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the ex ante factors of currency speculation based on the experience of Hong Kong’s three episodes in 1988, 1998 and 2007. The dynamic conditional correlation models are used to study the inter-temporal interactions among the Hang Seng Index, Hang Seng Index futures and exchange rate difference. The logistic model is applied to study the probability of currency speculation. The empirical results indicate that unusual movements in the exchange rate difference, Hang Seng ...

  20. Identification of microsatellite markers (SSR linked to a new bacterial blight resistance gene xa33(t in rice cultivar ‘Ba7’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerayut Toojinda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify a new source of bacterial blight (BB resistance gene and microsatellite makers (SSR linked to it. A total number of 139 F2 progenies generated from a cross between the resistant donor ‘Ba7’and ‘Pin Kaset’ were developed and used for this study. A Thai Xoo isolate, TXO16, collected from Phitsanulok province, was used to evaluate the resistance reaction in the F2 population. The segregation ratio of resistance (R and susceptibility (S was statistically fitted to 1R:3S model indicating single recessive gene segregation. Twenty F2 individuals consisting of 10 resistant and 10 susceptible plants were chosen for DNA analysis. Sixty-two polymorphic markers covering all rice chromosomes were used to identify the location and linked markers of the resistance gene. Four SSR markers, viz. RM30, RM7243, RM5509 and RM400, located on the long arm of rice chromosome 6, could clearly discriminate between resistant and susceptible phenotypes, and 161 BC2F2:3 individuals carrying BB resistance gene were developed through MAS using these SSR markers. This population was inoculated with TXO16 to validate and confirm the location of the gene and linked markers. The segregation ratio was statistically fitted to 1R:3S model confirming a recessive nature of the gene action in this germplasm. Phenotypic-genotypic association including five additional markers suggested that RM20590 was tightly linked to this resistance gene (R2=59.12 %. The BB phenotype was controlled by a recessive gene with incomplete dominance of susceptible allele providing intermediate resistance to Xoo pathogen in heterozygotes. The location of the gene was in the vicinity of a dominant gene, Xa7, which was previously reported. However, the resistance gene identified here was different from Xa7 because of the different nature of gene action. Consequently, this gene was tentatively designated as xa33(t. The resistance gene from rice cultivar ‘Ba7’ and the closely linked markers found in this study will be useful for rice breeders as a source to improve BB resistance through MAS in rice breeding programs.

  1. Possible functional links among brain- and skull-related genes selected in modern humans

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The sequencing of the genomes from extinct hominins has revealed that changes in some brain-related genes have been selected after the split between anatomically-modern humans and Neanderthals/Denisovans. To date, no coherent view of these changes has been provided. Following a line of research we initiated in Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco (2014a), we hypothesize functional links among most of these genes and their products, based on the existing literature for each of the gene discussed. The ge...

  2. Progress in the identification of DNA markers linked to the Yd2 gene in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is the most damaging virus disease in wheat and other cereal crops worldwide and the yield loss inflicted by the virus (BYDV) and be quite severe. While some protection against the disease can be realized by crop management practices, resistant varieties clearly offer the greatest opportunity for reducing yield losses. Possible sources of BYD resistance have been found in wheat, barely, rye and wheatgrass species. Among them, the Yd2 gene from chromosome 3H of barley currently shows the best genetic resistance in any cereal species and it has been widely deployed in many leading barley varieties. We have developed 94 F2 derived families from the cross between Betzes, a susceptible barley variety that does not carry Yd2, and Atlas 68, a resistant variety that has Yd2. These families were evaluated in two and three replicate tests for BYD symptom expression in field nurseries at Davis, California, and at Aberdeen, Idaho, respectively. To minimize the mapping effort at this early stage, we used 18 and 23 homozygous resistant and susceptible F2 derived families, respectively, and have identified RFLP markers that are closely linked to Yd2. We are now moving to the next phase of this work, which is to extend the RFLP mapping population size to include all the F2 derived families and to saturate the region carrying Yd2 with marker loci available to us from genome mapping programmes in barley, wheat and other relatedgrammes in barley, wheat and other related species

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Purple Potato to Identify Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Deng, Cecilia; Warran, Ben; Wang, Li; Yu, Bin; Yang, Hongyu; Wang, Jing; Espley, Richard V.; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar ‘Xin Daping’ is tetraploid with white skin and white flesh, while the cultivar ‘Hei Meiren’ is also tetraploid with purple skin and purple flesh. Comparative transcriptome analysis of white and purple cultivars was carried out using high-throughput RNA sequencing in order to further understand the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato. Methods and Results By aligning transcript reads to the recently published diploid potato genome and de novo assembly, 209 million paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads from these tetraploid cultivars were assembled on to 60,930 transcripts, of which 27,754 (45.55%) are novel transcripts and 9393 alternative transcripts. Using a comparison of the RNA-sequence datasets, multiple versions of the genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic steps and regulatory transcription factors were identified. Other novel genes potentially involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato tubers were also discovered. Real-time qPCR validation of candidate genes revealed good correlation with the transcriptome data. SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and indels were predicted and validated for the transcription factors MYB AN1 and bHLH1 and the biosynthetic gene anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT). Conclusions These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanism of white and purple potato development, by identifying differential responses of biosynthetic gene family members together with the variation in structural genes and transcription factors in this highly heterozygous crop. This provides an excellent platform and resource for future genetic and functional genomic research. PMID:26053878

  4. Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Allan J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller set of lineages that can also be tested independently for species status with multiple nuclear gene approaches and other phenotypic characters.

  5. Large-Scale Gene-Centric Meta-analysis across 32 Studies Identifies Multiple Lipid Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guo, Yiran; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Lange, Leslie A.; Almoguera, Berta; Appelman, Yolande E.; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gong, Yan; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Mingyao; Li, Yun R.; Liu, Kiang; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Middelberg, Rita P.S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Nelson, Christopher P.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P.R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Smith, Erin N.; Tischfield, Sam E.; van der Most, Peter J.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Volcik, Kelly A.; Zhang, Li; Bailey, Kent R.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bauer, Florianne; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Braund, Peter S.; Burt, Amber; Burton, Paul R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; deJong, Jonas S.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Fornage, Myriam; Furlong, Clement E.; Glazer, Nicole; Gums, John G.; Hastie, Claire; Holmes, Michael V.; Illig, Thomas; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kumari, Meena; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mallela, Laya; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Ordovas, Jose; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Post, Wendy S.; Saxena, Richa; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shah, Tina; Shields, Denis C.; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Topol, Eric J.; Toskala, Elina; van Pelt, Joost L.; van Setten, Jessica; Yusuf, Salim; Whittaker, John C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Anand, Sonia S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Clarke, Robert; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Davidson, Karina W.; Day, Ian N.M.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaess, Bernhard M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A.; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Murray, Sarah S.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce; Redline, Susan; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schunkert, Heribert; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Stanton, Alice; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, Ellen; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Watkins, Hugh; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Whitfield, John B.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Reilly, Muredach P.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wilson, James G.; Rader, Daniel J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elbers, Clara C.; Keating, Brendan J.; Drenos, Fotios

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ?50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ?2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids. PMID:23063622

  6. Regulatory elements of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS identified by phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, R. L., Hamaguchi, L., Busch, M. A., and Weigel, D.

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 In Arabidopsis thaliana, cis-regulatory sequences of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG) are located in the second intron. This 3 kb intron contains binding sites for two direct activators of AG, LEAFY (LFY) and WUSCHEL (WUS), along with other putative regulatory elements. We have used phylogenetic footprinting and the related technique of phylogenetic shadowing to identify putative cis-regulatory elements in this intron. Among 29 Brassicaceae, several other motifs, but not the LFY and WUS binding sites previously identified, are largely invariant. Using reporter gene analyses, we tested six of these motifs and found that they are all functionally important for activity of AG regulatory sequences in A. thaliana. Although there is little obvious sequence similarity outside the Brassicaceae, the intron from cucumber AG has at least partial activity in A. thaliana. Our studies underscore the value of the comparative approach as a tool that complements gene-by-gene promoter dissection, but also highlight that sequence-based studies alone are insufficient for a complete identification of cis-regulatory sites.

  7. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identifies K-ras as a regulator of alcohol intake

    OpenAIRE

    Repunte-canonigo, Vez; Stap, Lena D.; Chen, Jihuan; Sabino, Valentina; Wagner, Ulrich; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Schumann, Gunter; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Adaptations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. To identify genes that may contribute to excessive drinking, here we performed microarray analyses in laser microdissected rat ACC after a single or repeated administration of an intoxicating dose of alcohol (3g/kg). Expression of the small G protein K-ras was reduced following both single and repeated alcohol administration. We also observed that voluntary alcohol intake in K-ras heterozygo...

  8. Meta-Analysis of Glioblastoma Multiforme versus Anaplastic Astrocytoma Identifies Robust Gene Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Mark Damone; Park, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal. A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas. Although genomewide profiling of expression levels with microarrays can be used to identify differentially expressed genes between these tu...

  9. Transcriptional Shift Identifies a Set of Genes Driving Breast Cancer Chemoresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Ramírez, Laura; Sánchez Rovira, Pedro; Ramírez Tortosa, César Luis; Quiles Morales, José Luis; Ramírez Tortosa, María del Carmen; Lorente Acosta, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Methods/Findings To identify key molecules and signaling pathways which drive breast cancer chemoresistance we performed gene expression analysis before and after anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy and compared the results between different histopathological response groups (good-, mid- and bad-response), established according to the Miller & Payne grading system. Two cohorts of 33 and 73 breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were recruited for whole-genome ex...

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Transportin 3 as the Causative Gene for LGMD1F

    OpenAIRE

    Torella, Annalaura; Fanin, Marina; Mutarelli, Margherita; Peterle, Enrico; Del Vecchio Blanco, Francesca; Rispoli, Rossella; Savarese, Marco; Garofalo, Arcomaria; Piluso, Giulio; Morandi, Lucia; Ricci, Giulia; Siciliano, Gabriele; ANGELINI, CORRADO; NIGRO, VINCENZO

    2013-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous conditions. We investigated a large family with autosomal dominant transmission pattern, previously classified as LGMD1F and mapped to chromosome 7q32. Affected members are characterized by muscle weakness affecting earlier the pelvic girdle and the ileopsoas muscles. We sequenced the whole exome of four family members and identified a shared heterozygous frame-shift variant in the Transportin 3 (TNPO3) gene,...

  11. Counting Gene Expression in Single Cells to Identify Stem Cells | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a technique that can track the expression of multiple genes in a single cell, a team of investigators from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences have demonstrated that they can identify and track individual stem cells from fixed samples of intestinal tissues. The researchers believe that this approach will be useful for studying the role of stem cells in the development of cancer.

  12. Filtering Gene Ontology semantic similarity for identifying protein complexes in large protein interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jian; Xie Dong; Lin Hongfei; Yang Zhihao; Zhang Yijia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many biological processes recognize in particular the importance of protein complexes, and various computational approaches have been developed to identify complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, high false-positive rate of PPIs leads to challenging identification. Results A protein semantic similarity measure is proposed in this study, based on the ontology structure of Gene Ontology (GO) terms and GO annotations to estimate the reliability of ...

  13. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Molecular Pathways Associated with Collagen VI Deficiency and Provides Novel Therapeutic Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Paco, Sonia; Kalko, Susana G.; Jou, Cristina; Rodri?guez, Mari?a A.; Corbera, Joan; Muntoni, Francesco; Feng, Lucy; Rivas, Eloy; Torner, Ferran; Gualandi, Francesca; Gomez-foix, Anna M.; Ferrer, Anna; Ortez, Carlos; Nascimento, Andre?s; Colomer, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), caused by collagen VI deficiency, is a common congenital muscular dystrophy. At present, the role of collagen VI in muscle and the mechanism of disease are not fully understood. To address this we have applied microarrays to analyse the transcriptome of UCMD muscle and compare it to healthy muscle and other muscular dystrophies. We identified 389 genes which are differentially regulated in UCMD relative to controls. In addition, there were 718 gen...

  14. Genome-wide functional screen identifies a compendium of genes affecting sensitivity to tamoxifen

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes-Pereira, Ana M; Sims, David; Dexter, Tim; Fenwick, Kerry; Assiotis, Ioannis; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Hakas, Jarle; Zvelebil, Marketa; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Therapies that target estrogen signaling have made a very considerable contribution to reducing mortality from breast cancer. However, resistance to tamoxifen remains a major clinical problem. Here we have used a genome-wide functional profiling approach to identify multiple genes that confer resistance or sensitivity to tamoxifen. Combining whole-genome shRNA screening with massively parallel sequencing, we have profiled the impact of more than 56,670 RNA interference reagents targeting 16,4...

  15. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Bard-chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q.; New, Lee-sun; Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher Ky; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie

    2013-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important fo...

  16. Differential display identifies overexpression of the USP36 gene, encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme, in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianduan Li, Lisa M. Olson, Zhengyan Zhang, Lina Li, Miri Bidder, Loan Nguyen, John Pfeifer, Janet S. Rader

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To find potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets, we used differential display technique to identify genes that are over or under expressed in human ovarian cancer. Methods. Genes were initially identified by differential display between two human ovarian surface epithelium cultures and two ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 and Caov-3. Genes were validated by relative quantitative RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization. Results. Twenty-eight non-redundant sequences were expressed differentially in the normal ovarian epithelium and ovarian cancer cell lines. Seven of the 28 sequences showed differential expression between normal ovary and ovarian cancer tissue by RT-PCR. USP36 was over-expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues by RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed two transcripts for USP36 in ovarian tissue. The major transcript was more specific for ovarian cancer and was detected by RT-PCR in 9/9 ovarian cancer tissues, 3/3 cancerous ascites, 5/14 (36% sera from patients with ovarian cancer, and 0/7 sera from women without ovarian cancer. Conclusion. USP36 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared to normal ovary and its transcripts were identified in ascites and serum of ovarian cancer patients.

  17. Three tightly linked genes encoding human type I keratins: conservation of sequence in the 5'-untranslated leader and 5'-upstream regions of coexpressed keratin genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhury, A.; Marchuk, D.; Lindhurst, M.; Fuchs, E.

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated and subcloned three separate segments of human DNA which share strong sequence homology with a previously sequenced gene encoding a type I keratin, K14 (50 kilodaltons). Restriction endonuclease mapping has demonstrated that these three genes are tightly linked chromosomally, whereas the K14 gene appears to be separate. As judged by positive hybridization-translation and Northern blot analyses, the central linked gene encodes a keratin, K17, which is expressed in abundance wi...

  18. Exome sequencing identifies FANCM as a susceptibility gene for triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Johanna I; Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Freysteinsdottir, Edda S; Reynisdottir, Inga; Hart, Steven N; Shimelis, Hermela; Vilske, Sara; Kallioniemi, Anne; Schleutker, Johanna; Leminen, Arto; Bützow, Ralf; Blomqvist, Carl; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Couch, Fergus J; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-10-21

    Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is known to be caused by loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, and other genes involved in DNA repair. However, most families severely affected by breast cancer do not harbor mutations in any of these genes. In Finland, founder mutations have been observed in each of these genes, suggesting that the Finnish population may be an excellent resource for the identification of other such genes. To this end, we carried out exome sequencing of constitutional genomic DNA from 24 breast cancer patients from 11 Finnish breast cancer families. From all rare damaging variants, 22 variants in 21 DNA repair genes were genotyped in 3,166 breast cancer patients, 569 ovarian cancer patients, and 2,090 controls, all from the Helsinki or Tampere regions of Finland. In Fanconi anemia complementation gene M (FANCM), nonsense mutation c.5101C>T (p.Q1701X) was significantly more frequent among breast cancer patients than among controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.26-2.75; P = 0.0018], with particular enrichment among patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; OR = 3.56, 95% CI = 1.81-6.98, P = 0.0002). In the Helsinki and Tampere regions, respectively, carrier frequencies of FANCM p.Q1701X were 2.9% and 4.0% of breast cancer patients, 5.6% and 6.6% of TNBC patients, 2.2% of ovarian cancer patients (from Helsinki), and 1.4% and 2.5% of controls. These findings identify FANCM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene, mutations in which confer a particularly strong predisposition for TNBC. PMID:25288723

  19. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velleman Sandra G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia, 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy, and 16wk (market age from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2 maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of their protein products.

  20. Microarray analysis identifies a common set of cellular genes modulated by different HCV replicon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerosolimo Germano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA synthesis and protein expression affect cell homeostasis by modulation of gene expression. The impact of HCV replication on global cell transcription has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we analysed the expression profiles of different clones of human hepatoma-derived Huh-7 cells carrying a self-replicating HCV RNA which express all viral proteins (HCV replicon system. Results First, we compared the expression profile of HCV replicon clone 21-5 with both the Huh-7 parental cells and the 21-5 cured (21-5c cells. In these latter, the HCV RNA has been eliminated by IFN-? treatment. To confirm data, we also analyzed microarray results from both the 21-5 and two other HCV replicon clones, 22-6 and 21-7, compared to the Huh-7 cells. The study was carried out by using the Applied Biosystems (AB Human Genome Survey Microarray v1.0 which provides 31,700 probes that correspond to 27,868 human genes. Microarray analysis revealed a specific transcriptional program induced by HCV in replicon cells respect to both IFN-?-cured and Huh-7 cells. From the original datasets of differentially expressed genes, we selected by Venn diagrams a final list of 38 genes modulated by HCV in all clones. Most of the 38 genes have never been described before and showed high fold-change associated with significant p-value, strongly supporting data reliability. Classification of the 38 genes by Panther System identified functional categories that were significantly enriched in this gene set, such as histones and ribosomal proteins as well as extracellular matrix and intracellular protein traffic. The dataset also included new genes involved in lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal network, which may be critical for HCV replication and pathogenesis. Conclusion Our data provide a comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression induced by HCV replication and reveal modulation of new genes potentially useful for selection of antiviral targets.

  1. De novo assembly of Euphorbia fischeriana root transcriptome identifies prostratin pathway related genes

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    Barrero Roberto A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euphorbia fischeriana is an important medicinal plant found in Northeast China. The plant roots contain many medicinal compounds including 12-deoxyphorbol-13-acetate, commonly known as prostratin that is a phorbol ester from the tigliane diterpene series. Prostratin is a protein kinase C activator and is effective in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV by acting as a latent HIV activator. Latent HIV is currently the biggest limitation for viral eradication. The aim of this study was to sequence, assemble and annotate the E. fischeriana transcriptome to better understand the potential biochemical pathways leading to the synthesis of prostratin and other related diterpene compounds. Results In this study we conducted a high throughput RNA-seq approach to sequence the root transcriptome of E. fischeriana. We assembled 18,180 transcripts, of these the majority encoded protein-coding genes and only 17 transcripts corresponded to known RNA genes. Interestingly, we identified 5,956 protein-coding transcripts with high similarity (> = 75% to Ricinus communis, a close relative to E. fischeriana. We also evaluated the conservation of E. fischeriana genes against EST datasets from the Euphorbeacea family, which included R. communis, Hevea brasiliensis and Euphorbia esula. We identified a core set of 1,145 gene clusters conserved in all four species and 1,487 E. fischeriana paralogous genes. Furthermore, we screened E. fischeriana transcripts against an in-house reference database for genes implicated in the biosynthesis of upstream precursors to prostratin. This identified 24 and 9 candidate transcripts involved in the terpenoid and diterpenoid biosyntehsis pathways, respectively. The majority of the candidate genes in these pathways presented relatively low expression levels except for 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS and isopentenyl diphosphate/dimethylallyl diphosphate synthase (IDS, which are required for multiple downstream pathways including synthesis of casbene, a proposed precursor to prostratin. Conclusion The resources generated in this study provide new insights into the upstream pathways to the synthesis of prostratin and will likely facilitate functional studies aiming to produce larger quantities of this compound for HIV research and/or treatment of patients.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of whole blood identifies a unique 5-gene signature for myelofibrosis and imminent myelofibrosis transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Skov, Vibe

    2014-01-01

    Identifying a distinct gene signature for myelofibrosis may yield novel information of the genes, which are responsible for progression of essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera towards myelofibrosis. We aimed at identifying a simple gene signature - composed of a few genes - which were selectively and highly deregulated in myelofibrosis patients. Gene expression microarray studies have been performed on whole blood from 69 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Amongst the top-20 of the most upregulated genes in PMF compared to controls, we identified 5 genes (DEFA4, ELA2, OLFM4, CTSG, and AZU1), which were highly significantly deregulated in PMF only. None of these genes were significantly regulated in ET and PV patients. However, hierarchical cluster analysis showed that these genes were also highly expressed in a subset of patients with ET (n?=?1) and PV (n?=?4) transforming towards myelofibrosis and/or being featured by an aggressive phenotype. We have identified a simple 5-gene signature, which is uniquely and highly significantly deregulated in patients in transitional stages of ET and PV towards myelofibrosis and in patients with PMF only. Some of these genes are considered to be responsible for the derangement of bone marrow stroma in myelofibrosis. Accordingly, this gene-signature may reflect key processes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of myelofibrosis development.

  3. Meta-analysis of glioblastoma multiforme versus anaplastic astrocytoma identifies robust gene markers

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    Park Peter J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal. A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas. Although genomewide profiling of expression levels with microarrays can be used to identify differentially expressed genes between these tumor types, comparative studies so far have resulted in gene lists that show little overlap. Results To achieve a more accurate and stable list of the differentially expressed genes and pathways between primary GBM and AA, we performed a meta-analysis using publicly available genome-scale mRNA data sets. There were four data sets with sufficiently large sample sizes of both GBMs and AAs, all of which coincidentally used human U133 platforms from Affymetrix, allowing for easier and more precise integration of data. After scoring genes and pathways within each data set, we combined the statistics across studies using the nonparametric rank sum method to identify the features that differentiate GBMs and AAs. We found >900 statistically significant probe sets after correction for multiple testing from the >22,000 tested. We also used the rank sum approach to select >20 significant Biocarta pathways after correction for multiple testing out of >175 pathways examined. The most significant pathway was the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway. Our analysis suggests that many of the most statistically significant genes work together in a HIF1A/VEGF-regulated network to increase angiogenesis and invasion in GBM when compared to AA. Conclusion We have performed a meta-analysis of genome-scale mRNA expression data for 289 human malignant gliomas and have identified a list of >900 probe sets and >20 pathways that are significantly different between GBM and AA. These feature lists could be utilized to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and grade reduction of high-grade gliomas and to identify genes that were not previously suspected of playing an important role in glioma biology. More generally, this approach suggests that combined analysis of existing data sets can reveal new insights and that the large amount of publicly available cancer data sets should be further utilized in a similar manner.

  4. Integrating genetic, transcriptional, and functional analyses to identify 5 novel genes for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinner, Moritz F; Tucker, Nathan R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects >30 million individuals worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and death. AF is highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for the arrhythmia remains incompletely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify new AF-related genes, we used a multifaceted approach, combining large-scale genotyping in 2 ethnically distinct populations, cis-eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci) mapping, and functional validation. Four novel loci were identified in individuals of European descent near the genes NEURL (rs12415501; relative risk [RR]=1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.23; P=6.5×10(-16)), GJA1 (rs13216675; RR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; P=2.2×10(-8)), TBX5 (rs10507248; RR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P=5.7×10(-11)), and CAND2 (rs4642101; RR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; P=9.8×10(-9)). In Japanese, novel loci were identified near NEURL (rs6584555; RR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.26-1.39; P=2.0×10(-25)) and CUX2 (rs6490029; RR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P=3.9×10(-9)). The top single-nucleotide polymorphisms or their proxies were identified as cis-eQTLs for the genes CAND2 (P=2.6×10(-19)), GJA1 (P=2.66×10(-6)), and TBX5 (P=1.36×10(-5)). Knockdown of the zebrafish orthologs of NEURL and CAND2 resulted in prolongation of the atrial action potential duration (17% and 45%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 5 novel loci for AF. Our results expand the diversity of genetic pathways implicated in AF and provide novel molecular targets for future biological and pharmacological investigation.

  5. Genes2WordCloud: a quick way to identify biological themes from gene lists and free text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'ayan Avi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word-clouds recently emerged on the web as a solution for quickly summarizing text by maximizing the display of most relevant terms about a specific topic in the minimum amount of space. As biologists are faced with the daunting amount of new research data commonly presented in textual formats, word-clouds can be used to summarize and represent biological and/or biomedical content for various applications. Results Genes2WordCloud is a web application that enables users to quickly identify biological themes from gene lists and research relevant text by constructing and displaying word-clouds. It provides users with several different options and ideas for the sources that can be used to generate a word-cloud. Different options for rendering and coloring the word-clouds give users the flexibility to quickly generate customized word-clouds of their choice. Methods Genes2WordCloud is a word-cloud generator and a word-cloud viewer that is based on WordCram implemented using Java, Processing, AJAX, mySQL, and PHP. Text is fetched from several sources and then processed to extract the most relevant terms with their computed weights based on word frequencies. Genes2WordCloud is freely available for use online; it is open source software and is available for installation on any web-site along with supporting documentation at http://www.maayanlab.net/G2W. Conclusions Genes2WordCloud provides a useful way to summarize and visualize large amounts of textual biological data or to find biological themes from several different sources. The open source availability of the software enables users to implement customized word-clouds on their own web-sites and desktop applications.

  6. Genome wide association analysis of a founder population identified TAF3 as a gene for MCHC in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistis, Giorgio; Okonkwo, Shawntel U; Traglia, Michela; Sala, Cinzia; Shin, So-Youn; Masciullo, Corrado; Buetti, Iwan; Massacane, Roberto; Mangino, Massimo; Thein, Swee-Lay; Spector, Timothy D; Ganesh, Santhi; Pirastu, Nicola; Gasparini, Paolo; Soranzo, Nicole; Camaschella, Clara; Hart, Daniel; Green, Michael R; Toniolo, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The red blood cell related traits are highly heritable but their genetics are poorly defined. Only 5-10% of the total observed variance is explained by the genetic loci found to date, suggesting that additional loci should be searched using approaches alternative to large meta analysis. GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study) for red blood cell traits in a founder population cohort from Northern Italy identified a new locus for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the TAF3 gene. The association was replicated in two cohorts (rs1887582, P?=?4.25E-09). TAF3 encodes a transcription cofactor that participates in core promoter recognition complex, and is involved in zebrafish and mouse erythropoiesis. We show here that TAF3 is required for transcription of the SPTA1 gene, encoding alpha spectrin, one of the proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. Mutations in SPTA1 are responsible for hereditary spherocytosis, a monogenic disorder of MCHC, as well as for the normal MCHC level. Based on our results, we propose that TAF3 is required for normal erythropoiesis in human and that it might have a role in controlling the ratio between hemoglobin (Hb) and cell volume and in the dynamics of RBC maturation in healthy individuals. Finally, TAF3 represents a potential candidate or a modifier gene for disorders of red cell membrane. PMID:23935956

  7. Expression of X-linked Genes in Deceased Neonates and Surviving Cloned Female Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Le; Jobst, Pete; Lai, Liangxue; Samuel, Melissa; Prather, Randall S.; Ayares, David; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, X. Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer is very inefficient, probably due to insufficient reprogramming of the donor nuclei, which in turn would cause the dysregulation of gene expression. X-Chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a multi-step epigenetic process utilized by mammals to achieve dosage compensation in females. Our aim was to determine if any dysregulation of X-linked genes, which would be indicative of unfaithful reprogramming of donor nuclei, was present in cloned pigs. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to quantify the transcript levels of five X-linked genes, XIST, TSIX, HPRT1, G6PD, ARAF1 and one autosomal gene, COL4A1 in major organs of neonatal deceased and surviving female cloned pigs and age-matched control pigs from conventional breeding. Aberrant expression level of these genes was prevalent in the neonatal deceased clones, while it was only moderate in cloned pigs that survived after birth. These results suggest a correlation between the viability of the clones and the normality of their gene expression and provide a possible explanation for the death of a large portion of cloned animals around birth. PMID:17474099

  8. Analysis of genomic aberrations and gene expression profiling identifies novel lesions and pathways in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with distinct clinical features and are associated with the JAK2V617F mutation. To identify genomic anomalies involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, we profiled 87 MPN patients using Affymetrix 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Aberrations affecting chr9 were the most frequently observed and included 9pLOH (n=16), trisomy 9 (n=6) and amplifications of 9p13.3–23.3 (n=1), 9q33.1–34.13 (n=1) and 9q34.13 (n=6). Patients with trisomy 9 were associated with elevated JAK2V617F mutant allele burden, suggesting that gain of chr9 represents an alternative mechanism for increasing JAK2V617F dosage. Gene expression profiling of patients with and without chr9 abnormalities (+9, 9pLOH), identified genes potentially involved in disease pathogenesis including JAK2, STAT5B and MAPK14. We also observed recurrent gains of 1p36.31–36.33 (n=6), 17q21.2–q21.31 (n=5) and 17q25.1–25.3 (n=5) and deletions affecting 18p11.31–11.32 (n=8). Combined SNP and gene expression analysis identified aberrations affecting components of a non-canonical PRC2 complex (EZH1, SUZ12 and JARID2) and genes comprising a ‘HSC signature' (MLLT3, SMARCA2 and PBX1). We show that NFIB, which is amplified in 7/87 MPN patients and upregulated in PV CD34+ cells, protects cells from apoptosis induced by cytokine withdrawal

  9. Functional coupling analysis suggests link between the obesity gene FTO and the BDNF-NTRK2 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rask-Andersen Mathias

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fat mass and obesity gene (FTO has been identified through genome wide association studies as an important genetic factor contributing to a higher body mass index (BMI. However, the molecular context in which this effect is mediated has yet to be determined. We investigated the potential molecular network for FTO by analyzing co-expression and protein-protein interaction databases, Coxpresdb and IntAct, as well as the functional coupling predicting multi-source database, FunCoup. Hypothalamic expression of FTO-linked genes defined with this bioinformatics approach was subsequently studied using quantitative real time-PCR in mouse feeding models known to affect FTO expression. Results We identified several candidate genes for functional coupling to FTO through database studies and selected nine for further study in animal models. We observed hypothalamic expression of Profilin 2 (Pfn2, cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta (Prkacb, Brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 (Ntrk2, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3, and Btbd12 to be co-regulated in concert with Fto. Pfn2 and Prkacb have previously not been linked to feeding regulation. Conclusions Gene expression studies validate several candidates generated through database studies of possible FTO-interactors. We speculate about a wider functional role for FTO in the context of current and recent findings, such as in extracellular ligand-induced neuronal plasticity via NTRK2/BDNF, possibly via interaction with the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?.

  10. Locus for a human hereditary cataract is closely linked to the ?-crystallin gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the human ?-crystallin gene cluster polymorphic Taq I sites are present. These give rise to three sets of allelic fragments from the ?-crystallin genes. Together these restriction fragment length polymorphisms define eight possible haplotypes, three of which (Q, R, and S) were found in the Dutch and English population. A fourth haplotype (P) was detected within a family in which a hereditary Coppock-like cataract of the embryonic lens nucleus occurs in heterozygotes. Haplotype P was found only in family members who suffered from cataract, and all family members who suffered from cataract had haplotype P. The absolute correlation between the presence of haplotype P and cataract within this family shows that the ?-crystallin gene cluster and the locus for the Coppock-like cataract are closely linked. This linkage provides genetic evidence that the primary cause of a cataract in humans could possibly be a lesion in a crystallin gene

  11. Winge's sex-linked color patterns and SDL in the guppy: genes or gene complexes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Poecilia reticulata, different phenotypes appear due to dominance, codominance, poligeny, or some demonstrated interallelic interactions. Recent(both molecular and classical investigations suggest a mechanism of expression of several different loci in a single color pattern, resulting in high numbers of possible color pattern phenotypes. The color pattern seems to be determined by complex interactions of many genes (at the same locus or not, located on the same chromosome or not, under variable environmental conditions. For example, the Maculatus color pattern is due to the presence of  both Maculatus red and Maculatus black elements. On their turn, having in view the latest definitions of  the gene, both Maculatus red and Maculatus black could have a composite nature, too. Sexdetermination in the guppy is studied since the 1920s. The deepest mechanism of sex determination is not clear yet, but classical studies of Winge early in the past century and recent molecular studies revealed a possible composite nature of the so called master sex determining gene, located at SDL of the Y chromosome.

