WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

What part does hydropower play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to hydropower as an energy source. Here students read about the history, workings, and benefits of utilizing hydropower. Information is also provided about the limitations and geographical considerations of hydropower in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students opportunities to reflect on what they've read about the uses of hydropower. Articles and information about ladders for migrating fish at dams and the powerhouse of Grand Coulee Dam are available from a sidebar. A link is provided to a site that examines the inner workings of a hydroelectric plant.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

2

A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

3

Siting and assessment of small hydropower potential using GIS and hydrological modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale hydropower can solve the energy problems in remote and hilly areas. Small hydro projects are particularly useful because they allow installation of generating capacity in smaller increments to provide greater economic flexibility. However, most of the prospective small hydropower project sites are likely to be ungauged. Therefore, there is generally no flow data available for analyses of power potential for proposed sites. This presentation described a new solution for evaluating the feasibility of proposed small-scale hydropower schemes at ungauged sites. The solution involves a combination of geographic information system (GIS) based technologies and hydrological modeling for selection and assessment of small hydropower sites. The presentation discussed the use of the drainage system of Nagaland State in India. The presentation discussed the methodology, including the various steps that were used, such as the use of GIS technologies to extract the longitudinal profiles of the drainage systems and thereby the prevailing drops along the profile; demarcation of contributing areas of the drainage systems at identified locations; use of a soil and water assessment tool hydrological model for generation of continuous flow series at the locations of interest in the drainage system; formulation of a flow duration curve for each of the identified locations on the stream using the flow data generated through the hydrological modelling; and hydropower assessment at the sites, thereby helping in the initial selection of key sites. It was concluded that the methodology of water yield assessment works satisfactorily when the input data are reasonable. figs.

Gosain, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rao, S. [INRM Consultants Pvt Ltd., New Delhi (India)

2010-07-01

4

Evaluation of economic rent of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing studies have mostly estimated the ex post economic rent of hydropower for the hydroelectric system of a province or a country as a whole and have ignored the site- or project-specific variations in the economic rent of hydropower plants. Further, most of the existing studies have used simplified methods to calculate the rent ex post. This paper presents a rigorous methodology for estimation of site-specific (i.e., project specific) economic rent of hydropower ex ante. It applies the methodology in the case of a hydropower project and analyzes the sensitivity of the rent to variations in some key parameters.

5

Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

1955-12-01

6

Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

1980-01-01

7

New developments for the ecological enhancement of hydropower sites; Neue Entwicklungen zur gewaesseroekologischen Optimierung von Wasserkraftstandorten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is regarded as a sustainable source of electric energy without pollution of the atmosphere with carbon dioxide. But the impact on the ecology of water courses is usually considerable. To improve the ecologic quality of waterpower sites devices for fish protection and fish migration are in operation since a fairly long time. But in many cases a severe lack of efficiency of special system components is observed, resulting in a bad function of the whole system. To improve various identified problem areas in the ecologic system the Hydraulics Laboratory at the Kassel University has developed several methods and components which are presented in this paper. These include the Attracting Current Pump for the enehancement of outflow from a fish pass, the refurbishment of hydraulically overloaded vertical slot passes, the eel migration device, a fish-friendly intake screen and a new combination of trash rack cleaner and a device for downstream migration of fish. (orig.)

Hassinger, Reinhard [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Versuchsanstalt und Pruefstelle fuer Umwelttechnik und Wasserbau

2011-07-01

8

Evaluation of a Potential Site for a Small Hydropower Plant Located in the BioBio North Irrigation System, Chile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project considers an evaluation of a potential site for a small hydropower plant located in the BioBio north irrigation system, Chile. The purpose was to analyze the potential and constraints in harnessing the energy of an existing infrastructure of irrigation canals for electrical production. The site was analyzed technically, economically and managerially. Before this project nothing was done and therefore the investigations are a main part of the project. A preliminary design for the ...

Gunnar, Sofie

2010-01-01

9

Hydropower economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The key question in hydropower production is the time pattern of the use of the water in the reservoir. The water used to produce electricity today can alternatively be used tomorrow. The analysis of the operation of hydropower is therefore essentially a dynamic one. The paper introduces some basic models for social allocation of stored water over discrete time periods using non-linear programming assuming capacities of generation and transmission as given. Implications of constraints such as...

Førsund, Finn R.

2005-01-01

10

Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

Conner, Alison Marie; Francfort, James Edward

1999-07-01

11

Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission?s Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service?s National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

A. M. Conner; J. E. Francfort

1999-07-06

12

US hydropower resource assessment for North Dakota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of North Dakota.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

13

US hydropower resource assessment for Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

14

US hydropower resource assessment for Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-07-01

15

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

16

US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

17

US hydropower resource assessment for Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Texas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

18

Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86% source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the resulting regional variations in hydropower generation potential? This paper is a study that aims to evaluate the changes in global hydropower generation resulting from predicted changes in climate. The study uses an ensemble of simulations of regional patterns of changes in runoff, computed from global circulation models (GCM simulations with 12 different models. Based on these runoff changes, hydropower generation is estimated by relating the runoff changes to hydropower generation potential through geographical information system (GIS, based on 2005 hydropower generation. Hydropower data obtained from EIA (energy generation, national sites, FAO (water resources and UNEP were used in the analysis. The countries/states were used as computational units to reduce the complexities of the analysis. The results indicate that there are large variations of changes (increases/decreases in hydropower generation across regions and even within regions. Globally, hydropower generation is predicted to change very little by the year 2050 for the hydropower system in operation today. This change amounts to an increase of less than 1% of the current (2005 generation level although it is necessary to carry out basin level detailed assessment for local impacts which may differ from the country based values. There are many regions where runoff and hydropower generation will increase due to increasing precipitation, but also many regions where there will be a decrease. Based on this evaluation, it has been concluded that even if individual countries and regions may experience significant impacts, climate change will not lead to significant changes in the global hydropower generation, at least for the existing hydropower system.

Aanund Killingtveit

2012-02-01

19

Uniform criteria for U.S. hydropower resource assessment: Hydropower Evaluation Software status report -- 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is estimating the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report describes Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 20 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. The reader is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 20 states (Arkansas, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming) assessed to date, and plans for future assessments.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1996-02-01

20

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

1988-12-01

22

How Hydropower Plants Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source. In this article, we'll take a look at how falling water creates energy and learn about the hydrologic cycle that creates the water flow essential for hydropower. You will also get a glimpse at one unique application of hydropower that may affect your daily life

Bonsor, Kevin

2008-02-07

23

Small hydropower plant automation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diploma thesis presents the implementation of small hydropower plant automation, to be precise control automation on the turbine guide vanes. The basic purpose of automation is to provide optimum turbine efficiency while significantly reducing or eliminating the need for manual management. At the beginning the composition of small hydropower plants and their mode of action is described. Later on a small hydropower plant "Krajcova žaga" is presented. At this location a saw, which had i...

Hribar, Natas?a

2010-01-01

24

The role of hydropower in environment ally sustainable energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower has historically been the renewable energy leader, and from a technical-cost perspective, is very likely to remain the only viable renewable energy source for many countries. In recent years, hydropower has been much maligned, especially by NGOs, for not being a sustainable source of energy. Though hydropower is clearly a renewable source of energy, but the question arises whether it can also be sustainable. Hydropower can play an increasingly important role in enabling communities around the world to meet sustainability objectives. To become more accepted as a key contributor to sustainable energy systems, new and existing hydropower projects need to be built and operated in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. This paper highlights the sustain ability aspects of hydropower and discusses the criteria for selection of environmentally friendly hydropower project sites so that that hydropower can be developed in a sustainable manner and once again be considered favorably in the planning of generation mix for new energy development. Sustainability of hydropower projects involves treating both the social and environmental sustainability of the project at an early stage and including the interests of all stakeholders of the project. As a case study, the Ghazi- Barotha Hydropower Project (GBHP) in Pakistan has been selected, as it is the best example in managing the social issues and gaining public acceptance because of proper planninublic acceptance because of proper planning and addressing environmental and social issues at an early stage. (author)

25

Hydropower development in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

2011-04-15

26

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To provide a more accurate assessment of the domestic undeveloped hydropower capacity, the US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed a computer model, Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental, legal, and institutional attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the development of HES, its data requirements, and its application to each state assessment; in addition, it summarizes the data derivation process and data for the states. Modeling of the undeveloped hydropower resources in the US, based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints, has identified 5,677 sites that have a total undeveloped capacity of about 30,000 megawatts.

A. M. Conner; J. E. Francfort; B. N. Rinehart

1998-12-01

27

Hydropower research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

NONE

1997-03-01

28

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

29

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

30

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-01-01

31

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Maryland.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

32

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Ohio.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-12-01

33

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

34

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Michigan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Michigan.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

35

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for North Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of North Carolina.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

36

Hydropower's role in delivering sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Johannesburg's World Summit on Sustainable Development stipulated in its Implementation Plan that hydropower of all scales should be included in the drive to increase the contribution of renewable energy. This can be achieved through the plant-life extension and upgrading of existing schemes as well as by the sustainable development of new projects according to the needs, opportunities and resources available. Hydropower is the world's largest source of renewable energy used for power generation; it accounts for 19 percent of the world's supply (by 2010 wind power is expected to contribute 0.6 percent and solar power 0.12 percent. Hydropower is also a truly global resource, as more than 150 countries generate hydroelectric power. There is about 730 GW of hydro capacity in operation worldwide, generating 2650 TWh/year. A further 101 GW is under construction and 338 GW is at the planning stage. Hydropower plays an important role in reducing global GhG emissions by an estimated 10 percent per annum; in its current role, hydropower offsets 4.4 million barrels of oil-equivalent (thermal electric generation) each day. There is vast unexploited potential worldwide for new hydro plants, with only 33 percent of the economic potential having been developed so far. The majority of the remaining potential exists in lesser developed countries in Asia, South America and Africa. For example, Europe has developed 75 percent of its economic potential, whereas Africa has only developedtential, whereas Africa has only developed seven percent. Hydropower technologies are reliable, advanced and efficient. The energy conversion efficiency of 80 to 93 percent is far higher than that for other major types of power plant. The level of service from the various types of hydro scheme varies from base-load supply, typically from run-of-river schemes, to peak-load and system-back-up services from hydro storage schemes. In regions where there is long-developed hydro capacity, plant-life extension can be achieved by the replacement of equipment within existing infrastructure; this can extend the operating life by a further 30 to 50 years. Small-scale, decentralised development has been responsible for bringing light and power to remote communities. Such schemes have catalysed local commercial diversification and prosperity. The lower investment demand of smaller schemes has enabled private sector involvement through independent power production. Typically smaller schemes become grid connected if the power system is accessible, as this increases the security of supply. Furthermore, schemes at remote sites can assist transmission system stability. A further important role of smaller scale hydro is the recovery of energy at water infrastructure developed for other purposes. In many countries, large schemes play a significant role in national and regional supply security due to the flexibility of storage reservoirs and independence from fuel price fluctuations. Hydro also integrates well with other generation technologies, with its flexibility enabling thermal plants to operate steadily (saving fuel and reducing emissions). In addition, its responsiveness permits the back-up of the intermittent renewables. The question of storage is clearly a major issue in balancing supply and demand. Hydro reservoirs and pump-storage schemes offer security in the stability and reliability of power systems; they can absorb power when there is an excess and follow load demand instantaneously. A major challenge is that 'support' and 'storage' services are rarely understood and encouraged in the market-driven arena. The main arguments against hydropower concern its social impacts, such as land transformation, displacement of people, and environmental changes, i.e. fauna, flora, sedimentation and water quality. The social and environmental impacts can, however, be mitigated by taking appropriate steps according to established codes of good practice. As a tool for this purpose, the hydropower sector has recently developed and adopted Sustainability Guidelines. These Guidelines

37

Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns. PMID:25114958

Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

2014-01-01

38

Technology Roadmap: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

NONE

2012-07-01

39

Flow measurement in hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flow measurement is one of the greatest challenges in order to calculate efficiency in hydropower. Most hydropower plants in Sweden use differential pressure methods for flow measurement. These methods are dependent on constant conditions in the waterways. A change in these conditions, like turbine improvements, prevents differential pressure methods to verify efficiency improvements. Since efficiency improvements can’t be verified by one measurement system, another method, which isn’t af...

Persson, Jonas

2008-01-01

40

Smuk small Hydropower Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present thesis focuses on development of a small hydropower scheme with hydrologic and hydraulic analyses, environmental impact analysis and preliminary dimension design of the components of the scheme. The discussed theoretical bases were used on the practical example of the planned small hydropower plant Smuk on the Tržiška Bistrica River. Due to the location having been defined beforehand its determination was omitted. The first part of the thesis is hydrologic analysis, the objectiv...

Planins?ek, Gregor

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

2014-02-01

42

Hydropower in Hessen; Wasserkraftnutzung in Hessen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On behalf of the Hessian environmental administration a location-related analysis of the hydropower use was carried out in Hesse. This analysis contains information about the energetic efficiency in its actual state as well as taking into account different scenarios. In addition, information has been compiled concerning the influence of the Hessian hydropower plants on the respective hydromorphological situation, e.g. the barrier effects on fishes and other aquatic organisms. Furthermore, a decision support system was developed to account the energetic and economical impacts of measures on optimising the ecological or technical parameters. (orig.)

Theobald, Stephan; Roland, Frank [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

2011-07-01

43

The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an earlier paper (), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now.

44

Development potential for hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

45

Clean Energy: Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower generation is introduced to students as a common purpose and benefit of constructing dams. Through an introduction to kinetic and potential energy, students come to understand how a dam creates electricity. They also learn the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

46

Sustainability Analysis of Hydropower in Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis project was to analyze the sustainability of the hydropower in Nepal. As, Nepal is the second richest country in terms of the water resources, this thesis aims to provide a clear picture of the overall sustainability of the hydro power by measuring social, economical, political and environmental factors with worldwide accepted parameters. The analysis of the parameters was made and then expressed in a quantitative form to make it easy for anyone to understand the th...

Adhikari, Dwarika

2012-01-01

47

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The existing solutions for small hydropower plants were consideredconvenient from the technical point of view over a long period, while general environmental concerns of society increased in all directions during the last decades.This paper refers to how to include environmental protection measures during the selection of the sites for a small hydropower plant and its water intake, during the preparation of the project, and then during operation. Investments for modernization of old small hyd...

Theodor Ghind?; Theodora Ardeleanu

2012-01-01

48

Splice site identification using probabilistic parameters and SVM classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances and automation in DNA sequencing technology has created a vast amount of DNA sequence data. This increasing growth of sequence data demands better and efficient analysis methods. Identifying genes in this newly accumulated data is an important issue in bioinformatics, and it requires the prediction of the complete gene structure. Accurate identification of splice sites in DNA sequences plays one of the central roles of gene structural prediction in eukaryotes. Effective detection of splice sites requires the knowledge of characteristics, dependencies, and relationship of nucleotides in the splice site surrounding region. A higher-order Markov model is generally regarded as a useful technique for modeling higher-order dependencies. However, their implementation requires estimating a large number of parameters, which is computationally expensive. Results The proposed method for splice site detection consists of two stages: a first order Markov model (MM1 is used in the first stage and a support vector machine (SVM with polynomial kernel is used in the second stage. The MM1 serves as a pre-processing step for the SVM and takes DNA sequences as its input. It models the compositional features and dependencies of nucleotides in terms of probabilistic parameters around splice site regions. The probabilistic parameters are then fed into the SVM, which combines them nonlinearly to predict splice sites. When the proposed MM1-SVM model is compared with other existing standard splice site detection methods, it shows a superior performance in all the cases. Conclusion We proposed an effective pre-processing scheme for the SVM and applied it for the identification of splice sites. This is a simple yet effective splice site detection method, which shows a better classification accuracy and computational speed than some other more complex methods.

Halgamuge SK

2006-12-01

49

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

1998-06-01

50

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

51

Research on efficiency test of a turbine in Khan Khwar hydropower station  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency test is an important indicator to evaluate the energy conversion performance of a hydraulic turbine. For hydropower stations which do not have the direct flow measurement conditions, whether the characteristic curve of a turbine obtained through similarity theory conversion by using the comprehensive characteristic curve of the turbine can correctly reflect the operating performance of the prototype unit is a key issue in this industry. By taking the No.1 unit of Khan Khwar hydropower station as the example, the efficiency test of this turbine was studied on the site, including the measurement method of test parameters, the configuration of the computer test system, as well as the processing and analysis of test data.

Zhang, H. K.; Liang, Z.; Liu, X. B.; Liu, D. M.; Deng, M. G.; Wang, H. Y.

2012-11-01

52

Research on efficiency test of a turbine in Khan Khwar hydropower station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency test is an important indicator to evaluate the energy conversion performance of a hydraulic turbine. For hydropower stations which do not have the direct flow measurement conditions, whether the characteristic curve of a turbine obtained through similarity theory conversion by using the comprehensive characteristic curve of the turbine can correctly reflect the operating performance of the prototype unit is a key issue in this industry. By taking the No.1 unit of Khan Khwar hydropower station as the example, the efficiency test of this turbine was studied on the site, including the measurement method of test parameters, the configuration of the computer test system, as well as the processing and analysis of test data.

53

Renewable Energy: Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson introduces students to the use of flowing or falling water (hydropower) to perform work, particularly electric power generation. Topics include the history of hydropower development, the invention of turbines and electric generators, and the history of hydroelectric power development in the United States. There is also discussion of the environmental issues associated with the construction of large dams and flooding large tracts of land, as well as some of the physics involved in the transfer of energy from moving water to a mechanical device such as a turbine. The lesson includes an activity in which students use a model turbine and generator and vary the height from which water flows into them to examine how energy output and efficiency varies.

Pratte, John

54

Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

Gajic, A.

2013-12-01

55

Environmental impact of hydropower systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

56

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2011-09-01

57

Hydro-power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On average the hydro-power sector produces 12% of the electrical power in France. A quarter of this production might pass to another operator than EDF because the end of some grants is nearing (2012 for 12 installations). In France the power of rivers belongs to the state that gives operators grants to harness it. The allowance lasts 75 years usually but for installations below 4.5 MW a permanent and definitive grant is allowed. Most installations are ancient and their investment have been paid off since a long, so hydro-power is the most profitable renewable energy in France. A lot of bidders are expected. Each bid will be assessed on 3 criteria: -) the global energy efficiency of the waterfall, -) a balanced management of the water resource, and -) an economic and financial offer to the state. The balance between the different uses of water is getting more delicate to reach and this renewal of grants will be an opportunity for the state to impose a better preservation of the environment. In July 2008, the French government announced a program for the re launching of the hydro-power, this program has been reduced and now only 3000 GWh supplementary are expected by 2020. (A.C.)

58

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existing solutions for small hydropower plants were consideredconvenient from the technical point of view over a long period, while general environmental concerns of society increased in all directions during the last decades.This paper refers to how to include environmental protection measures during the selection of the sites for a small hydropower plant and its water intake, during the preparation of the project, and then during operation. Investments for modernization of old small hydropower plants have to also include improvements regarding especially the protection of the river ecosystem. Specific environmental training for those who will be designers of small hydropower plants can be useful for environmental protection improvement in such projects.

Theodor Ghind?

2012-06-01

59

Geotechnical and geomechanical parameters required for characterization of sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterization of disposal sites will involve geotechnical investigations and measurement of dozens of geomechanical parameters. The required investigations may be performed in stages, beginning with a preliminary study, or in a single evaluation. The geotechnical investigation will deal with the actual disposal site and the immediate area surrounding the site, and may include more detailed evaluation of the waste, disposal pits, and waste handling or processing structures. With respect to the actual site, the investigation is likely to focus on evaluating: (1) the types of subsurface soils or rocks present; (2) stability of the site; (3) potential for erosion; (4) ground water conditions; and (5) sources for construction materials. A variety of tests, some routine and some requiring state-of-the-art techniques, would be needed to measure parameters related to strength, compressibility, and permeability. The important mechanical properties of the waste (average density, compressibility, and potential for generation of gas) may be measured or, in some cases, estimated from experience. Detailed characterization will also be needed to evaluate stability of the walls of disposal pits, earthen covers over pits, any liner for the pit, any internal drains for the pit, and any internal system for collection or control of gas. Measurement and evaluation of most of these parameters is within the current state-of-practice. The parameters that will be the most difficult to measrs that will be the most difficult to measure and, at the same time, are of critical importance, are compressibility of the waste, characteristics of the earthen cover over the waste, and hydraulic conductivity of soils that contain thin sand seams, cracks, joints, or other hydraulic defects

60

Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for Hanford Assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This data package was originally prepared to support a 2004 composite analysis (CA) of low-level waste disposal at the Hanford Site. The Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site (Kincaid et. al. 2004) identified the requirements for that analysis and served as the basis for initial preparation of this data package. Completion of the 2004 CA was later deferred, with the 2004 Annual Status Report for the Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site (DOE 2005) indicating that a comprehensive update to the CA was in preparation and would be submitted in 2006. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently decided to further defer the CA update and will use the cumulative assessment currently under preparation for the environmental impact statement (EIS) being prepared for tank closure and other site decisions as the updated CA. Submittal of the draft EIS is currently planned for FY 2008. This data package describes the facility-specific parameters (e.g. location, operational dates, etc.) used to numerically simulate contaminant flow and transport in large-scale Hanford assessments. Kincaid et al. (2004) indicated that the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Kincaid et al. 2000; Bryce et al. 2002; Eslinger 2002a, 2002b) would be used to analyze over a thousand different waste sites. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site/facility, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future). This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for large-scale Hanford assessments.

Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Plant parameter envelopes for early site permit evaluations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991, the US Department of Energy and the US nuclear industry initiated a cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program (ESPDP) to demonstrate the practical implementation of new regulations concerning early site permits (ESPs). The ESPs are expected to contribute to regulatory stability for future nuclear plant orders by addressing site-related issues before an organization makes a major financial investment in committing to build a new plant. The new licensing process increases an organization's ability to respond to future base-load electricity generation needs by open-quotes bankingclose quotes suitable sites and by resolving safety and environmental issues for those sites well before new plants are needed. The objective of the ESPDP is to successfully demonstrate the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESP(S) for US site(s) for one or more advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. Certain specific plant-site information is generally not expected to be available at the time of application for an ESP because an ESP applicant may not have made a final decision on which ALWR design may be built on the site because the applicant can wait up to nearly 20 yr after obtaining an ESP before applying for a plant construction permit. To satisfy National Environmental Policy Act requirements, information on the potential environmental impact of the unspecified future plant must be provided with the ESP application. Therefore, an enveloping approach, called plantfore, an enveloping approach, called plant parameter envelopes (PPEs), was developed to provide required plant information. This paper provides a description of the PPE concept and explains why it is a prudent approach to use for performing safety and environmental impact assessments in support of an ESP application

62

Module 10: Hydropower for Agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students the hydrologic cycle, current issues in hydropower, system components of hydropower, and a variety of related topics. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 67 slide PowerPoint presentation.

2014-09-03

63

System analysis approach to verification of site characterization parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early in the transition of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) from a preliminary geologic investigation to a part of a major system acquisition program, the following project needs were recognized: (1) site-specific system functional requirements, i.e., the capabilities a deep geologic basalt system must provide to ensure long-term isolation of wastes, (2) complete list of design variables and site characteristics (information and data needs) that could affect system capabilities; and (3) relative importance, availability, and uncertainty of these information and data needs. The first project need was satisfied by a conventional functional analysis. The second was answered by a unique extension of that functional analysis. The results of these two efforts have been released in the BWIP System Functional Analysis (SFA) Document. The third need is presently under study. With the advent of a formalized issue resolution strategy (IRS) process as the basis for the BWIP site characterization program, a subset of the SFA information and data needs was used to verify (a) that no significant variable was omitted from consideration in the IRS process, (b) the necessity of IRS site characterization parameters, and (c) the sufficiency of each issue-related set of IRS parameters to address that issue. An example of a SFA branch is discussed

64

Techno-economical method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} A method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant was developed. {yields} The model was developed on the basis of the flow duration curve of the site. {yields} Seven techno-economical parameters were considered in the analysis. {yields} The influence of the design operating conditions on the parameters was analysed. {yields} The method allowed a proper choice of the optimal design operating conditions. -- Abstract: This paper presents a method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant on the basis of techno-economical analyses of the flow duration curve. Seven technical and economical parameters were considered: the turbine type, the turbine dimensions, the annual energy production, the maximum installation height to avoid cavitation inception, the machine cost, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). A proper model was proposed to study the effects of the design operating conditions on these parameters. The model, applied to the flow duration curve, allowed to analyse the feasibility, the profitability and the performance of the plant in the available flowing range of the site. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, three sites having different flow duration curves were analysed.

Santolin, A., E-mail: alberto.santolin@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cavazzini, G., E-mail: giovanna.cavazzini@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pavesi, G., E-mail: giorgio.pavesi@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ardizzon, G., E-mail: guido.ardizzon@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Rossetti, A., E-mail: antonio.rossetti@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2011-07-15

65

Gis-based procedures for hydropower potential spotting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing demand for energy, especially from renewable and sustainable sources, spurs the development of small hydropower plants and encourages investment in new survey studies. Preliminary hydropower survey studies usually carry huge uncertainties about the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of the undeveloped potential. This paper presents a methodology for large-scale survey of hydropower potential sites to be applied in the inception phase of hydroelectric development planning. The sequence of procedures to identify hydropower sites is based on remote sensing and regional streamflow data and was automated within a GIS-based computational program: Hydrospot. The program allows spotting more potential sites along the drainage network than it would be possible in a traditional survey study, providing different types of dam-powerhouse layouts and two types (operating modes) of projects: run-of-the-river and storage projects. Preliminary results from its applications in a hydropower-developed basin in Brazil have shown Hydrospot's limitations and potentialities in giving support to the mid-to-long-term planning of the electricity sector. (author)

Larentis, Dante G.; Collischonn, Walter; Tucci, Carlos E.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Hidraulicas da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Caixa Postal 15029, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Olivera, Francisco (Texas A and M University, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3136, US)

2010-10-15

66

Hydraulic air pumps for low-head hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower is a proven renewable energy resource and future expansion potential exists in smaller-scale, low-head sites. A novel approach to low-head hydropower at run-of-river and tidal estuary sites is to include an intermediate air transmission stage. Water is made to flow through a siphon, rather than a conventional water turbine, and at the top of the siphon the pressure is sub-atmospheric and air is entrained into the water. The siphon forms a novel, hydraulically powered vacuum pump or...

Howey, Da; Pullen, Kr

2009-01-01

67

Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based.

Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

2002-01-01

68

Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

69

[Impacts of large hydropower station on benthic algal communities].  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the impacts of large hydropower station in Gufu River on benthic algae, monthly samplings were conducted from September 2004 to June 2007 at the site GF04 which was impacted by the hydropower station, with the site GL03 in Gaolan River as reference. During sampling period, no significant differences were observed in the main physicochemical variables between GF04 and GL03, but the hydrodynamics differed significantly. GL03 was basically at a status of slow flow; while GF04, owing to the discharging from the reservoir, was at a riffle status during more than 60% of the sampling period. Such a difference in hydrodynamics induced significant differences in the community similarity of benthic algae and the relative abundance of unattached diatoms, erect diatoms, and stalked diatoms between GF04 and GL03, which could better reflect the impacts of irregular draw-off by large hydropower station on river eco-system. PMID:19899478

Jia, Xing-Huan; Jiang, Wan-Xiang; Li, Feng-Qing; Tang, Tao; Duan, Shu-Gui; Cai, Qing-Hua

2009-07-01

70

Small-scale hydropower systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (JF)

1988-04-01

71

Electricity market liberalisation endangers hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes the argumentation of the Governmental Conference of the Swiss Mountain Cantons concerning the effects of future electricity market liberalisation on the inland hydropower business. Possible effects such as the postponement of investments in the maintenance and renewal of hydropower plant or merciless predatory competition are listed. Also, problems for the owners that may result from the liberalisation such as being burdened with investments that can no longer be amortised are discussed and possible solutions are mentioned

72

Identification of spatial and topographical metrics for micro hydropower applications in irrigation infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent agreement between the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the State of Colorado seeks to streamline regulatory review of small, low-head hydropower (micro hydropower) projects located in constrained waterways, (Governor's Energy Office, 2010). This regulatory change will likely encourage the development of micro hydropower projects, primarily as upgrades to existing infrastructure. Previous studies of low-head hydropower projects have estimated the combined capacity of micro hydro projects in Colorado between 664 MW to 5,003 MW (Connor, A.M., et al. 1998; Hall, D.G., et al. 2004, 2006). However, these studies did not include existing hydraulic structures in irrigation canals as possible hydropower sites. A Colorado Department of Agriculture study (Applegate Group, 2011) identified existing infrastructure categories for low head hydropower development in irrigation systems, which included diversion structures, line chutes, vertical drops, pipelines, check structures and reservoir outlets. However, an accurate assessment of hydropower capacity from existing infrastructures could not be determined due to low survey responses from irrigation water districts. The current study represents the first step in a comprehensive field study to quantify the type and quantity of irrigation infrastructure for potential upgrade to support micro hydropower production. Field surveys were conducted at approximately 230 sites in 6 of Colorado's 7 hydrographic divisions at existing hydraulic control structures. The United States Bureau of Reclamation contributed approximately 330 additional sample sites from the 17 western states. The work presented here describes a novel method of identifying geospatial metrics to support an estimation of total site count and resource availability of potential micro hydropower. The proposed technique is general in nature and could be utilized to assess micro hydropower resources in any region.

Campbell, Brian

73

World Small Hydropower Development Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

2013-07-01

74

Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration fhemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

75

Identification of undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional attributes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is used to model the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. It was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in response to National Energy Strategy requirements. The HES models the environmental, legal, and institutional attributes present at potential hydropower sites, and calculates a regional or state total of the undeveloped hydropower potential. The site attributes and characteristics can be entered into the menu-driven model on a site-by-site basis, as well as downloaded from existing information sources such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Hydroelectric Power Resources Assessment Inventory and the Department of Interior`s National Rivers Inventory.

Francfort, J.E.; Conner, A.M.

1997-08-01

76

Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO2 outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe3+/Fe2+, Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ and SO4 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of ±10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO2 outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS-/SO4 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS-/SO4 2-controls Eh at normal SO4 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO4 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe3+ values obtained by subtraction of Fe2+ from Fetotal. (iv) There are high uncertainties in EhSO4/HS for Forsmark samples because H

77

Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86%) source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the result...

Aanund Killingtveit; Byman Hamududu

2012-01-01

78

Market research of hydropower in Nordic countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines market research and hydropower situation in northern markets. The purpose of this thesis is to describe hydropower capacity in the Nordic countries, find out PowerMortar's market potential for the case-company which is interested in expanding operations especially in Sweden and find the latest information about hydropower companies and hydropower plants. Theoretical framework of this thesis consists of theories of market research. The focus is on explanation of cent...

Ruuti, Tuuli-maria

2008-01-01

79

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

1992-09-01

80

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

 
 
 
 
81

Refurbishment of hydropower generation plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the factors taken into consideration and the methods used for the management of refurbishment work in the hydropower installations of the TUWAG - a Tyrolean hydropower company in Austria. The technical and financial advantages to be gained from refurbishment are discussed and the requirements placed on the structuring of refurbishment projects are described. Various factors such as plant operation and maintenance, increased returns through better efficiency and cost reduction through lower wear and tear and reduced risk of failure are discussed. Annexes to the article cover monitoring and measurement techniques, the simulation of mechanical and hydraulic conditions, profitability calculations and turbine management

82

An empirical analysis of the hydropower portfolio in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indus Basin of Pakistan with 800 hydropower project sites and a feasible hydropower potential of 60 GW, 89% of which is undeveloped, is a complex system poised for large-scale changes in the future. Motivated by the need to understand future impacts of hydropower alternatives, this study conducted a multi-dimensional, empirical analysis of the full hydropower portfolio. The results show that the full portfolio spans multiple scales of capacity from mega (>1000 MW) to micro (<0.1 MW) projects with a skewed spatial distribution within the provinces, as well as among rivers and canals. Of the total feasible potential, 76% lies in two (out of six) administrative regions and 68% lies in two major rivers (out of more than 125 total channels). Once projects currently under implementation are commissioned, there would be a five-fold increase from a current installed capacity of 6720 MW to 36759 MW. It is recommended that the implementation and design decisions should carefully include spatial distribution and environmental considerations upfront. Furthermore, uncertainties in actual energy generation, and broader hydrological risks due to expected climate change effects should be included in the current planning of these systems that are to provide service over several decades into the future. - Highlights: ? Pakistan has a hydropower potential of 60 GW distributed across 800 projects. ? Under-development projects will realize 36.7 GW of this potential by 2030. ? Pr7 GW of this potential by 2030. ? Project locations are skewed towards some sub-basins and provinces. ? Project sizes are very diverse and have quite limited private sector ownership. ? Gaps in data prevent proper risk assessment for Pakistan's hydropower development.

83

SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

Jannik, T.

2013-03-14

84

Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

2010-09-15

85

A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2013-05-01

86

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes Zoby

2009-03-01

87

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system [...] is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes, Zoby; Jurandir Itizo, Yanagihara.

2009-03-01

88

Health implications of hydropower development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health t is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

89

Field test of ultra-low head hydropower package based on marine thrusters. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project includes the design, fabrication, assembly, installation, and field test of the first full-scale operating hydropower package (turbine, transmission, and generator) based on a design which incorporates a marine-thruster as the hydraulic prime mover. Included here are: the project overview; engineering design; ultra-low head hydropower package fabrication; component procurement, cost control, and scheduling; thruster hydraulic section installation; site modeling and resulting recommended modifications; testing; and baseline environmental conditions at Stone Drop. (MHR)

1983-12-01

90

A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

2015-01-01

91

A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25223621

McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

2014-09-16

92

A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL

2014-01-01

93

Criteria for NPP site selection with respect to meteorological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Criteria for the nuclear rower plant site selection are studied to ensure the population radiation safety with respect to the NPP radionuclide stack releases into atmosphere. The principles of the population dose evaluation and permissible release limits determination are formed. Meteorological factors are identified that have major effects on calculation of the average annual atmospheric dilution coefficient. A programme is suggested for additional meteorological and aerological observations to ensure the evaluation of specific micrometeorological features of the site in case of its location in a region with complicated relief of the terrain or frequent abnormal meteorological conditions

94

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2012-01-01

95

Hydropower development in the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present policy on energy development is geared towards harnessing renewable and indigenous energy resource which can offer clean, abundant and efficient power supply for the country. a review of the current generation mix of the power system, especially the Luzon grid will establish a high dependency in imported fuel - oil and coal to power our generating plants. Thus, the policy of reducing dependence on imported fuel will depend largely on the success of tapping the alternative renewable and indigenous sources. The sustainable development era of the 90's brought fresh interest on the performance and commercial viability of indigenous and/or renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, natural gas and water power or hydropower. Among these alternative renewable sources, water or hydropower is the most readily available, and will produce clean domestic source of electricity - no carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide or any other air emissions. The potential is available in most parts of the country that are mountainous and have high rainfall. In terms of production, hydropower leads as the most developed and more proven in terms of commercial viability. It is also more reliable, efficient and less expensive than geothermal, biomass, wind and solar energy, as will be shown later. (author)

96

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. T...

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-01-01

97

Data-Based Performance Assessments for the DOE Hydropower Advancement Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U. S. Department of Energy s Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated to characterize and trend hydropower asset conditions across the U.S.A. s existing hydropower fleet and to identify and evaluate the upgrading opportunities. Although HAP includes both detailed performance assessments and condition assessments of existing hydropower plants, this paper focuses on the performance assessments. Plant performance assessments provide a set of statistics and indices that characterize the historical extent to which each plant has converted the potential energy at a site into electrical energy for the power system. The performance metrics enable benchmarking and trending of performance across many projects in a variety contexts (e.g., river systems, power systems, and water availability). During FY2011 and FY2012, assessments will be performed on ten plants, with an additional fifty plants scheduled for FY2013. This paper focuses on the performance assessments completed to date, details the performance assessment process, and describes results from the performance assessments.

March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Wolff, Dr. Paul [WolffWare Ltd.; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy

2012-01-01

98

Reliability validation of hydropower units of high-head developments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Throughout the development of the hydropower special attention was paid to the formation of a theoretical framework and methods of parameters and operating modes of powerhouses study. Under current design standards mathematical modeling of powerhouse is performed in two-dimensional for the axisymmetric problem. Up to now this method of simulation in Russia is the determining, although it has long lagged behind the capabilities of modern universal software of finite element analysis.The articl...

Kozinets, G. L.

2012-01-01

99

Interactive map of restorable hydropower plants sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magistrat?ros studij? baigiamasis darbas: 50 puslapi?, 20 paveiksl?, 3 lentel?s, 46 literat?ros šaltiniai. PAGRINDINIAI ŽODŽIAI: interaktyvus atlasas, mažoji hidroenergetika, vandens mal?nai. Tiriamojo darbo objektas: Lietuvos vandens j?gaini? atstatymo vietos – buvusi? ir esam? vandens mal?n? vietov?s. Tiriamojo darbo tikslas: nustatyti ir vizualizuoti potencialias vietoves (su pagrindin?mis technin?mis charakteristikomis), kurios b?t? tinkamos mažosios hidr...

Zakarauskaite?, Malvina

2013-01-01

100

Turbulence parameter inside and above a tall spruce site  

Science.gov (United States)

In the EGER (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions) project, different physical, chemical and biological processes in the soil-vegetation-boundary-layer system were investigated. Field experiments were performed at the BayCEER research site Waldstein/Weidenbrunnen, a spruce site located in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains in North-Eastern Bavaria, which are challenging for their heterogeneity and orographically structured terrain. Turbulence structure, advection, flux gradients of meteorological and chemical quantities were observed within the first intensive observation period (IOP 1) in September and October 2007. Observations of turbulence structure were obtained by a vertical profile of sonic anemometers covering all parts of the forest up to the lower part of the roughness sub layer. Field observations are complemented by simulations of ACASA model (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm). Integral turbulence characteristics, the normalized standard deviation of a turbulent quantity, can be used to describe the structure of turbulence. A comparison between measured and predicted values shows whether turbulence is fully developed or not and is therefore used in quality assessment. For this quality control and as an input for models, when measurements are not available, parameterizations for profiles are needed. Since there is no uniform theory for those parameterizations inside a forest available, different approaches were tested with data collected during the EGER IOP1. In order to parameterize the integral turbulence characteristics of the wind components inside the roughness sub layer a dimensionless height ? = hc L-1 should be used instead of ? = z L-1, which is used above short vegetation. Profiles of integral turbulence characteristics from different ecosystems show that the decrease inside the roughness sub layer is similar but that parameterizations of profiles can not be generalized due to different stand structures. Selecting the profiles of the integral turbulence characteristics by coupling situations between the atmosphere above and inside the stand did not reveal a significant different behavior than a selection according to stratification above the canopy. A comparison between the measured values and model results from the ACASA model showed a good agreement for the normalized wind speed but the integral turbulence characteristics of the wind components were usually overestimated above the canopy and underestimated inside the trunk space.

Biermann, T.; Staudt, K.; Serafimovich, A.; Foken, T.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

CLASSIFICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF MINI HYDROPOWER STATIONS ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classifications of mini hydropower stations, placement types of power stations, the methods of execution, the development prospects of the Russian Federation have been presented in the article. The basic problems of the technique of using mini hydropower stations have been revealed

Ponomarenko A. S.

2013-05-01

102

Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

1994-01-01

103

System dynamics in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

Stuksrud, Dag Birger

1998-12-31

104

The importance of hydropower in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

105

On-Line Monitoring of Hydropower Plants in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we present a comparison of traditional and modern techniques for monitoring hydropower plants. Traditionally, in Pakistan, the maintenance of hydropower plants is based on periodic-based corrective techniques, which involves shutdowns of plants over specified periods. The method not only restricts the operator to wait for the periodic shutdown for routine maintenance, but also proves to be more costly in case of major defects occurring in the plant. We propose on-line monitoring of the equipment, which involves continuous observation of the system parameters without system or equipment being stopped. The outcome is the early detection of any abnormality/fault and limiting of the severity of any potential damage to the system.

Iftikhar Ahmad

2007-01-01

106

Available water for hydropower generation in Swaziland  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of available water for hydropower generation was carried out in Swaziland as part of the national water study commissioned by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The study was carried out in 2004/05 and it involved field assessment of major hydropower stations, hydrological assessment of the major water courses where hydropower generation plants are located, climatic changes over the last 10 years and an assessment of the demand for electricity in Swaziland. The study showed that more than 90% of the electricity which Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) provides to its customers is produced by hydropower while a small proportion is produced by diesel power. The study also showed that the capacity of SEB to generate hydropower is limited mainly by low water flows. It was found out that due to limited capacity to generate hydropower, SEB imports most of the electricity from ESKOM in South Africa and that in 2004 the imported power was more that 84% of the total electricity consumed in Swaziland. It was found out that the causes of low water flows were upstream abstractions and long-term drought conditions. This indicated that hydropower generation is now less favourable in Swaziland than it was in the 1970s, when the existing schemes were built or studied. The other cause for reduced availability of water for hydropower generation is deforestation and increasing land use pressure in the catchment leading to high sedimentation levels in reservoirs. It was concluded that, while the future of locally generated hydropower is limited by dwindling water flows, the capacity to generate more power can be increased by constructing additional dams. It was also recommended that deforestation and intensive cultivation of the catchment areas need to be controlled to reduce the sedimentation of hydropower reservoirs and that more dams should be constructed to counteract the effects of droughts on river flows.

Mwendera, E. J.

107

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STAGE –IV KOYNA HYDROPOWER PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroelectric power contributes around 12.45 percent of the electricity supply in India. It is considered to be the most vital, unpolluted, emission-free and an inexpensive renewable source of energy. Hydroelectric power-plants operating all over the world aims to have high electric output with minimum maintenance cost. It’s very different with Koyna Hydropower Plant (KHPP stage IV which generates lower electric output than the installed capacity with higher maintenance. This project aims to build a simulation model which can simulate the regular operation of Koyna Hydropower Plant with Arena®. The study involves to evaluate dynamic response of the system and plant performance under various operating conditions such as head height, quantity of water flow penstock and operating gates. Also to determine and identify the optimum parameters required for maximum power generation. The outcomes of the model helped to analyse the power generation capacity against the required quantity of water flow and head height. The developed simulation model was validated and used as an apparatus to determine the optimal operating parameters that maximise power generation of stage –IV at Koyna Hydropower plant.

Mohd. Imran Ahmed

2014-01-01

108

Key parameters analysis of important radionuclides in dose evaluation model of decommissioning site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to analyze key parameters of important radionuclides in dose evaluation model of decommissioning site, a sensitivity analysis was performed. This analysis assumed a resident farmer for an exposure scenario and 0.037Bq/g for the concentration of radionuclides. As a result of sensitivity analysis, the key parameters of radionuclides considered were the area of contaminated zone, external gamma shielding factor and indoor time fraction for Cs-137 and Co-60. The key parameters for C-14 were the environmental parameters and hydrological parameters of unsaturated zone. Also, the key parameter for Sr-90 was the density of contaminated zone

109

Key parameters analysis of important radionuclides in dose evaluation model of decommissioning site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to analyze key parameters of important radionuclides in dose evaluation model of decommissioning site, a sensitivity analysis was performed. This analysis assumed a resident farmer for an exposure scenario and 0.037Bq/g for the concentration of radionuclides. As a result of sensitivity analysis, the key parameters of radionuclides considered were the area of contaminated zone, external gamma shielding factor and indoor time fraction for Cs-137 and Co-60. The key parameters for C-14 were the environmental parameters and hydrological parameters of unsaturated zone. Also, the key parameter for Sr-90 was the density of contaminated zone.

Lim, Yong Kyu; Kim, Hak Soo; Son, Jung Kwon; Park, Kyoung Rock; Kang, Ki Doo; Kim, Kyoung Doek [NETI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chan Woo [KINS, Taejon(Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

110

The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river he designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

111

Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)ration technologies. (author)

112

Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejovi?, S.; Mazij, J.

2014-12-01

113

PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-07-01

114

Evaluation of flexibility in hydropower stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report seeks to evaluate the flexibility in a number of Fortum’s hydropower stations. The deregulation of the Nordic electricity market has put an emphasis on revenue maximizing rather than cost minimizing and there are good indications that flexible assets will be even more valuable in the future when more wind power has been introduced into the system. Through interviews with people involved in the hydropower planning and operation process a number of factors with the potential of af...

Crona, Mats

2012-01-01

115

Time synchronized measurements in hydropower stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vattenfall and Svenska Kraftnät perform start-up tests, where hydropower generators are used to power up the electrical grid in case of a blackout. To monitor the electrical grid, Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) are used. Each PMU is individually equipped with a GPS-receiver to precisely timestamp the data relative to the official time UTC. During the test, it is also of interest to timestamp the measurement signals from individual hydropower generators to later compare with PMU-data, and thu...