  12. Dorsal horn-enriched genes identified by DNA microarray, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblan Kenneth S

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in the dorsal spinal cord play important roles in nociception and pain. These neurons receive input from peripheral sensory neurons and then transmit the signals to the brain, as well as receive and integrate descending control signals from the brain. Many molecules important for pain transmission have been demonstrated to be localized to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Further understanding of the molecular interactions and signaling pathways in the dorsal horn neurons will require a better knowledge of the molecular neuroanatomy in the dorsal spinal cord. Results A large scale screening was conducted for genes with enriched expression in the dorsal spinal cord using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to genes known to be specifically expressed in the dorsal spinal cord, other neuropeptides, receptors, ion channels, and signaling molecules were also found enriched in the dorsal spinal cord. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed the cellular expression of a subset of these genes. The regulation of a subset of the genes was also studied in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL neuropathic pain model. In general, we found that the genes that are enriched in the dorsal spinal cord were not among those found to be up-regulated in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain. This study also provides a level of validation of the use of DNA microarrays in conjunction with our novel analysis algorithm (SAFER for the identification of differences in gene expression. Conclusion This study identified molecules that are enriched in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and provided a molecular neuroanatomy in the spinal cord, which will aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms important in nociception and pain.

  13. Investigation of manic and euthymic episodes identifies state- and trait-specific gene expression and STAB1 as a new candidate gene for bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, S H; Juraeva, D; Sticht, C.; Strohmaier, J.; Meier, S; Treutlein, J; Dukal, H; Frank, J; M. Lang; Deuschle, M; Schulze, T G; Degenhardt, F; Mattheisen, M; Brors, B; Cichon, S.

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. To identify new BD genes and pathways, the present study employed a three-step approach. First, gene-expression profiles of BD patients were assessed during both a manic and an euthymic phase. These profiles were compared intra-individually and with the gene-expression profiles of controls. Second, those differentially expressed genes that were considered potential trai...

  14. A systems approach to identifying correlated gene targets for the loss of colour pigmentation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verwoerd Wynand S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The numerous diverse metabolic pathways by which plant compounds can be produced make it difficult to predict how colour pigmentation is lost for different tissues and plants. This study employs mathematical and in silico methods to identify correlated gene targets for the loss of colour pigmentation in plants from a whole cell perspective based on the full metabolic network of Arabidopsis. This involves extracting a self-contained flavonoid subnetwork from the AraCyc database and calculating feasible metabolic routes or elementary modes (EMs for it. Those EMs leading to anthocyanin compounds are taken to constitute the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP and their interplay with the rest of the EMs is used to study the minimal cut sets (MCSs, which are different combinations of reactions to block for eliminating colour pigmentation. By relating the reactions to their corresponding genes, the MCSs are used to explore the phenotypic roles of the ABP genes, their relevance to the ABP and the impact their eliminations would have on other processes in the cell. Results Simulation and prediction results of the effect of different MCSs for eliminating colour pigmentation correspond with existing experimental observations. Two examples are: i two MCSs which require the simultaneous suppression of genes DFR and ANS to eliminate colour pigmentation, correspond to observational results of the same genes being co-regulated for eliminating floral pigmentation in Aquilegia and; ii the impact of another MCS requiring CHS suppression, corresponds to findings where the suppression of the early gene CHS eliminated nearly all flavonoids but did not affect the production of volatile benzenoids responsible for floral scent. Conclusions From the various MCSs identified for eliminating colour pigmentation, several correlate to existing experimental observations, indicating that different MCSs are suitable for different plants, different cells, and different conditions and could also be related to regulatory genes. Being able to correlate the predictions with experimental results gives credence to the use of these mathematical and in silico analyses methods in the design of experiments. The methods could be used to prioritize target enzymes for different objectives to achieve desired outcomes, especially for less understood pathways.

  15. [Identification of AFLP markers linked to bacterial wilt resistance gene in tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Sen-Yan; Feng, Zhuang-Zhi; Miao, Li-Xiang; Miu, Fang-Bin

    2006-02-01

    A cross between bacterial wilt resistant tomato variety "T51A"and susceptible variety 'T9230' was made for mapping bacterial wilt resistance gene(s). Through inoculation test of its F1 and F2 progeny, it was proved that the resistance of 'T51A' to bacterial wilt was controlled by one heterozygous gene and cytoplasm. With 64 EcoR I/Muse I primer combinations, AFLP analysis was performed on two parents and their F2 resistant and susceptible bulks. A total of about 4200 distinguishable bands were amplified, of which two were stable. Genetic linkage analysis of the two polymorphic DNA fragments with the resistance gene(s) was tested in the F2 segregating population derived from the cross between 'T51A' and 'T9230'. The DNA fragment AAG/CAT was found closely linked to one of the bacterial wilt resistant genes, with a genetic distance of 6.7 cM, that was tentatively named RRS-342. The cloned fragment AAG/CAT was sequenced and then successfully converted to a SCAR marker, which can be used more conveniently in marker-assisted selection for tomato resistance to bacterial wilt gene. PMID:16520316

  16. Identifying insecticide resistance genes in mosquito by combining AFLP genome scans and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Margot; Despres, Laurence

    2012-04-01

    AFLP-based genome scans are widely used to study the genetics of adaptation and to identify genomic regions potentially under selection. However, this approach usually fails to detect the actual genes or mutations targeted by selection owing to the difficulties of obtaining DNA sequences from AFLP fragments. Here, we combine classical AFLP outlier detection with 454 sequencing of AFLP fragments to obtain sequences from outlier loci. We applied this approach to the study of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) toxins in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A genome scan of Bti-resistant and Bti-susceptible A. aegypti laboratory strains was performed based on 432 AFLP markers. Fourteen outliers were detected using two different population genetic algorithms. Out of these, 11 were successfully sequenced. Three contained transposable elements (TEs) sequences, and the 10 outliers that could be mapped at a unique location in the reference genome were located on different supercontigs. One outlier was in the vicinity of a gene coding for an aminopeptidase potentially involved in Bti toxin-binding. Patterns of sequence variability of this gene showed significant deviation from neutrality in the resistant strain but not in the susceptible strain, even after taking into account the known demographic history of the selected strain. This gene is a promising candidate for future functional analysis. PMID:22348648

  17. Comparison of genome-wide selection strategies to identify furfural tolerance genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebes, Tirzah Y; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Gillis, Jacob H; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    Engineering both feedstock and product tolerance is important for transitioning towards next-generation biofuels derived from renewable sources. Tolerance to chemical inhibitors typically results in complex phenotypes, for which multiple genetic changes must often be made to confer tolerance. Here, we performed a genome-wide search for furfural-tolerant alleles using the TRackable Multiplex Recombineering (TRMR) method (Warner et al. (2010), Nature Biotechnology), which uses chromosomally integrated mutations directed towards increased or decreased expression of virtually every gene in Escherichia coli. We employed various growth selection strategies to assess the role of selection design towards growth enrichments. We also compared genes with increased fitness from our TRMR selection to those from a previously reported genome-wide identification study of furfural tolerance genes using a plasmid-based genomic library approach (Glebes et al. (2014) PLOS ONE). In several cases, growth improvements were observed for the chromosomally integrated promoter/RBS mutations but not for the plasmid-based overexpression constructs. Through this assessment, four novel tolerance genes, ahpC, yhjH, rna, and dicA, were identified and confirmed for their effect on improving growth in the presence of furfural. PMID:24981318

  18. Genome-wide methylation analysis identifies epigenetically inactivated candidate tumour suppressor genes in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M R; Ricketts, C J; Gentle, D; McRonald, F; Carli, N; Khalili, H; Brown, M; Kishida, T; Yao, M; Banks, R E; Clarke, N; Latif, F; Maher, E R

    2011-03-24

    The detection of promoter region hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing has facilitated the identification of candidate renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tumour suppressor genes (TSGs). We have used a genome-wide strategy (methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) and whole-genome array analysis in combination with high-density expression array analysis) to identify genes that are frequently methylated and silenced in RCC. MeDIP analysis on 9 RCC tumours and 3 non-malignant normal kidney tissue samples was performed, and an initial shortlist of 56 candidate genes that were methylated by array analysis was further investigated; 9 genes were confirmed to show frequent promoter region methylation in primary RCC tumour samples (KLHL35 (39%), QPCT (19%), SCUBE3 (19%), ZSCAN18 (32%), CCDC8 (35%), FBN2 (34%), ATP5G2 (36%), PCDH8 (58%) and CORO6 (22%)). RNAi knockdown for KLHL35, QPCT, SCUBE3, ZSCAN18, CCDC8 and FBN2 resulted in an anchorage-independent growth advantage. Tumour methylation of SCUBE3 was associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer death or relapse (P=0.0046). The identification of candidate epigenetically inactivated RCC TSGs provides new insights into renal tumourigenesis. PMID:21132003

  19. B.E.A.R. GeneInfo: A tool for identifying gene-related biomedical publications through user modifiable queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Guohui

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Once specific genes are identified through high throughput genomics technologies there is a need to sort the final gene list to a manageable size for validation studies. The triaging and sorting of genes often relies on the use of supplemental information related to gene structure, metabolic pathways, and chromosomal location. Yet in disease states where the genes may not have identifiable structural elements, poorly defined metabolic pathways, or limited chromosomal data, flexible systems for obtaining additional data are necessary. In these situations having a tool for searching the biomedical literature using the list of identified genes while simultaneously defining additional search terms would be useful. Results We have built a tool, BEAR GeneInfo, that allows flexible searches based on the investigators knowledge of the biological process, thus allowing for data mining that is specific to the scientist's strengths and interests. This tool allows a user to upload a series of GenBank accession numbers, Unigene Ids, Locuslink Ids, or gene names. BEAR GeneInfo takes these IDs and identifies the associated gene names, and uses the lists of gene names to query PubMed. The investigator can add additional modifying search terms to the query. The subsequent output provides a list of publications, along with the associated reference hyperlinks, for reviewing the identified articles for relevance and interest. An example of the use of this tool in the study of human prostate cancer cells treated with Selenium is presented. Conclusions This tool can be used to further define a list of genes that have been identified through genomic or genetic studies. Through the use of targeted searches with additional search terms the investigator can limit the list to genes that match their specific research interests or needs. The tool is freely available on the web at http://prostategenomics.org1, and the authors will provide scripts and database components if requested mdatta@mcw.edu

  20. HindIII identifies a two allele DNA polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caenazzo, L.; Hoehe, M.R.; Hsieh, W.T.; Berrettini, W.H.; Bonner, T.I.; Gershon, E.S. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-09-11

    HCNR p5, a 0.9 kb BamHI/EcoRI fragment from the human cannabinoid receptor gene inserted into pUC19, was used as probe. The fragment is located in an intron approximately 14 kb 5{prime} of the initiation codon. This fragment is a clean single copy sequence by genomic blotting. Hybridization of human genomic DNA digested with HindIII identified a two allele RFLP with bands at 5.5 (A1) and 3.3 kb (A2). The human cannabinoid receptor gene has been genetically mapped in CEPH reference pedigrees to the centromeric/q region of chromosome 6. In situ hybridization localizes it to 6q14-q15. Codominant segregation has been observed in 26 informative two- and three-generation CEPH pedigrees and in 14 medium-sized disease families.

  1. Natural Variation Identifies ICARUS1, a Universal Gene Required for Cell Proliferation and Growth at High Temperatures in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, Andrei; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Picó, F. Xavier; Sureshkumar, Sridevi; Sundaramoorthi, Vignesh; Bulach, Dieter; Powell, David; Seemann, Torsten; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Balasubramanian, Sureshkumar

    2015-01-01

    Plants are highly sensitive to environmental changes and even small variations in ambient temperature have severe consequences on their growth and development. Temperature affects multiple aspects of plant development, but the processes and mechanisms underlying thermo-sensitive growth responses are mostly unknown. Here we exploit natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana to identify and characterize novel components and processes mediating thermo-sensitive growth responses in plants. Phenotypic screening of wild accessions identified several strains displaying pleiotropic growth defects, at cellular and organism levels, specifically at high ambient temperatures. Positional cloning and characterization of the underlying gene revealed that ICARUS1 (ICA1), which encodes a protein of the tRNAHis guanylyl transferase (Thg1) superfamily, is required for plant growth at high temperatures. Transcriptome and gene marker analyses together with DNA content measurements show that ICA1 loss-of-function results in down regulation of cell cycle associated genes at high temperatures, which is linked with a block in G2/M transition and endoreduplication. In addition, plants with mutations in ICA1 show enhanced sensitivity to DNA damage. Characterization of additional strains that carry lesions in ICA1, but display normal growth, shows that alternative splicing is likely to alleviate the deleterious effects of some natural mutations. Furthermore, analyses of worldwide and regional collections of natural accessions indicate that ICA1 loss-of-function has arisen several times independently, and that these occur at high frequency in some local populations. Overall our results suggest that ICA1-mediated-modulation of fundamental processes such as tRNAHis maturation, modify plant growth responses to temperature changes in a quantitative and reversible manner, in natural populations. PMID:25951176

  2. An ant colony optimization based algorithm for identifying gene regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Hanwu; Chen, Ling

    2013-08-01

    It is one of the most important tasks in bioinformatics to identify the regulatory elements in gene sequences. Most of the existing algorithms for identifying regulatory elements are inclined to converge into a local optimum, and have high time complexity. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a meta-heuristic method based on swarm intelligence and is derived from a model inspired by the collective foraging behavior of real ants. Taking advantage of the ACO in traits such as self-organization and robustness, this paper designs and implements an ACO based algorithm named ACRI (ant-colony-regulatory-identification) for identifying all possible binding sites of transcription factor from the upstream of co-expressed genes. To accelerate the ants' searching process, a strategy of local optimization is presented to adjust the ants' start positions on the searched sequences. By exploiting the powerful optimization ability of ACO, the algorithm ACRI can not only improve precision of the results, but also achieve a very high speed. Experimental results on real world datasets show that ACRI can outperform other traditional algorithms in the respects of speed and quality of solutions. PMID:23746735

  3. Transcript and protein profiling identify candidate gene sets of potential adaptive significance in New Zealand Pachycladon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Silvia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcript profiling of closely related species provides a means for identifying genes potentially important in species diversification. However, the predictive value of transcript profiling for inferring downstream-physiological processes has been unclear. In the present study we use shotgun proteomics to validate inferences from microarray studies regarding physiological differences in three Pachycladon species. We compare transcript and protein profiling and evaluate their predictive value for inferring glucosinolate chemotypes characteristic of these species. Results Evidence from heterologous microarrays and shotgun proteomics revealed differential expression of genes involved in glucosinolate hydrolysis (myrosinase-associated proteins and biosynthesis (methylthioalkylmalate isomerase and dehydrogenase, the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (carbonic anhydrases, water use efficiency (ascorbate peroxidase, 2 cys peroxiredoxin, 20 kDa chloroplastic chaperonin, mitochondrial succinyl CoA ligase and others (glutathione-S-transferase, serine racemase, vegetative storage proteins, genes related to translation and photosynthesis. Differences in glucosinolate hydrolysis products were directly confirmed. Overall, prediction of protein abundances from transcript profiles was stronger than prediction of transcript abundance from protein profiles. Protein profiles also proved to be more accurate predictors of glucosinolate profiles than transcript profiles. The similarity of species profiles for both transcripts and proteins reflected previously inferred phylogenetic relationships while glucosinolate chemotypes did not. Conclusions We have used transcript and protein profiling to predict physiological processes that evolved differently during diversification of three Pachycladon species. This approach has also identified candidate genes potentially important in adaptation, which are now the focus of ongoing study. Our results indicate that protein profiling provides a valuable tool for validating transcript profiles in studies of adaptive divergence.

  4. Integration of molecular biology tools for identifying promoters and genes abundantly expressed in flowers of Oncidium Gower Ramsey

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    Tung Shu-Yun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orchids comprise one of the largest families of flowering plants and generate commercially important flowers. However, model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana do not contain all plant genes, and agronomic and horticulturally important genera and species must be individually studied. Results Several molecular biology tools were used to isolate flower-specific gene promoters from Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey' (Onc. GR. A cDNA library of reproductive tissues was used to construct a microarray in order to compare gene expression in flowers and leaves. Five genes were highly expressed in flower tissues, and the subcellular locations of the corresponding proteins were identified using lip transient transformation with fluorescent protein-fusion constructs. BAC clones of the 5 genes, together with 7 previously published flower- and reproductive growth-specific genes in Onc. GR, were identified for cloning of their promoter regions. Interestingly, 3 of the 5 novel flower-abundant genes were putative trypsin inhibitor (TI genes (OnTI1, OnTI2 and OnTI3, which were tandemly duplicated in the same BAC clone. Their promoters were identified using transient GUS reporter gene transformation and stable A. thaliana transformation analyses. Conclusions By combining cDNA microarray, BAC library, and bombardment assay techniques, we successfully identified flower-directed orchid genes and promoters.

  5. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

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    Ooi Leslie CL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However, in order to confirm whether these genes are suitable as early markers for embryogenesis, the genes need to be tested on earlier stages of tissue culture and a wider range of genotypes. This collection of ESTs is an important resource for genetic and genome analyses of the oil palm, particularly during tissue culture development.

  6. Catheter-Related Microbacterium Bacteremia Identified by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Susanna K P; Patrick C. Y. Woo; Woo, Gibson K. S.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2002-01-01

    We describe the application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in defining two cases of catheter-related Microbacterium bacteremia. In the first case, a gram-positive bacillus was isolated from both the blood culture and central catheter tip of a 39-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia. The API Coryne system identified the isolate as 98.9% Aureobacterium or Corynebacterium aquaticum. In the second case, a gram-positive bacillus was recovered from five sets of blood cultures from both central...

  7. Morphologic and Gene Expression Criteria for Identifying Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Ogura, Fumitaka; Murakami, Toru; Niwa, Akira; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. While a great variety of colonies grow during induction, only a few of them develop into iPS cells. Researchers currently use visual observation to identify iPS cells and select colonies resembling embryonic stem (ES) cells, and there are no established objective criteria. Therefore, we exhaustively analyzed the morphology and gene expression of all...

  8. Organization of a Chinese hamster ovary dihydrofolate reductase gene identified by phenotypic rescue.

    OpenAIRE

    Milbrandt, J. D.; Azizkhan, J. C.; Greisen, K. S.; Hamlin, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    We have constructed a genomic DNA library from a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHOC 400) in the cosmid vector pHC79. By utilizing a murine dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cDNA clone, we have identified 66 DHFR+ clones among the 11,000 colonies screened by colony hybridization. To isolate a recombinant cosmid containing the entire DHFR gene, we have tested these colonies for their ability to rescue a DHFR- Chinese hamster ovary cell line, using the spheroplast fusion m...

  9. Screening of the Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK Gene Mutations in 13 Iranian Patients with Presumed X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharagozlou

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is an immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk gene. In order to identify the mutations in Btk gene in Iranian patients with antibody deficiency, 13 male patients with an XLA phenotype from 11 unrelated families were enrolled as the subjects of investigation for Btk mutation analysis using PCR-SSCP followed by sequencing. Five different mutations were identified in 5 patients from 5 unrelated families. Three mutations had been reported previously including TTTG deletion in intron 15 (4 bps upstream of exon 16 boundary, nonsense point mutation (1896G>A that resulted in a premature stop codon (W588X in kinase domain, and nucleotide alteration in invariant splice donor site of exon12 (IVS12+1G>A. While 2 novel missense mutations (2084A>G, 1783T>C were identified leading to amino acid changes (I651T, Y551H. The results of this study further support the notion that molecular genetic testing represents an important tool for definitive and early diagnosis of XLA and may allow accurate carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

  10. Expression profiling of Crambe abyssinica under arsenate stress identifies genes and gene networks involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Suganthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic contamination is widespread throughout the world and this toxic metalloid is known to cause cancers of organs such as liver, kidney, skin, and lung in human. In spite of a recent surge in arsenic related studies, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of arsenic uptake, detoxification, and sequestration in plants. Crambe abyssinica, commonly known as 'abyssinian mustard', is a non-food, high biomass oil seed crop that is naturally tolerant to heavy metals. Moreover, it accumulates significantly higher levels of arsenic as compared to other species of the Brassicaceae family. Thus, C. abyssinica has great potential to be utilized as an ideal inedible crop for phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the mechanism of arsenic metabolism in higher plants, including C. abyssinica, remains elusive. Results To identify the differentially expressed transcripts and the pathways involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification, C. abyssinica plants were subjected to arsenate stress and a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization (SSH approach was employed. A total of 105 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced which were found to represent 38 genes. Those genes encode proteins functioning as antioxidants, metal transporters, reductases, enzymes involved in the protein degradation pathway, and several novel uncharacterized proteins. The transcripts corresponding to the subtracted cDNAs showed strong upregulation by arsenate stress as confirmed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusions Our study revealed novel insights into the plant defense mechanisms and the regulation of genes and gene networks in response to arsenate toxicity. The differential expression of transcripts encoding glutathione-S-transferases, antioxidants, sulfur metabolism, heat-shock proteins, metal transporters, and enzymes in the ubiquitination pathway of protein degradation as well as several unknown novel proteins serve as molecular evidence for the physiological responses to arsenate stress in plants. Additionally, many of these cDNA clones showing strong upregulation due to arsenate stress could be used as valuable markers. Further characterization of these differentially expressed genes would be useful to develop novel strategies for efficient phytoremediation as well as for engineering arsenic tolerant crops with reduced arsenic translocation to the edible parts of plants.

  11. Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Qiuping; Dong, Haijiao; He, Qin; Liang, Liwen; Tan, Cong; Han, Zhongmin; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Zhao, Hu; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Yongzhong

    2015-01-01

    CCT domain-containing genes generally control flowering in plants. Currently, only six of the 41 CCT family genes have been confirmed to control flowering in rice. To efficiently identify more heading date-related genes from the CCT family, we compared the positions of heading date QTLs and CCT genes and found that 25 CCT family genes were located in the QTL regions. Association mapping showed that a total of 19 CCT family genes were associated with the heading date. Five of the seven associated genes within QTL regions and two of four associated genes outside of the QTL regions were confirmed to regulate heading date by transformation. None of the seven non-associated genes outside of the QTL regions regulates heading date. Obviously, combination of candidate gene-based association mapping with linkage analysis could improve the identification of functional genes. Three novel CCT family genes, including one non-associated (OsCCT01) and two associated genes (OsCCT11 and OsCCT19) regulated the heading date. The overexpression of OsCCT01 delayed flowering through suppressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under both long day and short day conditions. Potential functions in regulating heading date of some untested CCT family genes were discussed. PMID:25563494

  12. G-NEST: a gene neighborhood scoring tool to identify co-conserved, co-expressed genes

    OpenAIRE

    Lemay Danielle G; Martin William F; Hinrichs Angie S; Rijnkels Monique; Bruce, German J.; Korf Ian; Pollard Katherine S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In previous studies, gene neighborhoods—spatial clusters of co-expressed genes in the genome—have been defined using arbitrary rules such as requiring adjacency, a minimum number of genes, a fixed window size, or a minimum expression level. In the current study, we developed a Gene Neighborhood Scoring Tool (G-NEST) which combines genomic location, gene expression, and evolutionary sequence conservation data to score putative gene neighborhoods across all possible wind...

  13. Linking Advanced Visualization and MATLAB for the Analysis of 3D Gene Expression Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, Oliver; Keranen, Soile V.E.; Biggin, Mark; Knowles, David W.; Weber, Gunther H.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2011-03-30

    Three-dimensional gene expression PointCloud data generated by the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project (BDTNP) provides quantitative information about the spatial and temporal expression of genes in early Drosophila embryos at cellular resolution. The BDTNP team visualizes and analyzes Point-Cloud data using the software application PointCloudXplore (PCX). To maximize the impact of novel, complex data sets, such as PointClouds, the data needs to be accessible to biologists and comprehensible to developers of analysis functions. We address this challenge by linking PCX and Matlab via a dedicated interface, thereby providing biologists seamless access to advanced data analysis functions and giving bioinformatics researchers the opportunity to integrate their analysis directly into the visualization application. To demonstrate the usefulness of this approach, we computationally model parts of the expression pattern of the gene even skipped using a genetic algorithm implemented in Matlab and integrated into PCX via our Matlab interface.

  14. Targeted Gene Sequencing to Identify Polymorphisms in the Protein C and EPCR Genes in Patients with Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia; Dwivedi, Dhruva; Pepler, Laura; Lysov, Zakhar; Waye, John; Julian, Jim; Desch, Karl; Ginsburg, David; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Kearon, Clive; Liaw, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction of protein C (PC) with the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) enhances activated PC (APC) generation. We performed targeted gene sequencing of the PC gene (PROC) and EPCR genes (PROCR) in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) to determine if mutations that impair PC-EPCR interactions are associated with an increased risk of VTE. Approach and Results We sequenced exon 3 of PROC and exons 2 and 3 of PROCR (the exons that encode the protein-protein binding domains of PC and EPCR) in 653 patients with unprovoked VTE and in 627 healthy controls. Five single nucleotide variants (SNVs), each in individual patients, were identified that result in abnormal PC (Arg9Cys, Val34Met, Arg-1Cys) or abnormal EPCR proteins (Arg96Cys and Val170Leu). None of these SNVs were found in the controls. When the PC variants were expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, all exhibited decreased synthesis, and two of the variants had reduced capacity for APC generation. When expressed on the surface of HEK293 cells, the EPCR variants showed reduced affinity for fluorescently-labeled PC. In addition, the previously reported EPCR A3 haplotype, which promotes cellular “shedding” of EPCR, is overrepresented in the patient group (P=0.001). Conclusions This is the first targeted DNA sequencing analysis of PROC and PROCR in a large group of patients with unprovoked VTE. Our data suggest that mutations that impair PC-EPCR interactions may be associated with an increased risk of VTE. PMID:24051141

  15. ADA5/SPT20 links the ADA and SPT genes, which are involved in yeast transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, G A; Horiuchi, J; Silverman, N; Guarente, L

    1996-01-01

    In this report we described the cloning and characterization of ADA5, a gene identified by resistance to GAL4-VP16-mediated toxicity. ADA5 binds directly to the VP16 activation domain but not to a transcriptionally defective VP16 double point mutant. Double mutants with mutations in ada5 and other genes (ada2 or ada3) isolated by resistance to GAL4-VP16 grow like ada5 single mutants, suggesting that ADA5 is in the same pathway as the other ADA genes. Further, ADA5 cofractionates and coprecipitates with ADA3. However, an ada5 deletion mutant exhibits a broader spectrum of phenotypes than mutants with null mutations in the other ADA genes. Most interestingly, ADA5 is identical to SPT20 (S.M. Roberts and F. Winston, Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 3206-3213, 1996), showing that it shares phenotypes with the ADA and SPT family of genes. Of the other SPT genes tested, mutants with mutations in SPT7 and, strikingly, SPT15 (encoding the TATA-binding protein) show resistance to GAL4-VP16. We present a speculative pathway of transcriptional activation involving the ADA2-ADA3-GCN5-ADA5 complex and the TATA-binding protein. PMID:8649430

  16. The cartilage proteoglycan deficient mutation, nanomelia, contains a DNA polymorphism in the proteoglycan core protein gene that is genetically linked to the nanomelia phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, S G; Clark, S H

    1992-02-01

    The avian mutation, nanomelia (nm), is an autosomal recessive embryonic lethal. Homozygous embryos show hypoplasia of the limbs and a parrot-like beak. Biochemical studies have associated this phenotype with the absence of the major cartilage specific proteoglycan core protein (Argraves et al., 1981). Stirpe et al. (1987) demonstrated a reduction in core protein transcripts in nanomelic embryos. Southern analyses did not detect a rearrangement of the core protein gene or a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the core protein gene linked to the nanomelia mutation. These data suggest that the genetic lesion associated with the nanomelia mutation is either a subtle alteration in the core protein gene affecting the biosynthesis of core protein transcript or a defect in a regulatory gene that produces a trans-acting factor requisite for the proper expression of the core protein gene. To distinguish between these two alternative molecular mechanisms for the nanomelia mutation, experiments were conducted to demonstrate genetic linkage or non-linkage of the core protein gene to the nanomelia mutation. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technology, a DNA polymorphism has been identified at the 3' end of the core protein gene. The polymorphism defines two alleles, one allele is associated with the normal core protein gene, while the other allele always segregates with the nanomelia mutation. These results suggest that the identified DNA polymorphism in the core protein gene is genetically linked to the inheritance of the nanomelic phenotype and the nanomelia mutation contains a lesion in the core protein gene. PMID:1560791

  17. Expression profiling identifies genes involved in neoplastic transformation of serous ovarian cancer

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    Green Adèle C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The malignant potential of serous ovarian tumors, the most common ovarian tumor subtype, varies from benign to low malignant potential (LMP tumors to frankly invasive cancers. Given the uncertainty about the relationship between these different forms, we compared their patterns of gene expression. Methods Expression profiling was carried out on samples of 7 benign, 7 LMP and 28 invasive (moderate and poorly differentiated serous tumors and four whole normal ovaries using oligonucleotide microarrays representing over 21,000 genes. Results We identified 311 transcripts that distinguished invasive from benign tumors, and 20 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between invasive and LMP tumors at p SLPI and WNT7A and down-regulation of C6orf31, PDGFRA and GLTSCR2 were measured in invasive and LMP compared with benign and normal tissues. Over-expression of WNT7A in an ovarian cancer cell line led to increased migration and invasive capacity. Conclusion These results highlight several genes that may play an important role across the spectrum of serous ovarian tumorigenesis.

  18. Linking genes to microbial growth kinetics: an integrated biochemical systems engineering approach

    OpenAIRE

    Koutinas, M.; Kiparissides, A.; Silva-rocha, R.; Lam, M. C.; Martins Dos Santos, V. A. P.; Lorenzo, V.; Pistikopoulos, E. N.; Mantalaris, A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of models describing the kinetic properties of a microorganism for a given substrate are unstructured and empirical. They are formulated in this manner so that the complex mechanism of cell growth is simplified. Herein, a novel approach for modelling microbial growth kinetics is proposed, linking biomass growth and substrate consumption rates to the gene regulatory programmes that control these processes. A dynamic model of the TOL (pWW0) plasmid of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 has be...

  19. DNA interstrand cross-links promote chromosomal integration of a selected gene in human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, J.M., de; Hanawalt, P C

    1989-01-01

    We have used integrative pSV2 plasmids to learn how DNA lesions affect nonhomologous recombination with human chromosomes. Enhanced stable transformation of fibrosarcoma cells with a selectable gene was observed after chemical modification of the plasmid DNA; thus, cells transfected with plasmid pSV2-gpt carrying photoadducts of the cross-linking agent 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) yielded four- to sevenfold-higher levels of Gpt+ transformants than were obtained with untreat...

  20. Ultrastructural investigation of the testicular defect in rats carrying MHC-linked genes affecting development (grc).

    OpenAIRE

    Siew, S.; Gill, T. J.; Kunz, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    The morphologic features of the testicular defect in the rat caused by the genes of the growth and reproduction complex (grc), which are linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in animals homozygous for grc (grc/grc), heterozygous for grc (grc/+), and normal (+/+). The testes of the grc homozygotes were small, and their tubular epithelium showed a loss of the normal organization. There were no sperm because the sperm...

  1. Mutations of Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in Brazilian patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.D., Ramalho; E.B., Oliveira Júnior; S.M., Tani; P., Roxo Júnior; M.M.S., Vilela.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of mature B cells in peripheral blood. We evaluated 5 male Brazilian patients, rangi [...] ng from 3 to 10 years of age, from unrelated families, whose diagnosis was based on recurrent infections, markedly reduced levels of IgM, IgG and IgA, and circulating B cell numbers

  2. Mutations of Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in Brazilian patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, V. D.; Oliveira Ju?nior, E. B.; Tani, S. M.; Roxo Ju?nior, P.; Vilela, M. M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of mature B cells in peripheral blood. We evaluated 5 male Brazilian patients, ranging from 3 to 10 years of age, from unrelated families, whose diagnosis was based on recurrent infections, markedly reduced levels of IgM, IgG and IgA, and circulating B cell numbers

  3. Polymorphisms in the human X-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, H H; Hutchison, W M

    1991-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha deficiency is an X-chromosome-linked disorder, often with fatal consequences. We have searched for genetically useful polymorphisms in or near this gene. No restriction fragment length polymorphisms were detected using a battery of 36 different restriction enzymes and probing with a full-length cDNA fragment, or two single-copy genomic fragments located within intron 8, and 15 kb 3' of the coding region, respectively. The chemical cleavage method was then applied to the detection of base changes in or near the gene. One polymorphism was found in exon 8 of the coding region. However, no base changes were detected in intron 3 or in the part of intron 8 covered by fragment gB2. Three blocks of microsatellite DNA containing variable numbers of CA-repeats were isolated from the 5' end of the gene and characterized. Length polymorphisms in these microsatellite DNAs were analysed using the polymerase chain reaction. Although the three loci are tightly linked, the polymorphisms appear not to be in disequilibrium, making them useful markers in linkage studies of the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha gene. Of 31 females analysed 12(39%) were heterozygous for at least one length polymorphism of the three (CA)n alleles.