Larsson, Bertil

2010-01-01

116

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world’s electricity supply. Although dams often have big environmental and social impacts, proponents of hydropower regard it as a comparatively clean, low-cost and renewable form of energy. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water, in the sense of effectively taking away water from the river. In this report we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelec...

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2011-01-01

117

Assessment of Investment in Small Hydropower Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study an assessment of investments in a hydropower plants is considered. The objective of this work is to maximize the net present value from selling energy. Because of the stochastic nature of river flows, flow duration curve is constructed to take into account hydropower plant capacity factor, important for the assessment of investment. Proposed mixed-integer linear programming model is flexible and accounts for nonlinear three-dimensional (3-D) relationship between the produced ...

Perica Ilak; Slavko Krajcar

2013-01-01

118

An analysis of Turkish hydropower policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last decade, Turkish electricity demand has increased more than 8% per annum as a result of economic development. Being one of the renewable energy sources par excellence, non-exhaustible, non-polluting and economically more attractive than other renewable sources, hydropower has turned out to be an important contributor to the future energy mix of the country. This paper deals with hydropower policies to meet increasing electricity demand for sustainable energy development in Turkey...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2011-01-01

119

Hydropower generator and power system interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After decades of routine operation, the hydropower industry faces new challenges. Large-scale integration of other renewable sources of generation in the power system accentuates the role of hydropower as a regulating resource. At the same time, an extensive reinvestment programme has commenced where many old components and apparatus are being refurbished or replaced. Introduction of new technical solutions in existing power plants requires good systems knowledge and careful consideration. Im...

Bladh, Johan

2012-01-01

120

Value of stochasticity in hydropower planning optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With respect to market liberalization, efficient use of resources is becoming more important for players in the market. In order to achieve that different optimization techniques were developed which enable better operational efficiency. These techniques can be segmented into two different categories, depending on their time horizon: • Yearly time horizon – mid-term hydropower scheduling • Daily time horizon – short-term hydropower scheduling These two time horizons account for two ca...

Vistica, Marko

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

None

1979-07-01

122

Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar. PMID:19013007

McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

2009-07-01

123

Preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for basic transport parameters at the Horonobe Site, Hokkaido, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incorporating results from a previously developed finite element model, an uncertainty and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted using preliminary site-specific data from Horonobe, Japan (data available from five boreholes as of 2003). Latin Hypercube Sampling was used to draw random parameter values from the site-specific measured, or approximated, physicochemical uncertainty distributions. Using pathlengths and groundwater velocities extracted from the three-dimensional, finite element flow and particle tracking model, breakthrough curves for multiple realizations were calculated with the semi-analytical, one-dimensional, multirate transport code, STAMMT-L. A stepwise linear regression analysis using the 5, 50, and 95% breakthrough times as the dependent variables and LHS sampled site physicochemical parameters as the independent variables was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the distribution coefficients and hydraulic conductivities are the parameters responsible for most of the variation among simulated breakthrough times. This suggests that researchers and data collectors at the Horonobe site should focus on accurately assessing these parameters and quantifying their uncertainty. Because the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is in an early phase of its development, this work should be considered as a first step toward an integration of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with decision analysiscision analysis

124

Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

125

Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

126

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2010-04-01

127

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied within different administrative domains. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' annual catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The parameters of representativeness derived were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from very remote coastal to polluted rural sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters of representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the robustness of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2009-09-01

128

Demonstrating ecological receptor health at contaminated sites with wild rodent sperm parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistently at Superfund and other contaminated terrestrial sites, ecological receptors have been chemically exposed for multiple decades by the time risk assessments are conducted. Given that numerous generations of the receptors have lived through the contaminated site condition by the present day, a paradigm shift from risk assessment, where the potential for health effects are forecasted, to a direct, health status assessment scheme for the site-exposed receptor, would seem to be most appropriate. We applied the only such existing direct health status assessment method, Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA), with small rodents trapped at contaminated sites and at matched noncontaminated reference locations. Reproductive health, ecological risk assessment's endpoint of greatest concern, is targeted with RSA by comparing the sperm parameters of count, motility, and morphology, for each of which it is known how much of a change from a control condition signifies compromised reproductive capability. Given that sperm parameter thresholds were not exceeded in maximally exposed receptors, the data suggest that in the general case, contaminated terrestrial sites do not need cleanups to afford health protection to ecological species, and particularly the larger, wider-ranging, higher trophic level species. Our findings suggest that RSA has the ability to consistently discriminate between clean and contaminated sites, and that the method can allow for as definitive determinations of terrestrial ecological receptor health as are possible, thereby facilitating early site clean-up decisions. PMID:17612787

Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Williams, Keith J

2007-10-01

129

Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo  

Science.gov (United States)

This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40 percent, 60 percent, and 90 percent were made.

Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, William Matthew; Mathis, Melissa L.; Tieszen, Larry L.

2014-01-01

130

Geostatistical characterisation of geothermal parameters for a thermal aquifer storage site in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of geothermal systems such as aquifer thermal energy storage systems (ATES) must account for a comprehensive characterisation of all relevant parameters considered for the numerical design model. Hydraulic and thermal conductivities are the most relevant parameters and its distribution determines not only the technical design but also the economic viability of such systems. Hence, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of these parameters is essential for a successful design and operation of such systems. This work shows the first results obtained when applying geostatistical techniques to the characterisation of the Esseling Site in Germany. In this site a long-term thermal tracer test (> 1 year) was performed. On this open system the spatial temperature distribution inside the aquifer was observed over time in order to obtain as much information as possible that yield to a detailed characterisation both of the hydraulic and thermal relevant parameters. This poster shows the preliminary results obtained for the Esseling Site. It has been observed that the common homogeneous approach is not sufficient to explain the observations obtained from the TRT and that parameter heterogeneity must be taken into account.

Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.; Li, T.; Grathwohl, P.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

2009-04-01

131

An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (?58%) and nuclear power (?38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

132

Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

none,

2011-04-01

133

Hydropower. Backbone of green energy sales; Wasserkraft. Rueckgrat der Gruenstromvermarktung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The expansion of renewable energy sources has boosted in recent years and will be promoted in the future. Hydropower shows high capacity factors, is simple to store and highly predictable. Due to its versatility, hydropower is the backbone of most green energy products. Larger portfolios of hydropower plants even allow for structured long-term contracts, normally backed by thermal capacities. (orig.)

Klee, David; Bischof, Ralf; Detering, Michael [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Hydro Power and New Technologies

2012-11-01

134

Comparisons of CAP88PC version 2.0 default parameters to site specific inputs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of varying the input for the CAP88PC Version 2.0 program on the total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) were determined for hypothetical releases from the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Argonne National Laboratory site on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Values for site specific meteorological conditions and agricultural production parameters were determined for the 80 km radius surrounding the HFEF. Four nuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs (with its short lived progeny, {sup 137m}Ba) were selected for this study; these are the radioactive materials most likely to be released from HFEF under normal or abnormal operating conditions. Use of site specific meteorological parameters of annual precipitation, average temperature, and the height of the inversion layer decreased the TEDE from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba up to 36%; reductions for other nuclides were less than 3%. Use of the site specific agricultural parameters reduced TEDE values between 7% and 49%, depending on the nuclide. Reductions are associated with decreased committed effective dose equivalents (CEDEs) from the ingestion pathway. This is not surprising since the HFEF is located well within the INEEL exclusion area, and the surrounding area closest to the release point is a high desert with limited agricultural diversity. Livestock and milk production are important in some counties at distances greater than 30 km from the HFEF.

Lehto, M. A.; Courtney, J. C.; Charter, N.; Egan, T.

2000-03-02

135

Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.

2004-11-15

136

Different Aspects of Flushing of Hydropower Intakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different design criteria for successful flushing of hydropower headworks have been evaluated. Main focus has been on handling of floating debris for small hydropower plant in Norway, as well as sediment handling for run of the river-projects in sediment-carrying rivers. As a new way of cleaning intake screens clogged by debris, the concept of backflushing has been investigated. The intake screen, called trash rack, is then cleaned by a reveresed water flow over a short period of time, and th...

Nielsen, Lars Eid; Rettedal, Bjørnar

2012-01-01

137

The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

2010-09-15

138

Stochastic parameter estimation for nuclear repository site characterization at Hanford, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pre-waste emplacement groundwater travel-times are being used by the US Department of Energy as one measure for ultimately selecting a suitable site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. To compute groundwater travel times, the groundwater flow pattern in the vicinity of the proposed repository location must be delineated and pertinent hydrologic parameters must be identified from the baseline data. In this paper, transmissivity and hydraulic head fields are estimated using a geostatistical solution to the inverse problem. An application to the Hanford Site is presented. The sensitivity of the estimated hydrologic fields to the number of available data points is analyzed through simulations. The predicted fields can be significantly different from one another depending on the number of data points used in the identification of the hydraulic head and transmissivity field geostatistical parameters

139

European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters  

CERN Document Server

This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Mac\\'on range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to e...

Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

2012-01-01

140

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem.

Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

2000-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

142

Tools for Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning and Development: A Review of Technology and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews and compares software tools for the planning and design of small hydropower (SHP plants. The main emphasis is on small scale hydropower resource assessment computer tools and methodologies for the development of SHP plants corresponding to a preliminary or prefeasibility study level. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the historic software tools and the current tools used in the small hydro industry. The reviewed tools vary from simple initial estimates to quite sophisticated software. The integration of assessment tools into Geographic Information System (GIS environments has led to a leap forward in the strengthening of the evaluation of the power potential of water streams in the case of the spatial variability of different factors affecting stream power. A number of countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Norway, Scotland and the US have re-assessed their hydropower capacities based on spatial information of their water stream catchments, developing tools for automated hydro-site identification and deploying GIS-based tools, so-called Atlases, of small-scale hydropower resources on the Internet. However, a reliable assessment of real SHP site feasibility implies some “on the ground” surveying, but this traditional assessment can be greatly facilitated using GIS techniques that involve the spatial variability of catchment characteristics.

Gitana Vyciene

2011-08-01

143

Attenuation, source parameters and site effects in the Irpinia–Basilicata region (southern Apennines, Italy)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We derive S-wave attenuation characteristics, earthquake source parameters and site amplification functions at seismic stations used for earthquake early warning in the Irpinia–Basilicata region, using non-parametric spectral inversion of seismograms from 49 local events with ML = 1.5–3.1. We obtain relatively low Q values (Q0 = 28 at a frequency of 1 Hz) in conjunction with a strong frequency-dependence (close to linear). The source spectra can be satisfactorily mode...

Cantore, Luciana; Oth, Adrien; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino

2011-01-01

144

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opp...

Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.

2009-01-01

145

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and K{sub d} values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; De la Cruz, Idalmis; Stenberg, Kristofer; Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

2010-12-15

146

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (Kd) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and Kd values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

147

Assessment of small hydropower potential using remote sensing data for sustainable development in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India being a developing country has witnessed a rapidly growing energy needs owing to fast industrialization. Sustainable and qualitative growth for developing economics and habitat requires increased energy input from various resources while maintaining balance in the ecosystem during exploitation. Paper discusses state of the resource potentials, achievements and various issues related to the power generation in India. The growing concern over environmental degradation caused by fossil fuel based systems, opposition to large hydropower projects on grounds of displacement of land and population, environmental problems with nuclear fuel based systems and the ever-rising shortage of power highlights the need for tapping alternate energy sources for power generation. Amongst the alternate sources utilization of hydropower on a smaller scale (small, mini and micro hydropower) has become the thrust area for sustainable growth in the power sector. Hydropower is an economical and environmentally clean source of renewable energy abundantly available in hilly regions of India. Hydropower stations have an inherent ability for instantaneous starting, stopping, load variations, etc., and help in improving the reliability of power system. Huge hydropower potential in India, yet to be explored is located at inaccessible mountainous region. However, development of this potential is challenging due to difficult and inaccessible terrain profile. Paper presents application of remote ile. Paper presents application of remote sensing data for identification and selection of probable site for hydropower projects. The algorithm for identification and assessment of water resources and its perennial is developed in Visual Basic (VB) platform and it is successfully applied for IRS-1D, LISS III Geo-coded False Color Composite (FCC) satellite image for plain as well as hilly and mountainous regions. Classification of satellite image in to different objects is modeled as the task of clustering based on the intensity of R-G-B values of pixels. Results obtained are presented and compared with the Survey of India Toposheets (53K/2, 53K/3 and 53J/16). Use of Remote sensing data provides a scientific method of hydropower identification and assessment

148

One-loop corrections to the S parameter in the four-site model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the leading chiral-logarithmic corrections to the S parameter in the four-site Higgsless model. In addition to the usual electroweak gauge bosons of the standard model, this model contains two sets of heavy charged and neutral gauge bosons. In the continuum limit, the latter gauge bosons can be identified with the first excited Kaluza-Klein states of the W± and Z bosons of a warped extra-dimensional model with an SU(2)LxSU(2)RxU(1)X bulk gauge symmetry. We consider delocalized fermions and show that the delocalization parameter must be considerably tuned from its tree-level ideal value in order to reconcile experimental constraints with the one-loop results. Hence, the delocalization of fermions does not solve the problem of large contributions to the S parameter in this class of theories and significant contributions to S can potentially occur at one-loop.

149

Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

150

One-loop Corrections to the S Parameter in the Four-site Model  

CERN Document Server

We compute the leading chiral-logarithmic corrections to the S parameter in the four-site Higgsless model. In addition to the usual electroweak gauge bosons of the Standard Model, this model contains two sets of heavy charged and neutral gauge bosons. In the continuum limit, the latter gauge bosons can be identified with the first excited Kaluza-Klein states of the W^\\pm and Z bosons of a warped extra-dimensional model with an SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_X bulk gauge symmetry. We consider delocalized fermions and show that the delocalization parameter must be considerably tuned from its tree-level ideal value in order to reconcile experimental constraints with the one-loop results. Hence, the delocalization of fermions does not solve the problem of large contributions to the S parameter in this class of theories and significant contributions to S can potentially occur at one-loop.

Dawson, Sally

2008-01-01

151

An analysis of Turkish hydropower policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last decade, Turkish electricity demand has increased more than 8% per annum as a result of economic development. Being one of the renewable energy sources par excellence, non-exhaustible, non-polluting and economically more attractive than other renewable sources, hydropower has turned out to be an important contributor to the future energy mix of the country. This paper deals with hydropower policies to meet increasing electricity demand for sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 TWh/year and 140 TWh/year of this capacity can be used economically, corresponding to the second largest economic potential in Europe. Currently only 35% of economic hydro potential of the country is utilized. After completion of hydropower plants under construction, this figure will increase to 49%. It is obvious that even after the construction of all projects there will still be a huge hydro potential in Turkey. Besides, Turkey is a poor country in terms of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal and so on) and has no nuclear power plant in operation, which strengthens the role of hydro energy among other alternatives. (author)

Erdogdu, Erkan [Energy Market Regulatory Authority, Muhsin Yazicioglu Caddes Yuzuncuyil, Ankara (Turkey); University of Cambridge, Judge Business School, Trumpington Street CB2 1AG Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

152

Modernization of the Hospitalet hydropower plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A variety of modernization work is undertaken by the Hydraulic Production Department (SPH) of Electricite de France on ageing hydropower projects. The most recent work was on the Hospitalet plant in the upper Ariege valley, east of the Pyrenees in France. Hydraulic power met 20 per cent of French power needs in 1988. (author).

Mauger, M.; Maujean, M. (Electricite de France EDF (France)); Ferme, M. (Etablissements Neyrpic, 38 - Grenoble (France))

1990-02-01

153

Hydropower and the world's energy future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential role of hydropower in the context of world-wide demographic growth and increasing demand for energy, and the benefits inherent in hydroelectric power in comparison with other energy options are discussed. Environmental and social impacts, and examples of mitigation measures are reviewed. Recommendations regarding best practices in the future development of hydroelectric power projects proposed

154

Proven but new. Innovation of hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower has been utilised traditionally and its technology is being further developed and advanced. Current developments are addressed by outlining the challenges for operators and manufacturers. The case examples show a wide range of possible innovations. This refers to single components up to novel overall concepts like hybrid plants and compact turbine plants as well as run-of-river power plants. (orig.)

Harreiter, Herfried [Verbund Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria); Godde, Dominik [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Zickermann, Richard [ALSTOM (Schweiz) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

155

External effects of hydropower in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of hydropower has implications on the environment and the socio-economic system. All these effects have a certain value, either in a positive sense as benefits or in a negative sense as damages. Many of these effects are known, quantified and even internalised, that is, the beneficiary pays for his or her benefits and the sufferer gets a compensation. Yet, this is not the case with all implications. In this case, the effects are so-called externalities, costs or benefits which are not included in the price of the product. Prices for products are a good measure to promote the sustainable development of markets, as long as they contain all externalities, that is, as long as they are 'true' prices. Therefore, the inclusion of externalities in the evaluation of product costs became an important issue during the last years. The study 'External Effects of Hydropower in Switzerland' is an attempt to identify and quantify externalities of hydropower and to attribute a monetary value to all these effects. In a first part, the study gives a list of possible externalities and analyses different methods to quantify and value these effects. The evaluation is then based on a number of specific plants and projects, mainly with available environmental impact studies and project data including the construction phase. In order to extend the result on the total number of Swiss hydropower plants, an extrapolation is done based on selected plant criteria for each effect. (author) plant criteria for each effect. (author)

156

Emerging hydropower technologies R and D : a strategy for Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the increasing interest in hydrokinetic potential in Canada for power production using instream flow turbines that do not require dams or barrages. Run-of-river hydropower plants include small and low-head hydro and represent valuable opportunities for new energy development. Although conventional small hydro is competitive with other energy sources, there are several emerging technologies that need further development, such as economical and efficient low-head turbines, mitigation technologies, eco-engineering and protection of aquatic resources. For the past 25 years, the Canadian government has been supporting emerging hydropower technologies. The federal Hydraulic Energy Group (HEG) at Natural Resources Canada is actively involved with provinces, utilities, private industry, academia and other organizations on key projects to reduce equipment and construction costs and increase turbine and site efficiencies. HEG also supports technology demonstrations both nationally and internationally. This paper also summarized the state of the small hydro industry with particular reference to research and development in electromechanical equipment, control and monitoring, power plant rehabilitation and modernization. 14 refs.

Huang, J.; Ranjitkar, G.; Handler, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy, Hydraulic Energy Program

2009-07-01

157

High-Resolution Free-GIS operations to assist hydropower potential assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for renewable energy suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, according to EU and national environmental regulations. High resolution hydrological analysis is then needed to comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants and of other water withdrawals. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. For this study, developed within the RENERFOR-ALCOTRA Project, a regional "spatially smooth" model has been developed for FDC estimation: the procedure adopted relates the L-moments of the FDC to several geomorphoclimatic parameters (more than 100), with the purpose to directly reconstruct a "naturalized" FDC. The proposed procedure is systematically extended to all the gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy, which is an area characterized by the presence of a large number of dams. For each basin, the annual average FDC is computed, its L-moments are calculated and corrected using a simplified model that takes into account the effect of upstream reservoirs and power plants. Then, each corrected L-moment is regionalized using multiple regressions techniques, allowing one to reconstruct the L-moments at any ungauged basin. Finally, the "naturalized" FDC is reconstructed at the ungauged site on the basis of the predicted L-moments. Due to necessity of obtaining high-resolution estimates, the method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences. This feature is obtained considering only raster-summable explanatory variables, which are only a subset of the available descriptors. The residual hydropower potential is evaluated by mapping the mean naturalized flow estimated for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model in two mountain basins used as case studies. Applying extensively the proposed methodology, the mean annual flow is reconstructed not only in some significant sections, but in all the about 25000 sections defined by each network pixel. We used a 50 m DEM to compute, for each network pixel, the upstream watershed and all the morpho-climatic characteristics needed in the regional model. Maps obtained can return flow-altitude relations for each pixel along a drainage path assuming different possible headrace length (1, 2.5 and 5 km). Spatial algorithms and data management are developed by the use of the Free&OpenSource software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL as database manager, integrated with PostGIS elaboration to create the outputs. The large number of data and the complexity of the information derived required some thinking about the best way to access and represent the data, that has to be easy-to-use also for no-expert GIS users.

Ganora, Daniele; Gallo, Enrico; Masoero, Alessandro; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

2013-04-01

158

Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

159

Preliminary study: small hydropower installation on the Steintalerbach stream in Ebnat-Kappel - Reactivation of the 'Muehle' hydropower plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the reactivation of an existing but disused hydropower plant. The report describes the current situation at the site, where originally three water-wheels were in use. The new project is described, which foresees a new 231 kW turbine integrated into a new building on the site as well as new weir, a fish ladder and a new water conduit. The local topographical and hydrological situation is discussed. Three project variants for different water volumes are discussed and compared. The variant chosen for possible realisation is described. Figures are given on investment and operating costs, the price of the power produced and the installation's economic viability. Further topics relating to environmental protection issues are also discussed

160

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1994-2001 at Kaiga generating station site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of extreme weather conditions at the site of interest is essentially required to design engineering structures that can withstand adverse extreme conditions during its lifetime. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters at Kaiga site have been carried out. This information will be useful in the design of more heavy and tall structures proposed to be constructed in future at this site. The meteorological parameters subjected to statistical analysis in this report are maximum yearly wind speed for the period 1994-2001, rainfall data for the period 1987-2001, maximum and minimum air temperature for the period 1995-2001 and minimum humidity for the period 1994-2001. Rainfall data consists of annual rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall and daily maximum rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that in the 50 years, maximum possible wind speed at 50 m and 100 m are 29.1 m/s and 34.6 m/s respectively. Maximum possible temperature is 44.1 degC. Minimum possible temperature is 9.4 degC. Minimum possible humidity is 4.6%. Maximum possible annual rainfall is 5383.7 mm, maximum monthly rainfall is 2617.0 mm and maximum possible daily rainfall is 377.3 mm. Similarly the minimum possible annual rainfall in the next 50 years is 2504.3 mm and that in next 100 years is 2308.2 mm. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Influence of the operation of small hydropower station on the communities of selected groups of macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) of the submountain section of Hucava river (Polana Mts., Slovakia) - preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of a small hydropower station on communities of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) was studied in the metarhithral section of Hucava stream. Natural flow (Hucava 1 = reference site) was compared with reduced flow (Hucava 2) and peak flow regime (Hucava 3). We have not found significant reduction of the number of taxa and indices of diversity and equitability at sites affected by operation of the hydropower station. Stoneflies were the only group that showed the expected decrease. Relative changes (%) in density of studied groups at affected sites also did not support the assumption of an adverse effect of the small hydropower station. (authors)

162

A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

163

The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

164

Selected environmental considerations and their measuring parameters for nuclear power plant siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The site selection process for nuclear power stations encompasses a broad range of considerations. A categorization of these considerations consistent with the needs of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, as the regulatory agency, and of the utility company involves these major areas of concern. They are issues related to safety, environmental impact, and engineering/economics. The more important environmental considerations and their measuring parameters presented in this paper include biota, ecological systems and water quality, land use, aesthetics, water availability, and meteorology. (U.S.)

165

MCDA or MCDM Based Selection of Transmission Line Conductor: Small Hydropower Project Planning and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small hydropower projects are emerging as a solution for sustainable, green, environment friendly, long term and cost-effective source of renewable energy in India for the future. Selecting the appropriate small hydropower project and its parameters in which to invest is a critical task involving different factors and policies. Hence such decision-making can be viewed as a multiple criteria analysis problem with correlating criteria and alternatives. This task should take into consideration several conflicting aspects because of the increasing complexity of the social, technological, environmental, and economic factors. Traditional single criteria decision-making approaches cannot handle the complexity of such systems. Multi criteria methods provide a better and flexible tools. This paper aims to evaluate applicability of multi criteria decision aid to decision makers during the small hydropower project planning and development. To the best of the author’s knowledge this novel approach for application of MCDA or MCDM to small hydropower project planning and development scenario is absent in renewable energy literatures due to its assessment complexity.

Priyabrata Adhikary

2014-02-01

166

Earth rotation parameters from an on-site study of laser ranging data  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-faceted effort was maintained to achieve the following goals: (1) provide for state-of-the-art, on-site, near-real-time Earth orientation parameter determinations at levels of precision and accuracy commensurate with a 'quick-look' type of an analysis, using the lunar laser ranging (LLR) data type from the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS) and other LLR facilities around the world; (2) create a state-of-the-art, highly transportable, LLR-based Earth orientation solution package, which could be easily implemented at LLR facilities other than the MLRS; (3) accommodate, within the routine MLRS lunar range prediction and Earth orientation data analysis software packages, the standard set of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Solar System ephemerides, lunar librations, and Solar System partial derivatives; and (4) examine, wherever possible, opportunities for the performance of state-of-the-art, on-site, joint, simultaneous, quick-look analysis for Earth orientation parameters, using both MLRS lunar and LAGEOS (and, perhaps, Etalon) ranging observations, as well as from multiple LLR station observations. Excellent results were obtained at all levels of effort and it can be said that all of these goals were attained. The reader is referred to the complete series of our semi-annual reports for a full description of our efforts.

Shelus, Peter J.

1992-01-01

167

Assessment of Investment in Small Hydropower Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study an assessment of investments in a hydropower plants is considered. The objective of this work is to maximize the net present value from selling energy. Because of the stochastic nature of river flows, flow duration curve is constructed to take into account hydropower plant capacity factor, important for the assessment of investment. Proposed mixed-integer linear programming model is flexible and accounts for nonlinear three-dimensional (3-D relationship between the produced power, the discharged water, and the head of the associated reservoir. Continuous chain of imaginary run-of-river plants is considered on the Sava river stretch (Croatia from border with Slovenia to city of Sisak.

Perica Ilak

2013-12-01

168

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

169

78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-23

170

78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...christopher.chaney@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-11-21

171

78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-08-30

172

78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...robert.bell@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-09

173

78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...christopher.chaney@ferc.gov. Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility Description:...

2013-10-09

174

Summary of parameters and measurement techniques for the selection, characterization, and monitoring of low-level waste-disposal site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the parameters and measurement techniques needed for the proper selection, characterization and monitoring of a low-level waste disposal site. The parameters needed are identified and prioritized according to their relative importance. Current measurement techniques for these parameters are assessed in terms of how well established they are in practice and how much difficulty their implementation presents. The report includes parameters important in both preoperational characterization and operational and post-closure monitoring

175

Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

2010-10-15

176

Supply function equilibria in a hydropower market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this working paper is to study the implications of market power in a hydropower based electricity market within the framework of the Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model. We start by developing the standard SFE model with two symmetric players. We then develop a simple numerical example to illustrate the effects of production constraints both related to installed effect capacity and to energy capacity. We illustrate that binding constraints on energy production reduce the num...

Skaar, Jostein

2003-01-01

177

Hydropower Bidding Using Linear Decision Rules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates the Linear Decision Rule (LDR) approach applied to the bidding problem of a Nordic hydropower producer with reservoir capacity. A stochastic programming model with piecewise LDR in the spot prices is developed. A comprehensive case study with uncertain spot prices conducted for the fall of 2012 shows that the LDR model performs equally well as a scenario based model on expectation, yet with a smaller standard deviation in the profits. The runtime of the LDR model is s...

Braathen, Jørgen; Eriksrud, Anders Lund

2013-01-01

178

Toward hedge ratios for hydropower production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The electricity price and production volume determine the revenue of a hydropower producer. Inflow variations to hydro reservoirs and high price volatility result in significant cash flow uncertainty. A copula-based Monte Carlo model is used to relate price and production volume, and to find optimal hedge ratios through minimization of risk measures such as variance, hedge effectiveness, cash flow at risk and conditional cash flow at risk. All risk measures argue for an optimal hedge ratio be...

Nordtveit, Audun; Watle, Kim Thomassen

2012-01-01

179

Investment in hydropower plants under uncertainty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Investment in renewable energy production in Norway is since the 1st of January 2012 granted subsidies through a market for elcertificates common with Sweden. The underlying purpose is to reach the Norwegian and Swedish government's goal of adding 26.4 TWh of renewable generation capacity within 2020. This thesis considers how the introduction of elcertificates has affected the expectations of investors investing in small hydropower plants in Norway. Data from 214 licenses granted from 2...

Nyga?rd, Maria Tandberg

2013-01-01

180

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily ...

Arganis, M. L.; Domi?nguez, R.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hydropower Reservoir and Sedimentation : A Study of Nam Ngum Reservoir  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower accounts for approximately one fifth of the world’s electricity supply and is the best renewable energy source to meet the energy consumption of the world. With ever increasing energy demands hydropower-related construction is on the increase all over the world. Although the energy production from hydropower is efficient and cheap, the social and environmental cost can be high, with downstream ecosystem impacts caused by water quality, hydrological and sediment flux changes. I...

Dahal, Sujan

2013-01-01

182

The potential of hydropower in Hessen; Das Wasserkraftpotenzial in Hessen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A location-related inquiry of hydropower potential in Hesse was performed on the basis of current data on the structures and hydropower plants stationed along the Hessian rivers. The inquiry considers besides technical also important hydromorphological requirements as well as economical aspects. Taking these into account the total potential varies between 490 and 540 GWh/a. The hydropower potential which is used amounts to 426 GWh/a. So the percentage which is not used is close to 20%. (orig.)

Roland, Frank; Theobald, Stephan [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

2011-07-01

183

Pumped-storage with small hydropower – an option?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contributes towards exploring the technical and institutional feasibility of small hydropower storage and pumped-storage schemes in Switzerland. Within the European and Swiss context of the facilitation of renewable energy technologies, which includes small hydropower (SHP), intermittent sources such as solar and wind increase the need for additional energy storage capacities. Hydropower pumped-storage schemes remain the most efficient and profitable option to “store” electrici...

Mailler, Benoi?t; Heller, Philippe; Crettenand, Nicolas

2011-01-01

184

Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

185

India's hydropower vision to 2030 - environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic advantages of hydropower has been enhanced in the recent years with the steep increases in the energy costs from fossil fuel and the rapid approaching limits to the exploitable resources of such fuels. It is a matter of concern that the share of hydropower in the total installed capacity in India has been declining in successive plans. In the 1962-63, hydro projects had a 50% share in the total installed capacity which has declined to 24%. Such a dismal share of hydro thermal mix is adversely affecting the optimal utilisation of natural and financial resources besides resulting in failure of power grids. Even a layman can appreciate that in the situation of monsoonic weather the storage of river flows during floods is unavoidable not only to meet the basic needs of bulging population for diverse uses but also to moderate the floods, droughts and poverty. This article focuses on the environmental issues related to hydropower and river valley projects, while pinpointing the vital need of large storage projects in India. The water is becoming scarcer in India due to bulging population; but the environmental activism and biased media reporting are creating large scale obstructions in the execution of hydro projects

186

Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We fi...

Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodri?guez-iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A.

2012-01-01

187

Water: resources management under conflicting objectives: hydropower versus national park  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower plays an essential role in the Austrian energy supply. About two thirds of the electric consumption are covered by hydropower generation. The objective of this paper is to analyse a pending conflict between hydropower utilisation and environmental concerns along the Austrian section of the Danube downstream of Vienna. In the first step the utilizable hydropower potential of the respective section and the environmental impacts are assessed. In a subsequent step a framework is elaborated to compare and to trade off economic and environmental objectives. Such a procedure requires preference values and is thus subjected to subjectivity, introduced either by decision makers or by involved parties. (author)

188

Hydropower: An Essential Partner of Renewable Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2006, the 17 percent of the world’s electricity that was generated from hydropower represented nearly 90 percent of renewable electricity generation worldwide; Hydropower is an important source of renewable energy and produces extremely small quantities of carbon dioxide. Between 1998 and 2008, renewable electricity production in the world rose from 2,794.9 to 3,762.6 TWh, i.e. an additional 967.6 TWh. As a final conclusion, despite hydropower’s high initial costs, its long-term overal...

Lejeune, Andre?; Hui, Samuel; Pirotton, Michel; Erpicum, Se?bastien; Dewals, Benjamin

2010-01-01

189

Along-the-net reconstruction of hydropower potential with consideration of anthropic alterations  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, requirements for stable renewable power sources suggest revision of plans of exploitation of water resources, while taking care of the environmental regulations. Mean Annual Flow (MAF) is a key parameter when trying to represent water availability for hydropower purposes. MAF is usually determined in ungauged basins by means of regional statistical analysis. For this study a regional estimation method consistent along-the-river network has been developed for MAF estimation; the method uses a multi-regressive approach based on geomorphoclimatic descriptors, and it is applied on 100 gauged basins located in NW Italy. The method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual flow congruent at the confluences, by considering only raster-summable explanatory variables. Also, the influence of human alterations in the regional analysis of MAF has been studied: impact due to the presence of existing hydropower plants has been taken into account, restoring the "natural" value of runoff through analytical corrections. To exemplify the representation of the assessment of residual hydropower potential, the model has been applied extensively to two specific mountain watersheds by mapping the estimated mean flow for the basins draining into each pixel of a the DEM-derived river network. Spatial algorithms were developed using the OpenSource Software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL/PostGIS. Spatial representation of the hydropower potential was obtained using different mean flow vs hydraulic-head relations for each pixel. Final potential indices have been represented and mapped through the Google Earth platform, providing a complete and interactive picture of the available potential, useful for planning and regulation purposes.

Masoero, A.; Claps, P.; Gallo, E.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.

2014-09-01

190

Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site

191

21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt. Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

192

The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several orders of magnitude. Correlations between parameters also make it difficult to separate the contribution from each parameter on the output. Finally, it is concluded that even in cases where correlations between parameters can be disregarded for the sake of the uncertainty analysis, they cannot be disregarded in the sensitivity analysis of the results. A new approach for global sensitivity analysis based on neural networks has been developed and tested on results for the peak releases of caesium. Promising results have been obtained by this method, which is robust and can tackle results from non-linear models even when there are correlations between parameters. This represents a considerable improvement over the capabilities of the commonly used traditional statistical methods

193

Impact of season and rearing site on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Manila clam Venerupis (=Tapes, =Ruditapes) philippinarum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Juvenile clams were distributed in four rearing sites selected for their varied ecological characteristics to assess the effects of environmental conditions on the physiological and immunological parameters, and Brown Ring Disease (BRD) status. Clams were sampled every 3 months for 15 months at each site. Brittany rearing sites, especially the Bay of Brest, showed the worst performances in terms of immunological and physiological indices and disease status, while the best were obtained in Mar...

Soudant, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Choquet, Gwenaelle; Lambert, Christophe; Reid, H. I.; Marhic, Alain; Donaghy, Ludovic; Birkbeck, Harry

2004-01-01

194

Attenuation, source parameters and site effects in the Irpinia-Basilicata region (southern Apennines, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

We derive S-wave attenuation characteristics, earthquake source parameters and site amplification functions at seismic stations used for earthquake early warning in the Irpinia-Basilicata region, using non-parametric spectral inversion of seismograms from 49 local events with M L = 1.5-3.1. We obtain relatively low Q values ( Q 0 = 28 at a frequency of 1 Hz) in conjunction with a strong frequency-dependence (close to linear). The source spectra can be satisfactorily modeled using the omega-square model, with stress drops ranging between 0.01-2 MPa, and in the narrow magnitude range available for analysis, the source spectra seem to scale self-similarly. The local magnitude M L shows a linear correlation with moment magnitude M W, however with a systematic underestimation by about 0.5-magnitude units. The results obtained in this work provide important insights into the ground-motion characteristics that are required for appropriate seismic hazard assessment and are of practical relevance for a suite of applications, such as the calibration of ground-motion prediction equations or the correction for site amplification in earthquake early warning and rapid calculation of shake-maps for seismic emergency management.

Cantore, Luciana; Oth, Adrien; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino

2011-04-01

195

Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

196

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km  

CERN Document Server

We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The final outcome of the study is to investigate the opportunity to implement an automatic system for the forecast of these parameters at these sites. In this paper we present results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the vertical stratification of the atmospherical parameters along the 20 km above the ground. The very satisfactory performances shown by the model in reconstructing most of these parameters (and in particular the wind speed) put this tool of investigation as the most suitable to be used in as...

Masciadri, E; Fini, L

2013-01-01

197

Editorial: Time for green certification for all hydropower?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While accrediting a large hydropower facility is intrinsically more complex and potentially controversial, it is time to review the progress made in understanding the environmental impacts of large hydropower and the development of environmentally friendly hydropower systems. Over the last two decades, many in-field, laboratory, and modeling technologies have been developed or improved to better understand the mechanisms of fish injury and mortality and to identify turbine design and operation alternatives to reduce such impacts. In 2010, representatives of DOE and the US Department of Interior, and USACE signed a memorandum of understanding to work more closely to develop sustainable hydropower. One of their major objectives is to increase hydropower generation using low-impact and environmentally sustainable approaches. Given the recent scientific and technological advances that have decreased the environmental impact of hydropower and the need to aggressively facilitate development of low impact hydropower, we think it is indeed time to initiate a science-based green certification program that includes rigorous criteria for environmental protection but does not exclude hydropower based on size only.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-04-10

198

Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

Neelakantan, T. R.; Sasireka, K.

2013-01-01

199

Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-01-01

200

Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is currently being studied. Typically these studies consider the inherent flexibility of hydropower technologies, but tend to fall short on details regarding grid operations, institutional arrangements, and hydropower environmental regulations. This presentation will focus on an analysis that Argonne National Laboratory is conducting in collaboration with the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The analysis evaluates the extent to which Western's hydropower resources may help with grid integration challenges via a proposed Energy Imbalance Market. This market encompasses most of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council footprint. It changes grid operations such that the real-time dispatch would be, in part, based on a 5-minute electricity market. The analysis includes many factors such as site-specific environmental considerations at each of its hydropower facilities, long-term firm purchase agreements, and hydropower operating objectives and goals. Results of the analysis indicate that site-specific details significantly affect the ability of hydropower plant to respond to grid needs in a future which will have a high penetration of variable resources.

Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Report of the hydropower and climate change workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This workshop was held in response to a survey conducted to determine the hydropower industry's interest in adapting to climate change. The impacts of climate change and unusual weather events on the hydropower industry were reviewed. The workshop examined current levels of awareness about the potential impacts of climate change as well as hydropower sector vulnerability to climate change and its impact on the operation and planning of hydropower systems. Past and future changes in hydrologic regimes were examined, and regional climate model results were analyzed. Representatives shared experiences related to unusual weather events. A total of 20 papers were presented at the workshop. Presentations were followed by breakout sessions held to discuss vulnerabilities within the hydropower sector. 4 tabs

202

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

Science.gov (United States)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

2012-11-01

203

Temporary bottlenecks, hydropower and acquisitions in networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to study the effects of an acquisition in an energy system dominated by hydropower and with temporary bottlenecks. We apply a model with four markets: two regions and two time periods. It is shown that an acquisition has an ambiguous effect on welfare. In some instances it would lead to larger differences in prices between different markets, which would lead to an increase in the dead weight loss. In other instances an acquisition would lead to a reduction in pr...

Skaar, Jostein; Sørgard, Lars

2003-01-01

204

Retrofit of hydropower capacity at Conemaugh Dam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A preliminary investigation is described of the hydropower potential at the existing Conemaugh Dam, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project located in the Kiskiminetas River Basin, Pennsylvania. The objective of the study was to determine the most cost effective layout of power production facilities for each of four possible installed capacities. Based on preliminary cost estimates and monthly power production computations, a layout using standard tube turbines in a powerhouse constructed on the face of the emergency spillway would produce the cheapest energy at a capacity of 8 to 10 megawatts (MW).

Chadderton, R.A. (Villanova Univ., PA); Niece, J.E.

1983-02-01

205

A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

206

Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it possible to determine the radionuclides in the whole body by their concentration in one organ, or even without slaughtering the animal, using wool, to give a preliminary estimate of the radionuclide concentration in the animal body. The research results outlined in this paper confirm existing data on the metabolism of 90Sr and 137Cs in animals. However, the transfer factors obtained were an order of magnitude smaller than the average transfer factor presented in the IAEA database. The transuranic radionuclides (239+240Pu, 241Am) intaken with soil is absorbed less than when intaken with food. With long-term intake of 239+240Pu by animals with different components of the environment the radionuclides are accumulated only in the liver, 241Am accumulated in the skin, other organs and tissues do not accumulate. The acquired knowledge about the radionuclide transfer parameters may be used to build predictive models and evaluate dose loads to the population that uses animal products obtained in areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

207

Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it possible to determine the radionuclides in the whole body by their concentration in one organ, or even without slaughtering the animal, using wool, to give a preliminary estimate of the radionuclide concentration in the animal body. The research results outlined in this paper confirm existing data on the metabolism of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in animals. However, the transfer factors obtained were an order of magnitude smaller than the average transfer factor presented in the IAEA database. The transuranic radionuclides ({sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am) intaken with soil is absorbed less than when intaken with food. With long-term intake of {sup 239+240}Pu by animals with different components of the environment the radionuclides are accumulated only in the liver, {sup 241}Am accumulated in the skin, other organs and tissues do not accumulate. The acquired knowledge about the radionuclide transfer parameters may be used to build predictive models and evaluate dose loads to the population that uses animal products obtained in areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

2014-07-01

208

Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these uncertainties have thus far been handled superficially. Statkraft has initiated a program called ENKI to approach these issues. A part of this program is to apply distributed models for hydrological forecasting. Developing methodologies to handle uncertainties in the observations, the meteorological forecasts, the model itself and how to update the model with this information are other parts of the program. Together with energy price expectations and information about the state of the energy production system the hydrological forecast is input to the next step in the production scheduling both on short and long term. The long term schedule for reservoir filling is premise provider to the short term optimizing of water. The long term schedule is based on the actual reservoir levels, snow storages and a long history of meteorological observations and gives an overall schedule at a regional level. Within the regions a more detailed tool is used for short term optimizing of the hydropower production Each reservoir is scheduled taking into account restrictions in the water courses and cost of start and stop of aggregates. The value of the water is calculated for each reservoir and reflects the risk of water spillage. This compared to the energy price determines whether an aggregate will run or not. In a gradually more complex energy system with relatively lower regulated capacity this is an increasingly more challenging task.

Bruland, O.

2012-12-01

209

DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

2003-07-01

210

A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

?ofia Kuzevi?ová

2013-12-01

211

Hydro-power potential of Slovakia and its environmental constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak energy production sector has been utilising renewable energy sources for decades in a hydro-power form. The hydro-power plants produce approximately one sixth of electric energy (16 percent). According to the original conception of utilisation of the Danube River 7.361 GWh/year of usable primary hydro-power potential could be used. The current conception considers utilisation of 6,608 GWh/year. At present time approximately 3, 799 GWh are produced in existing hydro-power plants, what means that hydro-power potential of the country is used only on 57.5 percent. Existing development programmes included in the energy policy consider a growth of production by 671.3 GWh/year by 2001, i.e. by 0.2 percent. It means that use of hydro-power will reach a level of 67.7 percent. This number is approaching to level of hydro-power use in developed countries of Europe

212

Small hydropower in Southern Africa – an overview of five countries in the region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small hydropower has played an important role in the history of providing electricity in the region. After a period with limited interest in applications of small hydropower, in all five countries, a range o...

Jonker Klunne, Wim

2013-01-01

213

Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

214

Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

2013-04-01

215

Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

2012-12-01

216

The impact of construction of hydropower plant on water regime  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this degree dissertation is to present the impacts of the hydropower plants Mav?i?e and Medvode located on the Sava River on the water regime. I have presented both hydropower plants, their role in the power supply and the consequences of the construction. In the dissertation I have discussed the changes of the underground and surface flow, which began after the construction of both hydropower plants. For this purpose I have made a model of the underground water of Kranjsko?...

Horvat, Anja

2006-01-01

217

???????????????? Discussion on Nianpanshan Hydropower Station Investment Benefit Allocation Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? As a comprehensive pivotal project, the hydropower station has multiple project benefits. In the process of the calculation of economic evaluation, due to the influence of actual situation, it is impossible to quantify some benefits properly. It is the same case with investment because some buildings have a variety of functions at the same time. With a case study of the Nianpanshan Hydropower Station, this paper proposed a method to allocate the investment based on their benefits in economic evaluation, which was also suitable for hydropower stations with multiple benefits. It was indicated that the proposed method worked very well and could provide helpful experiments for the similar projects.

???

2013-08-01

218

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

A. Tilmant

2009-03-01

219

Small hydropower station in Schluein, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This preliminary study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project concerning the building of a small-scale hydropower installation in Schluein in the Grisons, Switzerland. The requirements placed on the water intake point in this mountainous region are discussed. The installation includes a 1230 metre long pressurised conduit and uses a multi-jet Pelton turbine to provide 720 kW of electrical power, the hydraulic head amounting to 140 m. The paper discusses the amounts of water available over the year, production costs and the economic feasibility of the project. The power production is estimated to 3,150,000 kWh/y. Environmental aspects are examined and details still to be defined are briefly mentioned.