  4. X-linked mental retardation : a comprehensive molecular screen of 47 candidate genes from a 7.4 Mb interval in Xp11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Riff; Lenzner, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    About 30% of the mutations causing nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (MRX) are thought to be located in Xp11 and in the pericentromeric region, with a particular clustering of gene defects in a 7.4 Mb interval flanked by the genes ELK1 and ALAS2. To search for these mutations, 47 brain-expressed candidate genes located in this interval have been screened for mutations in up to 22 mental retardation (MR) families linked to this region. In total, we have identified 57 sequence variants in exons and splice sites of 27 genes. Based on these data, four novel MR genes were identified, but most of the sequence variants observed during this study have not yet been described. The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive overview of this work and its outcome. It describes all sequence variants detected in 548 exons and their flanking sequences, including disease-causing mutations as well as possibly relevant polymorphic and silent sequence changes. We show that many of the studied genes are unlikelyto play a major role in MRX. This information will help to avoid duplication of efforts in the ongoing endeavor to unravel the molecular causes of MRX.

  5. Closely linked early and late histone H2B genes are differentially expressed after microinjection into sea urchin zygotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, A. M.; Catlin, T. L.; Kidson, S. H.; Maxson, R.

    1988-01-01

    An early and a late histone H2B gene from the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus were linked in a single plasmid and injected into the eggs of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. The levels of transcripts of injected early and late genes and of endogenous early genes were monitored during development by a ribonuclease protection assay. Transcripts of both the injected and endogenous early genes peaked during the blastula stage and decreased severalfold by the mesenchyme blastula stage. Tr...

  6. Global analysis of gene expression in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons identifies molecular pathways associated with cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen Mark; Menghi Francesca; Hughes Rosie; Hubank Mike; Ham Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Developing sympathetic neurons depend on nerve growth factor (NGF) for survival and die by apoptosis after NGF withdrawal. This process requires de novo gene expression but only a small number of genes induced by NGF deprivation have been identified so far, either by a candidate gene approach or in mRNA differential display experiments. This is partly because it is difficult to obtain large numbers of sympathetic neurons for in vitro studies. Here, we describe for the firs...

  7. Fox Chase researchers identify a gene that predicts recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers have identified a gene that predicts disease recurrence in individuals with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The new findings, presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Monday, April 2, show that patients with one common variant of a gene which encodes the cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) protein are likely to have a longer time-to-recurrence than those with the more typical form of the gene.

  8. Genetic association mapping identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that affect abscisic acid levels in maize floral tissues during drought

    OpenAIRE

    Setter, Tim L.; Yan, Jianbing; Warburton, Marilyn; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Xu, Yunbi; Sawkins, Mark; Buckler, Edward S; Zhang, Zhiwu; Gore, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    In maize, water stress at flowering causes loss of kernel set and productivity. While changes in the levels of sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) are thought to play a role in this stress response, the mechanistic basis and genes involved are not known. A candidate gene approach was used with association mapping to identify loci involved in accumulation of carbohydrates and ABA metabolites during stress. A panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes from these metabolic pathways and ...

  9. G-NEST: a gene neighborhood scoring tool to identify co-conserved, co-expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemay Danielle G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previous studies, gene neighborhoods—spatial clusters of co-expressed genes in the genome—have been defined using arbitrary rules such as requiring adjacency, a minimum number of genes, a fixed window size, or a minimum expression level. In the current study, we developed a Gene Neighborhood Scoring Tool (G-NEST which combines genomic location, gene expression, and evolutionary sequence conservation data to score putative gene neighborhoods across all possible window sizes simultaneously. Results Using G-NEST on atlases of mouse and human tissue expression data, we found that large neighborhoods of ten or more genes are extremely rare in mammalian genomes. When they do occur, neighborhoods are typically composed of families of related genes. Both the highest scoring and the largest neighborhoods in mammalian genomes are formed by tandem gene duplication. Mammalian gene neighborhoods contain highly and variably expressed genes. Co-localized noisy gene pairs exhibit lower evolutionary conservation of their adjacent genome locations, suggesting that their shared transcriptional background may be disadvantageous. Genes that are essential to mammalian survival and reproduction are less likely to occur in neighborhoods, although neighborhoods are enriched with genes that function in mitosis. We also found that gene orientation and protein-protein interactions are partially responsible for maintenance of gene neighborhoods. Conclusions Our experiments using G-NEST confirm that tandem gene duplication is the primary driver of non-random gene order in mammalian genomes. Non-essentiality, co-functionality, gene orientation, and protein-protein interactions are additional forces that maintain gene neighborhoods, especially those formed by tandem duplicates. We expect G-NEST to be useful for other applications such as the identification of core regulatory modules, common transcriptional backgrounds, and chromatin domains. The software is available at http://docpollard.org/software.html

  10. Molecular Cloning of a Bacteroides caccae TonB-Linked Outer Membrane Protein Identified by an Inflammatory Bowel Disease Marker Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Dalwadi, Harnisha; Gordon, Lynn K.; Landers, Carol; Bruckner, David; Targan, Stephan R.; Braun, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Commensal enteric bacteria are a required pathogenic factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the identity of the pertinent bacterial species is unresolved. Using an IBD-associated pANCA monoclonal antibody, a 100-kDa protein was recently characterized from an IBD clinical isolate of Bacteroides caccae (p2Lc3). In this study, consensus oligonucleotides were designed from 100-kDa peptides and used to identify a single-copy gene from the p2Lc3 genome. Sequence analysis of the genomic clone revealed a 2,844-bp (948 amino acid) open reading frame encoding features typical of the TonB-linked outer membrane protein family. This gene, termed ompW, was detected by Southern analysis only in B. caccae and was absent in other species of Bacteroides and gram-negative coliforms. The closest homologues of OmpW included the outer membrane proteins SusC of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and RagA of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Recombinant OmpW protein was immunoreactive with the monoclonal antibody, and serum anti-OmpW immunoglobulin A levels were elevated in a Crohn's disease patient subset. These findings suggest that OmpW may be a target of the IBD-associated immune response and reveal its structural relationship to a bacterial virulence factor of P. gingivalis and periodontal disease. PMID:11553542

  11. A framework to identify gene expression profiles in a model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide after treatment with thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Renata T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalidomide is an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic drug currently used for the treatment of several diseases, including erythema nodosum leprosum, which occurs in patients with lepromatous leprosy. In this research, we use DNA microarray analysis to identify the impact of thalidomide on gene expression responses in human cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. We employed a two-stage framework. Initially, we identified 1584 altered genes in response to LPS. Modulation of this set of genes was then analyzed in the LPS stimulated cells treated with thalidomide. Results We identified 64 genes with altered expression induced by thalidomide using the rank product method. In addition, the lists of up-regulated and down-regulated genes were investigated by means of bioinformatics functional analysis, which allowed for the identification of biological processes affected by thalidomide. Confirmatory analysis was done in five of the identified genes using real time PCR. Conclusions The results showed some genes that can further our understanding of the biological mechanisms in the action of thalidomide. Of the five genes evaluated with real time PCR, three were down regulated and two were up regulated confirming the initial results of the microarray analysis.

  12. Building a Better Mosquito: Identifying the Genes Enabling Malaria and Dengue Fever Resistance in A. gambiae and A. aegypti Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, George Dimopoulos focuses on the physiological mechanisms used by mosquitoes to combat Plasmodium falciparum and dengue virus infections. Explanation is given for how key refractory genes, those genes conferring resistance to vector pathogens, are identified in the mosquito and how this knowledge can be used to generate transgenic mosquitoes that are unable to carry the malaria parasite or dengue virus.

  13. Missing Links in Genes to Traits: Toward Teaching for an Integrated Framework of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Iglika V.; Kreher, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetics, one of the most influential fields, underlies all of biology and produces discoveries that are in the news daily. However, many students leave introductory biology and genetics courses lacking a coherent framework of knowledge to use in their daily lives. We identify substantial "missing links" in the teaching of foundational…

  14. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Vincent G M; Laurens, François N D; van de Weg, W Eric; Rusholme, Rachel L; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Gardiner, Susan E; Bassett, Heather C M; Kodde, Linda P; Plummer, Kim M

    2005-06-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in the pathogen. A novel gene-for-gene interaction between V. inaequalis and Malus was identified. The locus of the scab-resistance gene Vh8 is linked with, or possibly allelic to, that of the Vh2 gene in Malus pumila Russian apple R12740-7A, at the lower end of linkage group 2 of Malus. Race 8 isolate NZ188B.2 is compatible with Vh8, suggesting the loss or modification of the complementary AvrVh8 gene, while isolate 1639 overcomes both Vh2 and Vh8, but is incompatible with at least one other gene not detected by any of the other race isolates tested. Our research is the first to differentiate scab-resistance genes in a putative gene cluster in apple with the aid of races of V. inaequalis. PMID:15869661

  15. De Novo Regulatory Motif Discovery Identifies Significant Motifs in Promoters of Five Classes of Plant Dehydrin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarov, Yevgen; Strömvik, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Plants accumulate dehydrins in response to osmotic stresses. Dehydrins are divided into five different classes, which are thought to be regulated in different manners. To better understand differences in transcriptional regulation of the five dehydrin classes, de novo motif discovery was performed on 350 dehydrin promoter sequences from a total of 51 plant genomes. Overrepresented motifs were identified in the promoters of five dehydrin classes. The Kn dehydrin promoters contain motifs linked with meristem specific expression, as well as motifs linked with cold/dehydration and abscisic acid response. KS dehydrin promoters contain a motif with a GATA core. SKn and YnSKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match elements connected with cold/dehydration, abscisic acid and light response. YnKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match abscisic acid and light response elements, but not cold/dehydration response elements. Conserved promoter motifs are present in the dehydrin classes and across different plant lineages, indicating that dehydrin gene regulation is likely also conserved. PMID:26114291

  16. Estimating the False Discovery Rate Using Mixed Normal Distribution for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes in Microarray Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikuma Hamada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of DNA microarray technology allows us to measure simultaneously the expression levels of thousands of genes and to identify truly correlated genes with anticancer drug response (differentially expressed genes from many candidate genes. Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM is often used to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR, which is an index for optimizing the identifiability of differentially expressed genes, while the accuracy of the estimated FDR by SAM is not necessarily confirmed. We propose a new method for estimating the FDR assuming a mixed normal distribution on the test statistic and examine the performance of the proposed method and SAM using simulated data. The simulation results indicate that the accuracy of the estimated FDR by the proposed method and SAM, varied depending on the experimental conditions. We applied both methods to actual data comprised of expression levels of 12,625 genes of 10 responders and 14 non-responders to docetaxel for breast cancer. The proposed method identified 280 differentially expressed genes correlated with docetaxel response using a cut-off value for achieving FDR <0.01 to prevent false-positive genes, although 92 genes were previously thought to be correlated with docetaxel response ones.

  17. Meta gene set enrichment analyses link miR-137-regulated pathways with schizophrenia risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Carrie; Calhoun, Vince D.; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Turner, Jessica A.; Bizzozero, Nora I. Perrone-

    2015-01-01

    Background: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within MIR137, the host gene for miR-137, has been identified repeatedly as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Previous genetic pathway analyses suggest that potential targets of this microRNA (miRNA) are also highly enriched in schizophrenia-relevant biological pathways, including those involved in nervous system development and function. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the schizophrenia risk of miR-137 target genes within these pathways. Gene set enrichment analysis of pathway-specific miR-137 targets was performed using the stage 1 (21,856 subjects) schizophrenia genome wide association study data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and a small independent replication cohort (244 subjects) from the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium and Northwestern University. Results: Gene sets of potential miR-137 targets were enriched with variants associated with schizophrenia risk, including target sets involved in axonal guidance signaling, Ephrin receptor signaling, long-term potentiation, PKA signaling, and Sertoli cell junction signaling. The schizophrenia-risk association of SNPs in PKA signaling targets was replicated in the second independent cohort. Conclusions: These results suggest that these biological pathways may be involved in the mechanisms by which this MIR137 variant enhances schizophrenia risk. SNPs in targets and the miRNA host gene may collectively lead to dysregulation of target expression and aberrant functioning of such implicated pathways. Pathway-guided gene set enrichment analyses should be useful in evaluating the impact of other miRNAs and target genes in different diseases. PMID:25941532

  18. Use of Persistent Identifiers to link Heterogeneous Data Systems in the Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L.; Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V.; O'hara, S. H.; Walker, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) facility maintains multiple data systems with a wide range of solid earth data types from the marine, terrestrial, and polar environments. Examples of the different data types include syntheses of ultra-high resolution seafloor bathymetry collected on large collaborative cruises and analytical geochemistry measurements collected by single investigators in small, unique projects. These different data types have historically been channeled into separate, discipline-specific databases with search and retrieval tailored for the specific data type. However, a current major goal is to integrate data from different systems to allow interdisciplinary data discovery and scientific analysis. To increase discovery and access across these heterogeneous systems, IEDA employs several unique IDs, including sample IDs (International Geo Sample Number, IGSN), person IDs (GeoPass ID), funding award IDs (NSF Award Number), cruise IDs (from the Marine Geoscience Data System Expedition Metadata Catalog), dataset IDs (DOIs), and publication IDs (DOIs). These IDs allow linking of a sample registry (System for Earth SAmple Registration), data libraries and repositories (e.g. Geochemical Research Library, Marine Geoscience Data System), integrated synthesis databases (e.g. EarthChem Portal, PetDB), and investigator services (IEDA Data Compliance Tool). The linked systems allow efficient discovery of related data across different levels of granularity. In addition, IEDA data systems maintain links with several external data systems, including digital journal publishers. Links have been established between the EarthChem Portal and ScienceDirect through publication DOIs, returning sample-level objects and geochemical analyses for a particular publication. Linking IEDA-hosted data to digital publications with IGSNs at the sample level and with IEDA-allocated dataset DOIs are under development. As an example, an individual investigator could sign up for a GeoPass account ID, write a proposal to NSF and create a data plan using the IEDA Data Management Plan Tool. Having received the grant, the investigator then collects rock samples on a scientific cruise from dredges and registers the samples with IGSNs. The investigator then performs analytical geochemistry on the samples, and submits the full dataset to the Geochemical Resource Library for a dataset DOI. Finally, the investigator writes an article that is published in Science Direct. Knowing any of the following IDs: Investigator GeoPass ID, NSF Award Number, Cruise ID, Sample IGSNs, dataset DOI, or publication DOI, a user would be able to navigate to all samples, datasets, and publications in IEDA and external systems. Use of persistent identifiers to link heterogeneous data systems in IEDA thus increases access, discovery, and proper citation of hard-earned investigator datasets.

  19. New yeast genes important for chromosome integrity and segregation identified by dosage effects on genome stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Ouspenski, I I; Elledge, S.J.; Brinkley, B R

    1999-01-01

    Phenotypes produced by gene overexpression may provide important clues to gene function. Here, we have performed a search for genes that affect chromo-some stability when overexpressed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have obtained clones encompassing 30 different genes. Twenty-four of these genes have been previously characterized. Most of them are involved in chromatin dynamics, cell cycle control, DNA replication or mitotic chromosome segregation. Six novel genes obtained ...

  20. Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome: A novel homozygous SLC19A2 gene mutation identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikstiene, Violeta; Songailiene, Jurgita; Byckova, Jekaterina; Rutkauskiene, Giedre; Jasinskiene, Edita; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Utkus, Algirdas

    2015-07-01

    Thiamine responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMAS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder especially in countries where consanguinity is uncommon. Three main features are characteristic of the disease - megaloblastic anemia, early onset deafness, and non-type I diabetes. TRMAS is a Mendelian disorder; a gene SLC19A2 coding high affinity thiamine transporter mediating vitamin B1 uptake through cell membrane has been identified. We present the first patient with TRMAS in Lithuania - a 3-year-old boy born to a non-consanguineous family with a novel homozygous SLC19A2 gene mutation. The patient had insulin dependent diabetes (onset 11 months), respiratory illness (onset 11 months), bilateral profound hearing loss (onset at 7 months, verified at 20 months), refractory anemia (onset 2 years), and decreased vision acuity and photophobia (onset 2.5 years). The psychomotor abilities developed according to age. Phenotypic evaluation did not reveal any dysmorphic features. The clinical diagnosis of TRMAS was suspected and daily supplementation with thiamine 100?mg was started. The condition of the patient markedly improved several days after the initiation of treatment. The results of SLC19A2 gene molecular testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis - novel homozygous c.[205G>T], p.[(Val69Phe)] mutation changing conserved amino acid residue or even interfering the mRNA splicing. Clinical heterogeneity, diverse dynamics, and wide spectrum of symptoms are aggravating factors in the diagnosis. The possibility of treatment demands early recognition of disorder to facilitate the improvement of the patient's condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25707023

  1. Resequencing 302 wild and cultivated accessions identifies genes related to domestication and improvement in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengkui; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Gou, Zhiheng; Lyu, Jun; Li, Weiyu; Yu, Yanjun; Shu, Liping; Zhao, Yingjun; Ma, Yanming; Fang, Chao; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Tengfei; Li, Congcong; Li, Qing; Wu, Mian; Wang, Min; Wu, Yunshuai; Dong, Yang; Wan, Wenting; Wang, Xiao; Ding, Zhaoli; Gao, Yuedong; Xiang, Hui; Zhu, Baoge; Lee, Suk-Ha; Wang, Wen; Tian, Zhixi

    2015-04-01

    Understanding soybean (Glycine max) domestication and improvement at a genetic level is important to inform future efforts to further improve a crop that provides the world's main source of oilseed. We detect 230 selective sweeps and 162 selected copy number variants by analysis of 302 resequenced wild, landrace and improved soybean accessions at >11× depth. A genome-wide association study using these new sequences reveals associations between 10 selected regions and 9 domestication or improvement traits, and identifies 13 previously uncharacterized loci for agronomic traits including oil content, plant height and pubescence form. Combined with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) information, we find that, of the 230 selected regions, 96 correlate with reported oil QTLs and 21 contain fatty acid biosynthesis genes. Moreover, we observe that some traits and loci are associated with geographical regions, which shows that soybean populations are structured geographically. This study provides resources for genomics-enabled improvements in soybean breeding. PMID:25643055

  2. Genome-wide association analyses identify variants in developmental genes associated with hypospadias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geller, Frank; Feenstra, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital condition in boys in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,006 surgery-confirmed hypospadias cases and 5,486 controls from Denmark. After replication genotyping of an additional 1,972 cases and 1,812 controls from Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden, 18 genomic regions showed independent association with P <5 x 10(-8). Together, these loci explain 9% of the liability to developing this condition. Several of the identified regions harbor genes with key roles in embryonic development (including HOXA4, IRX5, IRX6 and EYA1). Subsequent pathway analysis with GRAIL and DEPICT provided additional insight into possible genetic mechanisms causing hypospadias.

  3. Epigenetic landscapes explain partially reprogrammed cells and identify key reprogramming gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Alex; Li, Hu; Collins, James; Mehta, Pankaj

    2013-03-01

    A common metaphor for describing development is a rugged epigenetic landscape where cell fates are represented as attracting valleys resulting from a complex regulatory network. Here, we introduce a framework for explicitly constructing epigenetic landscapes that combines genomic data with techniques from physics, specifically Hopfield neural networks. Each cell fate is a dynamic attractor, yet cells can change fate in response to external signals. Our model suggests that partially reprogrammed cells (cells found in reprogramming experiments but not in vivo) are a natural consequence of high-dimensional landscapes and predicts that partially reprogrammed cells should be hybrids that coexpress genes from multiple cell fates. We verify this prediction by reanalyzing existing data sets. Our model reproduces known reprogramming protocols and identifies candidate transcription factors for reprogramming to novel cell fates, suggesting epigenetic landscapes are a powerful paradigm for understanding cellular identity.

  4. Allelic polymorphism of the caprine calpastatin (CAST) gene identified by PCR-SSCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Hickford, J G H

    2008-06-01

    Calpastatin (CAST) specifically inhibits calpains and there is evidence that it plays a role in meat tenderization and myogenesis. Although the CAST gene has been extensively investigated in sheep and cattle, no studies have been reported in goats. In this study, a fragment of caprine CAST was analyzed using PCR-SSCP analysis. Seven novel SSCP patterns, representing seven different nucleotide sequences, were identified. All the sequences shared high homology with the published ovine and bovine CAST sequences. Sequence analysis revealed non-synonymous amino acid variation in exon 6, which would result in a Ser/Arg substitution in domain L of the protein. Considerable variation was detected in an intron region close to the acceptor splice site, with both sequence variation and length variation being observed in this region. Variation detected here might have an impact on both the function and expression of caprine CAST. PMID:22062769

  5. Two Mx genes identified in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) respond differently to VNNV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel, P; Fernández-Trujillo, M A; Gallardo-Gálvez, J B; Cano, I; Manchado, M; Buonocore, F; Randelli, E; Scapigliati, G; Alvarez, M C; Béjar, J

    2013-06-15

    Mx proteins are key components of the antiviral state triggered by interferon type I in response to viral infections. In this study, two different Mx genes have been identified in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and their sequences were cloned and characterized. MxA cDNA consists of 1881 bp coding for a putative 626 aminoacids protein, while MxB cDNA has 1920 bp and results in a protein with 639 residues. Their corresponding genomic sequences contain 3538 bp and 5326 bp, respectively, and both present 12 exons and 11 introns. The expression patterns of the two Mx genes after an in vivo challenge with the viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV), a serious pathogen in farmed European sea bass, have been characterized by real-time PCR. The results showed interesting differences in the transcription profile of both Mx, thus suggesting a differential role for each Mx isoform in the immune response of European sea bass to VNNV, and most likely in the general viral response of this species. PMID:23548865

  6. Novel genes identified by manual annotation and microarray expression analysis in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarelli, Joan M; White, Peter; Gorski, Regina; Brestelli, John; Pinney, Deborah F; Arsenlis, Athanasios; Katokhin, Alexey; Belova, Olga; Bogdanova, Vera; Elisafenko, Eugenij; Gubina, Marina; Nizolenko, Lilia; Perelman, Polina; Puzakov, Mikhail; Shilov, Alexandre; Trifonoff, Vladimir; Vorobjeva, Nadezhda; Kolchanov, Nikolay; Kaestner, Klaus H; Stoeckert, Christian J

    2006-12-01

    The mouse PancChip, a microarray developed for studying endocrine pancreatic development and diabetes, represents over 13,000 cDNAs. After computationally assigning the cDNAs on the array to known genes, manual curation of the remaining sequences identified 211 novel transcripts. In microarray experiments, we found that 196 of these transcripts were expressed in total pancreas and/or pancreatic islets. Of 50 randomly selected clones from these 196 transcripts, 92% were confirmed as expressed by qRT-PCR. We evaluated the coding potential of the novel transcripts and found that 74% of the clones had low coding potential. Since the transcripts may be partial mRNAs, we examined their translated proteins for transmembrane or signal peptide domains and found that about 40 proteins had one of these predicted domains. Interestingly, when we investigated the novel transcripts for their overlap with noncoding microRNAs, we found that 1 of the novel transcripts overlapped a known microRNA gene. PMID:16725306

  7. Abundant transcripts of malting barley identified by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jessica; Pacey-Miller, Toni; Crawford, Allison; Cordeiro, Giovanni; Barbary, Daniel; Bundock, Peter; Henry, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was applied to the major cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) to characterize the transcriptional profile of grain during the malting process. Seven SAGE libraries were generated from seed at different time points during malting, in addition to one library from dry mature seed. A total of 155,206 LongSAGE tags, representing 41,909 unique sequences, was generated. This study reports an in-depth analysis of the most abundant transcripts from each of eight specific time points in a malting barley time course. The 100 most abundant tags from each library were analysed to identify the putative functional role of highly abundant transcripts. The largest functional groups included transcripts coding for stress response and cell defence, ribosomal proteins and storage proteins. The most abundant tag represented B22EL8, a barley metallothionein, which showed significant up-regulation across the malting time course. Considerable changes in the abundance profiles of some of the highly abundant tags occurred at 24 h post-steeping, indicating that it may be an important time point for gene expression changes associated with barley seed germination. PMID:17147635

  8. A dehydration-inducible gene in the truffle Tuber borchii identifies a novel group of dehydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfante Paola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expressed sequence tag M6G10 was originally isolated from a screening for differentially expressed transcripts during the reproductive stage of the white truffle Tuber borchii. mRNA levels for M6G10 increased dramatically during fruiting body maturation compared to the vegetative mycelial stage. Results Bioinformatics tools, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies were used to support the hypothesis that this sequence, named TbDHN1, is the first dehydrin (DHN-like coding gene isolated in fungi. Homologs of this gene, all defined as "coding for hypothetical proteins" in public databases, were exclusively found in ascomycetous fungi and in plants. Although complete (or almost complete fungal genomes and EST collections of some Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota are already available, DHN-like proteins appear to be represented only in Ascomycota. A new and previously uncharacterized conserved signature pattern was identified and proposed to Uniprot database as the main distinguishing feature of this new group of DHNs. Expression studies provide experimental evidence of a transcript induction of TbDHN1 during cellular dehydration. Conclusion Expression pattern and sequence similarities to known plant DHNs indicate that TbDHN1 is the first characterized DHN-like protein in fungi. The high similarity of TbDHN1 with homolog coding sequences implies the existence of a novel fungal/plant group of LEA Class II proteins characterized by a previously undescribed signature pattern.

  9. Specific PCR primers directed to identify cryI and cryIII genes within a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection.

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón, J; Ortíz, A.; Quintero, R; Güereca, L; Bravo, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe a PCR strategy that can be used to rapidly identify Bacillus thuringiensis strains that harbor any of the known cryI or cryIII genes. Four general PCR primers which amplify DNA fragments from the known cryI or cryIII genes were selected from conserved regions. Once a strain was identified as an organism that contains a particular type of cry gene, it could be easily characterized by performing additional PCR with specific cryI and cryIII primers selected from variabl...

  10. Genome-wide association identifies ATOH7 as a major gene determining human optic disc size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Ruddle, Jonathan B.; Medland, Sarah E.; Henders, Anjali K.; Gordon, Scott D.; Andrew, Toby; McEvoy, Brian; Sanfilippo, Paul G.; Carbonaro, Francis; Tah, Vikas; Li, Yi Ju; Bennett, Sonya L.; Craig, Jamie E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Brown, Nadean L.; Spector, Timothy D.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Young, Terri L.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Mackey, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Optic nerve assessment is important for many blinding diseases, with cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) assessments commonly used in both diagnosis and progression monitoring of glaucoma patients. Optic disc, cup, rim area and CDR measurements all show substantial variation between human populations and high heritability estimates within populations. To identify loci underlying these quantitative traits, we performed a genome-wide association study in two Australian twin cohorts and identified rs3858145, P = 6.2 × 10?10, near the ATOH7 gene as associated with the mean disc area. ATOH7 is known from studies in model organisms to play a key role in retinal ganglion cell formation. The association with rs3858145 was replicated in a cohort of UK twins, with a meta-analysis of the combined data yielding P = 3.4 × 10?10. Imputation further increased the evidence for association for several SNPs in and around ATOH7 (P = 1.3 × 10?10 to 4.3 × 10?11, top SNP rs1900004). The meta-analysis also provided suggestive evidence for association for the cup area at rs690037, P = 1.5 × 10?7, in the gene RFTN1. Direct sequencing of ATOH7 in 12 patients with optic nerve hypoplasia, one of the leading causes of blindness in children, revealed two novel non-synonymous mutations (Arg65Gly, Ala47Thr) which were not found in 90 unrelated controls (combined Fisher's exact P = 0.0136). Furthermore, the Arg65Gly variant was found to have very low frequency (0.00066) in an additional set of 672 controls. PMID:20395239

  11. Ethnic disparity in 21-hydroxylase gene mutations identified in Pakistani congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Abdul

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2. We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of mutations CYP21A2 and their phenotypic associations in CAH using ARMS-PCR assay. Results Overall, 29 patients were analyzed for nine different mutations. The group consisted of two major forms of CAH including 17 salt wasters and 12 simple virilizers. There were 14 phenotypic males and 15 females representing all the major ethnic groups of Pakistan. Parental consanguinity was reported in 65% cases and was equally distributed in the major ethnic groups. Among 58 chromosomes analyzed, mutations were identified in 45 (78.6% chromosomes. The most frequent mutation was I2 splice (27% followed by Ile173Asn (26%, Arg 357 Trp (19%, Gln319stop, 16% and Leu308InsT (12%, whereas Val282Leu was not observed in this study. Homozygosity was seen in 44% and heterozygosity in 34% cases. I2 splice mutation was found to be associated with SW in the homozygous. The Ile173Asn mutation was identified in both SW and SV forms. Moreover, Arg357Trp manifested SW in compound heterozygous state. Conclusion Our study showed that CAH exists in our population with ethnic difference in the prevalence of mutations examined.

  12. A novel missense mutation in the CLCN7 gene linked to benign autosomal dominant osteopetrosis: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ban Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton. The absence or malfunction of osteoclasts is found to be strongly associated with the disease evolution. Currently, four clinically distinct forms of the disease have been recognized: the infantile autosomal recessive osteopetrosis, the malignant and the intermediate forms, and autosomal dominant osteopetrosis, type I and type II forms. The autosomal recessive types are the most severe forms with symptoms in very early childhood, whereas the autosomal dominant classes exhibit a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood. Case presentation Case 1 is the 12-year-old daughter (index patient of an Iraqi-Kurdish family who, at the age of eight years, was diagnosed clinically to have mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. Presently, at 12-years old, she has severe complications due to the disease progression. In addition, the same family previously experienced the death of a female child in her late childhood. The deceased child had been misdiagnosed, at that time, with thalassemia major. In this report, we extended our investigation to identify the type of the inheritance patterns of osteopetrosis using molecular techniques, because consanguineous marriages exist within the family history. We have detected one heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride Channel 7 gene in the index patient (Case 1, whereas other mutations were not detected in the associated genes TCIRG1, OSTM1, RANK, and RANKL. The missense mutation (CGG>TGG located in exon 15 (c.1225C>T of the Chloride Channel 7 gene changed the amino acid position 409 from arginine to tryptophan (p.R409W, c.1225C>T. Case 2 is the 16-year-old son (brother of the index patient of the same family who was diagnosed clinically with mild autosomal dominant osteopetrosis. We have identified the same heterozygous mutation in exon 15 of the Chloride channel 7 gene in this patient (Case 2. The missense mutation (CGG>TGG located in exon 15 (c.1225C>T of the Chloride channel 7 gene changed the amino acid position 409 from arginine to tryptophan (p.R409W, c.1225C>T. In addition to the clinical diagnosis of both cases, the missense mutation we identified in one allele of the Chloride channel 7 gene could be linked to autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-II because the symptoms appear in late childhood or adolescence. Conclusion In this family, the molecular diagnosis was confirmed after identification of the same mutation in the older son (sibling. Furthermore, we detected that the father and his brother (the uncle are carriers of the same mutation, whereas the mother and her sister (the aunt do not carry any mutation of the Chloride channel 7 gene. Thus, the disease penetrance is at least 60% in the family. The mother and father are cousins and a further consanguineous marriage between the aunt and the uncle is not recommended because the dominant allele of the Chloride channel 7 gene will be transferred to the progeny. However, a similar risk is also expected following a marriage between the uncle and an unrelated woman. The p.R409W mutation in the Chloride channel 7 gene has not yet been described in the literature and it possibly has a dominant-negative impact on the protein.

  13. Identification of novel SNPs of ABCD1, ABCD2, ABCD3, and ABCD4 genes in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) based on comprehensive resequencing and association studies with ALD phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Asheuer, Muriel; Takahashi, Yuji; Goto, Jun; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Takano, Hiroki; Onodera, Osamu; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Aubourg, Patrick; Tsuji, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder affecting primarily the white matter of the central nervous system occasionally accompanied by adrenal insufficiency. Despite the discovery of the causative gene, ABCD1, no clear genotype–phenotype correlations have been established. Association studies based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by comprehensive resequencing of genes related to ABCD1 may reveal genes modifying ALD phenotypes. We analyzed 40 Japanese patients w...