220

Hydropower systems planning in distribution networks based on GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Planning models for hydraulic energy systems developed with a new computational geographic information system (GIS) tool were presented. The GIS tool was used to identify sections of rivers that are suitable for small-scale run-of-river hydropower generation in the La Rioja region of Spain. The tool was also used to evaluate economic data related to financing grants, technological costs, installation costs, and forecast demands for various consumption scenarios. Case studies of 2 hydropower systems were used to test the tool. The planning models were based on levelized electric costs (LEC) of run-of-river hydropower systems, and enabled the systems to be analyzed in isolation as well as when connected to an existing electricity network. Results of the modelling studies showed that the tool is capable of analyzing the LEC of potential hydropower systems in a range of different scenarios while maintaining the geographic characteristics and requirements of individual regions. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Zorzano-Santamaria, P.; Fernandez-Jiminez, L.A.; Garcia-Garrido, E.; Zorzano-Alba, E.; Lara-Santillan, P.M.; Mendoza-Villena, M. [La Rioja Univ., La Rioja (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Evaluation of hydropower upgrade projects - a real options approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When evaluating whether to refurbish existing hydropower plants or invest in a new power plant, there are two important aspects to take into consideration. These are the capacity chosen for the production facilities and the timing of the investment. This paper presents an investment decision support framework for hydropower producers with production facilities due for restoration. The producer can choose between refurbishing existing power plants and investing in a new production facility. A ...

Elverhøi, Morten; Fleten, Stein-erik; Fuss, Sabine; Heggedal, Ane Marte; Szolgayova, Jana; Troland, Ole Christian

2010-01-01

222

Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

T.R. Neelakantan

2013-04-01

223

Short-term Hydropower Planning With Uncertain Wind Power Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the findings from simulating two stochastic short-term planning models for a price-taker hydropower producer. The first model is a two-stage stochastic linear programming problem. Profound sensitivity analysis is provided in terms of volatility in spot market prices and water inflow level. The results show that for the short-term hydropower planning problems the effect of considering price uncertainty in the stochastic model is higher compared to...

Vardanyan, Yelena; Amelin, Mikael; Hesamzadeh, Mohammad

2013-01-01

224

Hydropower engineering. Paper no. IGEC-1-005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power Univ programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower. (author)

225

On-Line Monitoring of Hydropower Plants in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we present a comparison of traditional and modern techniques for monitoring hydropower plants. Traditionally, in Pakistan, the maintenance of hydropower plants is based on periodic-based corrective techniques, which involves shutdowns of plants over specified periods. The method not only restricts the operator to wait for the periodic shutdown for routine maintenance, but also proves to be more costly in case of major defects occurring in the plant. We propose on-line monitorin...

Iftikhar Ahmad; Abdur Rashid

2007-01-01

226

The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

227

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is concerned instead of generated energy. Based on the analysis of time-varying electricity price policy, an optimal operation model of hydropower station reservoir with ecology consideration is establi...

Yuqin Gao; Qianjin Dong; Xianfeng Huang; Guohua Fang

2010-01-01

228

Policy measures and storage in a hydropower system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we discuss how three different public policy measures affect water storage controlled by hydropower producing firms. In particular we discuss measures to promote competition, increase transmission capacity and rationing. The analysis is conducted within the framework of an oligopoly model where 2 hydro producing firms engage in dynamic Bertrand competition. We extend this model to be able to analyse how the three policy measures affect storage by hydropower producing firms and f...

Skaar, Jostein

2004-01-01

229

Hydropower's Contribution to Energy Security  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of hydropower within mixed power systems is analysed from the point of view of both quantitative and qualitative performance. Interrelationships with all other generation technologies are discussed and synergies identified. Resources, sustainability criteria and investment challenges are reviewed in the context of development. The objective of the paper is to define hydropower's contribution within the clean, clever and competitive markets of the future.

Altinbilek, D.; Abdel-Malek, R.; Devernay, J.M.; Gill, R.; Leney, S.; Moss, Terry; Schiffer, H.P.; Taylor, R.M.

2007-07-01

230

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

None

1979-07-01

231

Groundwater numerical modelling of the Fjaellveden study site - evaluation of parameter variations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity/uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity distribution in crystalline rocks is considered at the Fjaellveden study site - a site included in the Swedish site selection programme for final storage of spent nuclear fuel. A three-dimensional FEM-model assuming steady-state flow with constant fluid properties under saturated conditions is used. The bedrock of the site is divided into three hydraulic units; rock mass, local and regional fracture zones. The data set of hydraulic conductivity of each unit has been treated statistically in various ways, reflecting different aspects of the physical conditions of the site. A total of nine cases have been prepared, all based on 214 data points. (orig./HP)

232

Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

Hertwich, Edgar G

2013-09-01

233

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author) (author)

234

Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: ? A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. ? The relative importance of the risk factors was determined fromf the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. ? The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. ? The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. ? The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

235

Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: > A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. > The relative importance of the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. > The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. > The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. > The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

Kucukali, Serhat, E-mail: kucukali@cankaya.edu.tr [Civil Engineering Department, Cankaya University, Balgat 06530, Ankara (Turkey)

2011-10-15

236

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. II: atmospherical parameters in the surface layer [0-30] m  

CERN Document Server

This article is the second of a series of articles aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence (Cn2 and the derived astro-climatic parameters like seeing, isoplanatic angle, wavefront coherence time...). This study is done in the framework of the MOSE project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In this paper we present the results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the surface layer atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity, wind direction and absolute temperature, [0-30] m a.g.l.). The model reconstruction of all the atmospherical parameters in the surface layer is very satisfactory. For the temperature, at all levels, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is inferior to 1{\\deg}C. For the wind speed, it is ~2 m/s, and for the wind direction, it is in the ran...

Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

2013-01-01

237

Estimation of the seismic hazard parameters for various sites in Greece using a probabilistic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The probabilistic approach that was recently introduced by Kijko and Graham (1998,1999) was applied for the estimation of seismic hazard for various sites in Greece in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). These sites represent geographically cities of Greece among which are the capital of Greece and some others with high, intermediate and low seismicity. The approach allows the use of earthquake catalogues with incomplete reported historical and complete ins...

Banitsiotou, I. D.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Margaris, V. N.; Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

2004-01-01

238

The 1986 Dharamsala earthquake of Himachal Himalaya estimates of source parameters, average intrinsic attenuation and site amplification functions  

Science.gov (United States)

The 26th April 1986 Dharamsala earthquake (mb 5.5) occurred in the Kangra region of Himachal Himalaya, which lies in the rupture zone of great Kangra earthquake of 1905. This was the first moderate sized earthquake to be recorded at a few sites of the strong ground motion array in the NW Himalaya. The accelerograms of this earthquake have been used to estimate its source parameters, site amplification functions and to estimate the effective shear wave attenuation factor Q? in the frontal region of Himachal Himalaya. A double couple fault plane solution for the earthquake has been obtained based on the spectra of the transverse component of the accelerograms. The estimated values of the source parameters are seismic moment: 2.1×1024 dyne-cm, static stress drop (??): 36 bars, source radius (r): 2.8 km and moment magnitude (Mw): 5.4. The estimated average values of effective shear wave attenuation factor Q? for various sites are in the range of 125 to 300 with an overall spatial average of 239. The influence of local site effects on the observed PGA values have been examined on the basis of site amplification functions.

Sri Ram, V.; Kumar, Dinesh; Khattri, K. N.

2005-10-01

239

Parameter optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of an ecosystem model at a forest flux tower site in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

models are useful tools for understanding ecological processes and for sustainable management of resources. In biogeochemical field, numerical models have been widely used for investigating carbon dynamics under global changes from site to regional and global scales. However, it is still challenging to optimize parameters and estimate parameterization uncertainty for complex process-based models such as the Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), a modified version of CENTURY, that consider carbon, water, and nutrient cycles of ecosystems. This study was designed to conduct the parameter identifiability, optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of EDCM using our developed EDCM-Auto, which incorporated a comprehensive R package—Flexible Modeling Framework (FME) and the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm. Using a forest flux tower site as a case study, we implemented a comprehensive modeling analysis involving nine parameters and four target variables (carbon and water fluxes) with their corresponding measurements based on the eddy covariance technique. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the plant production-related parameters (e.g., PPDF1 and PRDX) are most sensitive to the model cost function. Both SCE and FME are comparable and performed well in deriving the optimal parameter set with satisfactory simulations of target variables. Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis indicate that the parameter uncertainty and the resulting output uncertainty can be quantified, and that the magnitude of parameter-uncertainty effects depends on variables and seasons. This study also demonstrates that using the cutting-edge R functions such as FME can be feasible and attractive for conducting comprehensive parameter analysis for ecosystem modeling.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Huang, Zhihong; Yan, Wende

2014-06-01

240

Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases.

Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

2000-02-28

 
 
 
 
241

Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

2010-07-01

242

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

D. Pinte

2009-07-01

243

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute`s nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S&M and D&D activities. Battelle`s King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed.

NONE

1995-06-30

244

Hydropower as a restoration opportunity for obstructed river reaches?; Wasserkraft als Sanierungsmotor fuer hydromorphologische Belastungen?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The demand for hydropower has shifted from the basic aim to meet increasing demands for electricity, to delivering renewable energy solutions that are sustainable, productive and effective for both society and the environment. The present paper describes an exploratory study of both, the hydroelectric and ecological potential of existing lateral structures currently obstructing the river network throughout Austria. By matching these potentials for each site, a number of benefits accrue for decision-making. The Hypo-Last project identified 148 sites that can be considered as possible project sites to fund the on-site restoration or mitigation measures as required by the Water Framework Directive and implemented in the Austrian Water Act. (orig.)

Lashofer, Alois; Hawle, Werner; Cassidy, Tim; Pucher, Michael; Fuerst, Josef; Pelikan, Bernhard [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Hydrologie und konstr. Wasserbau

2011-07-01

245

Cross-sectional evaluation of clinical parameters to select high prevalence populations for periodontal disease: the site comparative severity methodology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudos epidemiológicos mostraram fortes evidências de que a doença periodontal não afeta todos os indivíduos da mesma maneira. Existem indivíduos e sítios com maior risco de ocorrer progressão da doença. Este estudo testou parâmetros para a seleção "a priori" de sítios e indivíduos potencialmente d [...] e risco. Foram utilizados para tal os dados dos exames clínicos periodontais de 2273 pacientes. A perda de inserção clínica foi medida em 6 sítios por dente. Usando um programa de computador, os pacientes foram distribuídos em 14 grupos etários, com intervalos de 5 anos, a partir dos 11 anos de idade e até acima de 75 anos. A medida de cada sítio foi comparada com a média e a mediana da faixa etária do indivíduo, com o resultado da comparação com a mediana indicando a comparação da severidade do sítio (CSS). Foram calculados três parâmetros globais do indivíduo: parâmetro 1 (P1) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 4 mm; parâmetro 2 (P2) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 7 mm; parâmetro 3 (P3) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica superando a mediana do grupo etário em 100% ou mais. A amostra tinha 1466 (65%) mulheres e 807 (35%) homens. A maioria dos indivíduos apresentou valores de P1, P2 e P3 menores que 30%. O parâmetro 3 permitiu uma divisão da amostra de forma similar àquela realizada por P1 e P2, com a vantagem de analisar o indivíduo em relação a seu grupo etário. Com base nos resultados, sugere-se que a metodologia da CSS possa ser útil na seleção de uma população de alta prevalência de doença, e que linhas de corte entre 10% e 20% seriam as mais apropriadas para o uso do parâmetro 3. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown strong evidence that periodontal disease does not affect all subjects in the same manner. There are subjects and sites with higher risk for disease progression. This study tested parameters to select "a priori" sites and subjects potentially at risk. The data from [...] periodontal clinical examinations of 2273 subjects was used. The clinical loss of attachment was measured in 6 sites per tooth. Using computer software, the patients were distributed into 14 age groups, with intervals of 5 years, from 11 years to greater than 75 years of age. The measure of each site was compared with the average and the median values of the subject age group, with the results indicating site comparative severity (SCS). Three global parameters were calculated: parameter 1 (P1) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 4 mm; parameter 2 (P2) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 7 mm; parameter 3 (P3) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss surpassing the median value for the age group by 100% or more. There were 1466 (65%) females and 807 (35%) males. Most subjects had P1, P2 and P3 values less than 30%. Parameter 3 allowed a division of the sample similar to that of Parameters 1 and 2, with the advantage of analyzing the subject in relation to his/her age group. It was suggested that the methodology of SCS is useful for selecting a population with a high disease prevalence, and that cut-off lines between 10% and 20% would be appropriate for using Parameter 3.

Sérgio Luís Scombatti de, Souza; Mario, Taba Jr..

246

Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

NONE

2001-07-01

247

Simultaneous inversion of source spectra, attenuation parameters and site responses. Application to the data of the French Accelerometric Network.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Displacement spectra of earthquakes recorded by the French accelerometric network at regional scale are modeled as the product of source, propagation (including geometric and anelastic attenuation), and site effects. We use an iterative Gauss–Newton inversion to solve the nonlinear problem and retrieve these different terms. This method is easy to implement because the partial derivatives of the amplitude spectrum with respect to the different parameters have simple analytic forms. After co...

Drouet, Ste?phane; Chevrot, S.; Cotton, F.; Souriau, A.

2008-01-01

248

Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy is of importance for everyone but the growing environmental destruction and disparity between the rich and poor demands adoption of cleaner and better path so as to secure the future resources and achieve sustainable development with better social inclusion. On this regard, the term “green economy” came into light. The Asian Center for Environment Management and Sustainable Development (AEMS then explored the “green economy” concept in Nepal through a regional workshop on May 2012 with participants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Canada, UK and Nepal. Consequently, the hydropower sector of Nepal was recognized as one of the most feasible and potential sector for green economy. Therefore, various case studies of hydropower projects, interaction programs and interviews with relevant personnel were carried out for this study to analyze the scope of hydropower in achieving the three important attributes of green economy, namely—resource efficiency, low carbon and social inclusion. Nepal is rich in water resources; it is therefore possible to use our abundant water resource in an efficient manner. Likewise, the end product of hydropower is clean energy though carbon emission is involved during the construction. It shows the potential to replace considerable amount of carbon emission from biomass based energy resources. Similarly, hydropower project exhibits positive implication on the local society besides making electricity available to the whole nation. The locals also get floating shares and royalty benefits to develop the project affected area. However, the affected areas now have minimal share in royalty. Besides, this study also addresses the issues of policy implication and challenges. All the relevant issues of hydropower as studied reveal that there are required provisions at place in Nepal for hydropower sector to fit perfectly in green economy concept, if only, the prevalent issues are handled efficiently and effectively by the relevant sectors.

Ajay B. Mathema

2013-07-01

249

Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed.ficial environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

250

a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied as well as identifying the main players and milestones to this subject.

Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

2013-05-01

251

Geospatial Technology for Mapping Suitable Sites for Hydro Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, large amount of data is required, consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries. Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT hydrological model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. The study using the above methodology to identifies suitable site in Bennihalla catchment, for small scale hydropower development. The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 and outlet of the catchment are more suitable for small scale hydropower plant.

Dr. Nagraj S. Patil

2013-08-01

252

NMR order parameters calculated in an expanding reference frame: identifying sites of short- and long-range motion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NMR order parameters are calculated from molecular dynamics computer simulations of ubiquitin and the apo (Ca{sup 2+}-free) state of calbindin D{sub 9k}. Calculations are performed in an expanding reference frame so as to discriminate between the effects of short- and long-range motions. This approach reveals that the dominant contributions to the order parameters are short-range. Longer-range contributions are limited to specific sites, many of which have been recognized in previous studies of correlated motions. These sites are identified on the basis of an effective reorientational number, n{sub eff}. Not only does this parameter identify sites of short- and long-range motion, it also provides a way of evaluating the separability condition that is key to the Lipari-Szabo model-free method. When analyzed in conjunction with the Prompers-Brueschweiler separability index, the n{sub eff} values indicate that longer-range motions play a more prominent role in apo calbindin than they do in ubiquitin.

Johnson, Eric, E-mail: eric_johnson@mail.msj.edu [College of Mount St. Joseph, Department of Chemistry and Physical Sciences (United States)

2011-05-15

253

NMR order parameters calculated in an expanding reference frame: identifying sites of short- and long-range motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

NMR order parameters are calculated from molecular dynamics computer simulations of ubiquitin and the apo (Ca(2+)-free) state of calbindin D(9k). Calculations are performed in an expanding reference frame so as to discriminate between the effects of short- and long-range motions. This approach reveals that the dominant contributions to the order parameters are short-range. Longer-range contributions are limited to specific sites, many of which have been recognized in previous studies of correlated motions. These sites are identified on the basis of an effective reorientational number, n ( eff ). Not only does this parameter identify sites of short- and long-range motion, it also provides a way of evaluating the separability condition that is key to the Lipari-Szabo model-free method. When analyzed in conjunction with the Prompers-Brüschweiler separability index, the n ( eff ) values indicate that longer-range motions play a more prominent role in apo calbindin than they do in ubiquitin. PMID:21503632

Johnson, Eric

2011-05-01

254

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle`s King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels.

Fry, J.

1998-09-30

255

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle's King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels

256

Automatic Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters in Boundary Sites of Mexico City under QA/QC Standards  

Science.gov (United States)

MILAGRO, an extensive air quality monitoring campaign, was conducted in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, in order to assess the air pollutants transport and their influence at regional and global scales. In support of this campaign a number of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters measurements were conducted in boundary sites of the MCMA in order to determine the surface conditions in these transition sites. The boundary sites were selected based on results from previous studies, information provided systematically by the Mexico City Ambient Air Monitoring Network (Sistema de Monitoreo Atmosférico, SIMAT), pollutants trends and meteorological and climatic factors that participate in the dispersion and transport under different ventilation scenarios. Seven mobile units and two fixed stations were deployed for the continuous determination of criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters. In order to warranty the pollutants concentrations measurements' quality and comparability, calibrations and verifications were implemented at the designated monitoring sites. Data had been analyzed with statistical tools and comparisons were made against nearby SIMAT stations. Several interesting conclusions were achieved.

Martínez, A.; Ramos, R.; Sánchez, A.; Retama, A.; Fentanes, O.; Muñoz, R.; Mar, B.; Ruiz, L. G.; Torres, R.; Torres, A.; Martínez, J.

2007-05-01

257

Deriving land surface parameters from three different vegetated sites with the ELBARA 1.4-GHz passive microwave radiometer  

Science.gov (United States)

A methodology was recently developed to estimate the land surface parameters soil moisture, soil temperature and vegetation optical depth on a global scale by using passive microwave remote sensing. This methodology is general, in a way that it does not require any field observations of soil moisture or canopy biophysical properties for calibration purposes, and can be used with microwave observations at different wavelengths. However, several algorithms in this approach are somewhat empirical, and the vegetation component in this methodology is still difficult to understand and interpret. A follow up field experiment was planned for April 2003 to address some of these issues. The experiment was conducted at a controlled meteorological field site in Wageningen (The Netherlands). Three different plots, a bare soil, a soil with short grass (reference site), and a site with growing grass vegetation were selected. Several hydro-meteorological parameters were monitored extensively at each site, including the radiobrightness temperatures from the ELBARA 1.4 GHz passive microwave radiometer. This paper gives a description of this field experiment and will demonstrate several effects of vegetation on the radiobrightness temperature.

De Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas; Owe, Manfred

2004-02-01

258

Dynamic parameters of seismic waves and the seismic threat to a nuclear power plant site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hypothetical maximum effects of the so-called operating basis earthquake and of the safe shutdown earthquake should be defined for expressing the seismic threat to dimensionally and structurally complex structures which include nuclear power plants. Next to the said variables it will be necessary to take into account accelerograms corresponding to the said two types of earthquake. The objective selection of analogous accelerograms for the two types of earthquake necessitates the comprehensive knowledge of seismic wave parameters in the vicinity of the earthquake and their dependence on the earthquake magnitude and the distance from the epicentre. Relations are given of these parameters and macroseismic intensity and briefly described are other parameters obtained by statistical processing of digitalized seismic wave records. (Z.M.)

259

BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

2007-01-31

260

Hidroenergia 2010: International congress on small hydropower. Conference report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference, held in 2010 in Lausanne, Switzerland, gathered together the main stakeholders of the small hydropower community to debate about topics affecting the development of the sector, to exchange experience and to present new advances in the technological area. The two-day conference was held in a total of nine sessions, a poster session and a workshop. The first session was dedicated to water management in the Alps and covered new regulations, administrative procedures and finance issues. Contributions included a review of the present situation and the development of common guidelines to meet the challenge of conflicting technical and environmental objectives, the facilitation of small hydropower in Switzerland and the institutional frameworks involved, recent trends in small hydro project financing and the growing roles of venture capital, private equity and changing market dynamics. Finally the prospects for small hydropower in Serbia were discussed. In two parallel sessions the following topics were looked at: The promotion of small hydropower in Switzerland using various sources of water and remuneration for the power produced, small hydro in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, the use of karst groundwater for the underground production of power were looked at as well as the analysis of hydraulic facilities for combining pumped storage hydropower systems and wind power in Austria. The final presentation took a look at the new 'La Tzintre' hydropower project. The parallel session dealt with technical innovations and engineering solutions with presentations on the development of small diagonal turbines, the adaptation of propeller turbines to higher specific needs and the problems encountered in doing so. The use of centrifugal pumps as turbines, including a review of technology and applications were also dealt with. Two further parallel sessions looked at EU-funded projects and sustainability issues. The Sustainable Energy Europe project was introduced and its target of improving water resource management was discussed. An assessment of the potential for small hydropower in Switzerland was presented. Further topics discussed included challenges faced in environmental management in Norway, the use of telemetric data for flood management in Thailand, the refurbishment of a small hydro scheme in western Switzerland, the realisation of the Alpbach small hydropower plant station in Kandersteg, Switzerland, the refurbishment of the Rivaz Mill small hydro installation in the vineyards along the Lake of Geneva, Switzerland and the development of a new turbine for very low heads and with low environmental impact. On the second day of the congress, four sessions and a workshop were held. The first set of parallel sessions covered multi-purpose hydro schemes such as the Chievo project on the Adige river in Italy, experience gained at the Boshava scheme in Macedonia and the development of a new tubular propeller. In the second, parallel set of presentations, technical innovations and engineering solutions were looked at. The use of computational fluid design (CFD) in the design of a diagonal turbine, the Ashlu Creek energy dissipation system in British Columbia, the planning of the two Asiganga tandem installations in the Himalayas and performance tests of hydraulic units in low-head small hydropower installations in Poland were discussed. In the second set of parallel sessions the following topics were discussed: The dynamic effects of small hydropower plants and experience gained with the design of small power plants. Finally, the ASEAN Hycom competence centre in Indonesia was presented. In the parallel session, the following topics were discussed: The Hydrobot remote survey of national hydropower resources, the 'Swissrivers' tool for the prediction of mini-hydropower production in Switzerland, increasing energy-efficiency by the use of artificial intelligence, the optimisation of a hydropower project using a real-time forecasting tool and, finally, a method to evaluate the effective potential hydrop

NONE

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

77 FR 4290 - Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13089-002] Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Conway Ranch Hydropower Project to be located on Virginia Creek,...