  14. GATA transcription factors directly regulate the Parkinson's disease-linked gene ?-synuclein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Clemens R.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Zhixiang; Pepivani, Imelda; Zheng, Bin; Eklund, Aron C.; Ney, Paul A.; Ng, Juliana; McGoldrick, Meghan; Mollenhauer, Brit; Bresnick, Emery H.; Schlossmacher, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Increased ?-synuclein gene (SNCA) dosage due to locus multiplication causes autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Variation in SNCA expression may be critical in common, genetically complex PD but the underlying regulatory mechanism is unknown. We show that SNCA and the heme metabolism genes ALAS2, FECH, and BLVRB form a block of tightly correlated gene expression in 113 samples of human blood, where SNCA naturally abounds (validated P = 1.6 × 10?11, 1.8 × 10?10, and 6.6 × 10?5). Genetic complementation analysis revealed that these four genes are co-induced by the transcription factor GATA-1. GATA-1 specifically occupies a conserved region within SNCA intron-1 and directly induces a 6.9-fold increase in ?-synuclein. Endogenous GATA-2 is highly expressed in substantia nigra vulnerable to PD, occupies intron-1, and modulates SNCA expression in dopaminergic cells. This critical link between GATA factors and SNCA may enable therapies designed to lower ?-synuclein production. PMID:18669654

  15. Adenoassociated virus serotype 9-mediated gene therapy for x-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Mu, Dakai; Prabhakar, Shilpa; Moser, Ann; Musolino, Patricia; Ren, JiaQian; Breakefield, Xandra O; Maguire, Casey A; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCD1) responsible for transport of CoA-activated very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome for degradation. We used recombinant adenoassociated virus serotype 9 (rAAV9) vector for delivery of the human ABCD1 gene (ABCD1) to mouse central nervous system (CNS). In vitro, efficient delivery of ABCD1 gene was achieved in primary mixed brain glial cells from Abcd1-/- mice as well as X-ALD patient fibroblasts. Importantly, human ABCD1 localized to the peroxisome, and AAV-ABCD1 transduction showed a dose-dependent effect in reducing VLCFA. In vivo, AAV9-ABCD1 was delivered to Abcd1-/- mouse CNS by either stereotactic intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections. Astrocytes, microglia and neurons were the major target cell types following ICV injection, while IV injection also delivered to microvascular endothelial cells and oligodendrocytes. IV injection also yielded high transduction of the adrenal gland. Importantly, IV injection of AAV9-ABCD1 reduced VLCFA in mouse brain and spinal cord. We conclude that AAV9-mediated ABCD1 gene transfer is able to reach target cells in the nervous system and adrenal gland as well as reduce VLCFA in culture and a mouse model of X-ALD. PMID:25592337

  16. Integrating genome annotation and QTL position to identify candidate genes for productivity, architecture and water-use efficiency in Populus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monclus Romain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid poplars species are candidates for biomass production but breeding efforts are needed to combine productivity and water use efficiency in improved cultivars. The understanding of the genetic architecture of growth in poplar by a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL approach can help us to elucidate the molecular basis of such integrative traits but identifying candidate genes underlying these QTLs remains difficult. Nevertheless, the increase of genomic information together with the accessibility to a reference genome sequence (Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1 allow to bridge QTL information on genetic maps and physical location of candidate genes on the genome. The objective of the study is to identify QTLs controlling productivity, architecture and leaf traits in a P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 progeny and to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs based on the anchoring of genetic maps on the genome and the gene ontology information linked to genome annotation. The strategy to explore genome annotation was to use Gene Ontology enrichment tools to test if some functional categories are statistically over-represented in QTL regions. Results Four leaf traits and 7 growth traits were measured on 330 F1 P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa progeny. A total of 77 QTLs controlling 11 traits were identified explaining from 1.8 to 17.2% of the variation of traits. For 58 QTLs, confidence intervals could be projected on the genome. An extended functional annotation was built based on data retrieved from the plant genome database Phytozome and from an inference of function using homology between Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. Genes located within QTL confidence intervals were retrieved and enrichments in gene ontology (GO terms were determined using different methods. Significant enrichments were found for all traits. Particularly relevant biological processes GO terms were identified for QTLs controlling number of sylleptic branches: intervals were enriched in GO terms of biological process like ‘ripening’ and ‘adventitious roots development’. Conclusion Beyond the simple identification of QTLs, this study is the first to use a global approach of GO terms enrichment analysis to fully explore gene function under QTLs confidence intervals in plants. This global approach may lead to identification of new candidate genes for traits of interest.

  17. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Astrid L; Dixen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). RESULTS: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep with a time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial abundance and down-regulation of gene expression related to mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation. Global gene expression profiling demonstrated that the time points grouped into three phases: a brown adipose phase, a transition phase and a white adipose phase. Between the brown adipose and the transition phase 170 genes were differentially expressed, and 717 genes were differentially expressed between the transition and the white adipose phase. Thirty-eight genes were shared among the two sets of differentially expressed genes. We identified a number of regulated transcription factors, including NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over time. CONCLUSIONS: Using global gene expression profiling of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation in sheep, we provide novel insight into adipose tissue plasticity in a large mammal, including identification of novel transcriptional components linked to adipose tissue remodeling. Moreover, our data set provides a useful resource for further studies in adipose tissue plasticity.

  18. Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study Identifies Glutamate Receptor Gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's Disease Modifier Gene via Interaction with Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Taye H.; Chen, Honglei; Hill-burns, Erin M.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M.; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I.; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W.; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal compo...

  19. Gene expression profiling of tumours derived from rasV12/E1A-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts to identify genes required for tumour development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagorn Jean

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cancer, cellular transformation is followed by tumour development. Knowledge on the mechanisms of transformation, involving activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumour-suppressor genes has considerably improved whereas tumour development remains poorly understood. An interesting way of gaining information on tumour progression mechanisms would be to identify genes whose expression is altered during tumour formation. We used the Affymetrix-based DNA microarray technology to analyze gene expression profiles of tumours derived from rasV12/E1A-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts in order to identify the genes that could be involved in tumour development. Results Among the 12,000 genes analyzed in this study, only 489 showed altered expression during tumour development, 213 being up-regulated and 276 down-regulated. The genes differentially expressed are involved in a variety of cellular functions, including control of transcription, regulation of mRNA maturation and processing, regulation of protein translation, activation of interferon-induced genes, intracellular signalling, apoptosis, cell growth, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton, cell-to-cell interaction, extracellular matrix formation, metabolism and production of secretory factors. Conclusions Some of the genes identified in this work, whose expression is altered upon rasV12/E1A transformation of MEFs, could be new cancer therapeutic targets.

  20. Real-Time qPCR Identifies Suitable Reference Genes for Borna Disease Virus-Infected Rat Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the most commonly-used technique to identify gene expression profiles. The selection of stably expressed reference genes is a prerequisite to properly evaluating gene expression. Here, the suitability of commonly-used reference genes in normalizing RT-qPCR assays of mRNA expression in cultured rat cortical neurons infected with Borna disease virus (BDV was assessed. The expressions of eight commonly-used reference genes were comparatively analyzed in BDV-infected rat cortical neurons and non-infected control neurons mainly across 9 and 12 days post-infection. These reference genes were validated by RT-qPCR and separately ranked by four statistical algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. Then, the RankAggreg package was used to construct consensus rankings. ARBP was found to be the most stable internal control gene at Day 9, and ACTB at Day 12. As the assessment of the validity of the selected reference genes confirms the suitability of applying a combination of the two most stable references genes, combining the two most stable genes for normalization of RT-qPCR studies in BDV-infected rat cortical neurons is recommended at each time point. This study can contribute to improving BDV research by providing the means by which to obtain more reliable and accurate gene expression measurements.

  1. Mutations of Bruton's tyrosine kinase gene in Brazilian patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Ramalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK gene are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, profound hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of mature B cells in peripheral blood. We evaluated 5 male Brazilian patients, ranging from 3 to 10 years of age, from unrelated families, whose diagnosis was based on recurrent infections, markedly reduced levels of IgM, IgG and IgA, and circulating B cell numbers <2%. BTK gene analysis was carried out using PCR-SSCP followed by sequencing. We detected three novel (Ala347fsX55, I355T, and Thr324fsX24 and two previously reported mutations (Q196X and E441X. Flow cytometry revealed a reduced expression of BTK protein in patients and a mosaic pattern of BTK expression was obtained from mothers, indicating that they were XLA carriers.

  2. Identification of a RAPD marker linked to the Co-6 anthracnose resistant gene in common bean cultivar AB 136

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Lilia, Alzate-Marin; Henrique, Menarim; José Mauro, Chagas; Everaldo Gonçalves de, Barros; Maurilio Alves, Moreira.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose do feijoeiro, causada por Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, é uma doença que ocasiona severas perdas, estando amplamente distribuída no Brasil. Trabalhos anteriores têm demonstrado que o cultivar AB 136, possuidor do gene Co-6, é uma importante fonte de resistência à antracnose no Brasil, [...] uma vez que todos os patótipos identificados no país até o momento são incompatíveis com esse cultivar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar um marcador RAPD ligado ao gene de resistência Co-6 presente no cultivar AB 136. Para este fim, foi utilizada uma população do cruzamento entre o progenitor Rudá, suscetível à raça 89 de C. lindemuthianum, e o cultivar AB 136. Nas populações F2 e F3 deste cruzamento observou-se uma segregação de 3 plantas resistentes para 1 suscetível, e 1 planta homozigota para 2 heterozigotas, respectivamente, sugerindo que a resistência é determinada pela ação de um único gene. Na população F2, foi identificado um marcador, de aproximadamente 940 pb (OPAZ20), ligado em fase de acoplamento a 7,1 cM do gene Co-6. Este marcador está sendo utilizado em nosso programa de melhoramento para desenvolver cultivares de feijoeiro derivados de Rudá resistentes à antracnose e adaptados ao Brasil Central. Abstract in english The pathogenic variability of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum represents an obstacle for the creation of resistant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Gene pyramiding is an alternative strategy for the development of varieties with durable resistance. RAPD markers have been propo [...] sed as a means to facilitate pyramiding of resistance genes without the need for multiple inoculations of the pathogens. The main aims of this work were to define the inheritance pattern of resistance present in common bean cultivar AB 136 in segregating populations derived from crosses with cultivar Rudá (susceptible to most C. lindemuthianum races) and to identify RAPD markers linked to anthracnose resistance. The two progenitors, populations F1 and F2, F2:3 families and backcross-derived plants were inoculated with race 89 of C. lindemuthianum under environmentally controlled greenhouse conditions. The results indicate that a single dominant gene, Co-6, controls common bean resistance to this race, giving a segregation ratio between resistant and susceptible plants of 3:1 in the F2, 1:0 in the backcrosses to AB 136 and 1:1 in the backcross to Rudá. The segregation ratio of F2:3 families derived from F2 resistant plants was 1:2 (homozygous to heterozygous resistant). Molecular marker analyses in the F2 population identified a DNA band of approximately 940 base pairs (OPAZ20(940)), linked in coupling phase at 7.1 cM of the Co-6 gene. This marker is being used in our backcross breeding program to develop Rudá-derived common bean cultivars resistant to anthracnose and adapted to central Brazil.

  3. An unbiased approach to identify genes involved in development in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnowski Jena L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD. The initial cue in TSD is incubation temperature, unlike genotypic sex determination (GSD where it is determined by the presence of specific alleles (or genetic loci. We used patterns of gene expression to identify candidates for genes with a role in TSD and other developmental processes without making a priori assumptions about the identity of these genes (ortholog-based approach. We identified genes with sexually dimorphic mRNA accumulation during the temperature sensitive period of development in the Red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta, a turtle with TSD. Genes with differential mRNA accumulation in response to estrogen (estradiol-17?; E2 exposure and developmental stages were also identified. Results Sequencing 767 clones from three suppression-subtractive hybridization libraries yielded a total of 581 unique sequences. Screening a macroarray with a subset of those sequences revealed a total of 26 genes that exhibited differential mRNA accumulation: 16 female biased and 10 male biased. Additional analyses revealed that C16ORF62 (an unknown gene and MALAT1 (a long noncoding RNA exhibited increased mRNA accumulation at the male producing temperature relative to the female producing temperature during embryonic sexual development. Finally, we identified four genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, and NFIB that exhibited a stage effect and five genes (C16ORF62, CCT3, MMP2, NFIB and NOTCH2 showed a response to E2 exposure. Conclusions Here we report a survey of genes identified using patterns of mRNA accumulation during embryonic development in a turtle with TSD. Many previous studies have focused on examining the turtle orthologs of genes involved in mammalian development. Although valuable, the limitations of this approach are exemplified by our identification of two genes (MALAT1 and C16ORF62 that are sexually dimorphic during embryonic development. MALAT1 is a noncoding RNA that has not been implicated in sexual differentiation in other vertebrates and C16ORF62 has an unknown function. Our results revealed genes that are candidates for having roles in turtle embryonic development, including TSD, and highlight the need to expand our search parameters beyond protein-coding genes.

  4. Mutation frequencies of X-linked mental retardation genes in families from the EuroMRX consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Yntema, Helger G; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Oudakker, Astrid R; de Vries, Bert B A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Van Esch, Hilde; Frints, Suzanne G M; Froyen, Guy; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Raynaud, Martine; Moizard, Marie-Pierre; Ronce, Nathalie; Bensalem, Anissa; Moraine, Claude; Poirier, Karine; Castelnau, Laetitia; Saillour, Yoann; Bienvenu, Thierry; Beldjord, Chérif; des Portes, Vincent; Chelly, Jamel; Turner, Gillian; Fullston, Tod; Gecz, Jozef; Kuss, Andreas W; Tzschach, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Riff; Lenzner, Steffen; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Hamel, Ben C J

    2007-02-01

    The EuroMRX family cohort consists of about 400 families with non-syndromic and 200 families with syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). After exclusion of Fragile X (Fra X) syndrome, probands from these families were tested for mutations in the coding sequence of 90 known and candidate XLMR genes. In total, 73 causative mutations were identified in 21 genes. For 42% of the families with obligate female carriers, the mental retardation phenotype could be explained by a mutation. There was no difference between families with (lod score >2) or without (lod score <2) significant linkage to the X chromosome. For families with two to five affected brothers (brother pair=BP families) only 17% of the MR could be explained. This is significantly lower (P=0.0067) than in families with obligate carrier females and indicates that the MR in about 40% (17/42) of the BP families is due to a single genetic defect on the X chromosome. The mutation frequency of XLMR genes in BP families is lower than can be expected on basis of the male to female ratio of patients with MR or observed recurrence risks. This might be explained by genetic risk factors on the X chromosome, resulting in a more complex etiology in a substantial portion of XLMR patients. The EuroMRX effort is the first attempt to unravel the molecular basis of cognitive dysfunction by large-scale approaches in a large patient cohort. Our results show that it is now possible to identify 42% of the genetic defects in non-syndromic and syndromic XLMR families with obligate female carriers. PMID:17221867

  5. Computational modeling with forward and reverse engineering links signaling network and genomic regulatory responses: NF-?B signaling-induced gene expression responses in inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction is the major mechanism through which cells transmit external stimuli to evoke intracellular biochemical responses. Diverse cellular stimuli create a wide variety of transcription factor activities through signal transduction pathways, resulting in different gene expression patterns. Understanding the relationship between external stimuli and the corresponding cellular responses, as well as the subsequent effects on downstream genes, is a major challenge in systems biology. Thus, a systematic approach is needed to integrate experimental data and theoretical hypotheses to identify the physiological consequences of environmental stimuli. Results We proposed a systematic approach that combines forward and reverse engineering to link the signal transduction cascade with the gene responses. To demonstrate the feasibility of our strategy, we focused on linking the NF-?B signaling pathway with the inflammatory gene regulatory responses because NF-?B has long been recognized to play a crucial role in inflammation. We first utilized forward engineering (Hybrid Functional Petri Nets to construct the NF-?B signaling pathway and reverse engineering (Network Components Analysis to build a gene regulatory network (GRN. Then, we demonstrated that the corresponding IKK profiles can be identified in the GRN and are consistent with the experimental validation of the IKK kinase assay. We found that the time-lapse gene expression of several cytokines and chemokines (TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL3 is concordant with the NF-?B activity profile, and these genes have stronger influence strength within the GRN. Such regulatory effects have highlighted the crucial roles of NF-?B signaling in the acute inflammatory response and enhance our understanding of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Conclusion We successfully identified and distinguished the corresponding signaling profiles among three microarray datasets with different stimuli strengths. In our model, the crucial genes of the NF-?B regulatory network were also identified to reflect the biological consequences of inflammation. With the experimental validation, our strategy is thus an effective solution to decipher cross-talk effects when attempting to integrate new kinetic parameters from other signal transduction pathways. The strategy also provides new insight for systems biology modeling to link any signal transduction pathways with the responses of downstream genes of interest.

  6. De novo copy number variants identify new genes and loci in isolated sporadic tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Steven C; Pereira, Alexandre C; Lin, Jennifer C; DePalma, Steven R; Israel, Samuel J; Mesquita, Sonia M; Ergul, Emel; Conta, Jessie H; Korn, Joshua M; McCarroll, Steven A; Gorham, Joshua M; Gabriel, Stacey; Altshuler, David M; Quintanilla-Dieck, Maria de Lourdes; Artunduaga, Maria Alexandra; Eavey, Roland D; Plenge, Robert M; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E; De Jager, Philip L; Hafler, David A; Breitbart, Roger E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E

    2009-08-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the most common severe congenital heart malformation, occurs sporadically, without other anomaly, and from unknown cause in 70% of cases. Through a genome-wide survey of 114 subjects with TOF and their unaffected parents, we identified 11 de novo copy number variants (CNVs) that were absent or extremely rare (1q21.1 in 1% (5/512, P = 0.0002, OR = 22.3) of nonsyndromic sporadic TOF cases. We also identified recurrent CNVs at 3p25.1, 7p21.3 and 22q11.2. CNVs in a single subject with TOF occurred at six loci, two that encode known (NOTCH1, JAG1) disease-associated genes. Our findings predict that at least 10% (4.5-15.5%, 95% confidence interval) of sporadic nonsyndromic TOF cases result from de novo CNVs and suggest that mutations within these loci might be etiologic in other cases of TOF. PMID:19597493

  7. Extensive diversity of the ADRB3 gene in Chinese sheep identified by PCR-SSCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo; Zhou, Huitong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2009-08-01

    The beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is the main mediator of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymorphism in the ovine ADRB3 gene has been reported to be associated with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition, and cold survival. Eight alleles have been identified in New Zealand sheep, but to date, breeds from other countries have not been studied in detail. In this study, we employed PCR-SSCP to detect ADRB3 polymorphism in the Hu, Tan, small-tailed Han, and Tibet breeds of Chinese sheep. Thirteen SSCP patterns were observed, including the eight previously reported and five new patterns. The newly identified SSCP patterns represent five novel sequences, increasing the reported number of alleles of ADRB3 from 8 to 13. In these Chinese sheep, the most common allele was the previously reported allele C (49.0%); the A allele was the next most common (22.0%). These results suggest that Chinese sheep have more diversity in ADRB3 than New Zealand sheep and therefore have possibly been selected either naturally or via breeding for different traits. PMID:19507019

  8. Evidence for a common biological pathway linking three Parkinson's disease-causing genes: parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Celia; Jalali Sefid Dashti, Zahra; Christoffels, Alan; Loos, Ben; Bardien, Soraya

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Autosomal recessive, early-onset cases of PD are predominantly caused by mutations in the parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1 genes. Animal and cellular models have verified a direct link between parkin and PINK1, whereby PINK1 phosphorylates and activates parkin at the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. Despite the overwhelming evidence for this interaction, few studies have been able to identify a link for DJ-1 with parkin or PINK1. The aim of this review is to summarise the functions of these three proteins, and to analyse the existing evidence for direct and indirect interactions between them. DJ-1 is able to rescue the phenotype of PINK1-knockout Drosophila models, but not of parkin-knockouts, suggesting that DJ-1 may act in a parallel pathway to that of the PINK1/parkin pathway. To further elucidate a commonality between these three proteins, bioinformatics analysis established that Miro (RHOT1) interacts with parkin and PINK1, and HSPA4 interacts with all three proteins. Furthermore, 30 transcription factors were found to be common amongst all three proteins, with many of them being involved in transcriptional regulation. Interestingly, expression of these proteins and their associated transcription factors are found to be significantly down-regulated in PD patients compared to healthy controls. In summary, this review provides insight into common pathways linking three PD-causing genes and highlights some key questions, the answers to which may provide critical insight into the disease process. PMID:25761903

  9. Random-set methods identify distinct aspects of the enrichment signal in gene-set analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Michael A.; Quintana, Fernando A.; Boon, Johan A. den; Sengupta, Srikumar; Ahlquist, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A prespecified set of genes may be enriched, to varying degrees, for genes that have altered expression levels relative to two or more states of a cell. Knowing the enrichment of gene sets defined by functional categories, such as gene ontology (GO) annotations, is valuable for analyzing the biological signals in microarray expression data. A common approach to measuring enrichment is by cross-classifying genes according to membership in a functional category and membership ...

  10. Using microarrays to identify positional candidate genes for QTL: the case study of ACTH response in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffe, Vincent; Rowe, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Microarray studies can supplement QTL studies by suggesting potential candidate. Microarray studies can supplement QTL studies by suggesting potential candidate genes in the QTL regions, which by themselves are too large to provide a limited selection of candidate genes. Here we provide a case study where we explore ways to integrate QTL data and microarray data for the pig, which has only a partial genome sequence. We outline various procedures to localize differentially expressed genes on the pig genome and link this with information on published QTL. The starting point is a set of 237 differentially expressed cDNA clones in adrenal tissue from two pig breeds, before and after treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Microarray studies can supplement QTL studies by suggesting potential candidate genes in the QTL regions, which by themselves are too large to provide a limited selection of candidate genes. Here we provide a case study where we explore ways to integrate QTL data and microarray data for the pig, which has only a partial genome sequence. We outline various procedures to localize differentially expressed genes on the pig genome and link this with information on published QTL. The starting point is a set of 237 differentially expressed cDNA clones in adrenal tissue from two pig breeds, before and after treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Results: Different approaches to localize the differentially expressed (DE) genes to the pig genome. Different approaches to localize the differentially expressed (DE) genes to the pig genome showed different levels of success and a clear lack of concordance for some genes between the various approaches. For a focused analysis on 12 genes, overlapping QTL from the public domain were presented. Also, differentially expressed genes underlying QTL for ACTH response were described. Using the latest version of the draft sequence, the differentially expressed genes were mapped to the pig genome. This enabled co-location of DE genes and previously studied QTL regions, but the draft genome sequence is still incomplete and will contain many errors. A further step to explore links between DE genes and QTL at the pathway level was largely unsuccessful due to the lack of annotation of the pig genome. This could be improved by further comparative mapping analyses but this would be time consuming

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of stylar canal cells identifies novel candidate genes implicated in the self-incompatibility response of Citrus clementina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso Marco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive biology in citrus is still poorly understood. Although in recent years several efforts have been made to study pollen-pistil interaction and self-incompatibility, little information is available about the molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. Here we report the identification of candidate genes involved in pollen-pistil interaction and self-incompatibility in clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.. These genes have been identified comparing the transcriptomes of laser-microdissected stylar canal cells (SCC isolated from two genotypes differing for self-incompatibility response ('Comune', a self-incompatible cultivar and 'Monreal', a self- compatible mutation of 'Comune'. Results The transcriptome profiling of SCC indicated that the differential regulation of few specific, mostly uncharacterized transcripts is associated with the breakdown of self-incompatibility in 'Monreal'. Among them, a novel F-box gene showed a drastic up-regulation both in laser microdissected stylar canal cells and in self-pollinated whole styles with stigmas of 'Comune' in concomitance with the arrest of pollen tube growth. Moreover, we identify a non-characterized gene family as closely associated to the self-incompatibility genetic program activated in 'Comune'. Three different aspartic-acid rich (Asp-rich protein genes, located in tandem in the clementine genome, were over-represented in the transcriptome of 'Comune'. These genes are tightly linked to a DELLA gene, previously found to be up-regulated in the self-incompatible genotype during pollen-pistil interaction. Conclusion The highly specific transcriptome survey of the stylar canal cells identified novel genes which have not been previously associated with self-pollen rejection in citrus and in other plant species. Bioinformatic and transcriptional analyses suggested that the mutation leading to self-compatibility in 'Monreal' affected the expression of non-homologous genes located in a restricted genome region. Also, we hypothesize that the Asp-rich protein genes may act as Ca2+ "entrapping" proteins, potentially regulating Ca2+ homeostasis during self-pollen recognition.

  12. Mutations in the DAX-1 gene give rise to both X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    OpenAIRE

    Muscatelli, F.; Strom, TM; Walker, AP; Zanaria, E; Récan, D.; Meindl, A.; Bardoni, B.; Guioli, S; ZEHETNER, G; Rabl, W

    1994-01-01

    Adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is an X-linked disorder characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG) is frequently associated with this disorder but is thought not to be caused by the low adrenal androgen levels due to adrenal hypoplasia. It is uncertain whether there are two distinct yet physically linked genes responsible for AHC and HHG or a single gene responsible for both diseases. AHC can occur as a part of a contiguous deletion syndrome togethe...

  13. A family with juvenile polyposis linked to the BMPR1A locus: cryptic mutation or closely linked gene?

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, E; Lipton, L; Carvajal-Carmona, LG; Arthur, G; Bhathal, P; Kaur, G.; Jaeger, E; Woodford-Richens, K; Howarth, K.; Tomlinson , I; Macrae, F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Familial juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition in which patients develop hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps with malignant potential. Pathogenic germline mutations in both the SMAD4 and BMPR1A genes involved in the transforming growth factor beta pathway account for 40% of cases of JPS. Genetic heterogeneity remains evident, as the balance of cases is not accounted for by mutations in these genes. The aim of this study was to determine...

  14. Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy with a lentiviral vector in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Nathalie; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Veres, Gabor; Schmidt, Manfred; Kutschera, Ina; Vidaud, Michel; Abel, Ulrich; Dal-Cortivo, Liliane; Caccavelli, Laure; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Kiermer, Véronique; Mittelstaedt, Denice; Bellesme, Céline; Lahlou, Najiba; Lefrère, François; Blanche, Stéphane; Audit, Muriel; Payen, Emmanuel; Leboulch, Philippe; l'Homme, Bruno; Bougnères, Pierre; Von Kalle, Christof; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Aubourg, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a severe brain demyelinating disease in boys that is caused by a deficiency in ALD protein, an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter encoded by the ABCD1 gene. ALD progression can be halted by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We initiated a gene therapy trial in two ALD patients for whom there were no matched donors. Autologous CD34+ cells were removed from the patients, genetically corrected ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding wild-type ABCD1, and then re-infused into the patients after they had received myeloablative treatment. Over a span of 24 to 30 months of follow-up, we detected polyclonal reconstitution, with 9 to 14% of granulocytes, monocytes, and T and B lymphocytes expressing the ALD protein. These results strongly suggest that hematopoietic stem cells were transduced in the patients. Beginning 14 to 16 months after infusion of the genetically corrected cells, progressive cerebral demyelination in the two patients stopped, a clinical outcome comparable to that achieved by allogeneic HCT. Thus, lentiviral-mediated gene therapy of hematopoietic stem cells can provide clinical benefits in ALD. PMID:19892975

  15. Genome-wide haplotype association study identifies BLM as a risk gene for prostate cancer in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Lv, Hongchao; Lv, Wenhua; Shi, Miao; Zhang, Mingming; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a common malignant tumor that occurs in the prostate epithelial cells. It is generally considered to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. To identify the genetic risk factors of PC in Chinese population, we carried out a genome-wide haplotype-based association study. The 33 Chinese PC cases were from the public GEO database (GSE18333), and the 139 Chinese controls (CHB) were from the HapMap project. Our analysis included three stages: (1) identifying the linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks and performing genome-wide haplotype association scan, (2) mapping PC-risk haplotypes to PC candidate genes, and (3) prioritizing PC candidate genes based on their similarity to known PC susceptibility genes. The results showed that (1) 749 haplotypes were significantly associated with PC (P?genes and got 454 PC candidate genes. (3) After prioritizing the candidate genes based on their similarity to known PC susceptibility genes, we found that seven novel PC susceptibility genes including BLM, RPS6KA2, FRK, ERBB4, RBL1, PAK7, and ERBB2IP. Among the seven genes, BLM gene ranked first (P?=?1.89E-04). A haplotype GGTTACCCCTC (rs2270131, rs2073919, rs11073953, rs12592875, rs16944863, rs2238337, rs414634, rs401549, rs17183344, rs16944884, and rs16944888) on chromosome 15q26.1 had significant association with PC (P?=?2.37E-11). To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association study to show the significant association between BLM gene and PC susceptibility in Chinese population. PMID:25472581

  16. APPLICATION OF GENOMICS TO IDENTIFY GENES INFLUENCING ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT TRAITS IN ANIMALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review focuses on identification of bovine chromosomal regions where genes influencing economically important traits reside. Regions where these genes reside are located throughout all chromosomes. Discussion focuses on methodology used to detect regions associated with meat tenderness. Mark...

  17. A novel syndrome of autosomal-dominant hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia linked to a mutation in the human insulin receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjlund, Kurt; Hansen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Recently, various subtypes of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with an autosomal-dominant inheritance have been etiologically characterized. In the present study, we have delineated the genetics and metabolic phenotype of a novel form of hypoglycemia in a large pedigree with an apparent autosomal-dominant transmission. After initial investigations of the proband, her mother, and a sister, the study was extended to 19 family members in three generations. Glucose tolerance was assessed by a 5-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in six affected family members and six control subjects. To identify the genetic cause of hypoglycemia, linkage analysis and mutation analysis of genomic DNA from all family members were performed. All affected family members were characterized by postprandial hypoglycemia, fasting hyperinsulinemia, and an elevated serum insulin-to-C-peptide ratio. The 5-h OGTT demonstrated hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, and the clamp studies showed reduced insulin sensitivity and clearance of serum insulin in affected family members compared with control subjects. Linkage analysis and subsequent mutation screening revealed a missense mutation (Arg1174Gln) in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene that cosegregated with the disease phenotype (logarithm of odds [LOD] score 3.21). In conclusion, we report a novel syndrome of autosomal-dominant hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The findings demonstrate the coexistence of severe postprandial hypoglycemia, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin clearance and suggest that hypoglycemia should be considered as a phenotype linked to heterozygote mutations in the insulin receptor gene.

  18. Identification of point mutations in the steroid sulfatase gene of three patients with X-linked ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, E; Grompe, M; Parenti, G; Yates, J; Ballabio, A

    1992-01-01

    X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency. In more than 80% of XLI patients the enzyme deficiency is due to large deletions involving the entire STS gene and flanking sequences. However, some patients with the classical XLI phenotype and complete STS deficiency do not show any detectable deletions by Southern blot analysis using full-length STS cDNA as a probe. We have studied five unrelated patients who are such "nondeletion" mutants. Western blot analysis using anti-STS antibodies was performed on patients' fibroblast extracts and revealed absence of cross-reacting material. First-strand cDNA synthesis by reverse transcription from patients' RNA isolated from cultured fibroblasts and PCR amplification of overlapping segments of the entire STS polypeptide coding region were performed. Three point mutations were identified by chemical mismatch cleavage, sequenced by dideoxynucleotide chain-termination sequencing and confirmed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of the patients' genomic DNA. The mutations resulted in the substitution of a tryptophan for an arginine at codon 1319, changing a hydrophobic to a basic hydrophilic amino acid, the substitution of a cysteine for a tyrosine at codon 1542, potentially losing a disulfide bond, and the substitution of a serine for a leucine at codon 1237. These are the first point mutations to be documented in the STS gene and may allow insight into functionally important domains of the protein. Images Figure 3 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1539590

  19. MethylMix: an R package for identifying DNA methylation driven genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA methylation is an important mechanism regulating gene transcription, and its role in carcinogenesis has been extensively studied. Hyper and hypomethylation of genes is an alternative mechanism to deregulate gene expression in a wide range of diseases. At the same time high throughput DNA methylation assays have been developed generating vast amounts of genome wide DNA methylation measurements.