2012-01-27

262

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31

263

Estimation of the seismic hazard parameters for various sites in Greece using a probabilistic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The probabilistic approach that was recently introduced by Kijko and Graham (1998,1999 was applied for the estimation of seismic hazard for various sites in Greece in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA and peak ground velocity (PGV. These sites represent geographically cities of Greece among which are the capital of Greece and some others with high, intermediate and low seismicity. The approach allows the use of earthquake catalogues with incomplete reported historical and complete instrumental data, the consideration of different magnitude thresholds, and the incorporation of magnitude uncertainties. One of the advantages of the method is that it does not require any determination of seismic zones. The estimated values of PGA for return periods of 476 years were grouped in 4 categories, the same ones used in the seismic hazard map for the New Seismic Code of Greece. Comparison results were quite interesting and very encouraging concerning the reliability of this probabilistic approach.

I. D. Banitsiotou

2004-01-01

264

Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

265

Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

266

Hydropower Energy in Lebanon: Adaptation for Changing Climatic Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The mountainous terrain of Lebanon makes it a climatic barrier that receives clod air masses from the west and condensate them as rain and snow. Hence the average precipitation rate is about 950mm, creating tremendous water sources, but large portion of this water runs to the sea before utilizing it properly. The natural patterns of surface run-off on the mountainous terrain provide a chance to generate hydropower energy. Thus, Lebanon has 17 hydropower stations on 8 rivers. The productivity of these stations averages about 722 GWh, which provide an integral portion of the Lebanese electrical energy. The population growth and the failure of the existing electrical plants to supply adequate energy have been increased in the last few decades. Thus, there is proposition to construct 13 new hydropower plants. However, challenges for generating hydropower energy has been exacerbated; especially in the view of changing climatic conditions, including fluctuations in precipitation regime, which results an obvious decrease in the volume of run-off. This threatens constructed dams for energy generation. Hence, adapting new instrumentations became a necessity mechanism to be applied before proposing new hydropower station in Lebanon. This study will introduce the applicable adaptation tools to be followed in this respect.

Shaban, A.

2012-12-01

267

Site-Dependent Differences in Clinical, Pathohistological, and Molecular Parameters in Metastatic Colon Cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose was to develop a metastatic score specific to the hepatic and peritoneal site in colorectal cancer patients from clinical, pathohistological and molecular markers potentially reflecting oncogenic activation (OA) or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where OA may reflect an activation and EMT the functional loss of certain genes. The primary tumour stage (OA, EMT), lymphonodal stage (OA), the presence of a lymphangiosis carcinomatosa (OA), histological grade (OA, EMT), and...

Christoph Wilmanns, Sandra Steinhauer

2009-01-01

268

Using Symmetries (Beyond Geometric Symmetries) in Chemical Computations: Computing Parameters of Multiple Binding Sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show how transformation group ideas can be naturally used to generate efficient algorithms for scientific computations. The general approach is illustrated on the example of determining, from the experimental data, the dissociation constants related to multiple binding sites. We also explain how the general transformation group approach is related to the standard (backpropagation) neural networks; this relation justifies the potential universal applicability of the group-related approach.

Andres Ortiz; Vladik Kreinovich

2014-01-01

269

Diurnal variations of the Martian surface layer meteorological parameters during the first 45 sols at two Viking Lander sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind speed, ambient and surface temperatures from both Viking Landers have been used to compute bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov lengths during the earliest phase of the Mars missions. These parameters are used to estimate drag and heat transfer coefficients, friction velocities and surface heat fluxes at the two sites. The principal uncertainty is in the specification of the roughness length. Maximum heat fluxes occur near local noon at both sites, and are estimated to be in the range 15--20 W m-2 at the Viking 1 site and 10--15 W m-2 at the Viking 2 site. Maximum values of friction velocity occur in late morning at Viking 1 and are estimated to be 0.4--0.6 m s-1. They occur shortly after drawn at the Viking 2 site where peak values are estimated to be in the range 0.25--0.35 m s-1. Extension of these calculations to later times during the mission will require allowance for dust opacity effects in the estimation of surface temperature and in the correction of radiation errors of the Viking 2 temperature sensor

270

Site-specific and multielement approach to the determination of liquid-vapor isotope fractionation parameters. The case of alcohols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope fractionation phenomena occurring at the natural abundance level in the course of liquid-vapor transformation have been investigated by using the SNIF-NMR method (site-specific natural isotope fractionation studied by NMR) which has a unique capability of providing simultaneous access to fractionation parameters associated with different molecular isotopomers. This new approach has been combined with the determination of overall carbon and hydrogen fractionation effects by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The results of distillation and evaporation experiments of alcohols performed in technical conditions of practical interest have been analyzed according to the Rayleigh-type model. In order to check the performance of the column, unit fractionation factors were measured beforehand for water and for the hydroxylic sites of methanol and ethanol for which liquid-vapor equilibrium constants were already known. Inverse isotope effects are determined in distillation experiments for the overall carbon isotope ratio and for the site-specific hydrogen isotope ratios associated with the methyl and methylene sites of methanol and ethanol. In contrast, normal isotope effects are produced by distillation for the hydroxylic sites and by evaporation for all the isotopic ratios

271

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

272

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

273

Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

2010-07-01

274

Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The rnts, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed-load transport rate by Meyer-Petter and Muller bed-load equation. As the results are small, the top set slope is fixed as half of the bed slope. The movement of delta pivot point was 6 and 9 Km for the years 1973 and 1994, respectively. (author)

275

Ecological qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a literature review about the state-of-the-art of ecological aspects of hydropower. Hydropower is compared with further energy sources: fossil-fuel power plants, wind power plants, photovoltaic power plants, nuclear power plants. In the overall assessment, hydropower obtains the best result. (author)

276

Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus

277

Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus.

Goodrich, M.F.; Bryan, J.B.; Thomsen, J.M.; Snell, C.M.

1976-03-15

278

Preliminary study for the 'Stroppel' residual-water hydropower installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the replacement of an old weir that controls the flow of residual water with a small hydropower turbine. The present situation and installations on the river Limmat near Untersiggenthal in northern Switzerland is described. The local geology, hydro-geology and topography are discussed. Six different variants for the use of the hydropower potential are discussed. The variant chosen for recommendation is described in detail. Apart from the normal technical details, the study provides details on flood-water protection and describes a fish by-pass that has already been built. Environmental aspects are discussed that are to be considered when the hydropower installation is built. The calculations for investment and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the power station is discussed

279

Hydropower, an integral part of Canada's climate change strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and implementation of a climate change policy could be among the most far-reaching environmental initiatives ever embarked upon in Canada and abroad. If Canada is to stabilize or reduce its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over the long term, a significant adjustment to Canadian industry will be required as we move away from fossil fuel-intensive and GHG producing activities. Future hydroelectric projects provide Canada with a unique opportunity to significantly reduce the costs associated with stabilizing its GHG emissions. In addition, the energy storage and dispatchability associated with hydropower can support development of other low emitting renewable resources such as wind and solar. This document discusses the potential role of hydropower as a tool to reduce emissions, recommends action to reduce barriers facing hydropower and comments on some of the policy tools available to manage Canada's GHG emissions. (author)

280

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1964-2000 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological parameters at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is presented. The parameters examined for extreme value analysis are maximum wind speed at 120 m and gust, maximum and minimum surface air temperature, maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum and minimum rainfall in a year, and maximum rainfall in a month and a day along with intensity of rainfall averaged over 5 minutes. The period of observation for rainfall is 1964 -2000, while for other variables, it is 1980 -2000. From the extreme value analysis, it is observed that the variables for annual maximum rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, maximum temperature, maximum pressure and maximum hourly wind speed obey Fisher -Tippette type I distribution, whereas annual minimum rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, minimum temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure and gust (5 min. averaged maximum wind speed at 120m height) follow Fisher -Tippette type II distribution. Parameters of the distribution functions for each variable are established and occurrence of the extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are also derived. These derived extreme values are very useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure safety of any civil structure in the vicinity of RAPS site with respect to expected stresses due to climatic conditions. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact. PMID:25189078

Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

2014-04-01

282

Model for 3D-visualization of streams and techno-economic estimate of locations for construction of small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main researches of this dissertation are focused to a development of a model for preliminary assesment of the hydro power potentials for small hydropower plants construction using Geographic Information System - GIS. For this purpose, in the first part of dissertation is developed a contemporary methodological approach for 3D- visualization of the land surface and river streams in a GIS platform. In the methodology approach, as input graphical data are used digitized maps in scale 1:25000, where each map covers an area of 10x14 km and consists of many layers with graphic data in shape (vector) format. Using GIS tools, from the input point and isohyetal contour data layers with different interpolation techniques have been obtained digital elevation model - DEM, which further is used for determination of additional graphic maps with useful land surface parameters such as: slope raster maps, hill shade models of the surface, different maps with hydrologic parameters and many others. The main focus of researches is directed toward the developing of contemporary methodological approaches based on GIS systems, for assessment of the hydropower potentials and selection of suitable location for small hydropower plant construction - SHPs, and especially in the mountainous hilly area that are rich with water resources. For this purpose it is done a practical analysis at a study area which encompasses the watershed area of the Brajchanska River at the east part of Prespa Lake. The main accent considering the analysis of suitable locations for SHP construction is set to the techno-engineering criteria, and in this context is made a topographic analysis regarding the slope (gradient) either of all as well of particular river streams. It is also made a hydrological analysis regarding the flow rates (discharges). The slope analysis is executed at a pixel (cell) level a swell as at a segment (line) level along a given stream. The slope value at segment level gives in GIS platform practical and efficient information regarding the elevation drops along river streams from the potential points of intake locations to the location of objects of the small hydropower plants. In the hydrology analysis are used historic measured data in table format regarding the flow rates and precipitation for the period 1961-2000 from two pluviometric station that are close each other. At the calculation of precipitations at annual level in GIS platform is used a stochastic quadratic equation for correlation between the rainfall (precipitation) and elevation which is valid for the climatic zone of the south-west region of Republic of Macedonia. using more hydrological methods: Rational method, Area-proportion method, Regression analysis and others, are obtained graphic raster maps for numerical values of flow rates at pixel level, and also is executed a comparative analysis of obtained results. Having available data for slope (elevation drops) and values of flows, is made analysis of the hydro power potential and locations for SHP construction along Brajchanska river and its main tributaries. The analysis showed that at the higher elevation of 1000 m.a.s.l. are found more than 10 potential locations for SHP construction. From the executed analysis was also determined, that the combination of more intakes that are directed to one SHP plant gives significantly more power output and energy. Together with the techno-engineering analysis, is also given a short review considering the economic justification for SHP construction and the impact at the environment. The developed model at the study area can also serve as a practical model at the analysis regarding the assessment and the site selection of SHP in all other areas reach with water resources. The methodological approach developed in this research, can contribute to a great extent for quick and efficient decision making regarding the preliminary screening of locations and assessment of the hydro power potentials for SHP construction at small and medium watershed areas. (Author)

283

EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

2010-08-01

284

Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

285

Bidding hydropower generation: Integrating short- and long-term scheduling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bidding of flexible reservoir hydropower in day-ahead (spot) auctions needs to be done under uncertainty of electricity prices and inflow to reservoirs. The presence of reservoirs also means that the short-term problem of determining bids for the next 12–36 hours is a part of a long term problem in which the question is whether to release water now or store it for the future. This multi-scale challenge is usually addressed by using several models for hydropower planning, at least one...

Fleten, Stein-erik; Haugstvedt, Daniel; Steinsbø, Jens Arne; Belsnes, Michael; Fleischmann, Franziska

2011-01-01

286

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

287

Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

Zhiqun Deng

2011-01-01

288

Substantial increment in critical parameters of MgB2 superconductor by boron site nano-carbon substitution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the determination of critical properties of MgB2 along with the impact of carbon substitution on critical parameters. The change in lattice parameters and decrease of transition temperature, Tc confirms the successful substitution by carbon at boron site. The magneto transport measurements up to 140 kOe are carried out to determine upper critical field (Hc2). The upper critical field values, Hc2 are obtained from ?-T(H) data based upon the criterion of 90% of normal resistivity. The Ginzburg Landau theory (GL equation) is applied to the ?-T(H) data which accounts for the temperature dependence behavior of Hc2 in the low temperature high field region along with the determination of Hc(0) value. The Hc(0) value of about 300 kOe is obtained for the carbon doped sample while the same is just near to 160 kOe for the pure MgB2 sample.

289

Substantial increment in critical parameters of MgB2 superconductor by boron site nano-carbon substitution  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the determination of critical properties of MgB2 along with the impact of carbon substitution on critical parameters. The change in lattice parameters and decrease of transition temperature, Tc confirms the successful substitution by carbon at boron site. The magneto transport measurements up to 140 kOe are carried out to determine upper critical field (Hc2). The upper critical field values, Hc2 are obtained from ?-T(H) data based upon the criterion of 90% of normal resistivity. The Ginzburg Landau theory (GL equation) is applied to the ?-T(H) data which accounts for the temperature dependence behavior of Hc2 in the low temperature high field region along with the determination of Hc(0) value. The Hc(0) value of about 300 kOe is obtained for the carbon doped sample while the same is just near to 160 kOe for the pure MgB2 sample.

Mudgel, Monika; Awana, V. P. S.; Bhalla, G. L.; Kishan, H.

2010-12-01

290

Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

291

DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed a state-of-the-science review of hydropower optimization methods and published reports on alternative operating strategies and opportunities for spill reduction. Carried out feasibility studies of new environmental performance measurements of the new MGR turbine at Wanapum Dam, including measurement of behavioral responses, biomarkers, bioindex testing, and the use of dyes to assess external injuries. Evaluated the benefits of mitigation measures for instream flow releases and the value of surface flow outlets for downstream fish passage. Refined turbulence flow measurement techniques, the computational modeling of unsteady flows, and models of blade strike of fish. Published numerous technical reports, proceedings papers, and peer-reviewed literature, most of which are available on the DOE Hydropower website. Further developed and tested the sensor fish measuring device at hydropower plants in the Columbia River. Data from the sensor fish are coupled with a computational model to yield a more detailed assessment of hydraulic environments in and around dams. Published reports related to the Virtual Hydropower Prospector and the assessment of water energy resources in the U.S. for low head/low power hydroelectric plants. Convened a workshop to consider the environmental and technical issues associated with new hydrokinetic and wave energy technologies. Laboratory and DOE staff participated in numerous workshops, conferences, coordination meetings, planning meetings, implementation meetings, and reviews to transfer the results of DOE-sponsored research to end-users.

Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2006-07-01

292

Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

Broadus, C.R.

1981-04-01

293

Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study  

Science.gov (United States)

Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters of explosions. MLV, mpv, and energy class K were determined for all underground nuclear explosions conducted at the STS using historical seismograms from Central Asia stations. Dependencies of regional magnitudes on yield were received for air and underground nuclear explosions. Thus, application of historical seismograms at regional distances allows to recover and replenish the seismic catalogues of past nuclear explosions for further use in scientific investigations and monitoring tasks.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

294

VIRTUAL HYDROPOWER PROSPECTING: A FOUNDATION FOR WATER ENERGY RESOURCE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive assessment of the gross power potential of the natural stream water energy resources of the United States was performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information system (GIS) tools. Water energy resource sites (stream segments) assessed in the basic resource assessment were further evaluated to identify which can be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of each site was refined to determine its developable hydropower potential using a set of development criteria corresponding to a damless low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) project. The methodologies for performing the basic resource assessment and subsequent feasibility assessment are described and the summary results for the nation are presented.

Randy Lee; Sera White; Julie Brizzee; Shane Cherry; Douglas Hall

2008-06-01

295

Hydrological parameter estimations from a conservative tracer test with variable-density effects at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable predictions of groundwater flow and solute transport require an estimation of the detailed distribution of the parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity) controlling these processes. However, such parameters are difficult to estimate because of the inaccessibility and complexity of the subsurface. In this regard, developments in parameter estimation techniques and investigations of field experiments are still challenging and necessary to improve our understanding and the prediction of hydrological processes. Here we analyze a conservative tracer test conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site in 2001 in a heterogeneous unconfined fluvial aquifer. Some relevant characteristics of this test include: variable-density (sinking) effects because of the injection concentration of the bromide tracer, the relatively small size of the experiment, and the availability of various sources of geophysical and hydrological information. The information contained in this experiment is evaluated through several parameter estimation approaches, including a grid-search-based strategy, stochastic simulation of hydrological property distributions, and deterministic inversion using regularization and pilot-point techniques. Doing this allows us to investigate hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity distributions and to compare the effects of assumptions from several methods and parameterizations. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of variable-density transport processes and the hydrological relevance of incorporating various sources of information in parameter estimation approaches. Among others, the variable-density effect and the effective porosity distribution, as well as their coupling with the hydraulic conductivity structure, are seen to be significant in the transport process. The results also show that assumed prior information can strongly influence the estimated distributions of hydrological properties.

Dafflon, B.; Barrash, W.; Cardiff, M.; Johnson, T. C.

2011-12-01

296

Simulation Modeling for Electrical Switching System of Hydropower Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a simulation modeling method for the electrical switching system of hydropower station, which is a sub-topic for Hydropower Station Simulation Training System. The graphics model of commonly used electrical switch equipment is developed with a certain software. As vast and different types of Hydropower station circuit breakers and associated grounding switches, and each specific action of the switch process is not same, so the modular modeling method is described to solve the problem. According to the role and status in power plant, electrical switch system is divided into several sub modules, among which a number of small modules are sorted in. In each sub module, a common model is developed. Besides, the application method that the network topology analysis algorithm used in electrical switching system simulation logic judgment is introduced. With the ‘connecting line fusion’ technique, logic function expression member information table is automatically generated, thereby enhancing the suitability for the electrical switch simulation model. The methods mentioned above assure the real-time, typicality and flexibility in simulation, and have been successfully used in the development of a large hydropower station simulator.

Ran HU

2013-08-01

297

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is concerned instead of generated energy. Based on the analysis of time-varying electricity price policy, an optimal operation model of hydropower station reservoir with ecology consideration is established. The model takes the maximum annual power generation benefit, the maximum output of the minimal output stage in the year and the minimum shortage of eco-environment demand as the objectives, and reservoir water quantity balance, reservoir storage capacity, reservoir discharge flow and hydropower station output and nonnegative variable as the constraints. To solve the optimal model, a chaotic optimization genetic algorithm which combines the ergodicity of chaos and the inversion property of genetic algorithm is exploited. An example is given, which shows that the proposed model and algorithm are scientific and feasible to deal with the optimal operation of hydropower station.

Yuqin Gao

2010-08-01

298

False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

James Randall Kahn

2014-09-01

299

ALTERNATIVE HYDRO-POWER EXPLOITATION WITH LOW-KINETIC TURBINES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The graduation thesis present hydro-power exploitation with low-kinetic turbines, we made calculations of power turbines and determine their efficiency. Presented are the possible types of turbines for installation in the riverbed. We determined the economic analysis of the project.

Rovc?anin, Jovana

2012-01-01

300

The role of hydropower in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inherent technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power, make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. These countries, such as Turkey, have a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. From the viewpoint of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, Turkey is not a rich country; but it has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing electricity demand for Turkey. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. The results of two case studies, whose results were not taken into consideration in calculating Turkey's hydro electric potential, are presented. Turkey's small hydro power potential is found to be an important energy source, especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The results of a study in which Turkey's long-term demand has been predicted are also presented. According to the results of this paper, Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed

 
 
 
 
301

Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

302

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

303

Developing a module for estimating climate warming effects on hydropower pricing in California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate warming is expected to alter hydropower generation in California through affecting the annual stream-flow regimes and reducing snowpack. On the other hand, increased temperatures are expected to increase hydropower demand for cooling in warm periods while decreasing demand for heating in winter, subsequently altering the annual hydropower pricing patterns. The resulting variations in hydropower supply and pricing regimes necessitate changes in reservoir operations to minimize the revenue losses from climate warming. Previous studies in California have only explored the effects of hydrological changes on hydropower generation and revenues. This study builds a long-term hydropower pricing estimation tool, based on artificial neural network (ANN), to develop pricing scenarios under different climate warming scenarios. Results suggest higher average hydropower prices under climate warming scenarios than under historical climate. The developed tool is integrated with California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) to facilitate simultaneous consideration of climate warming on hydropower supply, demand and pricing. EBHOM estimates an additional 5% drop in annual revenues under a dry warming scenario when climate change impacts on pricing are considered, with respect to when such effects are ignored, underlining the importance of considering changes in hydropower demand and pricing in future studies and policy making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the major gap in previous climate change and hydropower studies in California. ? Developing an ANN-based long-term hydropower price estimation tool. ? Estimating climate change effects on hydropower demand and pricing in California. ? Investigating the sensitivity of hydropower operations to future price changes. ? Underlining the importance of consideration of climate change impacts on electricity pricing.

304

Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Lancang/Mekong River Basin is presently undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development. In its natural undeveloped state, the river transports about 160 million metric tons of sediment per year, maintaining the geomorphologic features of the basin, sustaining habitats, and transporting the nutrients that support ecosystem productivity. Despite the importance of sediment in the river, currently little attention is being paid to reservoir sediment trapping. This study is devoted to assessing the potential for managing sediment and its impact on energy production in the Se San, Sre Pok, and Se Kong tributaries of the Mekong River. These tributaries drain a set of adjacent watersheds that are important with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity, and serve as a significant source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. A daily sediment transport model is used to assess tradeoffs among energy production and sediment and flow regime alteration in multiple reservoir systems. This study finds that eventually about 40%-80% of the annual suspended sediment load may be trapped in reservoirs. Clearly, these reservoirs will affect the rivers' sediment regimes. However, even after 100 years of simulated sedimentation, reservoir storage capacities and hydropower production at most reservoir sites are not significantly reduced. This suggests that the strongest motivation for implementing measures to reduce trapped sediment is their impact not on hydropower production but on fish migration and survival and on sediment-dependent ecosystems such as the Vietnam Delta and Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake.

Wild, Thomas B.; Loucks, Daniel P.

2014-06-01

305

Operating multireservoir hydropower systems for downstream water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower reservoir operations often impact tailwater quality and water quality in the stream or river below the impoundment for many miles. Determining optimal operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs involves solving a highly dimensional nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. This research adds the additional complexities of downstream water quality considerations within the optimization formulation to determine operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs operating in series (tandem) or parallel. The formulation was used to determine operating strategies for six reservoirs of the upper Cumberland river basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Significant dissolved oxygen (DO) violations occur just upstream of Nashville, Tennessee below Old Hickory dam during the months of August and September. Daily reservoir releases were determined for the period of June through September which would produce the maximum hydropower revenue while meeting downstream water quality objectives. Optimal releases for three operational strategies were compared to historical operations for the years 1985, 1986, and 1988. These strategies included: spilling as necessary to meet water quality criteria, near normal operation (minimal spills), and drawdown of reservoirs as necessary to meet criteria without spills. Optimization results showed an 8% to 15% hydropower loss may be necessary to meet water quality criteria through spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DOgh spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DO below Old Hickory may be possible without significant spills. Results also showed that substantial increases in initial headwater elevations would be necessary to meet daily DO criteria and avoid spills. The optimal control theory algorithm used to solve the problem proved to be an efficient and robust solver of this large optimization problem

306

A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

307

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

308

Small hydropower in southern Africa - an overview of five countries in the region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small hydr [...] opower has played an important role in the history of providing electricity in the region. After a period with limited interest in applications of small hydropower, in all five countries, a range of stakeholders from policy makers to developers are showing a renewed interest in small hydropower. Although different models were followed, all five countries covered in the paper do currently see activities around grid connected small scale hydropower. Particular frameworks that facilitate IPPs and Power Purchase Agreements with the national utility do provide a basis for (local) commercial banks to provide finance. Off-grid hydropower for rural electrification purposes sees activities in the countries with an active (support) role of government in this respect only. Small hydropower, renewable energy technology has large potential across the southern Africa region, both for grid connected and off-grid applications. Historically, small hydropower played an important role in the development of the region. Since the mid-1960s, however, the main emphasis has been on centralised fossil fuel-based electricity generation. Developers and policy makers have only recently begun looking at small hydropower again.

Wim Jonker, Klunne.

309

The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as `clean continental` during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs.

Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Colbeck, I. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

1997-09-01

310

The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as 'clean continental' during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs

311

Conduit-hydropower potential in the City of Tshwane water distribution system: A discussion of potential applications, financial and other benefits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In water distribution networks, water is often fed under gravity from a higher reservoir to another reservoir at a lower level. The residual pressure head at the receiving reservoir is then dissipated through control valves (mechanically or hydraulically actuated), sometimes augmented by orifice pla [...] tes where there is a propensity for cavitation. There are possibilities to add turbines in parallel and generate hydroelectricity at these locations using the flow and head available. The benefit of this hydropower generating application is that minimal civil works need to be done, as the control valves are normally inside a control room/valve chamber. No negative environmental or social effects require mitigation, and the anticipated lead times should be short. From a topographical perspective the City of Tshwane has a lower elevation than the bulk service reservoirs of Rand Water, which is the main water supply. Water is distributed through a large water system that includes 160 reservoirs, 42 water towers, 10 677 km of pipes and more than 260 pressure reducing stations (PRS) that operate at pressures of up to 250 m. The top ten hydropower potential sites in the City of Tshwane water distribution network have a total energy generating capacity of approximately 10 000 MWh/a. A number of potential conduit-hydropower sites have shown promise of short payback periods. The identifying and development of these sites in Tshwane to convert water pressure to electricity is ongoing and exploited further. Various challenges currently exist with reservoir communication in isolated areas due to vandalism and theft of necessary infrastructure, including electricity cables and solar panels. Because conduit-hydropower systems can be housed completely inside chambers, vandalism and theft can be mitigated. Therefore, one of the major benefits of hydropower turbines at these sites is that the hydroelectric potential could be exploited to power telemetry, pressure management, flow control and monitoring/security systems. Alternatively or additionally, other local demand and/or (depending upon the quantum of energy available) off-site energy demand clusters, or even a municipal or national grid, could also be serviced by these power stations. The capacity of hydroelectric installations can vary to suit the application for the amount of power needed or to be generated. Short payback periods, especially when using pumps as turbines, also make conduit-hydropower systems attractive

I, Loots; M, van Dijk; S J, van Vuuren; J N, Bhagwan; A, Kurtz.

2014-10-01

312

Relationship among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index of Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias, NW Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationships among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index were examined in Pinus radiata D. Don stands in a climatically homogeneous area of NW Spain. Thirty-eight even-aged stands, ranging from 10 to 54 years, were sampled. In each stand, a representative plot of 0.1 ha was selected and different stand variables and parent material were considered. The soils in the study area are strongly acidic, with high proportions of organic matter, high C/N ratios, and low exchangeable base cation and available P concentration extracted by Mehlich 3 method (PM3). Although foliar N was sufficient in every stand studied, widespread deficiencies of K, P and, to a lesser extent, Mg and Ca were diagnosed. The foliar concentrations of P were positively correlated with PM3 and effective cation exchange capacity. The SI values ranged between 9.5 and 28.8 m and were positively correlated with foliar P and extractable K in soil. In the stands developed on quartzite and sandstone lithologies, the SI was negatively correlated with slope and foliar N respectively. The results suggest the importance of site selection and fertilizer treatment in reforestation programmes. (Author) 63 refs.

Afif-Khouri, E.; Camara Obregon, M. A.; Oliveira-Prendes, J. A.; Gorgoso-Varela, J. J.; Canga-Libano, E.

2010-07-01

313

Substantial increment in critical parameters of MgB{sub 2} superconductor by boron site nano-carbon substitution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the determination of critical properties of MgB{sub 2} along with the impact of carbon substitution on critical parameters. The change in lattice parameters and decrease of transition temperature, T{sub c} confirms the successful substitution by carbon at boron site. The magneto transport measurements up to 140 kOe are carried out to determine upper critical field (H{sub c2}). The upper critical field values, H{sub c2} are obtained from {rho}-T(H) data based upon the criterion of 90% of normal resistivity. The Ginzburg Landau theory (GL equation) is applied to the {rho}-T(H) data which accounts for the temperature dependence behavior of H{sub c2} in the low temperature high field region along with the determination of H{sub c}(0) value. The H{sub c}(0) value of about 300 kOe is obtained for the carbon doped sample while the same is just near to 160 kOe for the pure MgB{sub 2} sample.

Mudgel, Monika, E-mail: mudgelmk@mail.nplindia.ernet.i [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007 (India); Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Bhalla, G.L. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007 (India); Kishan, H. [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

2010-12-15

314

A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the facility during the demonstration. We compared the optimized virtual operation identified by the toolset to actual operations at the facility for the same time period to evaluate implications of the optimized operational regime on power/revenue generation and environmental performance. Argonne National Laboratory's work was part of a larger "Water-Use-Optimization" project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Water Power Program, under Announcement DE-FOA-0000070. The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government.

Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

2012-12-01

315

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2001-07-01

316

Some data on Hydropower (onshore and offshore). Potential, Costs, Impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower generation seems worldwide the most attractive renewable energy by its cost of about 3 cents per KWh and its flexibility. But it will be limited under 10.000 TWh/year with a capacity increased to 3.000 GW and a lakes area increased to 500.000 km2. Pump storage plants may be the best solution for the necessary storage associated with wind and power which will be used for a large part of the world energy needs. The corresponding extra cost for storage will be in the range of 2 cents per KWh of intermittent energy. The necessary P.S.P. capacity in 2050 may be 3.000 GW occupying 30.000 km2 most out of rivers. As for generation, the P.S.P. may be used at least one century. Directly or indirectly, Hydropower will be an essential part of the future world energy. (author)

317

Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

318

The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered

319

Impacts of alternative Great Lakes regulation plans on hydropower production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower production is evaluated for two alternative regulation measures developed under the recent International Joint Commission Great Lakes Water Levels Reference. Measure 1.18 included a new control structure to regulate outflows from Lake Erie, while measure 1.21 was a revision of the current regulation plans for lakes Superior and Ontario. A negative impact to the entire hydropower system was calculated to range between US$11.9 and US$20.9 million/year under measure 1.18, while measure 1.21 had a positive impact in the range of US$1 to US$3 million/year. Considering the impacts to all interests, the Reference Study Board recommended no further consideration be given to measure 1.18, but that a measure similar to 1.21 should be implemented. (author). 34 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

320

Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be allocated among the reservoirs in order to strike a balance between current profits and expected future profits. A demonstration is presented with data from a Norwegian hydropower producer and the Nordic power market at Nord Pool.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Impact of Hydropower Projects on Economic Growth of AJK.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to official estimates, territory of Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a potential to generate about 4600 MW of hydroelectricity, the cheapest source of energy. Total deficit in energy Pakistan is facing these days is about 5000 MW. So, only AJK can fulfill more than 90% of deficit of now demanded energy for entire country. Beside this direct and explicit advantage of hydropower projects to power sector, these projects may be extremely useful in improving many economic and social indicators a...

Atiq-ur-rehman, Atiq-ur-rehman; Anis, Hafsa

2008-01-01

322

Control of Water Content and Retention in Hydropower Plant Cascades  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The discharge through a river hydropower plant must be controlled such that the water level at a pre-specified point close to the facility is kept within given bounds. The controllers used today have a somewhat demanding tuning and often create too much amplified, unnatural discharge variations resulting in unsatisfactory control performance.This will affect both surrounding nature and imposing problems for river navigation. This thesis will present a new type of controller called Override Se...

Gullhamn, Esbjo?rn

2004-01-01

323

Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant op- erating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and wate...

Fleten, Stein-erik; Krogh Kristoffersen, Trine

2006-01-01

324

Investment timing and optimal capacity choice for small hydropower projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a method for assessing small hydropower projects that are subject to uncertain electricity prices. We present a real options-based method with continuous scaling, and we find that there is a unique price limit for initiating the project. If the current electricity price is below this limit it is never optimal to invest, but above this limit investment is made according to the function for optimal size. The connection between the real option and the physical properties o...

Bøckman, Thor; Fleten, Stein-erik; Juliussen, Erik; Langhammer, Ha?vard; Revdal, Ingemar

2006-01-01

325

False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate signif...

James Randall Kahn; Carlos Edwar Freitas; Miguel Petrere

2014-01-01

326

Hydraulic transient events in hydropower plants with installed Francis turbines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydraulic transient events are the result of time related changes of hydrodinamical quantities in a hydraulic passage system. Treatise of transient events is essential to ensure safe operation of the hydropower plant, and for suitable design of turbine components and related hydromechanical equipment. Causes of transient events and their characteristics in different hydraulic passage systems are presented in this work. Basic system of water hammer equation was derived, consisting of the momen...

Mazij, Jernej

2009-01-01

327

Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conduct...

Jiang Hu; Ran Gao; Jiangyan Ma; Yeqiu Wu; Angui Li

2012-01-01

328

Climate change impacts on financial risk in hydropower projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among other things, on the continuing and increased use of hydroelectric power. However, climate change itself may alter rainfall patterns, adversely affecting the financial viability of existing and potential hydro schemes. Previous work developed a methodology for quantifying the potential impact of climate change on the economics of hydropower schemes. Here, the analysis is extended to examine the potential fo...

Harrison, Gareth P.; Whittington, Bert; Wallace, Robin

2003-01-01

329

Expert system for hydropower stations developed in Volve Knowledge Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the fact that hydropower stations are equipped with the latest technology in both regulation and remote control, it is not enough to replace the traditional machine expert. The machine expert was a person stationed in the power plant. He had the responsibility for the running and maintenance of the station. This person’s experience and human senses made him crucial for the surveillance of the station. Since the machine expert has now been replaced by electronics and newer technology...

Timberlid, Erlend

2008-01-01

330

Delta-Hedging a Hydropower Plant Using Stochastic Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important challenge for hydropower producers is to optimize reservoir discharges, which is subject to uncertainty in in?ow and electricity prices. Furthermore, the producers want to hedge the risk in the operating pro?t. This article demonstrates how stochastic programming can be used to solve a multi-reservoir hydro scheduling case for a price-taking producer, and how such a model can be employed in subsequent delta-hedging of the electric- ity portfolio.

Fleten, Stein-erik; Wallace, Stein W.

2008-01-01

331

Mekong erosion, hydropower development and sediment trapping by the reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erosion occurs from soil surface due to the kinetic energy of raindrop and surface flowing water. The energy of flowing water causes down cutting of the land, which results from soil migration and forest cutting. Bare land shows easy erosion behavior, and loose soil has greater potential for erosion than the vegetated land. In the twenty-first century, the demand of energy for consumption is increasing. Hydropower is one of the cheaper sources for energy. These dams threaten the risk of ...

Sah, Rajeev

2013-01-01

332

Requirements and benefits of flow forecasting for improving hydropower generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a methodology to identify the required lead time and accuracy of flow forecasting for improving hydropower generation of a reservoir, by simulating the benefits (in terms of electricity generated) obtained from the forecasting with varying lead times and accuracies. The benefit-lead time relationship was investigated only for perfect inflow forecasts, with a few selected forecasting lead times: 4, 10 days and 1 year. The water level and the release from the res...

Dong, X.; Dohmen-janssen, C. M.; Booij, M. J.; Hulscher, S. J. M. H.

2005-01-01

333

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STAGE –IV KOYNA HYDROPOWER PLANT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydroelectric power contributes around 12.45 percent of the electricity supply in India. It is considered to be the most vital, unpolluted, emission-free and an inexpensive renewable source of energy. Hydroelectric power-plants operating all over the world aims to have high electric output with minimum maintenance cost. It’s very different with Koyna Hydropower Plant (KHPP) stage IV which generates lower electric output than the installed capacity with higher maintenance. This project aims ...

Mohd. Imran Ahmed; Abed, Siraj Y.

2014-01-01

334

Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

Gustafsson, Martin

2013-01-01

335

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.enges of sustainability.

336

Hydropower generation and storage, transmission constraints and market power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study hydropower generation and storage in the presence of uncertainty about future inflows, market power and limited transmission capacity to neighboring regions. Within our simple two-period model, market power leads to too little storage. The monopolist finds it profitable to produce more than the competitive amount in the first period and thereby stores little water in the first of two periods in order to become import constrained in the second period. In addition, little storage reduces the probability of becoming export constrained in the second period, even if the second period exhibits large inflow. Empirical findings for an area in the western part of Norway with only hydropower and high ownership concentration at the supply side, fit well to our theoretical model. We apply a numerical model to examine various policies to reduce the inefficiencies created by the local monopoly. Transmission investments have two effects. First, the export possibilities in the first period increase. More export leads to lower storage in the first period. Second, larger import capacity reduces the market power problem in the second period. The two opposite effects of transmission investments in a case with market power may be unique to hydropower systems. Introducing financial transmission rights enhance the market power of the monopolist in our model. Price caps in both or in the second period only, reduce the strategic value of water storage. (Author)r storage. (Author)

337

Development of methodological support of the automated hydropower potential calculation using geographic information systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The latest large-scale researches of hydropower potential of large and medium size rivers in Russia were conducted in 1940–1980 years. Nowadays updating of hydropower potential data (including not only large, but also minor and medium rivers is carried out. This paper is dedicated to the development and approbation of methodology and GIS-based tools for calculating hydropower potential of rivers, located in Russian Federation. The list of initial data and information sources used in research were described. The approaches and GIS-tools described in present paper allow executing an assessment of hydropower potential of the rivers in a short time on large areas.

N.V. Badenko

2013-10-01

338

Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

Fall, Latsoucabe

2010-09-15

339

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

2000-01-26

340

Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm3. The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that economic policy measures could help improve the competitiveness of hydropower. All measures that aim to internalise external costs of power generation are considered as being particularly promising in this respect. Targeted aid for particular enterprises could be provided as a supporting measure

342

Deterioration and maintenance models for components in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High reliability is an indispensable requirement for the operation of technical systems and infrastructure, such as power plants, oil platforms, aircrafts, railway lines and bridges. Failures can result in high costs and hazards to humans and the environment. Practically all technical systems are subject to deterioration, and a failure is often the consequence of excessive deterioration. Thus, inspections and maintenance are undertaken to uncover deterioration and to prevent failures and damage. The improvement and the optimization of maintenance has great potential for cost savings. In order to exploit this potential, we need a systematic and structured approach. Furthermore, mathematical models are required to quantify the influence of maintenance decisions on reliability and costs. The main objective of this thesis has been the development of a general deterioration and maintenance model for components in hydropower plants. The model was designed to serve as basis for maintenance planning and maintenance optimization. It is intended help to answer questions, such as: What is the probability of failure in a given time interval? How often should inspections be carried out? Is it better to carry out a maintenance action now or in x years? Is it advisable to postpone the action? What are the costs if the action is postponed? If we choose between alternatives A and B: Which alternative should be performed first? The aim has been to develop a general model that can be applied to different components and failure modes. The model was designed to utilize existing methods, processes and perspectives in the Norwegian electricity industry. The general maintenance model presented in this thesis is based on a deterioration model consisting of a semi-Markov process with discrete state space. The model was built on an existing state definition established by the industry. This state definition is based on observable and thus physical properties of the deteriorating component. These states are therefore denoted physical states. It is assumed that the sojourn time in a physical state may be modelled using a gamma distribution. A numerical solution procedure is suggested that requires states with exponentially distributed sojourn times. Thus, it is suggested transforming the gamma distributed sojourn times in the physical states into virtual states with exponentially distributed sojourn times, that is, transforming the gamma distributions into a Markov process. The thesis discusses different approaches on how to establish the virtual states. A challenge in maintenance modelling is to provide a time-dependent model solution and to incorporate different maintenance strategies in the model, such as non-periodic inspections. An analytical solution for this case is difficult to obtain. Thus, a numerical solution is presented in this thesis for computing the expected number of inspections and maintenance actions in a given time interval. It is shown how deterioration, inspections and maintenance can be mathematically treated by simple numerical procedures. Furthermore, imperfect inspection and imperfect repair may also be realized. The numerical procedure presented serves the requirements of the Norwegian electricity industry. A Bayesian framework is suggested for estimating the parameters of the sojourn time distributions. Both expert judgement and condition monitoring data may be used as sources of information for the parameter estimation. The thesis also provides suggestions on how to carry out expert judgement. The thesis also discusses two other popular models: First, a maintenance model that also uses a Markov processes and that is frequently applied to modelling maintenance of components in electric power systems, and second, a maintenance model that treats the deterioration as a gamma process. It is shown that the former yields an error when it is used to analyse maintenance strategies with non-periodic inspections. The results presented make clear that the incorporation of a non-periodic inspection strategy is not as easy as suggeste

Welte, Thomas

2008-07-01

343

Effect of sampling site and collection method on variations in baseline clinical pathology parameters in Fischer-344 rats. 1. Clinical chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the influence of blood sampling site and collection method on clinical chemistry parameters was conducted in male Fischer-344 rats. Sampling sites compared included the right ventricle, aorta, vena cava, retroorbital sinus, and tail. Methods of collection included Vacutainer (3 ml sample), syringe (exsanguination), and capillary tube. Nineteen frequently measured clinical chemistry procedures were determined, including serum enzymes, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Significant differences were noted for almost every parameter as a function of sampling site. Samples collected from the right ventricle with a Vacutainer produced the most representative results for most but not all procedures when compared to the overall mean (for all methods). The largest differences were encountered in samples obtained from tail and retroorbital plexus. Exanguination also resulted in significant differences for some parameters when compared to smaller sample volumes obtained from the same site. It was concluded that sampling site and collection method can be a major source of variation in clinical chemistry measurements, and in selection of an appropriate method, one should consider which parameters are likely to be of major interest. PMID:4092880

Neptun, D A; Smith, C N; Irons, R D

1985-12-01

344

Application of Geochemical Parameters for the Early Detection of CO2 Leakage from Sequestration Sites into Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Geologically sequestered CO2 is buoyant, has a low viscosity and, when dissolved in brine, becomes reactive to minerals and well pipes. These properties of CO2 may cause it to leak upward, possibly contaminating underground sources of drinking water. We have participated in several multi-laboratory field experiments to investigate the chemical and isotopic parameters that are applicable to monitoring the flow of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifers and into potable shallow groundwater. Geochemical results from the deep SECARB Phase III tests at Cranfield oil field, Mississippi, and from the Frio Brine I and II pilots located in the S. Liberty oil field, Dayton, Texas, proved powerful tools in: 1- Tracking the successful injection and flow of CO2 into the injection sandstones; 2- showing major changes in the chemical (pH, alkalinity, and major divalent cations) and isotopic (?13C values of CO2, and ?18O values of CO2 and brine) compositions of formation water; 3-. showing mobilization of metals, including Fe Mn and Pb, and organic compounds , including DOC, BTEX, PAHs, and phenols following CO2 injection; and 4- showing that some of the CO2 injected into the Frio "C" sandstone was detected in the overlying "B" sandstone that is separated from it by 15 m of shale and siltstone. Rapid, significant and systematic changes were also observed in the isotopic and chemical compositions of shallow groundwater at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site located in Bozeman, Montana, in response to four yearly injections of variable amounts of CO2 gas through a slotted pipe placed horizontally at a depth of ~2 m below ground level. The observed changes, included the lowering of groundwater pH from ~7.0 to values as low as 5.6, increases in the alkalinity from about 400 mg/L as HCO3 to values of up to 1330 mg/L, increases in the electrical conductance from ~600 ?S/cm to up to 1800 ?S/cm, as well as increases in the concentrations of cations and metals following CO2 injection. Geochemical modeling, sequential extractions of cations from the ZERT-aquifer sediments, and controlled laboratory CO2-groundwater-sediment interactions demonstrated that calcite dissolution and ion exchange on organic material and inorganic mineral surfaces are responsible for the observed chemical changes. Results from both the deep and shallow field tests show that geochemical methods have highly sensitive chemical and isotopic tracers that are needed at CO2 injection sites to monitor injection performance and for early detection of any CO2 and brine leakages.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Beers, S.; Thordsen, J.; Thomas, B.; Campbell, P.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Abedini, A. A.