  20. IDENTIFYING GENES OF AGRONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN MAIZE BY SCREENING MICROSATELLITES FOR EVIDENCE OF SELECTION DURING DOMESTICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop species experienced strong selective pressure directed at genes controlling traits of agronomic importance during their domestication and subsequent episodes of selective breeding. Consequently, these genes are expected to exhibit the signature of selection. We screened 501 maize genes for th...

  1. A novel mechanism of gene regulation identified in the chorismate mutase gene from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing, a widely used means to control gene expression in eukaryotic organisms, has not been documented in plant parasitic nematodes. Here we report that a chorismate mutase gene (GrCM1) expressed exclusively within the subventral gland cells of the potato cyst nematode Golob...

  2. A strategy to find gene combinations that identify children who progress rapidly to type 1 diabetes after islet autoantibody seroconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Krumsiek, Jan; Winkler, Christiane; Theis, Fabian J; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed a novel approach capable of identifying gene combinations to obtain maximal disease risk stratification. Type 1 diabetes has a preclinical phase including seroconversion to autoimmunity and subsequent progression to diabetes. Here, we applied our gene combination approach to identify combinations that contribute either to islet autoimmunity or to the progression from islet autoantibodies to diabetes onset. We examined 12 type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes (INS, ERBB3, PTPN2, IFIH1, PTPN22, KIAA0350, CD25, CTLA4, SH2B3, IL2, IL18RAP, IL10) in a cohort of children of parents with type 1 diabetes and prospectively followed from birth. The most predictive combination was subsequently applied to a smaller validation cohort. The combinations of genes only marginally contributed to the risk of developing islet autoimmunity, but could substantially modify risk of progression to diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive children. The greatest discrimination was provided by risk allele scores of five genes, INS, IFIH1, IL18RAP, CD25, and IL2 genes, which could identify 80 % of islet autoantibody-positive children who progressed to diabetes within 6 years of seroconversion and discriminate high risk (63 % within 6 years; 95 % CI 45-81 %) and low risk (11 % within 6 years; 95 % CI 0.1-22 %; p = 4 × 10(-5)) antibody-positive children. Risk stratification by these five genes was confirmed in a second cohort of islet autoantibody children. These findings highlight genes that may affect the rate of the beta-cell destruction process once autoimmunity has initiated and may help to identify islet autoantibody-positive subjects with rapid progression to diabetes. PMID:24249616

  3. Disease-Targeted Sequencing of Ion Channel Genes identifies de novo mutations in Patients with Non-Familial Brugada Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Ho, Chia-Chuan; Liu, Yen-Bin; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lin, Lian-Yu; Yu, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Yeh, Shih-Fan Sherri; Lai, Ling-Ping; Chuang, Eric Y.; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2014-01-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the ion channelopathies associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). The most common BrS-associated gene (SCN5A) only accounts for approximately 20–25% of BrS patients. This study aims to identify novel mutations across human ion channels in non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants through disease-targeted sequencing. We performed disease-targeted multi-gene sequencing across 133 human ion channel genes and 12 reported BrS-associated genes in 15 unrelated, non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants. Candidate variants were validated by mass spectrometry and Sanger sequencing. Five de novo mutations were identified in four genes (SCNN1A, KCNJ16, KCNB2, and KCNT1) in three BrS patients (20%). Two of the three patients presented SCD and one had syncope. Interestingly, the two patients presented with SCD had compound mutations (SCNN1A:Arg350Gln and KCNB2:Glu522Lys; SCNN1A:Arg597* and KCNJ16:Ser261Gly). Importantly, two SCNN1A mutations were identified from different families. The KCNT1:Arg1106Gln mutation was identified in a patient with syncope. Bioinformatics algorithms predicted severe functional interruptions in these four mutation loci, suggesting their pivotal roles in BrS. This study identified four novel BrS-associated genes and indicated the effectiveness of this disease-targeted sequencing across ion channel genes for non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants. PMID:25339316

  4. ESTs and putative line-specific (broiler and layer) SNPs identified in genes expressed in Gallus gallus pituitary and hypothalamus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clarissa Sanches da Silva, Cassoli; Erika Cirstina, Jorge; Mateus, Patrício; Helena Javiel, Alves; Erik Amazonas de, Almeida; Mônica Corrêa, Ledur; Luiz Lehmann, Coutinho.

    1077-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian poultry industry has reached a high level of development in both meat and egg production as a result of constant technological modernization. Further improvements can be achieved through genomics, but before this can be accomplished, a better understanding of gene expression profiles and n [...] ucleotide polymorphisms is necessary. Since animal physiology is directly or indirectly controlled by the pituitary and hypothalamus, the aim of the present work was to identify and analyze genes expressed in these tissues in chicken lines with different growth potential. Two pituitary and hypothalamus cDNA libraries from 21 day broiler (TT) and layer (CC) chickens lines were constructed and allowed identification of 3,074 unique sequences and 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and SNPs identified in this study represents an important resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes responsible for growth in chicken.

  5. ESTs and putative line-specific (broiler and layer SNPs identified in genes expressed in Gallus gallus pituitary and hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Sanches da Silva Cassoli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian poultry industry has reached a high level of development in both meat and egg production as a result of constant technological modernization. Further improvements can be achieved through genomics, but before this can be accomplished, a better understanding of gene expression profiles and nucleotide polymorphisms is necessary. Since animal physiology is directly or indirectly controlled by the pituitary and hypothalamus, the aim of the present work was to identify and analyze genes expressed in these tissues in chicken lines with different growth potential. Two pituitary and hypothalamus cDNA libraries from 21 day broiler (TT and layer (CC chickens lines were constructed and allowed identification of 3,074 unique sequences and 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and SNPs identified in this study represents an important resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes responsible for growth in chicken.

  6. Identifying tinnitus-related genes based on a side-effect network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, A B; Langguth, B; Nowak, W; Schecklmann, M; De Ridder, D; Vanneste, S

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus, phantom sound perception, is a worldwide highly prevalent disorder for which no clear underlying pathology has been established and for which no approved drug is on the market. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to understand this condition. We used a network pharmacology side-effect analysis to search for genes that are involved in tinnitus generation. We analyzed a network of 1,313 drug-target pairs, based on 275 compounds that elicit tinnitus as side effect and their targets reported in databases, and used a quantitative score to identify emergent significant targets that were more common than expected at random. Cyclooxigenase 1 and 2 were significant, which validates our approach, since salicylate is a known tinnitus generator. More importantly, we predict previously unknown tinnitus-related targets. The present results have important implications toward understanding tinnitus pathophysiology and might pave the way toward the design of novel pharmacotherapies.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e97; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.75; published online 29 January 2014. PMID:24477090

  7. Identifying Mutations in Duplicated Functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Recessive Mutations in Hmg-Coa Reductase Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Basson, Michael E.; Moore, Robert L.; O Rear, Jules; Rine, Jasper

    1987-01-01

    The two yeast genes for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, HMG1 and HMG2, each encode a functional isozyme. Although cells bearing null mutations in both genes are inviable, cells bearing a null mutation in either gene are viable. This paper describes a method of screening for recessive mutations in the HMG1 gene, the gene encoding the majority of HMG-CoA reductase activity in the cell. This method should be applicable to the isolation of mutations in other cases of du...

  8. Novel Integron Gene Cassette Arrays Identified in a Global Collection of Multi-Drug Resistant Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Krauland, Mary; Harrison, Lee; Paterson, David; Marsh, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of integron carriage in a global collection of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica identified 3 unique class 1 integron gene cassette arrays not previously reported in this species. The present study used PCR and DNA sequence analysis to characterize the structure of these gene cassette arrays. A ~4.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette array arr2/cmlA5/blaOXA10/ aadA1 was found in isolates belonging to serovars Isangi and Typhimurium from South Africa. A ~6.0 kb integ...

  9. An evidence-based knowledgebase of pulmonary arterial hypertension to identify genes and pathways relevant to pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Austin, Eric D; Hemnes, Anna R; Loyd, James E; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major progressive form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with more than 4800 patients in the United States. In the last two decades, many studies have identified numerous genes associated with this disease. However, there is no comprehensive research resource for PAH or other PH types that integrates various genetic studies and their related biological information. Thus, the number of associated genes, and their strength of evidence, is unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a web-based knowledgebase could be used to develop a biological map of highly interrelated, functionally important genes in PAH. We developed the pulmonary arterial hypertension knowledgebase (PAHKB, ), a comprehensive database with a user-friendly web interface. PAHKB extracts genetic data from all available sources, including those from association studies, genetic mutation, gene expression, animal model, supporting literature, various genomic annotations, gene networks, cellular and regulatory pathways, as well as microRNAs. Moreover, PAHKB provides online tools for data browsing and searching, data integration, pathway graphical presentation, and gene ranking. In the current release, PAHKB contains 341 human PH-related genes (293 protein coding and 48 non-coding genes) curated from over 1000 PubMed abstracts. Based on the top 39 ranked PAH-related genes in PAHKB, we constructed a core biological map. This core map was enriched with the TGF-beta signaling pathway, focal adhesion, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and MAPK signaling. In addition, the reconstructed map elucidates several novel cancer signaling pathways, which may provide clues to support the application of anti-cancer therapeutics to PAH. In summary, we have developed a system for the identification of core PH-related genes and identified critical signaling pathways that may be relevant to PAH pathogenesis. This system can be easily applied to other pulmonary diseases. PMID:24448676

  10. A Fourteen Gene GBM Prognostic Signature Identifies Association of Immune Response Pathway and Mesenchymal Subtype with High Risk Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddagangannagari, Sreekanthreddy; Srinivasan, Harish; Shailaja, Bangalore C.; Samuel, Cini; Patric, Irene Rosita Pia; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Thota, Balaram; Prasanna, Krishnarao Venkatesh; Pandey, Paritosh; Balasubramaniam, Anandh; Santosh, Vani; Chandramouli, Bangalore Ashwathnarayanara; Hegde, Alangar Sathyaranjandas; Kondaiah, Paturu; Sathyanarayana Rao, Manchanahalli R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research on glioblastoma (GBM) has focused on deducing gene signatures predicting prognosis. The present study evaluated the mRNA expression of selected genes and correlated with outcome to arrive at a prognostic gene signature. Methods Patients with GBM (n?=?123) were prospectively recruited, treated with a uniform protocol and followed up. Expression of 175 genes in GBM tissue was determined using qRT-PCR. A supervised principal component analysis followed by derivation of gene signature was performed. Independent validation of the signature was done using TCGA data. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis was carried out among patients from TCGA cohort. Results A 14 gene signature was identified that predicted outcome in GBM. A weighted gene (WG) score was found to be an independent predictor of survival in multivariate analysis in the present cohort (HR?=?2.507; B?=?0.919; p<0.001) and in TCGA cohort. Risk stratification by standardized WG score classified patients into low and high risk predicting survival both in our cohort (p?=?<0.001) and TCGA cohort (p?=?0.001). Pathway analysis using the most differentially regulated genes (n?=?76) between the low and high risk groups revealed association of activated inflammatory/immune response pathways and mesenchymal subtype in the high risk group. Conclusion We have identified a 14 gene expression signature that can predict survival in GBM patients. A network analysis revealed activation of inflammatory response pathway specifically in high risk group. These findings may have implications in understanding of gliomagenesis, development of targeted therapies and selection of high risk cancer patients for alternate adjuvant therapies. PMID:23646114

  11. Mutational analysis of the avian pneumovirus conserved transcriptional gene start sequence identifying critical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Nicole L; Easton, Andrew J

    2005-12-01

    Seven of the eight genes in the avian pneumovirus (APV) genome contain a conserved 9 nt transcriptional start sequence with the virus large (L) polymerase gene differing from the consensus at three positions. The sequence requirements of the APV transcriptional gene start sequence were investigated by generating a series of mutations in which each of the nine conserved bases was mutated to each of the other three possible nucleotides in a minigenome containing two reporter genes. The effect of each mutation was assessed by measuring the relative levels of expression from the altered and unaltered gene start sequences. Mutations at positions 2, 7 and 9 significantly reduced transcription levels while alterations to position 5 had little effect. The L gene start sequence directed transcription at levels approximately 50 % below that of the consensus gene start sequence. These data suggest that there are common features in pneumovirus transcriptional control sequences. PMID:16298980

  12. ZNF674: a new kruppel-associated box-containing zinc-finger gene involved in nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Dorien; Yntema, Helger G; Banning, Martijn J G; Oudakker, Astrid R; Firth, Helen V; Willatt, Lionel; Raynaud, Martine; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Gecz, Jozef; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Nabuurs, Sander B; de Vries, Bert B A; Hamel, Ben C J; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2006-02-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization has proven to be successful in the identification of genetic defects in disorders involving mental retardation. Here, we studied a patient with learning disabilities, retinal dystrophy, and short stature. The family history was suggestive of an X-linked contiguous gene syndrome. Hybridization of full-coverage X-chromosomal bacterial artificial chromosome arrays revealed a deletion of ~1 Mb in Xp11.3, which harbors RP2, SLC9A7, CHST7, and two hypothetical zinc-finger genes, ZNF673 and ZNF674. These genes were analyzed in 28 families with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) that show linkage to Xp11.3; the analysis revealed a nonsense mutation, p.E118X, in the coding sequence of ZNF674 in one family. This mutation is predicted to result in a truncated protein containing the Kruppel-associated box domains but lacking the zinc-finger domains, which are crucial for DNA binding. We characterized the complete ZNF674 gene structure and subsequently tested an additional 306 patients with XLMR for mutations by direct sequencing. Two amino acid substitutions, p.T343M and p.P412L, were identified that were not found in unaffected individuals. The proline at position 412 is conserved between species and is predicted by molecular modeling to reduce the DNA-binding properties of ZNF674. The p.T343M transition is probably a polymorphism, because the homologous ZNF674 gene in chimpanzee has a methionine at that position. ZNF674 belongs to a cluster of seven highly related zinc-finger genes in Xp11, two of which (ZNF41 and ZNF81) were implicated previously in XLMR. Identification of ZNF674 as the third XLMR gene in this cluster may indicate a common role for these zinc-finger genes that is crucial to human cognitive functioning. PMID:16385466

  13. X-linked thrombocytopenia and Wiskott Aldrich syndrome are allelic diseases with mutations in the WASP gene

    OpenAIRE

    Ramenghi, Ugo

    1995-01-01

    X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) is a rare recessive hereditary disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia with small-sized platelets. The XLT locus has been located to chromosome Xp11 by linkage analysis, which is also where the recently cloned Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) gene, maps. The relationship between XLT and WAS has long been debated; they might be due to different mutations of the same gene or to mutations in different genes. We now show that mutations in the WAS gene, di...

  14. Comparing cancer vs normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas Philippe Jean-Pierre; Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes, and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells and has not been efficient in identifying expression changes fundamental to disease etiology. Here we present a method that facilitates the comparison of any cancer sample to its nearest normal cellular counterpart, using acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as a model. We first generated a gene expression-based landscape of the normal hematopoietic hierarchy, using expression profiles from normal stem/progenitor cells, and next mapped the AML patient samples to this landscape. This allowed us to identify the closest normal counterpart of individual AML samples and determine gene expression changes between cancer and normal. We find the cancer vs normal method (CvN method) to be superior to conventional methods in stratifying AML patients with aberrant karyotype and in identifying common aberrant transcriptional programs with potential importance for AML etiology. Moreover, the CvN method uncovered a novel poor-outcome subtype of normal-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients.

  15. Comparing cancer vs. normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells, and has not been efficient in identifying expression changes fundamental to disease etiology. Here we present a method that facilitates the comparison of any cancer sample to its nearest normal cellular counterpart using acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as a model. We first generated a gene expression-based landscape of the normal hematopoietic hierarchy using expression profiles from normal stem/progenitor cells and next mapped the AML patient samples to this landscape. This allowed us to identify the closest normal counterpart of individual AML samples and determine gene expression changes between cancer and normal. We find the cancer vs. normal method (CvN-method) to be superior to conventional methods in stratifying AML patients with aberrant-karyotype and in identifying common aberrant transcriptional programs with potential importance for AML etiology. Moreover, the CvN-method uncovered a novel poor-outcome subtype of normal-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN-method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients.

  16. Late blight resistance gene from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii is located on potato chromosome X and linked to violet flower colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?liwka Jadwiga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal organism of late blight, is economically the most important pathogen of potato and resistance against it has been one of the primary goals of potato breeding. Some potentially durable, broad-spectrum resistance genes against this disease have been described recently. However, to obtain durable resistance in potato cultivars more genes are needed to be identified to realize strategies such as gene pyramiding or use of genotype mixtures based on diverse genes. Results A major resistance gene, Rpi-rzc1, against P. infestans originating from Solanum ruiz-ceballosii was mapped to potato chromosome X using Diversity Array Technology (DArT and sequence-specific PCR markers. The gene provided high level of resistance in both detached leaflet and tuber slice tests. It was linked, at a distance of 3.4 cM, to violet flower colour most likely controlled by the previously described F locus. The marker-trait association with the closest marker, violet flower colour, explained 87.1% and 85.7% of variance, respectively, for mean detached leaflet and tuber slice resistance. A genetic linkage map that consisted of 1,603 DArT markers and 48 reference sequence-specific PCR markers of known chromosomal localization with a total map length of 1204.8 cM was constructed. Conclusions The Rpi-rzc1 gene described here can be used for breeding potatoes resistant to P. infestans and the breeding process can be expedited using the molecular markers and the phenotypic marker, violet flower colour, identified in this study. Knowledge of the chromosomal localization of Rpi-rzc1 can be useful for design of gene pyramids. The genetic linkage map constructed in this study contained 1,149 newly mapped DArT markers and will be a valuable resource for future mapping projects using this technology in the Solanum genus.

  17. Whole-blood transcriptional profiling of interferon-inducible genes identifies highly upregulated IFI27 in primary myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression profiling studies have unraveled deregulation of several genes that might be of pathogenetic importance for the development and phenotype of the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. In the context of interferon-alpha2 as a promising therapeutic agent, we focused upon the transcriptional profiling of interferon-associated genes in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (n = 19), polycythemia vera (PV) (n = 41), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (n = 9). Using whole-blood transcriptional profiling and accordingly obtaining an integrated signature of genes expressed in several immune cells (granulocytes, monocytes, B cells, T cells, platelets), we have identified a number of interferon-associated genes to be significantly deregulated but with a highly significant deregulation of interferon-inducible gene 27 (IFI27) (ET, PV, and PMF, fold change 8, 16, and 30, respectively). The striking deregulation of IFI genes may reflect a hyperstimulated but insufficient immune system being most enhanced in patients with advanced myelofibrosis, in whom the IFI27 gene displayed an exceedingly high expression. The interferon signature may reflect primary myelofibrosis as the burn-out phase of chronic inflammation which ultimately elicits clonal evolution and expansion owing to an exaggerated but incompetent antitumor immune response. Finally, IFI27 may be a novel biomarker of disease activity and tumor burden in patients with CMPNs.

  18. Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study Identifies Glutamate Receptor Gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's Disease Modifier Gene via Interaction with Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Taye H.; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M.; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I.; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W.; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K.; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Payami, Haydeh

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P2df?=?10?6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR?=?0.43; P?=?6×10?7) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that “Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers” was confirmed: ORReplication?=?0.59, PReplication?=?10?3; ORPooled?=?0.51, PPooled?=?7×10?8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P?=?3×10?3), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P?=?6×10?13). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P2df<5×10?8 in GWAIS, and OR?=?0.41, P?=?3×10?8 in heavy coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify genes that are missed in GWAS. Both adenosine antagonists (caffeine-like) and glutamate antagonists (GRIN2A-related) are being tested in clinical trials for treatment of PD. GRIN2A may be a useful pharmacogenetic marker for subdividing individuals in clinical trials to determine which medications might work best for which patients. PMID:21876681

  19. Radiation sensitivity of human natural killer cell activity: control by X-linked genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of human natural killer cell activity after exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to different doses of gamma irradiation was examined in a group of healthy adults and several families. Theee patterns of radiation sensitivity were observed: (1) loss of all NK activity after 3000 rads irradiation; (2) loss of approximately 50% of the NK activity; and (3) maintenance of activity after this dose of irradiation. Low dose irradiation (500 to 2000 rads) resulted in an enhancement of activity. The radiation dose giving low dose activation reflected the individual's sensitivity to 3000 rads. Population studies and the segregation in two informative families indicate that radiation sensitivity of NK activity is controlled by x-linked codominant genes

  20. A novel rare copy number variant of the ABCF1 gene identified among dengue fever patients from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, B P; Sam, S S; Umi, S H; Mahiran, M; Nik Khairudin, N Y; Rafidah Hanim, S; Abubakar, S

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a form of genetic variation in addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms. The significance of CNV in the manifestation of a number of diseases is only recently receiving considerable attention. We genotyped 163 dengue patients from Peninsular Malaysia for genes possibly linked to dengue infection using quantitative real-time PCR. Here, we report a serendipitous discovery of a novel rare CNV of the ABCF1 gene among the dengue patients. Among these patients, two had a gain of 1 copy (CN = 3) and one had lost 1 copy (CN = 1), indicating that a rare CNV of the ABCF1 gene was detected among dengue patients from Peninsular Malaysia. Although the gene is suspected to regulate inflammatory responses and pathogen-induced cytokine storm, its relevance to dengue requires further investigation. PMID:24634119

  1. Yeast-based assay identifies novel Shh/Gli target genes in vertebrate development

    OpenAIRE

    Milla Luis A; Cortés Claudio R; Christian, Hodar Q.; Oñate Maritza G; Cambiazo Veronica; Burgess Shawn M; Palma Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing number of developmental events and molecular mechanisms associated with the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway from Drosophila to vertebrates, suggest that gene regulation is crucial for diverse cellular responses, including target genes not yet described. Although several high-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded information at the genomic, transcriptional and proteomic levels, the specificity of Gli binding sites related to direct target gene activation stil...

  2. GENE NETWORK EFFECTS ON BRAIN MICROSTRUCTURE AND INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE IDENTIFIED IN 472 TWINS

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Ming-chang; Barysheva, Marina; Mcmahon, Katie L.; Zubicaray, Greig I.; Johnson, Kori; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Toga, Arthur W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Shapshak, Paul; Thompson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in neuroscience is finding which genes affect brain integrity, connectivity, and intellectual function. Discovering influential genes holds vast promise for neuroscience, but typical genome-wide searches assess around one million genetic variants one-by-one, leading to intractable false positive rates, even with vast samples of subjects. Even more intractable is the question of which genes interact and how they work together to affect brain connectivity. Here we report a nov...

  3. Wigwams: identifying gene modules co-regulated across multiple biological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Polanski, Krzysztof; Rhodes, Johanna; Hill, Claire; Zhang, Peijun; Jenkins, Dafyd J.; Kiddle, Steven J.; Jironkin, Aleksey; Beynon, Jim; Buchanan-wollaston, Vicky; Ott, Sascha; Denby, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Identification of modules of co-regulated genes is a crucial first step towards dissecting the regulatory circuitry underlying biological processes. Co-regulated genes are likely to reveal themselves by showing tight co-expression, e.g. high correlation of expression profiles across multiple time series datasets. However, numbers of up- or downregulated genes are often large, making it difficult to discriminate between dependent co-expression resulting from co-regulation and indep...

  4. Investigation of manic and euthymic episodes identifies state- and trait-specific gene expression and STAB1 as a new candidate gene for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, S H; Juraeva, D

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable psychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. To identify new BD genes and pathways, the present study employed a three-step approach. First, gene-expression profiles of BD patients were assessed during both a manic and an euthymic phase. These profiles were compared intra-individually and with the gene-expression profiles of controls. Second, those differentially expressed genes that were considered potential trait markers of BD were validated using data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortiums' genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BD. Third, the implicated molecular mechanisms were investigated using pathway analytical methods. In the present patients, this novel approach identified: (i) sets of differentially expressed genes specific to mania and euthymia; and (ii) a set of differentially expressed genes that were common to both mood states. In the GWAS data integration analysis, one gene (STAB1) remained significant (P=1.9 × 10(-4)) after adjustment for multiple testing. STAB1 is located in close proximity to PBMR1 and the NEK4-ITIH1-ITIH3-ITIH4 region, which are the top findings from GWAS meta-analyses of mood disorder, and a combined BD and schizophrenia data set. Pathway analyses in the mania versus control comparison revealed three distinct clusters of pathways tagging molecular mechanisms implicated in BD, for example, energy metabolism, inflammation and the ubiquitin proteasome system. The present findings suggest that STAB1 is a new and highly promising candidate gene in this region. The combining of gene expression and GWAS data may provide valuable insights into the biological mechanisms of BD.

  5. Identifying SARS-CoV Membrane Protein Amino Acid Residues Linked to Virus-Like Particle Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Tzu; Chang, Chia-Hui; Wang, Shiu-Mei; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2013-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) membrane (M) proteins are capable of self-assembly and release in the form of membrane-enveloped vesicles, and of forming virus-like particles (VLPs) when coexpressed with SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein. According to previous deletion analyses, M self-assembly involves multiple M sequence regions. To identify important M amino acid residues for VLP assembly, we coexpressed N with multiple M mutants containing substitution mutations at the amino-terminal ectodomain, carboxyl-terminal endodomain, or transmembrane segments. Our results indicate that a dileucine motif in the endodomain tail (218LL219) is required for efficient N packaging into VLPs. Results from cross-linking VLP analyses suggest that the cysteine residues 63, 85 and 158 are not in close proximity to the M dimer interface. We noted a significant reduction in M secretion due to serine replacement for C158, but not for C63 or C85. Further analysis suggests that C158 is involved in M-N interaction. In addition to mutations of the highly conserved 107-SWWSFNPE-114 motif, substitutions at codons W19, W57, P58, W91, Y94 or F95 all resulted in significantly reduced VLP yields, largely due to defective M secretion. VLP production was not significantly affected by a tryptophan replacement of Y94 or F95 or a phenylalanine replacement of W19, W57 or W91. Combined, these results indicate the involvement of specific M amino acids during SARS-CoV virus assembly, and suggest that aromatic residue retention at specific positions is critical for M function in terms of directing virus assembly. PMID:23700447

  6. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identifies orthologs of ciliary disease genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor; Samanta, Manoj Pratim; Tongprasit, Waraporn; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2005-01-01

    The important role that cilia and flagella play in human disease creates an urgent need to identify genes involved in ciliary assembly and function. The strong and specific induction of flagellar-coding genes during flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii suggests that transcriptional profiling of such cells would reveal new flagella-related genes. We have conducted a genome-wide analysis of RNA transcript levels during flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas by using maskless photolithography method-produced DNA oligonucleotide microarrays with unique probe sequences for all exons of the 19,803 predicted genes. This analysis represents previously uncharacterized whole-genome transcriptional activity profiling study in this important model organism. Analysis of strongly induced genes reveals a large set of known flagellar components and also identifies a number of important disease-related proteins as being involved with cilia and flagella, including the zebrafish polycystic kidney genes Qilin, Reptin, and Pontin, as well as the testis-expressed tubby-like protein TULP2.

  7. Resistance gene analogues identified through the NBS-profiling method map close to major genes and QTL for disease resistance in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenge, F; Van der Linden, C G; Van de Weg, E; Schouten, H J; Van Arkel, G; Denancé, C; Durel, C-E

    2005-02-01

    We used a new method called nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling to identify and map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple. This method simultaneously allows the amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS-encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. Ninety-four individuals belonging to an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple cultivars 'Discovery' and 'TN10-8' were studied. Two degenerate primers designed from the highly conserved P-loop motif within the NBS domain were used together with adapter primers. Forty-three markers generated with NBS profiling could be mapped in this progeny. After sequencing, 23 markers were identified as RGAs, based on their homologies with known resistance genes or NBS/leucine-rich-repeat-like genes. Markers were mapped on 10 of the 17 linkage groups of the apple genetic map used. Most of these markers were organized in clusters. Twenty-five markers mapped close to major genes or quantitative trait loci for resistance to scab and mildew previously identified in different apple progenies. Several markers could become efficient tools for marker-assisted selection once converted into breeder-friendly markers. This study demonstrates the efficiency of the NBS-profiling method for generating RGA markers for resistance loci in apple. PMID:15647920

  8. Identifying Tmem59 related gene regulatory network of mouse neural stem cell from a compendium of expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiuyun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural stem cells offer potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such like Alzheimer's disease (AD. While much progress has been made in understanding neural stem cell function, a precise description of the molecular mechanisms regulating neural stem cells is not yet established. This lack of knowledge is a major barrier holding back the discovery of therapeutic uses of neural stem cells. In this paper, the regulatory mechanism of mouse neural stem cell (NSC differentiation by tmem59 is explored on the genome-level. Results We identified regulators of tmem59 during the differentiation of mouse NSCs from a compendium of expression profiles. Based on the microarray experiment, we developed the parallelized SWNI algorithm to reconstruct gene regulatory networks of mouse neural stem cells. From the inferred tmem59 related gene network including 36 genes, pou6f1 was identified to regulate tmem59 significantly and might play an important role in the differentiation of NSCs in mouse brain. There are four pathways shown in the gene network, indicating that tmem59 locates in the downstream of the signalling pathway. The real-time RT-PCR results shown that the over-expression of pou6f1 could significantly up-regulate tmem59 expression in C17.2 NSC line. 16 out of 36 predicted genes in our constructed network have been reported to be AD-related, including Ace, aqp1, arrdc3, cd14, cd59a, cds1, cldn1, cox8b, defb11, folr1, gdi2, mmp3, mgp, myrip, Ripk4, rnd3, and sncg. The localization of tmem59 related genes and functional-related gene groups based on the Gene Ontology (GO annotation was also identified. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the expression of tmem59 is an important factor contributing to AD. The parallelized SWNI algorithm increased the efficiency of network reconstruction significantly. This study enables us to highlight novel genes that may be involved in NSC differentiation and provides a shortcut to identifying genes for AD.

  9. Development of two sequence-specific PCR markers linked to the le gene that reduces pod shattering in narrow-leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeffrey G., Boersma; Bevan J., Buirchell; Krishnapillai, Sivasithamparam; Huaan, Yang.

    Full Text Available Wild types of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) have seed pods that shatter upon maturity, leading to the loss of their seeds before or during the harvest process. Two recessive genes have been incorporated into domesticated cultivars of this species to maximize harvest-ability of the pro [...] duce. One of these genes is called lentus (le). Two microsatellite - anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP) candidate markers were identified as closely linked to the le gene in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a domesticated x wild type cross. The candidate MFLP markers were isolated from the gel, re-amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. The MFLP polymorphisms were converted into sequence-specific PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis by MapManager indicated that one of the markers, LeM1, was 2.6 centiMorgans (cM) and the other, LeM2, was 1.3 cM from the gene, with both being on the same side. The correlation between the marker genotype and the plant phenotype for the le gene is 95% for the Australian cultivars, and approximately 36% on wild types tested. These markers may be useful in marker assisted selection for the le gene when introgressing wild material into lupin breeding programs.

  10. Development of two sequence-specific PCR markers linked to the le gene that reduces pod shattering in narrow-leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Boersma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild types of narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. have seed pods that shatter upon maturity, leading to the loss of their seeds before or during the harvest process. Two recessive genes have been incorporated into domesticated cultivars of this species to maximize harvest-ability of the produce. One of these genes is called lentus (le. Two microsatellite - anchored fragment length polymorphism (MFLP candidate markers were identified as closely linked to the le gene in a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from a domesticated x wild type cross. The candidate MFLP markers were isolated from the gel, re-amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. The MFLP polymorphisms were converted into sequence-specific PCR-based markers. Linkage analysis by MapManager indicated that one of the markers, LeM1, was 2.6 centiMorgans (cM and the other, LeM2, was 1.3 cM from the gene, with both being on the same side. The correlation between the marker genotype and the plant phenotype for the le gene is 95% for the Australian cultivars, and approximately 36% on wild types tested. These markers may be useful in marker assisted selection for the le gene when introgressing wild material into lupin breeding programs.

  11. An Integrated Approach Identifies Nhlh1 and Insm1 as Sonic Hedgehog-regulated Genes in Developing Cerebellum and Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico De Smaele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood arising from deregulated cerebellar development. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh pathway plays a critical role in cerebellar development and its aberrant expression has been identified in MB. Gene expression profiling of cerebella from 1- to 14-day-old mice unveiled a cluster of genes whose expression correlates with the levels of Hedgehog (HH activity. From this cluster, we identified Insm1 and Nhlh1/NSCL1 as novel HH targets induced by Shh treatment in cultured cerebellar granule cell progenitors. Nhlh1 promoter was found to be bound and activated by Gli1 transcription factor. Remarkably, the expression of these genes is also upregulated in mouse and human HH-dependent MBs, suggesting that they may be either a part of the HH-induced tumorigenic process or a specific trait of HH-dependent tumor cells.