2011-12-01

345

X-ray determination of site occupation parameters in ordered ternaries Cu(AuxM1-x)M = Ni,Pd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray scattering data obtained for multiple wavelengths with synchrotron radiation were analyzed by the Rietveld method to determine Ni and Pd distributions on the Cu(000) and Au(1/2 1/2 1/2) sites in the CuAuI tetragonal P4/mmm structure. Alloys of CuAuxM1-x containing 6 at. % Ni or 10 and 25 at. % Pd were processed to obtain maximum ordering. Nickel is predominantly found on the Cu size and most all the Pd is found on the Au site. The uncertainty in site occupation parameters is discussed for various contributions which affect powder intensity measurements. For highly absorbing materials, an observed powder roughness effect decreases the low angle (2?) intensities relative to the high 2? intensities. This effect reduces the reliability of the thermal parameters and obscure a proper description of the thermal motion of the two sublattices. Corrections to the X-ray intensity data for surface roughness/porosity effects reduce uncertainties to about ±1 at. % on the refined value of the site occupations. This use of variable wavelength X-rays with simultaneous refinement of the corresponding data is capable of distinguishing site occupations even between two elements of almost equal scattering factor as, for example, Cu and Ni atoms in this investigation. Chemical phase stability is related to the site occupation parameters. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

346

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

347

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters

348

Improving inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead-time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. We present here a new approach for issuing hourly reservoir inflow forecasts that aims to improve on existing forecasting models that are in place operationally, without needing to modify the pre-existing approach, but instead formulating an additive or complementary model that is independent and captures the structure the existing model may be missing. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an un-alterable constant parameter conceptual model, the models being demonstrated with reference to the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead-times up to 17 h. Season based evaluations indicated that the improvement in inflow forecasts varies across seasons and inflow forecasts in autumn and spring are less successful with the 95% prediction interval bracketing less than 95% of the observations for lead-times beyond 17 h.

Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

2014-10-01

349

78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments...notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section...HREA). The Nelson Street 17 kW In-Conduit Hydroelectric Net-Metered Project...

2013-09-16

350

Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands  

Science.gov (United States)

La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

2012-08-01

351

Technical and economic qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing ecological and technical aspects of hydropower with other forms of electricity production, we are able to assess its potential in terms of economic added value. The most obvious benefits of hydropower are its storage capability, high level of efficiency, ease of control and provision of reactive power. An assessment of the technical qualities of hydropower encompasses today's power generation and capacity, as well as the interaction with the power transmission network in both normal operation and in the case of disturbances. The benefits of hydropower versus other forms of electricity production are as follows: an energy production with the highest level of electrical efficiency (between 80% and 90%); advantage of energy production via water storage systems; excellent tradability thanks to ready availability upon demand; ideally suited for use for bridging discrepancies between purchased volume and demand thanks to high efficiency at partial load; thanks to its ready availability, hydropower can be used to quickly restore power following major damage to, or disturbances in, the electricity transmission network; provision of reactive power. Hydropower offers the following economic benefits: in an open market, services provided by hydropower plants are compensated directly; higher energy prices have to be paid for load compensation; energy production from storage systems may be utilised like a call option; hydropower plants produce electricity from a renewar plants produce electricity from a renewable energy source, which makes it more easily marketable. (author)

352

Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040. Current hydropower production is estimated based on historic available data while future energy production is deduced from the maximum available water in the catchment, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin, were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000 and topographical characteristics of the area.

Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called Vapidro-Aste released by the Research on Energy System (Italy. The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering that first the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served and than hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

I. Popescu

2012-04-01

353

75 FR 67993 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bureau of Reclamation has made available for public review and comment the ``Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities'' (HRA) Draft Report. The HRA is an assessment of the economic and technical potential for hydropower development at existing Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) owned non-powered dams and...

2010-11-04

354

Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB, and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040. Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000 and topographical characteristics of the area.

Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy. The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

I. Popescu

2012-08-01

355

Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang - Temerloh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are p>/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

356

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-06-01

357

Hydropower developments in Canada: greenhouse gas emissions, energy outputs and review of environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is an important source of energy for Canada, accounting for 60% of the electricity generation mix. It is therefore important to understand the environmental performance of such developments in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts. From study of the Eastmain-1 reservoir, it has been extrapolated that hydropower facilities emit between 20 and 36 kilograms of CO2 per megawatt-hour. Hydropower facilities emissions are thus significantly lower than those of fossil fuel facilities, which can emit up to 1,000 kg of CO2 per MW/h. However, hydro projects have several other environmental impacts, such as habitat degradation, bio-accumulation of methyl mercury, and important sediment flow changes. The 271 large hydropower facilities affect 130,000 km of rivers and tens of thousands square kilometres of adjacent habitat. This study pointed out that despite being a low emitter of carbon dioxide, the hydropower sector has significant environmental impacts which require further assessment.

Lee, Peter G.; Cheng, Ryan; Scheelar, Catherine [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

2011-11-15

358

Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location  

CERN Document Server

The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

Majumder, Mrinmoy

2013-01-01

359

Wind power pumped storage system for hydropower plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, an idea to use a wind pumped storage system to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir and use it to reduce the construction size of a new reservoir or to increase electricity production in a hydropower plant, is presented. Instead of using a wind turbine to produce electricity to drive the pumps, a shaft is proposed to connect the wind turbine and the pumps. A profitability assessment is performed for the reservoir reduction and the electricity production. A w...

Árni Vignir Pálmason 1963

2010-01-01

360

Evaluation of hydropower potential in Pohorje streams considering environmental objectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Harmonizing objectives of the two European Directives, Directive 2000/60/EC and Directive 2009/28/EC, is a challenging task. The objective of Directive 2009/28/EC is to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, while the objective of Directive 2000/60/EC is to maintain and improve good quality of water. Both directives affect the development of obtaining energy from small hydropower plants. Directive 2009/28/EC aims to increase the production of energy from small hydroelectric...

Skroza, Andrea

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Short Term Hydropower Planning in the Icelandic System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The format the text is saved as is unreadable, so i retyped it to my best ability.  This master thesis contains my work of studies of a short term planning model, with the time span of one week, or 168 hours. The models are based on the future hydropower system in pjorsa- and Tungnaa- river system, located in the south part of Iceland. The purpose ot this thesis is to formulate and develop one week operation schedules for this future power generation system, which for a given inflow-and load...

Bjo?rnsson, Gudmundur

2009-01-01

362

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

None

1979-07-01

363

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

None

1979-07-01

364

An in vitro RNA editing system from cauliflower mitochondria: Editing site recognition parameters can vary in different plant species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the 400 RNA editing sites in flowering plant mitochondria are found in mRNAs. Consequently, the sequence vicinities of homologous sites are highly conserved between different species and are presumably recognized by likewise conserved trans-factors. To investigate the evolutionary adaptation to sequence variation, we have now analyzed the recognition elements of an editing site with divergent upstream sequences in the two species pea and cauliflower. This variation is tolerated at the...

Neuwirt, Julia; Takenaka, Mizuki; Merwe, Johannes A.; Brennicke, Axel

2005-01-01

365

Investigation of Site-Specific Wind Field Parameters and Their Effect on Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main contributing factors to unsteady loading of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT) are wind shear, turbulence, and waves. In the present paper, the turbulence intensity and the wind shear exponent are investigated. Using data from the FINO 1 research platform, these parameters are analyzed and compared with the proposed wind field parameters in the IEC standard 61400-3. Based on this analysis, aeroelastic simulations are performed to determine the effect of wind field parameters on the fatigue...

Seume, Jo?rg R.; Benedikt Ernst

2012-01-01

366

Hydraulic air compressor as part of an ultra low-head hydropower system. Final report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical and experimental research was conducted to advance design and application tools and information concerning the hydraulic air compressor (HAC) for use in ultra low-head hydropower systems. An existing analytical model of the HAC was significantly improved, mainly through incorporation of modeling of air absorption into the water in the flow processes. An experimental HAC was constructed, instrumented and tested. The experiments provided data for validation of the analytical model and information concerning air entrainment fixture design, air-water separator design, and operational and control characteristics of HAC. A computer program in which calculations using the analytical model were implemented was used to calculate and tabulate the applied head, water and air flow rate, depth, pressure, and compressor size relationships; these results are essential to feasibility studies and design of HAC. Recommendations are made concerning air entrainment fixture design, air-water separator design, appropriate material selection for pipes and tanks, structural requirements and control schemes. The ease with which most of the design requirements can be met is stressed and the self-regulating and governing characteristics of the HAC are pointed up. The results are given of an analytical study of the technical performance of ultra low-head hydropower sites, for three modes of application of the HAC.Two of the modes require some type of air motor to produce the output of the site as electrical power. It is pointed up that air turbine-generator sets are commercially available to perform this task for site power of approximately 100 KW and greater, but no suitable air motors are available for smaller site power. The economics of application of the HAC at an ultra low-head hydropower site are briefly considered and a cost study of a typical site is presented.

Rice, W.

1982-05-01

367

Stormwater Storage Pond Configuration for Hydropower Solutions: Adaptation and Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze different storage pond configurations used to manage the water inflow from storm events and to establish a methodology to optimize the energy production using this water. The case study area is a catchment based on the Alcântara zone, in Lisbon, Portugal. This is an urban area, which faces severe occurrences of storm events. These events are caused by a non-efficient drainage system, and the proximity of the river and the sea, which cannot handle large storm event inflows. Due to climate change effects, the storm rainfall hyetographs are modified and runoff in this urban area has increased for the last decades causing major inundations.The Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI MIKE BASIN (MB and Bentley PondPack software are used to define solutions for this case study by embodying some of the Alcântara’s catchment characteristics. Different relevant components used to create the models are presented. In order to model completely the studied area, several physical elements such as reservoirs or hydropower plants are included. The Nedbør-Afstrømnings-Model (NAM model is also presented. It is a rainfall-runoff simulator, included in DHI MB, which can create runoff time series from rainfall time series. The methodologies used to optimize energy production in each of case studies developed are detailed. Results are presented showing that some ponds configurations permit to produce more energy than others and the production of energy can be maximized by optimizing the hydropower production target demand.

Helena M Ramos

2012-07-01

368

Hydrological data management for run-of-river hydropower projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provided background on traditional data management issues commonly encountered in the industry of hydrological data collection for hydropower developments. Knight Piesold Ltd. maintains and operates more than 150 gauging stations in remote alpine regions of British Columbia for potential run-of-river hydropower developments. In order to evaluate these projects, the company measures the discharge in steep mountainous streams using dilution techniques such as Rhodamine Dye WT method. This paper focused on the volume of data and management that is required to undertake high quality data collection and interpretation of tracer dye measurements. It emphasized that integrated data management systems promote accuracy in collection, processing and interpretation of hydrology data. Knight Piesold Ltd. developed an innovative data management system for the storage, processing and preliminary analysis of hydrological data. The use of the system has facilitated the standardization of many aspects of field and data management and has resulted in a considerable improvement in the overall quality and defensibility of discharge data. 13 figs.

Butt, C.; Cathcart, J. [Knight Piesold Consulting, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2009-07-01

369

Loss of European silver eel passing a hydropower station  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to assess escapement success of silver eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in a lowland river while passing a reservoir and a hydropower station. It was hypothesized that passage success would be lowest at the hydropower station and that survival and migration speed would be highest in the free-flowing river section upstream the reservoir. Forty-five female silver eels 56–86 cm in length were tagged with acoustic transmitters and released in November 2006. Their migration was monitored via automatic listening stations (ALS) in various sections of the river, covering a total migration distance of 64 km. Survival and progression rate of downstream migration was highest in the upstream river section and significantly lower in the reservoir. The eels apparently had trouble finding their way past the turbines and spent between 1.5 and 35 h in the forebay. The results show that within the study period, only 23% of the tagged eels reached the tidal limit, mainly due to difficulties in passing thehydropower dam. With such high loss-rates, the escapement goals set in the management plan cannot be achieved

Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels

2012-01-01

370

A progress report on DOE's advanced hydropower turbine systems program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent hydropower research within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on the development of new turbine designs that can produce hydroelectricity without such adverse environmental affects as fish entrainment/impingement or degradation of water quality. In partnership with the hydropower industry, DOE's advanced turbine program issued a Request for Proposals for conceptual designs in October 1994. Two contracts were awarded for this initial program phase, work on which will be complete this year. A technical advisory committee with representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and natural resource agencies was also formed to guide the DOE turbine research. The lack of quantitative biological performance criteria was identified by the committee as a critical knowledge gap. To fill this need, a new literature review was completed on the mechanisms of fish mortality during turbine passage (e.g., scrape/strike, shear, press change, etc.), ways that fish behavior affects their location and orientation in turbines, and how these turbine passage stresses can be measured. Thus year, new Laboratory tests will be conducted on fish response to shear, the least-well understood mechanism of stress. Additional testing of conceptual turbine designs depends on the level of federal funding for this program

371

Environmental-impact assessment of hydro-power in Egypt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The environmental impact of energy production and use with the associated emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, has created much attention and growing concern at both national and international levels. In Egypt, efforts have been directed to incorporate the environment-protection issues within the overall planning of the energy sector, as appropriate to its national commitment and its techno-economic considerations. Over the past decade, 1985-1995, hydro-power had contributed between 28 and 22% of the total energy produced by Egyptian power-plants, while the contribution of the hydro capacity was between 32.4 and 21.5%. Many studies have been carried out on the impacts of the Aswan High Dam on various aspects of the environment. An objective evaluation of the Dam, based on 25 years of operational data, indicated that it has overall been positive even though it has contributed to some environmental problems. These problems, however, are significantly less than most people originally expected. This paper deals with the review and analysis of the detrimental effects of hydro-power in Egypt. An evaluation will be given of the emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole hydro-chain. (Author)

Rashad, S.M.; Ismail, M.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, National Centre for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo (Egypt)

2000-04-01

372

Environmental-impact assessment of hydro-power in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental impact of energy production and use with the associated emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO2, has created much attention and growing concern at both national and international levels. In Egypt, efforts have been directed to incorporate the environment-protection issues within the overall planning of the energy sector, as appropriate to its national commitment and its techno-economic considerations. Over the past decade, 1985-1995, hydro-power had contributed between 28 and 22% of the total energy produced by Egyptian power-plants, while the contribution of the hydro capacity was between 32.4 and 21.5%. Many studies have been carried out on the impacts of the Aswan High Dam on various aspects of the environment. An objective evaluation of the Dam, based on 25 years of operational data, indicated that it has overall been positive even though it has contributed to some environmental problems. These problems, however, are significantly less than most people originally expected. This paper deals with the review and analysis of the detrimental effects of hydro-power in Egypt. An evaluation will be given of the emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole hydro-chain. (Author)

373

Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

2006-07-01

374

reservoir operation and hydropower generation schemes for regional scale hydrological models: case study in the northeastern united states  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrologic modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. This framework provides temporally and spatially explicit information on the regional water system under different scenarios of climate, population, and land use/ land cover change. To support these efforts, we have incorporated two new modules into the Water Balance Model (WBM) that simulate reservoir operation and calculate the hydropower production from dams. Dams and reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on natural stream flow, sediment flux, thermal characteristics and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. In the Northeast Region of the United States alone, the National Inventory of Dams (NID) lists over 12000 reservoirs. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each will have a specific optimum operating rule. Since no comprehensive dataset of these operating rules exists, we have to simulate them. We developed an Artificial Neural Network and used data from 35 dams for calibration. Approximately 60 % of the dataset was dedicated to training process, 20 % to validation and the other 20 % used for testing. If (t) represents current time, we use three sets of inputs; inflow [It , It-1 , It-2], release in previous months [Rt-1 , Rt-2] and month (Mt), to calculate release from reservoir (Rt). We also used a simple continuity equation for reservoirs by considering the maximum (from NID) and minimum reservoir storage to improve the model's performance in extreme wet and dry events. Using results from WBM we show how reservoirs regionally alter discharge in streams of Northeast United States compared to their natural state. We also are assessing the effects of climate change on water availability and how our reservoir module responds to climate change. We have extended our efforts in modeling reservoir behaviors in the context of hydropower production across the region. By using the results from the reservoir operation module in our framework we calculate the hydraulic head of reservoirs, which allows us to calculate individual and collective hydropower production in contemporary and future time frames. We show how climate change could affect electricity production from hydropower in the future and estimate electricity production potential by converting currently non-powered dams to dams with electricity generators. We also analyze the impact of producing more electricity by building new dams.

Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

2013-12-01

375

Application of GSO for Load Allocation between Hydropower Units and Its Model Analysis based on Multi-objective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimum load distribution between the hydropower units is an effective measure for reducing the total water rate and increasing the energy output of a hydropower station, and it is becoming a more interesting studying topic. In order to increase the economic benefit of the station, a multi-objective optimization model of load allocation between hydropower units is established in accordance with the characteristics and particularity of the hydropower station, and the minimum water rate of the station is used as the optimal objective, the Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO algorithm is applied to optimization of the model, The simulation shows the method could easily get the best solutions of load allocation between hydropower units and reflect the actual operation situation of the hydropower station much better. So the proposed scheme has an important reference value for other hydropower stations.

Liying Wang

2012-05-01

376

Numerical study of low concentration nanofluids pool boiling, investigating of boiling parameters introducing nucleation site density ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study consists of a pool boiling model modified for nanofluids. The effect of particle size, surface roughness were considered in this work. Nucleation site density ratio was introduced and a correlation was derived based on literature experimental data. Moreover, heat flux partitioning model was employed to evaluate proposed model for boiling heat transfer. The validity was assessed by comparing the results with experimental data. Nucleation site density ratio can predict heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids.

Niknam, Pouriya H.; Haghighi, M.; Kasiri, N.; Khanof, M. H.

2014-09-01

377

EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

None

2011-12-01

378

Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs  

Science.gov (United States)

In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

2014-04-01

379

The impact of global change on the hydropower potential of Europe: a model-based analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a model-based approach for analyzing the possible effects of global change on Europe's hydropower potential at a country scale. By comparing current conditions of climate and water use with future scenarios, an overview is provided of today's potential for hydroelectricity generation and its mid- and long-term prospects. The application of the global water model WaterGAP for discharge calculations allows for an integrated assessment, taking both climate and socioeconomic changes into account. This study comprises two key parts: First, the 'gross' hydropower potential is analyzed, in order to outline the general distribution and trends in hydropower capabilities across Europe. Then, the assessment focuses on the 'developed' hydropower potential of existing hydropower plants, in order to allow for a more realistic picture of present and future electricity production. For the second part, a new data set has been developed which geo-references 5991 European hydropower stations and distinguishes them into run-of-river and reservoir stations. The results of this study present strong indications that, following moderate climate and global change scenario assumptions, severe future alterations in discharge regimes have to be expected, leading to unstable regional trends in hydropower potentials with reductions of 25% and more for southern and southeastern European countries. (author)

380

Influence of the site of arterial occlusion on multiple baseline hemodynamic MRI parameters and post-thrombolytic recanalization in acute stroke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this prospective MRI study, we evaluated the impact of the site of occlusion on multiple baseline perfusion parameters and subsequent recanalization in 49 stroke patients who were given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Pretreatment magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed an arterial occlusion in 47 patients: (1) internal carotid artery (ICA) + M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (n=12); (2) M1 MCA occlusion (n=19); (3) M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion (n=16). Patients with ICA occlusion had significantly larger DWI, PWI and mismatch lesion volume on pretreatment MRI compared to patients with other sites of occlusion. The differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and peak height were significantly higher in patients with ICA occlusion compared to patients with other sites of occlusion (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). Day 1 MRA showed recanalization in 28 patients (60%). The rate of recanalization was significantly different depending on the site of occlusion: 33% in ICA + M1 MCA occlusion, 63% in M1 MCA occlusion and 81% in either M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA or ACA occlusion (P=0.002). Our data suggest that CBF and peak height are the most relevant MRI parameters to assess the severity of hemodynamic impairment in regard to the site of occlusion. (orig.)

Derex, L.; Nighoghossian, N. [Hopital Neurologique, Service d' Urgences NeuroVasculaires, Lyon (France); UMR CNRS 5515, U 630 INSERM, CREATIS, Lyon (France); Hermier, M.; Froment, J.C. [Hopital Neurologique, Service de Neuroradiologie, Lyon (France); Adeleine, P. [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Lyon (France); Pialat, J.B.; Wiart, M.; Berthezene, Y. [UMR CNRS 5515, U 630 INSERM, CREATIS, Lyon (France); Trouillas, P. [Hopital Neurologique, Service d' Urgences NeuroVasculaires, Lyon (France)

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

Ricardo, Mateus

2007-07-01

382

Development and practical testing of an action plan for the environmentally compatible use of hydropower; Erarbeitung und Praxiserprobung eines Massnahmenplanes zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Wasserkraftnutzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of rivers for generating electric power and the efforts to conserve important ecological habitats mark a classic conflict between two different aims of society. While passing hydropower plants migrating fish risk injuries and death. This affects the development of fish populations, particularly of diadromous fish populations in river basins. The aim of this study was to find conditions for serving a self sustaining fish population in the Weser basin. The influence of the river continuity and the quality of spawning and nursery habitats were varied. The survival rates of the diadromous species salmon and eel were modeled on the basis of literature data and additional data from own investigations. A self-reproducing salmon population would require the upstream and downstream passibility at each obstacle. Especially the protection at hydropower plants in the tributaries is of major importance. In addition, the hydro-morphological conditions of the spawning habitats have to be improved and further losses (such as predation or fishing) must be decreased. The survival rate of 40%, required by the EC Regulation on European eel can be achieved by the establishment of upstream continuity at all sites and by protective measures at the hydropower plants in the tributaries of the Weser. (orig.)

Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

2011-05-15

383

The influence of soil organic carbon on interactions between microbial parameters and metal concentrations at a long-term contaminated site.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of lead, zinc, cadmium, arsenic and copper deposits on soil microbial parameters were investigated at a site exposed to contamination for over 200years. Soil samples were collected in triplicates at 121 sites differing in contamination and soil organic carbon (SOC). Microbial biomass, respiration, dehydrogenase activity and metabolic quotient were determined and correlated with total and extractable metal concentrations in soil. The goal was to analyze complex interactions between toxic metals and microbial parameters by assessing the effect of soil organic carbon in the relationships. The effect of SOC was significant in all interactions and changed the correlations between microbial parameters and metal fractions from negative to positive. In some cases, the effect of SOC was combined with that of clay and soil pH. In the final analysis, dehydrogenase activity was negatively correlated to total metal concentrations and acetic acid extractable metals, respiration and metabolic quotient were to ammonium nitrate extractable metals. Dehydrogenase activity was the most sensitive microbial parameter correlating most frequently with contamination. Total and extractable zinc was most often correlated with microbial parameters. The large data set enabled robust explanation of discrepancies in organic matter functioning occurring frequently in analyzing of contaminated soil processes. PMID:25260167

Muhlbachova, G; Sagova-Mareckova, M; Omelka, M; Szakova, J; Tlustos, P

2015-01-01

384

A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (?Parameter/?t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions. PMID:25388948

Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

2014-11-12

385

Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate, radiation interception (extinction coefficient, and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

A. Valade

2014-01-01

386

Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

Science.gov (United States)

Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugarcane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. The ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting different climate-mediated sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

2014-06-01

387

Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode.

Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Teng, Y.

2014-12-01

388

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-07-01

389

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-05-01