  12. Three tightly linked genes encoding human type I keratins: conservation of sequence in the 5'-untranslated leader and 5'-upstream regions of coexpressed keratin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RayChaudhury, A; Marchuk, D; Lindhurst, M; Fuchs, E

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated and subcloned three separate segments of human DNA which share strong sequence homology with a previously sequenced gene encoding a type I keratin, K14 (50 kilodaltons). Restriction endonuclease mapping has demonstrated that these three genes are tightly linked chromosomally, whereas the K14 gene appears to be separate. As judged by positive hybridization-translation and Northern blot analyses, the central linked gene encodes a keratin, K17, which is expressed in abundance with K14 and two other type I keratins in cultured human epidermal cells. None of these other epidermal keratin mRNAs appears to be generated from the K17 gene through differential splicing of its transcript. The sequence of the K17 gene reveals striking homologies not only with the coding portions and intron positions of the K14 gene, but also with its 5'-noncoding and 5'-upstream sequences. These similarities may provide an important clue in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the coexpression of the two genes. Images PMID:2431270

  13. Screening for CPG Methylation and Allele Loss on Chromosome 14q to Identify Candidate Tumor Suppressor Genes in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to follow-up on chromosomal regions identified from a genome-wide linkage analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) families in Taiwan and an independent gene expression analysis of sporadic NPC tumors collected from a case-control study also conducted in Taiwan

  14. Major carcinogenic pathways identified by gene expression analysis of peritoneal mesotheliomas following chemical treatment in F344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was performed to characterize the gene expression profile and to identify the major carcinogenic pathways involved in rat peritoneal mesothelioma (RPM) formation following treatment of Fischer 344 rats with o-nitrotoluene (o-NT) or bromochloracetic acid (BCA). Oligo a...

  15. SUBTRACTIVE CDNA LIBRARIES IDENTIFY DIFFERENTIALLY-EXPRESSED GENES IN DORMANT AND GROWING BUDS OF LEAFY SPURGE (EUPHORBIA ESULA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two subtracted cDNA libraries (growing and paradormant) were developed to study genes associated with bud dormancy and initiation of shoot growth in leafy spurge. Initial analysis revealed that both libraries contained many redundant clones. To identify unique sequences represented in each library, ...

  16. Evolutionary Distance of Amino Acid Sequence Orthologs across Macaque Subspecies: Identifying Candidate Genes for SIV Resistance in Chinese Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cody T.; Roodgar, Morteza; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We use the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD) algorithm to identify amino acid sequence orthologs in the Chinese and Indian rhesus macaque draft sequences and estimate the evolutionary distance between such orthologs. We then use GOanna to map gene function annotations and human gene identifiers to the rhesus macaque amino acid sequences. We conclude methodologically by cross-tabulating a list of amino acid orthologs with large divergence scores with a list of genes known to be involved in SIV or HIV pathogenesis. We find that many of the amino acid sequences with large evolutionary divergence scores, as calculated by the RSD algorithm, have been shown to be related to HIV pathogenesis in previous laboratory studies. Four of the strongest candidate genes for SIVmac resistance in Chinese rhesus macaques identified in this study are CDK9, CXCL12, TRIM21, and TRIM32. Additionally, ANKRD30A, CTSZ, GORASP2, GTF2H1, IL13RA1, MUC16, NMDAR1, Notch1, NT5M, PDCD5, RAD50, and TM9SF2 were identified as possible candidates, among others. We failed to find many laboratory experiments contrasting the effects of Indian and Chinese orthologs at these sites on SIVmac pathogenesis, but future comparative studies might hold fertile ground for research into the biological mechanisms underlying innate resistance to SIVmac in Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:25884674

  17. Development of a DNA microarray to detect antimicrobial resistance genes identified in the national center for biotechnology information database

    Science.gov (United States)

    High density genotyping techniques are needed for investigating antimicrobial resistance especially in the case of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates. To achieve this all antimicrobial resistance genes in the NCBI Genbank database were identified by key word searches of sequence annotations and the...

  18. Microarray analysis identifies differentiation-associated genes regulated by human papillomavirus type 16 E6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarray analysis to determine which cellular genes are regulated by the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 oncoprotein. We found that E6 causes the downregulation of a large number of cellular genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation, including genes such as small proline-rich proteins, transglutaminase, involucrin, elafin, and cytokeratins, which are normally involved in the production of the cornified cell envelope. In contrast, E6 upregulates several genes, such as vimentin, that are usually expressed in mesenchymal lineages. E6 also modulates levels of genes involved in inflammation, including Cox-1 and Nag-1. By using E6 mutants that differentially target p53 for degradation, we determined that E6 regulates cellular genes by both p53-dependent and independent mechanisms. The microarray data also indicate that HPV-16 E6 modulates certain effects of HPV-16 E7 on cellular gene expression. The identification of E6-regulated genes in this analysis provides a basis for further studies on their role in HPV infection and cellular transformation

  19. X-Linked Gene Transcription Patterns in Female and Male In Vivo, In Vitro and Cloned Porcine Individual Blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chi-Hun; Jeong, Young Hee; Jeong, Yeun-Ik; Lee, Se-Yeong; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Eunsong; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2012-01-01

    To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF), and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average) were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes) but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process, which may eventually lead to problems with embryonic or placental defects. PMID:23236494

  20. Novel integron gene cassette arrays identified in a global collection of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, Mary; Harrison, Lee; Paterson, David; Marsh, Jane

    2010-03-01

    Investigation of integron carriage in a global collection of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica identified 3 unique class 1 integron gene cassette arrays not previously reported in this species. The present study used PCR and DNA sequence analysis to characterize the structure of these gene cassette arrays. A approximately 4.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette array arr2/cmlA5/bla (OXA10) /aadA1 was found in isolates belonging to serovars Isangi and Typhimurium from South Africa. A approximately 6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassettes aac(6')IIc/ereA2/IS1247/aac/arr/ereA2 was found in isolates belonging to serovar Heidelberg from the Philippines. In this gene cassette array, the insertion sequence, IS1247, and two putative resistance genes, disrupt the erythromycin resistance gene cassette. Finally, a approximately 6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette qacH/dfrA32/ereA1/aadA2/cmlA/aadA1 was found in serovar Stanley isolates from Taiwan. This integron, which has not been previously reported in any bacterial species, contains a new dihydrofolate reductase gene cassette sequence designated dfrA32, with only 90% sequence similarity to previously reported dfrA cassettes. The S. enterica integrons described in the present study represent novel collections of resistance genes which confer multi-drug resistance and have the potential to be widely disseminated among S. enterica as well as other bacterial species. PMID:19921331

  1. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ? 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352

  2. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A.; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A.; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. “Kent” was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ? 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like “cell wall,” “carbohydrate catabolic process” and “starch and sucrose metabolic process” among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352

  3. A de novo complete BRCA1 gene deletion identified in a Spanish woman with early bilateral breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llombart Pilar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in either of the two tumor-suppressor genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for a significant proportion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer cases. Most of these mutations consist of deletions, insertions, nonsense mutations, and splice variants, however an increasing number of large genomic rearrangements have been identified in these genes. Methods We analysed BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes by direct sequencing and MLPA. We confirmed the results by an alternative MLPA kit and characterized the BRCA1 deletion by Array CGH. Results We describe the first case of a patient with no strong family history of the disease who developed early-onset bilateral breast cancer with a de novo complete BRCA1 gene deletion in the germinal line. The detected deletion started from the region surrounding the VAT1 locus to the beginning of NBR1 gene, including the RND2, ?BRCA1, BRCA1 and NBR2 complete genes. Conclusion This finding supports the large genomic rearrangement screening of BRCA genes in young breast cancer patients without family history, as well as in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families previously tested negative for other variations.

  4. Expression Analysis of Immune Related Genes Identified from the Coelomocytes of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in Response to LPS Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus occupies a basal position during the evolution of deuterostomes and is also an important aquaculture species. In order to identify more immune effectors, transcriptome sequencing of A. japonicus coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge was performed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. One hundred and seven differentially expressed genes were selected and divided into four functional categories including pathogen recognition (25 genes, reorganization of cytoskeleton (27 genes, inflammation (41 genes and apoptosis (14 genes. They were analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and downstream signaling transduction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs of 10 representative genes validated the accuracy and reliability of RNA sequencing results with the correlation coefficients from 0.88 to 0.98 and p-value <0.05. Expression analysis of immune-related genes after LPS challenge will be useful in understanding the immune response mechanisms of A. japonicus against pathogen invasion and developing strategies for resistant markers selection.

  5. A novel missense mutation in the NSDHL gene identified in a Lithuanian family by targeted next-generation sequencing causes CK syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiksaitiene, Egle; Caro, Alfonso; Benušien?, Egl?; Oltra, Silvestre; Orellana, Carmen; Mork?nien?, Aušra; Roselló, Mónica Pilar; Kasnauskiene, Jurate; Monfort, Sandra; Ku?inskas, Vaidutis; Mayo, Sonia; Martinez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    The NSDHL gene encodes 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase involved in one of the later steps of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Mutations in this gene can cause CHILD syndrome (OMIM 308050) and CK syndrome (OMIM 300831). CHILD syndrome is an X-linked dominant, male lethal disorder caused by mutations in the NSDHL gene that result in the loss of the function of the NSDHL protein. CK syndrome is an allelic X-linked recessive disorder. So far, 13 patients with CK syndrome from two families have been reported on. We present a new five-generation family with affected males manifesting clinical features of CK syndrome. Next generation sequencing was targeted to a custom panel of 542 genes with known or putative implication on intellectual disability. Missense mutation p.Gly152Asp was identified in the NSDHL gene in the DNA sample of the affected male. Mutation carrier status was confirmed for all the obligate carriers in the family. The clinical features of the affected males in the family manifested as weak fetal movements, severe intellectual disability, seizures, spasticity, atrophy of optic discs, microcephaly, plagiocephaly, skeletal abnormalities, and minor facial anomalies, including a high nasal bridge, strabismus, and micrognathia. A highly significant preferential transmission of the mutation was observed in this and previous families segregating CK syndrome. Our report expands the clinical spectrum of this syndrome to include weak fetal movements, spasticity, and plagiocephaly, and transmission ratio distortion. The various findings in these patients increase our understanding of the diversity of the clinical presentation of cholesterol biosynthesis disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25900314

  6. Searching for RFLP markers to identify genes for aluminum tolerance in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) that control aluminum (Al) tolerance in maize. The strategy used was bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and the genetic materials utilized were the F2, F3 and F4 populations derived from a cross between the Al-susceptible inbred line L53 and Al-tolerant inbred line L1327. The populations were evaluated in a nutrient solution containing a toxic concentration of Al (6 ppm) and relative seminal root length (RSRL) was used as a phenotypic measure of tolerance. Seedlings of the F2 population with the highest and lowest RSRL values were transplanted to the field and subsequently selfed to obtain F3 and F4 families. The efficiency of the phenotypic index for selection was found to be greater when mean values were used instead of individual RSRL values. F3 and F4 families were then evaluated in nutrient solution to identify those that were not segregating. One hundred and thirteen probes, with an average interval of 30 cM, covering the 10 maize chromosomes were tested for their ability to discriminate the parental lines. Fifty four of these probes were polymorphic with 46 showing codominance. These probes were hybridized with DNA from two F3 contrasting, bulks and three probes on chromosome 8 were found to be able distinguish the F3 contrasting bulks on the basis of band position and intensity. DNA of families from the F3 bulks hybridized with these probes showed the presence of heterozygous individuals. These three selected probes were also hybridized with DNA from F2 individuals. Two of them showed a significant regression coefficient with the character. However, each of these probes explained only about 10% of the phenotypic variance observed in 70 F2 individuals. One of the probes UMC 103 was hybridized with DNA from 168 F4 families and the regression analysis of RFLP data showed a significant regression coefficient with a determination coefficient of 4.7%. These results suggest that on chromosome 8 in maize there is a region related to aluminum tolerance. (author)

  7. Using BAC transgenesis in zebrafish to identify regulatory sequences of the amyloid precursor protein gene in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakes Leighcraft A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding DNA in and around the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP gene that is central to Alzheimer’s disease (AD shares little sequence similarity with that of appb in zebrafish. Identifying DNA domains regulating expression of the gene in such situations becomes a challenge. Taking advantage of the zebrafish system that allows rapid functional analyses of gene regulatory sequences, we previously showed that two discontinuous DNA domains in zebrafish appb are important for expression of the gene in neurons: an enhancer in intron 1 and sequences 28–31 kb upstream of the gene. Here we identify the putative transcription factor binding sites responsible for this distal cis-acting regulation, and use that information to identify a regulatory region of the human APP gene. Results Functional analyses of intron 1 enhancer mutations in enhancer-trap BACs expressed as transgenes in zebrafish identified putative binding sites of two known transcription factor proteins, E4BP4/ NFIL3 and Forkhead, to be required for expression of appb. A cluster of three E4BP4 sites at ?31?kb is also shown to be essential for neuron-specific expression, suggesting that the dependence of expression on upstream sequences is mediated by these E4BP4 sites. E4BP4/ NFIL3 and XFD1 sites in the intron enhancer and E4BP4/ NFIL3 sites at ?31?kb specifically and efficiently bind the corresponding zebrafish proteins in vitro. These sites are statistically over-represented in both the zebrafish appb and the human APP genes, although their locations are different. Remarkably, a cluster of four E4BP4 sites in intron 4 of human APP exists in actively transcribing chromatin in a human neuroblastoma cell-line, SHSY5Y, expressing APP as shown using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP experiments. Thus although the two genes share little sequence conservation, they appear to share the same regulatory logic and are regulated by a similar set of transcription factors. Conclusion The results suggest that the clock-regulated and immune system modulator transcription factor E4BP4/ NFIL3 likely regulates the expression of both appb in zebrafish and APP in humans. It suggests potential human APP gene regulatory pathways, not on the basis of comparing DNA primary sequences with zebrafish appb but on the model of conservation of transcription factors.

  8. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerin Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR, which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(croRNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. Methods We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC. High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31 and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145 target miRNAs were assessed. Results In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30, miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the top six most stably expressed miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 described herein should be validated as suitable reference genes in both high-throughput and lower throughput RT-qPCR colorectal miRNA studies.

  9. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2010-04-29

    Abstract Background Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. Methods We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. Results In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the top six most stably expressed miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) described herein should be validated as suitable reference genes in both high-throughput and lower throughput RT-qPCR colorectal miRNA studies.

  10. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. METHODS: We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. RESULTS: In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the top six most stably expressed miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) described herein should be validated as suitable reference genes in both high-throughput and lower throughput RT-qPCR colorectal miRNA studies.

  11. Development of sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCARs) from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers tightly linked to the Vf gene in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Huaracha, E; Korban, S S

    2001-02-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers have become widely used in saturating the region of a gene of interest for the ultimate goal of map-based cloning of the gene or for marker-assisted selection. However, conversion of AFLP markers into restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers will greatly expand their usefulness in genetic applications. Previously, we have identified 15 AFLP markers tightly linked to the Vf gene conferring scab resistance in apple. In this study, we have successfully converted 11 of these AFLPs into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Of the remaining four nonconverted AFLP markers, one, ET2MC8-1, has been found to be very short (83 base pairs) and is an A/T rich (90%) marker; a second, EA2MG11-1, has shown identical sequences between Malus floribunda 821 (the original source of the Vf gene) and scab-susceptible apple cultivars; while the other two, EA12MG16-1 and ET8MG1-1, have not been cloned. Using the 11 converted SCAR markers along with 5 previously identified SCAR markers, a high-resolution linkage map around the Vf gene has been constructed, and found to be consistent with its corresponding AFLP map. Three converted SCAR markers (ACS-3, -7, and -9) are inseparable from the Vf gene; whereas one (ACS-6) is located left of, and the remaining seven (ACS-1, -2, -4, -5, -8, -10, and -11) are located right of the Vf gene at genetic distances of 0.4 and 0.2 cM, respectively. A reliable and robust procedure for development of SCAR markers from AFLP markers is presented. PMID:11269357

  12. Identifying potential functional impact of mutations and polymorphisms: Linking heart failure, increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILLESTOUMANIANTZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians have discovered several important concepts regarding the mechanisms responsible for increased risk of arrhythmias, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. One major step in defining the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac electrical behaviour has been the identification of single mutations that greatly increase the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by changing channel-gating characteristics. Indeed, mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, such as SCN5A, which encodes the major cardiac Na+ channel, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias such as long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disorder, sinus node dysfunction or sudden infant death syndrome. In addition, genes encoding ion channel accessory proteins, like anchoring or chaperone proteins, which modify the expression, the regulation of endocytosis and the degradation of ion channel ?-subunits have also been reported as susceptibility genes for arrhythmic syndromes. The regulation of ion channel protein expression also depends on a fine-tuned balance among different other mechanisms, such as gene transcription, RNA processing, post-transcriptional control of gene expression by miRNA, protein synthesis, assembly and post-translational modification and trafficking.

  13. Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Traboulsi, Elias I.; Heon, Elise; Pittler, Steven J.; Milam, Ann H.; Maguire, Albert M.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M.; Bennett, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Retinal gene therapy restores vision to blind canine and murine models of LCA. Gene therapy in blind humans with LCA from RPE65 mutations may also have potential for success but only if the retinal photoreceptor layer is intact, as in the early-disease stage-treated animals. Here, we use high-resolution in vivo microscopy to quantify...

  14. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Lobe-Specific and Common Disruptions of Multiple Gene Networks in Testosterone-Supported, 17?-Estradiol- or Diethylstilbestrol-Induced Prostate Dysplasia in Noble Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville N.C. Tam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES is commonly believed to mimic the action of the natural estrogen 17?-estradiol (E2. To determine if these two estrogens exert similar actions in prostate carcinogenesis, we elevated circulating levels of estrogen in Noble (NBL rats with E2/DES-filled implants, while maintaining physiological levels of testosterone (T in the animals with T-filled implants. The two estrogens induced dysplasia in a lobe-specific manner, with E2 targeting only the lateral prostate (LP and DES impacting only the ventral prostate (VP. Gene expression profiling identified distinct and common E2-disrupted versus DES-disrupted gene networks in each lobe. More importantly, hierarchical clustering analyses revealed that T + E2 treatment primarily affected the gene expression pattern in the LP, whereas T + DES treatment primarily affected the gene expression profile in the VP. Gene ontology analyses and pathway mapping suggest that the two hormone treatments disrupt unique and/or common cellular processes, including cell development, proliferation, motility, apoptosis, and estrogen signaling, which may be linked to dysplasia development in the rat prostate. These findings suggest that the effects of xenoestrogens and natural estrogens on the rat prostate are more divergent than previously suspected and that these differences may explain the lobe-specific carcinogenic actions of the hormones.

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of an EGFR Indirectly Related Pathway Identified PTEN and MMP9 as Reliable Diagnostic Markers for Human Glial Tumor Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Comincini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mRNA levels of five EGFR indirectly related genes, EGFR, HB-EGF, ADAM17, PTEN, and MMP9, have been assessed by Real-time PCR in a panel of 37 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and in 5 normal brain samples; as a result, in glioblastoma, ADAM17 and PTEN expression was significantly lower than in normal brain samples, and, in particular, a statistically significant inverse correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels. To verify if this correlation was conserved in gliomas, PTEN and MMP9 expression was further investigated in an additional panel of 16 anaplastic astrocytoma specimens and, in parallel, in different human normal and astrocytic tumor cell lines. In anaplastic astrocytomas PTEN expression was significantly higher than in glioblastoma multiforme, but no significant correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 expression. PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels were also employed to identify subgroups of specimens within the different glioma malignancy grades and to define a gene expression-based diagnostic classification scheme. In conclusion, this gene expression survey highlighted that the combined measurement of PTEN and MMP9 transcripts might represent a novel reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of high-grade gliomas, and it also suggested a functional link involving these genes in glial tumors.

  16. Integrated Bioinformatic and Targeted Deletion Analyses of the SRS Gene Superfamily Identify SRS29C as a Negative Regulator of Toxoplasma Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Wasmuth, James D.; Pszenny, Viviana; Haile, Simon; Jansen, Emily M.; Gast, Alexandra T.; Sher, Alan; Boyle, Jon P.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Parkinson, John; Grigg, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The Toxoplasma gondii SRS gene superfamily is structurally related to SRS29B (formerly SAG1), a surface adhesin that binds host cells and stimulates host immunity. Comparative genomic analyses of three Toxoplasma strains identified 182 SRS genes distributed across 14 chromosomes at 57 genomic loci. Eight distinct SRS subfamilies were resolved. A core 69 functional gene orthologs were identified, and strain-specific expansions and pseudogenization were common. Gene expression profiling demonst...

  17. Gametogenesis in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas: A Microarrays-Based Analysis Identifies Sex and Stage Specific Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M.; Lelong, Christophe; Huvet, Arnaud; Kellner, Kristell; Dubos, Marie-Pierre; Riviere, Guillaume; Boudry, Pierre; Favrel, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Background The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Lophotrochozoa) is an alternative and irregular protandrous hermaphrodite: most individuals mature first as males and then change sex several times. Little is known about genetic and phenotypic basis of sex differentiation in oysters, and little more about the molecular pathways regulating reproduction. We have recently developed and validated a microarray containing 31,918 oligomers (Dheilly et al., 2011) representing the oyster transcriptome. The application of this microarray to the study of mollusk gametogenesis should provide a better understanding of the key factors involved in sex differentiation and the regulation of oyster reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene expression was studied in gonads of oysters cultured over a yearly reproductive cycle. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering showed a significant divergence in gene expression patterns of males and females coinciding with the start of gonial mitosis. ANOVA analysis of the data revealed 2,482 genes differentially expressed during the course of males and/or females gametogenesis. The expression of 434 genes could be localized in either germ cells or somatic cells of the gonad by comparing the transcriptome of female gonads to the transcriptome of stripped oocytes and somatic tissues. Analysis of the annotated genes revealed conserved molecular mechanisms between mollusks and mammals: genes involved in chromatin condensation, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and meiosis regulation, transcription, translation and apoptosis were expressed in both male and female gonads. Most interestingly, early expressed male-specific genes included bindin and a dpy-30 homolog and female-specific genes included foxL2, nanos homolog 3, a pancreatic lipase related protein, cd63 and vitellogenin. Further functional analyses are now required in order to investigate their role in sex differentiation in oysters. Conclusions/Significance This study allowed us to identify potential markers of early sex differentiation in the oyster C. gigas, an alternative hermaphrodite mollusk. We also provided new highly valuable information on genes specifically expressed by mature spermatozoids and mature oocytes. PMID:22590533

  18. Unique genomic arrangements in an invasive serotype M23 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes identify genes that induce hypervirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yunjuan; Liang, Zhong; Booyjzsen, Claire; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Li, Yang; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Song, Hui; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-12-01

    The first genome sequence of a group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M23 (emm23) strain (M23ND), isolated from an invasive human infection, has been completed. The genome of this opacity factor-negative (SOF(-)) strain is composed of a circular chromosome of 1,846,477 bp. Gene profiling showed that this strain contained six phage-encoded and 24 chromosomally inherited well-known virulence factors, as well as 11 pseudogenes. The bacterium has acquired four large prophage elements, ?M23ND.1 to ?M23ND.4, harboring genes encoding streptococcal superantigen (ssa), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (speC, speH, and speI), and DNases (spd1 and spd3), with phage integrase genes being present at one flank of each phage insertion, suggesting that the phages were integrated by horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analyses revealed unique large-scale genomic rearrangements that result in genomic rearrangements that differ from those of previously sequenced GAS strains. These rearrangements resulted in an imbalanced genomic architecture and translocations of chromosomal virulence genes. The covS sensor in M23ND was identified as a pseudogene, resulting in the attenuation of speB function and increased expression of the genes for the chromosomal virulence factors multiple-gene activator (mga), M protein (emm23), C5a peptidase (scpA), fibronectin-binding proteins (sfbI and fbp54), streptolysin O (slo), hyaluronic acid capsule (hasA), streptokinase (ska), and DNases (spd and spd3), which were verified by PCR. These genes are responsible for facilitating host epithelial cell binding and and/or immune evasion, thus further contributing to the virulence of M23ND. In conclusion, strain M23ND has become highly pathogenic as the result of a combination of multiple genetic factors, particularly gene composition and mutations, prophage integrations, unique genomic rearrangements, and regulated expression of critical virulence factors. PMID:25225265

  19. Three encochitinase-encoding genes identified in the biocontrol fungus Clonostachys rosea are differentially expressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamarabadi, Mojtaba; Jensen, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Three endochitinase-encoding genes, cr-ech58, cr-ech42 and cr-ech37 were identified and characterised from the mycoparasitic C. rosea strain IK726. The endochitinase activity was specifically induced in media containing chitin or Fusarium culmorum cell walls as sole carbon sources. RT-PCR analysis showed that the three genes were differentially expressed. The expression of the cr-ech42 and cr-ech37 genes was triggered by F. culmorum cell walls and chitin whereas glucose repressed their expression. In contrast, the expression of cr-ech58 was not triggered by F. culmorum cell walls and chitin, suggesting a different role for this endochitinase. Phylogenetically, the cr-ech42 and cr-ech37 genes showed to be orthologous to endochitinase 42 and 37 kDa encoding genes from other mycoparasitic fungi, while no orthologous gene for the cr-ech58 gene was found. Three genetically modified mutants of C. rosea were made by disruption of the endochitinase genes via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and their biocontrol activity was evaluated. While in planta bioassays showed no significant difference in biocontrol efficacy between the disruptants and the wildtype, the real time RT-PCR analysis showed that disruption of each endochitinase gene affected the activity of C. rosea during interaction with F. culmorum in liquid cultures. Electronic supplementary material  The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00294-008-0199-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  20. Structural analysis of the genome of breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 identifies twelve expressed fusion genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte Ina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently emerged that common epithelial cancers such as breast cancers have fusion genes like those in leukaemias. In a representative breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-30, we searched for fusion genes, by analysing genome rearrangements. Results We first analysed rearrangements of the ZR-75-30 genome, to around 10kb resolution, by molecular cytogenetic approaches, combining array painting and array CGH. We then compared this map with genomic junctions determined by paired-end sequencing. Most of the breakpoints found by array painting and array CGH were identified in the paired end sequencing—55% of the unamplified breakpoints and 97% of the amplified breakpoints (as these are represented by more sequence reads. From this analysis we identified 9 expressed fusion genes: APPBP2-PHF20L1, BCAS3-HOXB9, COL14A1-SKAP1, TAOK1-PCGF2, TIAM1-NRIP1, TIMM23-ARHGAP32, TRPS1-LASP1, USP32-CCDC49 and ZMYM4-OPRD1. We also determined the genomic junctions of a further three expressed fusion genes that had been described by others, BCAS3-ERBB2, DDX5-DEPDC6/DEPTOR and PLEC1-ENPP2. Of this total of 12 expressed fusion genes, 9 were in the coamplification. Due to the sensitivity of the technologies used, we estimate these 12 fusion genes to be around two-thirds of the true total. Many of the fusions seem likely to be driver mutations. For example, PHF20L1, BCAS3, TAOK1, PCGF2, and TRPS1 are fused in other breast cancers. HOXB9 and PHF20L1 are members of gene families that are fused in other neoplasms. Several of the other genes are relevant to cancer—in addition to ERBB2, SKAP1 is an adaptor for Src, DEPTOR regulates the mTOR pathway and NRIP1 is an estrogen-receptor coregulator. Conclusions This is the first structural analysis of a breast cancer genome that combines classical molecular cytogenetic approaches with sequencing. Paired-end sequencing was able to detect almost all breakpoints, where there was adequate read depth. It supports the view that gene breakage and gene fusion are important classes of mutation in breast cancer, with a typical breast cancer expressing many fusion genes.

  1. t-Test at the Probe Level: An Alternative Method to Identify Statistically Significant Genes for Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Boareto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray data analysis typically consists in identifying a list of differentially expressed genes (DEG, i.e., the genes that are differentially expressed between two experimental conditions. Variance shrinkage methods have been considered a better choice than the standard t-test for selecting the DEG because they correct the dependence of the error with the expression level. This dependence is mainly caused by errors in background correction, which more severely affects genes with low expression values. Here, we propose a new method for identifying the DEG that overcomes this issue and does not require background correction or variance shrinkage. Unlike current methods, our methodology is easy to understand and implement. It consists of applying the standard t-test directly on the normalized intensity data, which is possible because the probe intensity is proportional to the gene expression level and because the t-test is scale- and location-invariant. This methodology considerably improves the sensitivity and robustness of the list of DEG when compared with the t-test applied to preprocessed data and to the most widely used shrinkage methods, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM and Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA. Our approach is useful especially when the genes of interest have small differences in expression and therefore get ignored by standard variance shrinkage methods.

  2. A Loss of Function Screen of Identified Genome-Wide Association Study Loci Reveals New Genes Controlling Hematopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielczyk-Maczy?ska, Ewa; Serbanovic-Canic, Jovana; Ferreira, Lauren; Soranzo, Nicole; Stemple, Derek L.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Cvejic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The formation of mature cells by blood stem cells is very well understood at the cellular level and we know many of the key transcription factors that control fate decisions. However, many upstream signalling and downstream effector processes are only partially understood. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly useful in providing new directions to dissect these pathways. A GWAS meta-analysis identified 68 genetic loci controlling platelet size and number. Only a quarter of those genes, however, are known regulators of hematopoiesis. To determine function of the remaining genes we performed a medium-throughput genetic screen in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) to knock down protein expression, followed by histological analysis of selected genes using a wide panel of different hematopoietic markers. The information generated by the initial knockdown was used to profile phenotypes and to position candidate genes hierarchically in hematopoiesis. Further analysis of brd3a revealed its essential role in differentiation but not maintenance and survival of thrombocytes. Using the from-GWAS-to-function strategy we have not only identified a series of genes that represent novel regulators of thrombopoiesis and hematopoiesis, but this work also represents, to our knowledge, the first example of a functional genetic screening strategy that is a critical step toward obtaining biologically relevant functional data from GWA study for blood cell traits. PMID:25010335

  3. Identifying overlapping mutated driver pathways by constructing gene networks in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale cancer genomic projects are providing lots of data on genomic, epigenomic and gene expression aberrations in many cancer types. One key challenge is to detect functional driver pathways and to filter out nonfunctional passenger genes in cancer genomics. Vandin et al. introduced the Maximum Weight Sub-matrix Problem to find driver pathways and showed that it is an NP-hard problem. Methods To find a better solution and solve the problem more efficiently, we present a network-based method (NBM) to detect overlapping driver pathways automatically. This algorithm can directly find driver pathways or gene sets de novo from somatic mutation data utilizing two combinatorial properties, high coverage and high exclusivity, without any prior information. We firstly construct gene networks based on the approximate exclusivity between each pair of genes using somatic mutation data from many cancer patients. Secondly, we present a new greedy strategy to add or remove genes for obtaining overlapping gene sets with driver mutations according to the properties of high exclusivity and high coverage. Results To assess the efficiency of the proposed NBM, we apply the method on simulated data and compare results obtained from the NBM, RME, Dendrix and Multi-Dendrix. NBM obtains optimal results in less than nine seconds on a conventional computer and the time complexity is much less than the three other methods. To further verify the performance of NBM, we apply the method to analyze somatic mutation data from five real biological data sets such as the mutation profiles of 90 glioblastoma tumor samples and 163 lung carcinoma samples. NBM detects groups of genes which overlap with known pathways, including P53, RB and RTK/RAS/PI(3)K signaling pathways. New gene sets with p-value less than 1e-3 are found from the somatic mutation data. Conclusions NBM can detect more biologically relevant gene sets. Results show that NBM outperforms other algorithms for detecting driver pathways or gene sets. Further research will be conducted with the use of novel machine learning techniques. PMID:25859819

  4. The Degree of Redundancy in Metabolic Genes Is Linked to Mode of Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    An understanding of the factors favoring the maintenance of duplicate genes in microbial genomes is essential for developing models of microbial evolution. A genome-scale flux-balance analysis of the metabolic network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has suggested that gene duplications primarily provide increased enzyme dosage to enhance metabolic flux because the incidence of gene duplications in essential genes is no higher than that in nonessential genes. Here, we used genome-scale metabolic m...

  5. An Integrative Method for Identifying the Over-Annotated Protein-Coding Genes in Microbial Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jia-Feng; Xiao, Ke; Jiang, Dong-Ke; GUO, JING; Wang, Ji-Hua; Xiao SUN

    2011-01-01

    The falsely annotated protein-coding genes have been deemed one of the major causes accounting for the annotating errors in public databases. Although many filtering approaches have been designed for the over-annotated protein-coding genes, some are questionable due to the resultant increase in false negative. Furthermore, there is no webserver or software specifically devised for the problem of over-annotation. In this study, we propose an integrative algorithm for detecting the over-annotat...

  6. The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; Depamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes (1). We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first non-seed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionary diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than ...

  7. Identification of RAPD markers linked to the Uvf-1 gene conferring hypersensitive resistance against rust (Uromyces viciae-fabae) in Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, C M; Sillero, J C; Rubiales, D; Moreno, M T; Torres, A M

    2003-07-01

    Bulk segregant analysis was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to a gene determining hypersensitive resistance in Vicia faba line 2N52 against race 1 of the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. The monogenic nature of the resistance was determined by analyzing the F(2) population from a cross between resistant line 2N52 and susceptible line VF-176, and further confirmed in the F(2:3)-derived families. Linkage of the RAPD markers was confirmed by screening 55 F(2) plants segregating for resistance. Three RAPD markers (OPD13(736), OPL18(1032) and OPI20(900)) were mapped in coupling phase to the resistance gene for race 1 ( Uvf-1). No recombinants between OPI20(900) and Uvf-1 were detected. Two additional markers (OPP02(1172) and OPR07(930)) were linked to the gene in repulsion phase at a distance of 9.9 and 11.5 cM, respectively. The application of marker-assisted selection to develop new faba bean varieties with rust resistance genes is discussed. PMID:12698251

  8. Integrative network analysis identifies key genes and pathways in the progression of hepatitis C virus induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansey William P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been increasing in the United States and Europe during recent years. Although HCV-associated HCC shares many pathological characteristics with other types of HCC, its molecular mechanisms of progression remain elusive. Methods To investigate the underlying pathology, we developed a systematic approach to identify deregulated biological networks in HCC by integrating gene expression profiles with high-throughput protein-protein interaction data. We examined five stages including normal (control liver, cirrhotic liver, dysplasia, early HCC and advanced HCC. Results Among the five consecutive pathological stages, we identified four networks including precancerous networks (Normal-Cirrhosis and Cirrhosis-Dysplasia and cancerous networks (Dysplasia-Early HCC, Early-Advanced HCC. We found little overlap between precancerous and cancerous networks, opposite to a substantial overlap within precancerous or cancerous networks. We further found that the hub proteins interacted with HCV proteins, suggesting direct interventions of these networks by the virus. The functional annotation of each network demonstrates a high degree of consistency with current knowledge in HCC. By assembling these functions into a module map, we could depict the stepwise biological functions that are deregulated in HCV-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Additionally, these networks enable us to identify important genes and pathways by developmental stage, such as LCK signalling pathways in cirrhosis, MMP genes and TIMP genes in dysplastic liver, and CDC2-mediated cell cycle signalling in early and advanced HCC. CDC2 (alternative symbol CDK1, a cell cycle regulatory gene, is particularly interesting due to its topological position in temporally deregulated networks. Conclusions Our study uncovers a temporal spectrum of functional deregulation and prioritizes key genes and pathways in the progression of HCV induced HCC. These findings present a wealth of information for further investigation.

  9. Assessment of three mitochondrial genes (16S, Cytb, CO1) for identifying species in the Praomyini tribe (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Violaine; Schaeffer, Brigitte; Missoup, Alain Didier; Kennis, Jan; Colyn, Marc; Denys, Christiane; Tatard, Caroline; Cruaud, Corinne; Laredo, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The Praomyini tribe is one of the most diverse and abundant groups of Old World rodents. Several species are known to be involved in crop damage and in the epidemiology of several human and cattle diseases. Due to the existence of sibling species their identification is often problematic. Thus an easy, fast and accurate species identification tool is needed for non-systematicians to correctly identify Praomyini species. In this study we compare the usefulness of three genes (16S, Cytb, CO1) for identifying species of this tribe. A total of 426 specimens representing 40 species (sampled across their geographical range) were sequenced for the three genes. Nearly all of the species included in our study are monophyletic in the neighbour joining trees. The degree of intra-specific variability tends to be lower than the divergence between species, but no barcoding gap is detected. The success rate of the statistical methods of species identification is excellent (up to 99% or 100% for statistical supervised classification methods as the k-Nearest Neighbour or Random Forest). The 16S gene is 2.5 less variable than the Cytb and CO1 genes. As a result its discriminatory power is smaller. To sum up, our results suggest that using DNA markers for identifying species in the Praomyini tribe is a largely valid approach, and that the CO1 and Cytb genes are better DNA markers than the 16S gene. Our results confirm the usefulness of statistical methods such as the Random Forest and the 1-NN methods to assign a sequence to a species, even when the number of species is relatively large. Based on our NJ trees and the distribution of all intraspecific and interspecific pairwise nucleotide distances, we highlight the presence of several potentially new species within the Praomyini tribe that should be subject to corroboration assessments. PMID:22574186

  10. Whole genome co-expression analysis of soybean cytochrome P450 genes identifies nodulation-specific P450 monooxygenases

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    Pandey Sona

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s catalyze oxidation of various substrates using oxygen and NAD(PH. Plant P450s are involved in the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites performing diverse biological functions. The recent availability of the soybean genome sequence allows us to identify and analyze soybean putative P450s at a genome scale. Co-expression analysis using an available soybean microarray and Illumina sequencing data provides clues for functional annotation of these enzymes. This approach is based on the assumption that genes that have similar expression patterns across a set of conditions may have a functional relationship. Results We have identified a total number of 332 full-length P450 genes and 378 pseudogenes from the soybean genome. From the full-length sequences, 195 genes belong to A-type, which could be further divided into 20 families. The remaining 137 genes belong to non-A type P450s and are classified into 28 families. A total of 178 probe sets were found to correspond to P450 genes on the Affymetrix soybean array. Out of these probe sets, 108 represented single genes. Using the 28 publicly available microarray libraries that contain organ-specific information, some tissue-specific P450s were identified. Similarly, stress responsive soybean P450s were retrieved from 99 microarray soybean libraries. We also utilized Illumina transcriptome sequencing technology to analyze the expressions of all 332 soybean P450 genes. This dataset contains total RNAs isolated from nodules, roots, root tips, leaves, flowers, green pods, apical meristem, mock-inoculated and Bradyrhizobium japonicum-infected root hair cells. The tissue-specific expression patterns of these P450 genes were analyzed and the expression of a representative set of genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. We performed the co-expression analysis on many of the 108 P450 genes on the Affymetrix arrays. First we confirmed that CYP93C5 (an isoflavone synthase gene is co-expressed with several genes encoding isoflavonoid-related metabolic enzymes. We then focused on nodulation-induced P450s and found that CYP728H1 was co-expressed with the genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism. Similarly, CYP736A34 was highly co-expressed with lipoxygenase, lectin and CYP83D1, all of which are involved in root and nodule development. Conclusions The genome scale analysis of P450s in soybean reveals many unique features of these important enzymes in this crop although the functions of most of them are largely unknown. Gene co-expression analysis proves to be a useful tool to infer the function of uncharacterized genes. Our work presented here could provide important leads toward functional genomics studies of soybean P450s and their regulatory network through the integration of reverse genetics, biochemistry, and metabolic profiling tools. The identification of nodule-specific P450s and their further exploitation may help us to better understand the intriguing process of soybean and rhizobium interaction.

  11. X-Linked Gene Transcription Patterns in Female and Male In Vivo, In Vitro and Cloned Porcine Individual Blastocysts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chi-Hun; Jeong, Young Hee; Jeong, Yeun-Ik; Lee, Se-Yeong; Jeong, Yeon-woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Kim, Nam-Hyung; JEUNG, EUI-BAE; HYUN, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Chang-kyu; Lee, Eunsong; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2012-01-01

    To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF), and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher i...

  12. Closely linked early and late histone H2B genes are differentially expressed after microinjection into sea urchin zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, A M; Catlin, T L; Kidson, S H; Maxson, R

    1988-01-01

    An early and a late histone H2B gene from the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus were linked in a single plasmid and injected into the eggs of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. The levels of transcripts of injected early and late genes and of endogenous early genes were monitored during development by a ribonuclease protection assay. Transcripts of both the injected and endogenous early genes peaked during the blastula stage and decreased severalfold by the mesenchyme blastula stage. Transcripts of the injected late gene became detectable at the blastula stage and increased in amount subsequently, until at least the early gastrula stage, 28 hr after fertilization. Thus, the pattern of expression of the injected early and late H2B genes is similar to that of their endogenous counterparts. These results show that DNA sequences regulating the temporal pattern of early and late H2B gene expression must lie within the cloned DNA segments; i.e., within 600 base pairs of the early H2B gene and 3 kilobases of the late H2B gene. Images PMID:2829190

  13. The genes encoding mammalian chaperonin 60 and chaperonin 10 are linked head-to-head and share a bidirectional promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M T; Herd, S M; Sberna, G; Samuel, M M; Hoogenraad, N J; Høj, P B

    1997-09-01

    Chaperonins are a class of stress-inducible molecular chaperones involved in protein folding. We report the cloning, sequencing and characterisation of the rat mitochondrial chaperonin 60 and chaperonin 10 genes. The two genes are arranged in a head-to-head configuration and together comprise 14 kb and contain 14 introns. The genes are linked together by a region of approximately 280 bp, which constitutes a bidirectional promoter and includes a common heat-shock element. Insertion of the shared promoter region between two reporter genes is sufficient to drive their expression under both constitutive and heat-shock conditions. The arrangement of the mammalian chaperonin genes suggests the potential to provide the coordinated regulation of their products in a manner that is mechanistically distinct from, yet conceptually similar to, that employed by the bacterial chaperonin (groE) operon. PMID:9322735

  14. Mutations in the connexin 32 gene in X-linked dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1)

    OpenAIRE

    Fairweather, N.; Bell, C.; Cochrane, S.; Chelly, J.; Wang, S.; Mostacciuolo, Ml; Monaco, AP; Haites, Ne

    1994-01-01

    X-linked dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) is a peripheral neuropathy which maps to Xq13 and is flanked by the loci DXS106 (Xq11.2-q12) and DXS559 (Xq13.1). Contained within this interval of approximately 2-3Mb of DNA is the gene, connexin 32 (locus designation GJ beta 1). This gene encodes a gap junction protein which is expressed in large quantities within the liver and throughout a range of other mammalian tissues. We have sequenced the coding region of exon 2 of this gene from ...

  15. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene to target both DNA strands; the target DNA was cut by a restriction endonuclease close to the probe binding sites, which subsequently were made accessible by 5'-3' exonucleolysis. After hybridization, the padlock probe was circularized by ligation and served as template for in situ RCA, primed by the probe target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS-defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells.

  16. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic identification of approximately 25% of the essential genes required for craniofacial development. The identification of zebrafish models for two human disease syndromes indicates that homologs to the other genes are likely to also be relevant for human craniofacial development. The initial characterization of wdr68 suggests an important role in craniofacial development for the highly conserved Wdr68-Dyrk1 protein complexes.

  17. CoreGenes: A computational tool for identifying and cataloging "core" genes in a set of small genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Seto Donald; Mazumder Raja; Zafar Nikhat

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Improvements in DNA sequencing technology and methodology have led to the rapid expansion of databases comprising DNA sequence, gene and genome data. Lower operational costs and heightened interest resulting from initial intriguing novel discoveries from genomics are also contributing to the accumulation of these data sets. A major challenge is to analyze and to mine data from these databases, especially whole genomes. There is a need for computational tools that look glob...

  18. Splicing defects in ABCD1 gene leading to both exon skipping and partial intron retention in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy Tunisian patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallabi, Fakhri; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Ben Chehida, Amel; Ben Salah, Ghada; Ben Turkia, Hadhami; Tebib, Neji; Keskes, Leila; Kamoun, Hassen

    2015-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and adrenal cortex secondary to mutations in the ABCD1 gene that encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein: the adrenoleukodystrophy protein. The disease is characterized by high concentrations of very long-chain fatty acids in plasma, adrenal, testicular and nervous tissues. Various types of mutations have been identified in the ABCD1 gene: point mutations, insertions, and deletions. To date, more than 40 point mutations have been reported at the splice junctions of the ABCD1 gene; only few functional studies have been performed to explore these types of mutations. In this study, we have identified de novo splice site mutation c.1780+2T>G in ABCD1 gene in an X-ALD Tunisian patient. Sequencing analysis of cDNA showed a minor transcript lacking exon 7 and a major transcript with a partial intron 7 retention due to activation of a new intronic cryptic splice site. Both outcomes lead to frameshifts with premature stop codon generation in exon 8 and intron 7 respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the current study demonstrates that a single splicing mutation affects the ABCD1 transcripts and the ALDP protein function. PMID:25835712

  19. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariset Lorraine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.

  20. What is this link doing here? Beginning a fine-grained process of identifying reasons for academic hyperlink creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelwall Mike

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to begin a [fine-grained] process of differentiating between creation motivations for links in academic Web sites and citations in journals on the basis that they are very different phenomena.

  1. Resistance gene analogues identified through the NBS-profiling method map close to major genes and QTL for disease resistance in apple

    OpenAIRE

    Calenge, F.; van der Linden, C. G.; Weg, W.E., van de; Schouten, H.J.; Arkel, G., van; Denance, C.; Durel, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    We used a new method called nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling to identify and map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple. This method simultaneously allows the amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS-encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. Ninety-four individuals belonging to an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple cultivars Discovery and TN10-8 were studied. Two degenerate primers designed from the highly conserved P-loo...

  2. In vitro mutagenesis identifies a region within the envelope gene of the human immunodeficiency virus that is critical for infectivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Willey, R L; Smith, D.H.; Lasky, L A; Theodore, T S; Earl, P L; Moss, B.; Capon, D J; Martin, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    Site-specific mutagenesis was used to introduce amino acid substitutions at the asparagine codons of four conserved potential N-linked glycosylation sites within the gp120 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One of these alterations resulted in the production of noninfectious virus particles. The amino acid substitution did not interfere with the synthesis, processing, and stability of the env gene polypeptides gp120 and gp41 or the binding of gp120 to its cellular recepto...

  3. Despite identifying some shared gene associations with human atopic dermatitis the use of multiple dog breeds from various locations limits detection of gene associations in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Shona H; Ollier, William E; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil A; Carter, Stuart D

    2010-12-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) is a common, severe pruritic and inflammatory skin disease and is a major veterinary welfare issue. This study genotyped 97 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 25 candidate genes in 659 dogs across eight breeds from three locations (UK, USA and Japan). These genes were selected from hAD literature, and previous cAD gene expression experiments. The aim of this study was to identify any shared gene associations between cAD and hAD. Only one SNP within the TSLP-receptor was associated with all eight breeds (corrected p=0.037). Five SNPs within Filaggrin, DPP4, MS4A2, and INPPL1 were associated with cAD, but only in certain breeds from different locations. Though these associations are broadly similar to hAD the variability of results across the breeds and locations demonstrates that a candidate gene approach using mixed breeds from different locations is not appropriate. This study therefore suggests that further candidate gene studies in cAD should be breed and location specific to increase the likelihood of finding associations with the disease. PMID:20728225

  4. Eight Novel Capsular Polysaccharide Synthesis Gene Loci Identified in Nontypeable Streptococcus suis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Ji, Shaobo; Liu, Zhijie; Lan, Ruiting; Huang, Ying; Bai, Xuemei; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-06-15

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen of pigs and may cause serious disease in humans. Serotyping is one of the important diagnostic tools and is used for the epidemiological study of S. suis. Nontypeable S. suis strains have been reported in many studies; however, the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) synthesis cps loci of nontypeable strains have not been analyzed. In this study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of cps loci in 78 nontypeable strains isolated from healthy pigs. Eight novel cps loci (NCLs) were found, and all of them were located between the orfZ-orfX region and the glf gene. All NCLs possess the wzy and wzx genes, strongly suggesting that the CPSs of these NCLs were synthesized using the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway. The cps genes found in the 78 isolates were assigned to 96 homology groups (HGs), 55 of which were NCL specific. The encapsulation of the 78 isolates was also examined using transmission electron microscopy. Fifty-three isolates were found to have a capsule, and these were of varied thicknesses. Our data enhance our understanding of the cps gene cluster diversity of nontypeable S. suis strains and provide insight into the evolution of the S. suis capsular genes. PMID:25862221

  5. The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SH2D1A associates with p62dok (Dok1) and activates NF-?B

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Bakary S.; Murphy, Kerry; Cahir-mcfarland, Ellen; Lane, William S.; Mosialos, George; Kieff, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a genetic disorder in which affected males have a morbid or fatal response to Epstein–Barr virus infection. The XLP deficiency has been mapped to a gene encoding a 128-residue protein, SH2D1A, which is comprised principally of a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. We now report that SH2D1A associates with Dok1, a protein that interacts with Ras-GAP, Csk, and Nck. An SH2D1A SH2 domain mutant that has been identified in XLP does not associate with D...

  6. Gene-expression signature of benign monoclonal gammopathy evident in multiple myeloma is linked to good prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Fenghuang; Barlogie, Bart; Arzoumanian, Varant; Huang, Yongsheng; Williams, David R.; Hollmig, Klaus; Pineda-roman, Mauricio; Tricot, Guido; Rhee, Frits; Zangari, Maurizio; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Shaughnessy, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) can progress to multiple myeloma (MM). Although these diseases share many of the same genetic features, it is still unclear whether global gene-expression profiling might identify prior genomic signatures that distinguish them. Through significance analysis of microarrays, 52 genes involved in important pathways related to cancer were differentially expressed in the plasma cells of healthy subjects (normal plasma-cell [NPC]; n = 22) an...

  7. Linking polymorphic p53 response elements with gene expression in airway epithelial cells of smokers and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuting; Pittman, Gary S; Bandele, Omari J; Bischof, Jason J; Liu, Gang; Brothers, John F; Spira, Avrum; Bell, Douglas A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking exposes airway epithelial cells to thousands of carcinogens, oxidants and DNA-damaging agents, creating a field of molecular injury in the airway and altering gene expression. Studies of cytologically normal bronchial epithelial cells from smokers have identified transcription-based biomarkers that may prove useful in early diagnosis of lung cancer, including a number of p53-regulated genes. The ability of p53 to regulate transcription is critical for tumor suppression, and this suggests that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in functional p53 binding sites (p53 response elements, or p53REs) that affect gene expression could influence susceptibility to cancer. To connect p53RE SNP genotype with gene expression and cancer risk, we identified a set of 204 SNPs in putative p53REs, and performed cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis, assessing associations between SNP genotypes and mRNA levels of adjacent genes in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from 44 cigarette smokers. To further test and validate these genotype-expression associations, we searched published eQTL studies from independent populations and determined that 53% (39/74) of the bronchial epithelial eQTLs were observed in at least one of other studies. SNPs in p53REs were also evaluated for effects on p53-DNA binding using a quantitative in vitro protein-DNA binding assay. Last, based on linkage disequilibrium, we found 6 p53RE SNPs associated with gene expression were identified as cancer risk SNPs by either genome-wide association studies or candidate gene studies. We provide an approach for identifying and evaluating potentially functional SNPs that may modulate the airway gene expression response to smoking and may influence susceptibility to cancers. PMID:25179167

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Mutations of SMPX, which Encodes the Small Muscle Protein, X-Linked, as a Cause of Progressive Hearing Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Schraders, Margit; Haas, Stefan a; Weegerink, Nicole j D.; Oostrik, Jaap; Hu, Hao; Hoefsloot, Lies h; Kannan, Sriram; Huygen, Patrick l M.; Pennings, Ronald j E.; Admiraal, Ronald j C.; Kalscheuer, Vera m; Kunst, Henricus p M.; Kremer, Hannie

    2011-01-01

    In a Dutch family with an X-linked postlingual progressive hearing impairment, a critical linkage interval was determined to span a region of 12.9 Mb flanked by the markers DXS7108 and DXS7110. This interval overlaps with the previously described DFNX4 locus and contains 75 annotated genes. Subsequent next-generation sequencing (NGS) detected one variant within the linkage interval, a nonsense mutation in SMPX. SMPX encodes the small muscle protein, X-linked (SMPX). Further screening was perf...

  9. Genomic analyses identify gene candidates for acquired irinotecan resistance in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Lockwood, William W; Li, Jun; Lam, Wan; Li, Gang

    2008-06-01

    Efficacy of camptothecins (CPTs) such as irinotecan has been recognized in chemotherapy of cancers including melanoma. However, the majority of responding patients will gradually acquire drug resistance. Little is known of the genes responsible for the acquired CPT-resistance in cancer. To gain global insight into acquired CPT-resistance, we established irinotecan-resistant clones derived from melanoma cells and compared their whole genomes by high resolution array-CGH. A novel gain at 14q23.2-31.1 was revealed by alignment of whole genome profiles of parental cell line and irinotecan-resistant clones. Further analysis of this amplicon indicates that it encompassed genes involved in DNA repair (RAD51L, MLH3), reactive oxygen species (GPX2, CSTZ1, NGB, RDH11, ZADH1), and transportome (ABCD4, ATP6V1D, SLC10A6). Moreover, losses were also detected at the loci of topoisomerases (TOP1, SPO11, TOP3B) as well as at the loci of genes guarding chromosomal stability (TP53, ZW10, H2AFX, CHK1, CCDN1, MCM5, CENPB, DNMT3B), which would facilitate the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that mRNA changes of selected novel genes (CENPB, H2AFX, MCM5, ZADH1 and NGB) in irinotecan-resistant clones vs. parental clone were in agreement with array-CGH results. Taken together, our data suggest that genes involved in genome stability may greatly contribute to the development of CPTs-resistance. In addition, genes located at 14q23.3-31.1 would be promising targets to overcome acquired CPT-resistance in melanoma. PMID:18497997

  10. Microarray analysis identifies candidate genes for key roles in coral development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller David J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthozoan cnidarians are amongst the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, but are surprisingly complex and vertebrate-like in terms of gene repertoire. As major components of tropical reef ecosystems, the stony corals are anthozoans of particular ecological significance. To better understand the molecular bases of both cnidarian development in general and coral-specific processes such as skeletogenesis and symbiont acquisition, microarray analysis was carried out through the period of early development – when skeletogenesis is initiated, and symbionts are first acquired. Results Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P ? 0.05 in comparisons between four different stages of coral development, spanning key developmental transitions. Genes of likely relevance to the processes of settlement, metamorphosis, calcification and interaction with symbionts were characterised further and their spatial expression patterns investigated using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Conclusion This study is the first large-scale investigation of developmental gene expression for any cnidarian, and has provided candidate genes for key roles in many aspects of coral biology, including calcification, metamorphosis and symbiont uptake. One surprising finding is that some of these genes have clear counterparts in higher animals but are not present in the closely-related sea anemone Nematostella. Secondly, coral-specific processes (i.e. traits which distinguish corals from their close relatives may be analogous to similar processes in distantly related organisms. This first large-scale application of microarray analysis demonstrates the potential of this approach for investigating many aspects of coral biology, including the effects of stress and disease.

  11. Ethnic disparity in 21-hydroxylase gene mutations identified in Pakistani congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar Abdul; ul Haq Naeem; Raza Jamal; Aban Muniba; Khan Aysha H; Moatter Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2). We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of mutations CYP21A2 and their phenotypic associations in CAH using ARMS-PCR assay. Results Overall, 29 patients were analyzed for nine d...

  12. Long-range DNA looping and gene expression analyses identify DEXI as an autoimmune disease candidate gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, LJ; Cooper, JD; Cope, NF; Wilson, NK; Smyth, DJ; Howson, JM; N. Saleh; Al-Jeffery, A; Angus, KL; Stevens, HE; Nutland, S; Duley, S.; Coulson, RM; Walker, NM; Burren, OS

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome 16p13 region has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). CLEC16A has been reported as the most likely candidate gene in the region, since it contains the most disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as an imunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. However, here we report that intron 19 of CLEC16A, containing the most autoimmune disease-associated SNPs, appears to behave as a re...

  13. Cambial-Region-Specific Expression of the Agrobacterium iaa Genes in Transgenic Aspen Visualized by a Linked uidA Reporter Gene1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Hannele; Puech, Laurence; Regan, Sharon; Fink, Siegfried; Olsson, Olof; Sundberg, Björn

    2000-01-01

    The level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was locally modified in cambial tissues of transgenic aspen (Populus tremula L. × Populus tremuloides Michx.). We also demonstrate the use of a linked reporter gene to visualize the expression of the iaa genes. The rate-limiting bacterial IAA-biosynthetic gene iaaM and the reporter gene for ?-glucuronidase (GUS), uidA, were each fused to the cambial-region-specific Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC promoter and linked on the same T-DNA. In situ hybridization of the iaaM gene confirmed that histochemical analysis of GUS activity could be used to predict iaaM gene expression. Moreover, quantitative fluorometric analysis of GUS activity allowed estimation of the level of de novo production of IAA in transgenic lines carrying a single-copy insert of the iaaM, uidA T-DNA. Microscale analysis of the IAA concentration across the cambial region tissues showed an increase in IAA concentration of about 35% to 40% in the two transgenic lines, but no changes in the radial distribution pattern of IAA compared with wild-type plants. This increase did not result in any changes in the developmental pattern of cambial derivatives or the cambial growth rate, which emphasizes the importance of the radial distribution pattern of IAA in controlling the development of secondary xylem, and suggests that a moderate increase in IAA concentration does not necessarily stimulate growth. PMID:10859183

  14. Cambial-region-specific expression of the Agrobacterium iaa genes in transgenic aspen visualized by a linked uidA reporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, H; Puech, L; Regan, S; Fink, S; Olsson, O; Sundberg, B

    2000-06-01

    The level of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was locally modified in cambial tissues of transgenic aspen (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx.). We also demonstrate the use of a linked reporter gene to visualize the expression of the iaa genes. The rate-limiting bacterial IAA-biosynthetic gene iaaM and the reporter gene for beta-glucuronidase (GUS), uidA, were each fused to the cambial-region-specific Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC promoter and linked on the same T-DNA. In situ hybridization of the iaaM gene confirmed that histochemical analysis of GUS activity could be used to predict iaaM gene expression. Moreover, quantitative fluorometric analysis of GUS activity allowed estimation of the level of de novo production of IAA in transgenic lines carrying a single-copy insert of the iaaM, uidA T-DNA. Microscale analysis of the IAA concentration across the cambial region tissues showed an increase in IAA concentration of about 35% to 40% in the two transgenic lines, but no changes in the radial distribution pattern of IAA compared with wild-type plants. This increase did not result in any changes in the developmental pattern of cambial derivatives or the cambial growth rate, which emphasizes the importance of the radial distribution pattern of IAA in controlling the development of secondary xylem, and suggests that a moderate increase in IAA concentration does not necessarily stimulate growth. PMID:10859183

  15. Gene by stress genome-wide interaction analysis and path analysis identify EBF1 as a cardiovascular and metabolic risk gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abanish; Babyak, Michael A; Nolan, Daniel K; Brummett, Beverly H; Jiang, Rong; Siegler, Ilene C; Kraus, William E; Shah, Svati H; Williams, Redford B; Hauser, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    We performed gene-environment interaction genome-wide association analysis (G × E GWAS) to identify SNPs whose effects on metabolic traits are modified by chronic psychosocial stress in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In Whites, the G × E GWAS for hip circumference identified five SNPs within the Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) gene, all of which were in strong linkage disequilibrium. The gene-by-stress interaction (SNP × STRESS) term P-values were genome-wide significant (Ps=7.14E-09 to 2.33E-08, uncorrected; Ps=1.99E-07 to 5.18E-07, corrected for genomic control). The SNP-only (without interaction) model P-values (Ps=0.011-0.022) were not significant at the conventional genome-wide significance level. Further analysis of related phenotypes identified gene-by-stress interaction effects for waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, type II diabetes status, and common carotid intimal-medial thickness (CCIMT), supporting a proposed model of gene-by-stress interaction that connects cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor endophenotypes such as central obesity and increased blood glucose or diabetes to CVD itself. Structural equation path analysis suggested that the path from chronic psychosocial stress to CCIMT via hip circumference and fasting glucose was larger (estimate=0.26, P=0.033, 95% CI=0.02-0.49) in the EBF1 rs4704963 CT/CC genotypes group than the same path in the TT group (estimate=0.004, P=0.34, 95% CI=-0.004-0.012). We replicated the association of the EBF1 SNPs and hip circumference in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (gene-by-stress term P-values=0.007-0.012) as well as identified similar path relationships. This observed and replicated interaction between psychosocial stress and variation in the EBF1 gene may provide a biological hypothesis for the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, central obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25271088

  16. Coexpression of two closely linked avian genes for purine nucleotide synthesis from a bidirectional promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavalas, A.; Dixon, J. E.; Brayton, K. A.; Zalkin, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two avian genes encoding essential steps in the purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway are transcribed divergently from a bidirectional promoter element. The bidirectional promoter, embedded in a CpG island, directs coexpression of GPAT and AIRC genes from distinct transcriptional start sites 229 bp apart. The bidirectional promoter can be divided in half, with each half retaining partial activity towards the cognate gene. GPAT and AIRC genes encode the enzymes that catalyze step 1 and steps ...

  17. Arginine vasotocin, isotocin and nonapeptide receptor gene expression link to social status and aggression in sex-dependent patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, S C; Sanders, K E; Walti, K A

    2015-02-01

    Nonapeptide hormones of the vasopressin/oxytocin family regulate social behaviours. In mammals and birds, variation in behaviour also is linked to expression patterns of the V1a-type receptor and the oxytocin/mesotocin receptor in the brain. Genome duplications, however, expand the diversity of nonapeptide receptors in actinopterygian fishes, and two distinct V1a-type receptors (v1a1 and v1a2) for vasotocin, as well as at least two V2-type receptors (v2a and v2b), have been identified in these taxa. The present study investigates how aggression connected to social status relates to the abundance patterns of gene transcripts encoding four vasotocin receptors, an isotocin receptor (itr), pro-vasotocin (proVT) and pro-isotocin (proIT) in the brain of the pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae. Sexually-mature pupfish were maintained in mixed-sex social groups and assessed for individual variation in aggressive behaviours. Males in these groups behaved more aggressively than females, and larger fish exhibited higher aggression relative to smaller fish of the same sex. Hypothalamic proVT transcript abundance was elevated in dominant males compared to subordinate males, and correlated positively with individual variation in aggression in both social classes. Transcripts encoding vasotocin receptor v1a1 were at higher levels in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of socially subordinate males than dominant males. Dominant males exhibited elevated hypothalamic v1a2 receptor transcript abundance relative to subordinate males and females, and telencephalic v1a2 mRNA abundance in dominant males was also associated positively with individual aggressiveness. Transcripts in the telencephalon encoding itr were elevated in females relative to males, and both telencephalic proIT and hypothalamic itr transcript abundance varied with female social status. Taken together, these data link hypothalamic proVT expression to aggression and implicate forebrain expression of the V1a-type receptor v1a2 as potentially mediating the effects of vasotocin on behaviour in male fish. These findings also illustrate how associations between social status, aggression and gene expression within the VT and IT nonapeptide systems can be contingent on behavioural context. PMID:25425529

  18. Progress in identifying a human ionizing-radiation repair gene using DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors employing DNA-mediated gene transfer techniques in introducing human DNA into a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair deficient Chinese hamster (CHO) cell mutant (xrs-6), which is hypersensitive to both X-rays (D0 = 0.39 Gy) and the antibiotic bleomycin (D0 = 0.01 ?g/ml). High molecular weight DNA isolated from cultured human skin fibroblasts was partially digested with restriction enzyme Sau 3A to average sizes of 20 or 40 Kb, ligated with plasmid pSV2-gpt DNA, and transfected into xrs-6 cells. Colonies which developed under a bleomycin and MAX (mycophenolic acid/adenine/xanthine) double-selection procedure were isolated and further tested for X-ray sensitivity and DSB rejoining capacity. To date a total of six X-ray or bleomycin resistant transformants have been isolated. All express rejoining capacity for X-ray-induced DSB, similar to the rate observed for DSB repair in CHO wild type cells. DNA isolated from these primary transformants contain various copy numbers of pSV2-gpt DNA and also contain human DNA sequences as determined by Southern blot hybridization. Recently, a secondary transformant has been isolated using DNA from one of the primary transformants. Cellular and molecular characterization of this transformant is in progress. DNA from a genuine secondary transformant will be used in the construction of a DNA library to isolate human genomic DNA encoding this radiation repair gene

  19. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Responsible for Tissue-Specific Pigmentation in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong Hwa; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Seungill; Soh, Hye Yeon; Shin, Hosub; Jang, Hosung; Ryu, Ju Hyun; Kim, Ahyeong; Yun, Kil-Young; Kim, Shinje; Kim, Ki Sun; Choi, Doil; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is commonly found in temperate climate regions and widely used for lawns, in part, owing to its uniform green color. However, some zoysiagrass cultivars accumulate red to purple pigments in their spike and stolon tissues, thereby decreasing the aesthetic value. Here we analyzed the anthocyanin contents of two zoysiagrass cultivars ‘Anyang-jungji’ (AJ) and ‘Greenzoa’ (GZ) that produce spikes and stolons with purple and green colors, respectively, and revealed that cyanidin and petunidin were primarily accumulated in the pigmented tissues. In parallel, we performed a de novo transcriptome assembly and identified differentially expressed genes between the two cultivars. We found that two anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were preferentially upregulated in the purple AJ spike upon pigmentation. Both ANS and DFR genes were also highly expressed in other zoysiagrass cultivars with purple spikes and stolons, but their expression levels were significantly low in the cultivars with green tissues. We observed that recombinant ZjDFR1 and ZjANS1 proteins successfully catalyze the conversions of dihydroflavonols into leucoanthocyanidins and leucoanthocyanidins into anthocyanidins, respectively. These findings strongly suggest that upregulation of ANS and DFR is responsible for tissue-specific anthocyanin biosynthesis and differential pigmentation in zoysiagrass. The present study also demonstrates the feasibility of a de novo transcriptome analysis to identify the key genes associated with specific traits, even in the absence of reference genome information. PMID:25905914

  20. A unifying gene signature for adenoid cystic cancer identifies parallel MYB-dependent and MYB-independent therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruli; Cao, Chunxia; Zhang, Min; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Yan, Yuanqing; Chen, Zirong; Mitani, Yoshitsugu; Zhang, Li; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; Liu, Bin; Wu, Lizi; Renne, Rolf; Baker, Henry V; El-Naggar, Adel; Kaye, Frederic J

    2014-12-30

    MYB activation is proposed to underlie development of adenoid cystic cancer (ACC), an aggressive salivary gland tumor with no effective systemic treatments. To discover druggable targets for ACC, we performed global mRNA/miRNA analyses of 12 ACC with matched normal tissues, and compared these data with 14 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and 11 salivary adenocarcinomas (ADC). We detected a unique ACC gene signature of 1160 mRNAs and 22 miRNAs. MYB was the top-scoring gene (18-fold induction), however we observed the same signature in ACC without detectable MYB gene rearrangements. We also found 4 ACC tumors (1 among our 12 cases and 3 from public databases) with negligible MYB expression that retained the same ACC mRNA signature including over-expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Integration of this signature with somatic mutational analyses suggests that NOTCH1 and RUNX1 participate with MYB to activate ECM elements including the VCAN/HAPLN1 complex. We observed that forced MYB-NFIB expression in human salivary gland cells alters cell morphology and cell adhesion in vitro and depletion of VCAN blocked tumor cell growth of a short-term ACC tumor culture. In summary, we identified a unique ACC signature with parallel MYB-dependent and independent biomarkers and identified VCAN/HAPLN1 complexes as a potential target. PMID:25587024

  1. Genome-wide association study of motor coordination problems in ADHD identifies genes for brain and muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fliers, Ellen A; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Motor coordination problems are frequent in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We performed a genome-wide association study to identify genes contributing to motor coordination problems, hypothesizing that the presence of such problems in children with ADHD may identify a sample of reduced genetic heterogeneity. Methods. Children with ADHD from the International Multicentre ADHD Genetic (IMAGE) study were evaluated with the Parental Account of Children's Symptoms. Genetic association testing was performed in PLINK on 890 probands with genome-wide genotyping data. Bioinformatics enrichment-analysis was performed on highly ranked findings. Further characterization of the findings was conducted in 313 Dutch IMAGE children using the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q). Results. Although none of the findings reached genome-wide significance, bioinformatics analysis of the top-ranked findings revealed enrichment of genes for motor neuropathy andamyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genes involved in neurite outgrowth and muscle function were also enriched. Among the highest ranked genes were MAP2K5, involved in restless legs syndrome, and CHD6, causing motor coordination problems in mice. Further characterization of these findings using DCD-Q subscales found nominal association for 15 SNPs. Conclusions. Our findings provide clues about the aetiology of motor coordination problems, but replication studies in independent samples are necessary.

  2. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  3. Expectation-maximization algorithm for determining natural selection of Y-linked genes through two-sex branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Gutiérrez, C; Martínez, R

    2012-09-01

    A two-dimensional bisexual branching process has recently been presented for the analysis of the generation-to-generation evolution of the number of carriers of a Y-linked gene. In this model, preference of females for males with a specific genetic characteristic is assumed to be determined by an allele of the gene. It has been shown that the behavior of this kind of Y-linked gene is strongly related to the reproduction law of each genotype. In practice, the corresponding offspring distributions are usually unknown, and it is necessary to develop their estimation theory in order to determine the natural selection of the gene. Here we deal with the estimation problem for the offspring distribution of each genotype of a Y-linked gene when the only observable data are each generation's total numbers of males of each genotype and of females. We set out the problem in a non parametric framework and obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of the offspring distributions using an expectation-maximization algorithm. From these estimators, we also derive the estimators for the reproduction mean of each genotype and forecast the distribution of the future population sizes. Finally, we check the accuracy of the algorithm by means of a simulation study. PMID:22924631

  4. Integration of transcriptome and whole genomic resequencing data to identify key genes affecting Swine fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhu, Feng; Zhai, Liwei; Liu, Huijie; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhijun; Chen, Shaokang; Hou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Chuduan

    2015-01-01

    Fat deposition is highly correlated with the growth, meat quality, reproductive performance and immunity of pigs. Fatty acid synthesis takes place mainly in the adipose tissue of pigs; therefore, in this study, a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing approach was used to generate adipose tissue transcriptomes from two groups of Songliao black pigs that had opposite backfat thickness phenotypes. The total number of paired-end reads produced for each sample was in the range of 39.29-49.36 millions. Approximately 188 genes were differentially expressed in adipose tissue and were enriched for metabolic processes, such as fatty acid biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, metabolism of fatty acids, etinol, caffeine and arachidonic acid and immunity. Additionally, many genetic variations were detected between the two groups through pooled whole-genome resequencing. Integration of transcriptome and whole-genome resequencing data revealed important genomic variations among the differentially expressed genes for fat deposition, for example, the lipogenic genes. Further studies are required to investigate the roles of candidate genes in fat deposition to improve pig breeding programs. PMID:25849573

  5. Integration of Transcriptome and Whole Genomic Resequencing Data to Identify Key Genes Affecting Swine Fat Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Kai; Zhu, Feng; Zhai, Liwei; Liu, Huijie; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhijun; Chen, Shaokang; Hou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Chuduan

    2015-01-01

    Fat deposition is highly correlated with the growth, meat quality, reproductive performance and immunity of pigs. Fatty acid synthesis takes place mainly in the adipose tissue of pigs; therefore, in this study, a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing approach was used to generate adipose tissue transcriptomes from two groups of Songliao black pigs that had opposite backfat thickness phenotypes. The total number of paired-end reads produced for each sample was in the range of 39.29–49.36 millions. Approximately 188 genes were differentially expressed in adipose tissue and were enriched for metabolic processes, such as fatty acid biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, metabolism of fatty acids, etinol, caffeine and arachidonic acid and immunity. Additionally, many genetic variations were detected between the two groups through pooled whole-genome resequencing. Integration of transcriptome and whole-genome resequencing data revealed important genomic variations among the differentially expressed genes for fat deposition, for example, the lipogenic genes. Further studies are required to investigate the roles of candidate genes in fat deposition to improve pig breeding programs. PMID:25849573

  6. Downregulation of HOPX controls metastatic behavior in sarcoma cells and identifies genes associated with metastasis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ková?ová, Denisa; Plachý, Ji?í; Kosla, Jan; Trejbalová, Kate?ina; ?ermák, Vladimír; Hejnar, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 11, ?. 10 (2013), s. 1235-1247. ISSN 1541-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : homeobox gene * metastasis * HOPX Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.502, year: 2013

  7. Meta-analysis of glioblastoma multiforme versus anaplastic astrocytoma identifies robust gene markers

    OpenAIRE

    Park Peter J; Johnson Mark D; Dreyfuss Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and its more aggressive counterpart, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the most common intrinsic brain tumors in adults and are almost universally fatal. A deeper understanding of the molecular relationship of these tumor types is necessary to derive insights into the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gliomas. Although genomewide profiling of expression levels with microarrays can be used to identify differentially expressed genes between ...

  8. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifying FGF23 Regulated Genes in the Kidney of a Mouse CKD Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Bing; David, Valentin; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Li, Hua; Jiao, Yan; GU, WEIKUAN; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Elevations of circulating Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and progression of renal failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Efforts to identify gene products whose transcription is directly regulated by FGF23 stimulation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR)/?-Klotho complexes in the kidney is confounded by both systemic alterations in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism and intrinsic alterations caused by the underlying...

  9. A New Test Statistic Based on Shrunken Sample Variance for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes in Small Microarray Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Isao Yoshimura; Chikuma Hamada; Yasunori Sato; Akihiro Hirakawa

    2008-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate statistic and precisely evaluating the false discovery rate (FDR) are both essential for devising an effective method for identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray data. The t-type score proposed by Pan et al. (2003) succeeded in suppressing false positives by controlling the underestimation of variance but left the overestimation uncontrolled. For controlling the overestimation, we devised a new test statistic (variance stabilized t-type score) by placi...

  10. Leveraging two-way probe-level block design for identifying differential gene expression with high-density oligonucleotide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yong-Chuan; Benner Chris; Barrera Leah; Winzeler Elizabeth; Zhou Yingyao

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background To identify differentially expressed genes across experimental conditions in oligonucleotide microarray experiments, existing statistical methods commonly use a summary of probe-level expression data for each probe set and compare replicates of these values across conditions using a form of the t-test or rank sum test. Here we propose the use of a statistical method that takes advantage of the built-in redundancy architecture of high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Results...

  11. Functional assessment of variants in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes identified in individuals with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Nellist, Mark; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Wentink, Marjolein; van den Heuvel, Diana; Mozaffari, Melika; Ekong, Rosemary; Povey, Sue; den Dunnen, Johan T; Metcalfe, Kay; Vallee, Stephanie; Krüger, Stefan; Shashi, Vandana; Bergoffen, JoAnn; Elmslie, Frances; Kwiatkowski., David J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The effects of missense changes and small in-frame deletions and insertions on protein function are not easy to predict and the identification of such variants in individuals at risk of a genetic disease can complicate genetic counselling. One option is to perform functional tests to assess whether the variants affect protein function. We have used this strategy to characterise variants identified in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes in individuals with, or suspected of having, Tube...

  12. CD40lbase: a database of CD40L gene mutations causing X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Notarangelo, Ld; Peitsch, Mc; Abrahamsen, Tg; Bachelot, C.; Bordigoni, P.; Cant, Aj; Chapel, H.; Clementi, M.; Deacock, S.; Saint Basile, G.; Duse, M.; Espanol, T.; Etzioni, A.; Fasth, A.; Fischer, A.

    1996-01-01

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIM) is an immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CD40 ligand (CD40L). A database (CD40Lbase) of CD40L mutations has now been established, and the resultant information, together with other mutations reported elsewhere in the literature, is presented here.

  13. X-linked genes and risk of orofacial clefts : Evidence from two population-based studies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Skare, Øivind

    2012-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis of X-linked markers.

  14. Radiological sacroiliitis, a hallmark of spondylitis, is linked with CARD15 gene polymorphisms in patients with Crohn's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, H.; Vander, C.; Laukens, D.; Coucke, P.; Marichal, D.; Den Berghe, M.; Cuvelier, C.; Remaut, E.; Mielants, H.; Keyser, F.; Vos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sacroiliitis is a common extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease but its association with the HLA-B27 phenotype is less evident. Polymorphisms in the CARD15 gene have been linked to higher susceptibility for Crohn's disease. In particular, associations have been found with ileal and fibrostenosing disease, young age at onset of disease, and familial cases.

  15. Surfactant Protein-D-Encoding Gene Variant Polymorphisms Are Linked to Respiratory Outcome in Premature Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Dahl, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Associations between the genetic variation within or downstream of the surfactant protein-D-encoding gene (SFTPD), which encodes the collectin surfactant protein-D (SP-D) and may lead to respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, recently were reported. Our aim was to investigate whether SFTPD variations affect serum SP-D levels in infants and pulmonary outcome in premature infants. Study design Serum SP-D levels were measured in 211 mature and 202 premature infants, and 7 SFTPD single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. SNP analysis and haplotype analysis were used to associate genetic variation to SP-D, respiratory distress (RD), oxygen requirement, and respiratory support. Results The 5'-upstream SFTPD SNP rs1923534 and the 3 structural SNPs rs721917, rs2243639, and rs3088308 were associated with the SP-D level. The same SNPs were associated with RD, a requirement for supplemental oxygen, and a requirement for respiratory support. Haplotype analyses identified 3 haplotypes that included the minor alleles of rs1923534, rs721917, and rs3088308 that exhibited highly significant associations with decreased SP-D levels and decreased ORs for RD, oxygen supplementation, and respiratory support. Conclusion These findings extend and validate previous observations of SFTPD association with the risk of respiratory outcomes and suggest SFTPD as an essential factor affecting pulmonary adaptation in premature infants.

  16. Localization of a non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation gene (MRX80) to Xq22-q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verot, Lucie; Alloisio, Nicole; Morlé, Laurette; Bozon, Muriel; Touraine, Renaud; Plauchu, Henri; Edery, Patrick

    2003-09-15

    Isolated mental retardation is clinically and genetically heterogenous and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. We report here a linkage analysis in a large family including 15 members, 6 of whom presenting X-linked non-syndromic mental retardation (MRX). Two-point linkage analysis using 23 polymorphic markers covering the entire X chromosome demonstrated significant linkage between the causative gene and DXS8055 with a maximum LOD score of 2.98 at theta = 0.00. Haplotype analysis indicated location for the disease gene in a 23.1 cM interval between DXS1106 and DXS8067. This MRX localization overlaps with 7 XLMR loci (MRX23, MRX27, MRX30, MRX35, MRX47, MRX53, and MRX63). This interval contains two genes associated with non-syndromic mental retardation (NSMR), namely the PAK3 gene, encoding a p21-activated kinase (MRX30 and MRX47) and the FACL4 gene encoding a fatty acyl-CoA ligase (MRX63). As skewed X-inactivation, an apparently constant feature in FACL4 carrier females was not observed in an obligate carrier belonging to the MRX family presented here, the PAK3 gene should be considered as the strongest candidate for this MRX locus. PMID:12949969

  17. Combined gene expression and DNA occupancy profiling identifies potential therapeutic targets of t(8;21) AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Miao-Chia; Peterson, Luke F

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome translocation 8q22;21q22 [t(8;21)] is commonly associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the resulting AML1-ETO fusion proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of AML. To identify novel molecular and therapeutic targets, we performed combined gene expression microarray and promoter occupancy (ChIP-chip) profiling using Lin(-)/Sca1(-)/cKit(+) cells, the major leukemia cell population, from an AML mouse model induced by AML1-ETO9a (AE9a). Approximately 30% of the identified common targets of microarray and ChIP-chip assays overlap with the human t(8;21)-gene expression molecular signature. CD45, a protein tyrosine phosphatase and a negative regulator of cytokine/growth factor receptor and JAK/STAT signaling, is among those targets. Its expression is substantially down-regulated in leukemia cells. Consequently, JAK/STAT signaling is enhanced. Re-expression of CD45 suppresses JAK/STAT activation, delays leukemia development, and promotes apoptosis of t(8;21)-positive cells. This study demonstrates the benefit of combining gene expression and promoter occupancy profiling assays to identify molecular and potential therapeutic targets in human cancers and describes a previously unappreciated signaling pathway involving t(8;21) fusion proteins, CD45, and JAK/STAT, which could be a potential novel target for treating t(8;21) AML.

  18. Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, H.

    2010-02-26

    Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall ?-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

  19. Whole-exome sequencing defines the mutational landscape of pheochromocytoma and identifies KMT2D as a recurrently mutated gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, C Christofer; Stenman, Adam; Haglund, Felix; Clark, Victoria E; Brown, Taylor C; Baranoski, Jacob; Bilguvar, Kaya; Goh, Gerald; Welander, Jenny; Svahn, Fredrika; Rubinstein, Jill C; Caramuta, Stefano; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Günel, Murat; Bäckdahl, Martin; Gimm, Oliver; Söderkvist, Peter; Prasad, Manju L; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P; Carling, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    As subsets of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) lack a defined molecular etiology, we sought to characterize the mutational landscape of PCCs to identify novel gene candidates involved in disease development. A discovery cohort of 15 PCCs wild type for mutations in PCC susceptibility genes underwent whole-exome sequencing, and an additional 83 PCCs served as a verification cohort for targeted sequencing of candidate mutations. A low rate of nonsilent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was detected (6.1/sample). Somatic HRAS and EPAS1 mutations were observed in one case each, whereas the remaining 13 cases did not exhibit variants in established PCC genes. SNVs aggregated in apoptosis-related pathways, and mutations in COSMIC genes not previously reported in PCCs included ZAN, MITF, WDTC1, and CAMTA1. Two somatic mutations and one constitutional variant in the well-established cancer gene lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, MLL2) were discovered in one sample each, prompting KMT2D screening using focused exome-sequencing in the verification cohort. An additional 11 PCCs displayed KMT2D variants, of which two were recurrent. In total, missense KMT2D variants were found in 14 (11 somatic, two constitutional, one undetermined) of 99 PCCs (14%). Five cases displayed somatic mutations in the functional FYR/SET domains of KMT2D, constituting 36% of all KMT2D-mutated PCCs. KMT2D expression was upregulated in PCCs compared to normal adrenals, and KMT2D overexpression positively affected cell migration in a PCC cell line. We conclude that KMT2D represents a recurrently mutated gene with potential implication for PCC development. © 2015 The Authors. Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032282

  20. Alix, making a link between apoptosis-linked gene-2, the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, and neuronal death in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahul-Mellier, Anne-Laure; Hemming, Fiona,; Blot, Béatrice; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Sadoul, Rémy

    2006-01-01

    Alix/apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2)-interacting protein X is an adaptor protein involved in the regulation of the endolysosomal system through binding to endophilins and to endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins, TSG101 and CHMP4b. It was first characterized as an interactor of ALG-2, a calcium-binding protein necessary for cell death, and several observations suggest a role for Alix in controlling cell death. We used electroporation in the chick embryo to test w...

  1. Combating oncogene activation associated with retrovirus-mediated gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Strauss

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful gene therapy clinical trial that also encountered serious adverse effects has sparked extensive study and debate about the future directions for retrovirus-mediated interventions. Treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with an oncoretrovirus harboring a normal copy of the gc gene was applied in two clinical trials, essentially curing 13 of 16 infants, restoring a normal immune system without the need for additional immune-related therapies. Approximately 3 years after their gene therapy, tragically, 3 of these children, all from the same trial, developed leukemia as a result of this experimental treatment. The current understanding of the mechanism behind this leukemogenesis involves three critical and cooperating factors, i.e., viral integration, oncogene activation, and the function of the therapeutic gene. In this review, we will explore the causes of this unwanted event and some of the possibilities for reducing the risk of its reoccurrence.

  2. Combating oncogene activation associated with retrovirus-mediated gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.E., Strauss; E., Costanzi-Strauss.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful gene therapy clinical trial that also encountered serious adverse effects has sparked extensive study and debate about the future directions for retrovirus-mediated interventions. Treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency with an oncoretrovirus harboring a normal copy of th [...] e gc gene was applied in two clinical trials, essentially curing 13 of 16 infants, restoring a normal immune system without the need for additional immune-related therapies. Approximately 3 years after their gene therapy, tragically, 3 of these children, all from the same trial, developed leukemia as a result of this experimental treatment. The current understanding of the mechanism behind this leukemogenesis involves three critical and cooperating factors, i.e., viral integration, oncogene activation, and the function of the therapeutic gene. In this review, we will explore the causes of this unwanted event and some of the possibilities for reducing the risk of its reoccurrence.

  3. Three LIF-dependent signatures and gene clusters with atypical expression profiles, identified by transcriptome studies in mouse ES cells and early derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummel Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells remain pluripotent in vitro when grown in the presence of the cytokine Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF. Identification of LIF targets and of genes regulating the transition between pluripotent and early differentiated cells is a critical step for understanding the control of ES cell pluripotency. Results By gene profiling studies carried out with mRNAs from ES cells and their early derivatives treated or not with LIF, we have identified i LIF-dependent genes, highly expressed in pluripotent cells, whose expression level decreases sharply upon LIF withdrawal [Pluri genes], ii LIF induced genes [Lifind genes] whose expression is differentially regulated depending upon cell context and iii genes specific to the reversible or irreversible committed states. In addition, by hierarchical gene clustering, we have identified, among eight independent gene clusters, two atypical groups of genes, whose expression level was highly modulated in committed cells only. Computer based analyses led to the characterization of different sub-types of Pluri and Lifind genes, and revealed their differential modulation by Oct4 or Nanog master genes. Individual knock down of a selection of Pluri and Lifind genes leads to weak changes in the expression of early differentiation markers, in cell growth conditions in which these master genes are still expressed. Conclusion We have identified different sets of LIF-regulated genes depending upon the cell state (reversible or irreversible commitment, which allowed us to present a novel global view of LIF responses. We are also reporting on the identification of genes whose expression is strictly regulated during the commitment step. Furthermore, our studies identify sub-networks of genes with a restricted expression in pluripotent ES cells, whose down regulation occurs while the master knot (composed of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG is still expressed and which might be down-regulated together for driving cells towards differentiation.

  4. Analyses of allele-specific gene expression in highly divergent mouse crosses identifies pervasive allelic imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, James J; Zhabotynsky, Vasyl; Sun, Wei; Huang, Shunping; Pakatci, Isa Kemal; Kim, Yunjung; Wang, Jeremy R; Morgan, Andrew P; Calaway, John D; Aylor, David L; Yun, Zaining; Bell, Timothy A; Buus, Ryan J; Calaway, Mark E; Didion, John P; Gooch, Terry J; Hansen, Stephanie D; Robinson, Nashiya N; Shaw, Ginger D; Spence, Jason S; Quackenbush, Corey R; Barrick, Cordelia J; Nonneman, Randal J; Kim, Kyungsu; Xenakis, James; Xie, Yuying; Valdar, William; Lenarcic, Alan B; Wang, Wei; Welsh, Catherine E; Fu, Chen-Ping; Zhang, Zhaojun; Holt, James; Guo, Zhishan; Threadgill, David W; Tarantino, Lisa M; Miller, Darla R; Zou, Fei; McMillan, Leonard; Sullivan, Patrick F; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Complex human traits are influenced by variation in regulatory DNA through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Because regulatory elements are conserved between humans and mice, a thorough annotation of cis regulatory variants in mice could aid in further characterizing these mechanisms. Here we provide a detailed portrait of mouse gene expression across multiple tissues in a three-way diallel. Greater than 80% of mouse genes have cis regulatory variation. Effects from these variants influence complex traits and usually extend to the human ortholog. Further, we estimate that at least one in every thousand SNPs creates a cis regulatory effect. We also observe two types of parent-of-origin effects, including classical imprinting and a new global allelic imbalance in expression favoring the paternal allele. We conclude that, as with humans, pervasive regulatory variation influences complex genetic traits in mice and provide a new resource toward understanding the genetic control of transcription in mammals. PMID:25730764

  5. A transposon-based strategy to identify the regulatory gene network responsible for landomycin E biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbal, Lilya; Fedorenko, Viktor; Bechthold, Andreas; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2013-05-01

    We report here a transposon-based strategy to generate Streptomyces globisporus 1912 mutants with improved landomycin E production. The modified minitransposon with strong, outward-oriented promoters for the overexpression of downstream-situated genes has been applied for mutant library generation. Approximately 2500 mutants of S. globisporus 1912 were analyzed for landomycin E production, leading to the identification of several overproducers. Subcloning and sequencing of the sites of integration showed that some of the inactivated genes encode proteins with a similarity to known bacterial regulators such as TetR and LuxR families. One of the regulators (GntR type) has shown the strongest influence on the landomycin E production. Its ortholog (encoded by sco3269) in Streptomyces coelicolor was characterized in greater detail and showed similar effects on actinorhodin production and morphological differentiation. PMID:23480614

  6. Identification of three novel OA1 gene mutations identified in three families misdiagnosed with congenital nystagmus and carrier status determination by real-time quantitative PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is caused by mutations in OA1 gene, which encodes a membrane glycoprotein localised to melanosomes. OA1 mainly affects pigment production in the eye, resulting in optic changes associated with albinism including hypopigmentation of the retina, nystagmus, strabismus, foveal hypoplasia, abnormal crossing of the optic fibers and reduced visual acuity. Affected Caucasian males usually appear to have normal skin and hair pigment. Results We identified three previously undescribed mutations consisting of two intragenic deletions (one encompassing exon 6, the other encompassing exons 7–8, and a point mutation (310delG in exon 2. We report the development of a new method for diagnosis of heterozygous deletions in OA1 gene based on measurement of gene copy number using real-time quantitative PCR from genomic DNA. Conclusion The identification of OA1 mutations in families earlier reported as families with hereditary nystagmus indicate that ocular albinism type 1 is probably underdiagnosed. Our method of real-time quantitative PCR of OA1 exons with DMD exon as external standard performed on the LightCycler™ allows quick and accurate carrier-status assessment for at-risk females.

  7. A Multiplexed Fluorescent Calcium and NFAT Reporter Gene Assay to Identify GPCR Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Heeral; Gorey, Colleen; Roush, Nicole; Smallman, Shelly; Collantes, Elizabeth; Santoro, Maxine; Olson, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Laura; Lee, Paul H.; Shen, Xiqiang John

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium response and resulting calcium signaling to an agonist-GPCR interaction are important for the measurement of compound activity in the GPCR drug development. The increase in cytosol calcium concentration can be measured by the fluorescent calcium indicator dye such as Fluo-4 in a quick assay (in 3-5 minutes) using the fluorescence imaging plate reader. The calcium signaling through the transcription factors such as NFAT that induces gene expression can be measured by the ...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus virulence genes identified by bursa aurealis mutagenesis and nematode killing

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Taeok; Banger, Alison K.; Wallace, Adam; Glass, Elizabeth M.; A?slund, Fredrik; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2004-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of wound and hospital-acquired infections worldwide. The emergence of S. aureus strains with resistance to multiple antibiotics requires the identification of bacterial virulence genes and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Herein, bursa aurealis, a mariner-based transposon, was used for random mutagenesis and for the isolation of 10,325 S. aureus variants with defined insertion sites. By screening for loss-of-function mutants in a Caen...

  9. Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds

    OpenAIRE

    Baker Allan J; Tavares Erika S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multip...

  10. Differentially expressed genes identified by microarray analysis following oxymatrine treatment of hepatic stellate cell

    OpenAIRE

    Junwei Hu; Shuang Dong; Qinqin Wang; Yicheng Jian; Lijuan Hu; Lijing Wang; Yi He; Genmei Yang; Jinjun Wang; Wujun Xiong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of oxymatrine on the gene expression profile of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) and provide novel insights into the mechanism of oxymatrine against hepatic fibrosis. Methods: HSC was isolated from normal SD by in situ perfusion of collagenase and pronase and density Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. MTT colorimetry was used to study the effect of oxymatrine on the proliferation of HSC. Total RNA and mRNA of quiescent HSC, culture-activated HSC and oxymatrine treate...

  11. Nucleotide sequence variation of the envelope protein gene identifies two distinct genotypes of yellow fever virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, G. J.; Cropp, B. C.; Kinney, R. M.; Trent, D. W.; Gubler, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of yellow fever virus over 67 years was investigated by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the envelope (E) protein genes of 20 viruses isolated in Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. Uniformly weighted parsimony algorithm analysis defined two major evolutionary yellow fever virus lineages designated E genotypes I and II. E genotype I contained viruses isolated from East and Central Africa. E genotype II viruses were divided into two sublineages: IIA viruses from West A...

  12. Identifying gene and protein mentions in text using conditional random fields

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald Ryan; Pereira Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background We present a model for tagging gene and protein mentions from text using the probabilistic sequence tagging framework of conditional random fields (CRFs). Conditional random fields model the probability P(t|o) of a tag sequence given an observation sequence directly, and have previously been employed successfully for other tagging tasks. The mechanics of CRFs and their relationship to maximum entropy are discussed in detail. Results We employ a diverse feature set containi...

  13. A Robust Approach for Identifying Gene-Environment Interactions for Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Hao; Zhang, Qingzhao; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Sanguo; Ma, Shuangge

    2015-01-01

    For many complex diseases, prognosis is of essential importance. It has been shown that, beyond the main effects of genetic (G) and environmental (E) risk factors, the gene-environment (G$\\times$E) interactions also play a critical role. In practice, the prognosis outcome data can be contaminated, and most of the existing methods are not robust to data contamination. In the literature, it has been shown that even a single contaminated observation can lead to severely biased ...

  14. Conditional Network Analysis Identifies Candidate Regulator Genes in Human B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Margolin, Adam; Nemenman, Ilya; Basso, Katia; Favera, Riccardo; Califano, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Cellular phenotypes are determined by the dynamical activity of networks of co-regulated genes. Elucidating such networks is crucial for the understanding of normal cell physiology as well as for the dissection of complex pathologic phenotypes. Existing methods for such "reverse engineering" of genetic networks from microarray expression data have been successful only in prokaryotes (E. coli) and lower eukaryotes (S. cerevisiae) with relatively simple genomes. Additionally, ...

  15. Suppressors of systemin signaling identify genes in the tomato wound response pathway.

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, G A; Ryan, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    In tomato plants, systemic induction of defense genes in response to herbivory or mechanical wounding is regulated by an 18-amino-acid peptide signal called systemin. Transgenic plants that overexpress prosystemin, the systemin precursor, from a 35S::prosystemin (35S::prosys) transgene exhibit constitutive expression of wound-inducible defense proteins including proteinase inhibitors and polyphenol oxidase. To study further the role of (pro)systemin in the wound response pathway, we isolated ...

  16. Exome sequencing identifies MPL as a causative gene in familial aplastic anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Walne, Amanda J.; Dokal, Arran; Plagnol, Vincent; Beswick, Richard; Kirwan, Michael; La Fuente, Josu; Vulliamy, Tom; Dokal, Inderjeet

    2012-01-01

    The primary cause of aplastic anemia remains unknown in many patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic cause of familial aplastic anemia. Genomic DNA of an affected individual from a multiplex consanguineous family was hybridized to a Nimblegen exome library before being sequenced on a GAIIx genome analyzer. Once the disease causing homozygous mutation had been confirmed in the consanguineous family, this gene was then analyzed for mutation in 33 uncharacterized index cases o...

  17. Integrative genomic analyses of neurofibromatosis tumours identify SOX9 as a biomarker and survival gene

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Shyra J; Jessen, Walter J.; Mehta, Tapan; Hardiman, Atira; Sites, Emily; Kaiser, Sergio; Jegga, Anil G.; Upadhyaya, Meena; Giovannini, Marco; Margaret R. Wallace; Lopez, Eva; Serra, Eduard; Lazaro, Conxi; Page, Grier; ARONOW, BRUCE J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biological pathways critical for common neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) peripheral nerve tumours is essential, as there is a lack of tumour biomarkers, prognostic factors and therapeutics. We used gene expression profiling to define transcriptional changes between primary normal Schwann cells (n = 10), NF1-derived primary benign neurofibroma Schwann cells (NFSCs) (n = 22), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) cell lines (n = 13), benign neurofibromas (NF) (n = 26)...

  18. RNA-Seq Identifies Key Reproductive