WorldWideScience
1

Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter gives an overview of the various forms of hydropower: conventional hydropower, marine currents, tides, power from salinity gradients, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave power. (Author)

Fenhann, J. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kofoed, J.P. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

2010-11-15

2

A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

3

A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Mazumdar, Asis [Jadavpur Univ. (India). School of Water Resources Engineering

2013-07-01

4

Hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that, to discover what plans North American hydropower producers have for their hydroelectric resources in the 1990s, Hydro Review conducted a survey of leaders in the hydro generation industry in the U.S. and Canada. Results of the survey point to some interesting trends about upgrade and rehabilitation work, costs of hydro generation, and new development plans. Survey responses present a positive outlook for the North American hydro industry in the 1990s

5

Hydropower economics  

OpenAIRE

The key question in hydropower production is the time pattern of the use of the water in the reservoir. The water used to produce electricity today can alternatively be used tomorrow. The analysis of the operation of hydropower is therefore essentially a dynamic one. The paper introduces some basic models for social allocation of stored water over discrete time periods using non-linear programming assuming capacities of generation and transmission as given. Implications of constraints such as...

Førsund, Finn R.

2005-01-01

6

Rapid hydropower assessment model : identify hydroelectric sites using geographic information systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviewed the Rapid Hydro Assessment Model (RHAM) which was developed by Kerr Wood Leidal Associates. BC Transmission Corporation retained the firm to conduct an inventory of potential run-of-river hydroelectric sites in British columbia. The RHAM was used to complete the hydroelectric resource assessment. The geographic information system (GIS) program uses a digital elevation model (DEM) and regional hydrologic data to determine key capabilities for hydroelectric applications. In approximately 4 month's time, the RHAM methodology identified over 8,000 potential run-of-river hydroelectric sites in the province, with a potential installed capacity of over 12,000 MW and an annual energy of almost 50,000 GWh per year. RHAM calculated the amount of energy available on any given stream and determined on-site costs based on size. The program can also evaluate the suitability of hydroelectric development in a given area, taking into consideration economic, environmental and social factors. It can also assess storage hydro and clustered developments. The methodology used to develop the inventory for British Columbia can be applied to any region of the world where GIS information is available. It was concluded that this rapid evaluation of hydroelectric power will help in the global effort to reduce the dependence on carbon fuels and help ensure a sustainable energy future. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

Monk, R.; Joyce, S.; Homenuke, M. [Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

2009-07-01

7

US hydropower resource assessment for Vermont  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Vermont.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-02-01

8

US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-05-01

9

US hydropower resource assessment for Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

10

US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-03-01

11

US hydropower resource assessment for Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-07-01

12

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

13

US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

14

US hydropower resource assessment for Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

15

SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs

16

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

17

Mini and micro hydropower systems in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower is one of the renewable sources of energy. In the field of hydropower, even though small/mini/micro hydropower systems make fractional increases in the overall energy production, their impact on the local areas in which they are sited can be significant in stimulating growth of rural industry and in meeting the basic energy needs of the local population for domestic and agricultural use. They also help in reducing demand on other non-renewable polluting resources like fossil fuels. Moreover as compared to big hydropower systems, small hydropower systems are cost competitive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They require less time for construction and reduce transmission losses. They can be designed to suit the limits of water resources available and can be tailored to the needs of the end-use market. Aspects of small hydropower projects which needs to be studied are listed. Modelling of turbines and generators for such projects, and factors to be considered in selection of suitable turbine and generator for a particular small hydropower system are discussed. The technology for small hydropower systems is well developed and available in India. The present estimated potential of such systems in India is 5000 MW out of which 207 MW is harnessed. These small hydropower plants are mostly located in the northern states like Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Construction works for 234 MW at 88 sites are going on. During the 8th plt 88 sites are going on. During the 8th plan period, 218.5 MW is planned to be developed with an outlay of Rs. 548.25 crores. It is suggested that special subsidies and liberal term loans should be made available for implementing such systems. (M.G.B.). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

18

Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

1988-12-01

19

Hydropower development in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

2011-04-15

20

Hydropower's role in delivering sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Johannesburg's World Summit on Sustainable Development stipulated in its Implementation Plan that hydropower of all scales should be included in the drive to increase the contribution of renewable energy. This can be achieved through the plant-life extension and upgrading of existing schemes as well as by the sustainable development of new projects according to the needs, opportunities and resources available. Hydropower is the world's largest source of renewable energy used for power generation; it accounts for 19 percent of the world's supply (by 2010 wind power is expected to contribute 0.6 percent and solar power 0.12 percent. Hydropower is also a truly global resource, as more than 150 countries generate hydroelectric power. There is about 730 GW of hydro capacity in operation worldwide, generating 2650 TWh/year. A further 101 GW is under construction and 338 GW is at the planning stage. Hydropower plays an important role in reducing global GhG emissions by an estimated 10 percent per annum; in its current role, hydropower offsets 4.4 million barrels of oil-equivalent (thermal electric generation) each day. There is vast unexploited potential worldwide for new hydro plants, with only 33 percent of the economic potential having been developed so far. The majority of the remaining potential exists in lesser developed countries in Asia, South America and Africa. For example, Europe has developed 75 percent of its economic potential, whereas Africa has only developedtential, whereas Africa has only developed seven percent. Hydropower technologies are reliable, advanced and efficient. The energy conversion efficiency of 80 to 93 percent is far higher than that for other major types of power plant. The level of service from the various types of hydro scheme varies from base-load supply, typically from run-of-river schemes, to peak-load and system-back-up services from hydro storage schemes. In regions where there is long-developed hydro capacity, plant-life extension can be achieved by the replacement of equipment within existing infrastructure; this can extend the operating life by a further 30 to 50 years. Small-scale, decentralised development has been responsible for bringing light and power to remote communities. Such schemes have catalysed local commercial diversification and prosperity. The lower investment demand of smaller schemes has enabled private sector involvement through independent power production. Typically smaller schemes become grid connected if the power system is accessible, as this increases the security of supply. Furthermore, schemes at remote sites can assist transmission system stability. A further important role of smaller scale hydro is the recovery of energy at water infrastructure developed for other purposes. In many countries, large schemes play a significant role in national and regional supply security due to the flexibility of storage reservoirs and independence from fuel price fluctuations. Hydro also integrates well with other generation technologies, with its flexibility enabling thermal plants to operate steadily (saving fuel and reducing emissions). In addition, its responsiveness permits the back-up of the intermittent renewables. The question of storage is clearly a major issue in balancing supply and demand. Hydro reservoirs and pump-storage schemes offer security in the stability and reliability of power systems; they can absorb power when there is an excess and follow load demand instantaneously. A major challenge is that 'support' and 'storage' services are rarely understood and encouraged in the market-driven arena. The main arguments against hydropower concern its social impacts, such as land transformation, displacement of people, and environmental changes, i.e. fauna, flora, sedimentation and water quality. The social and environmental impacts can, however, be mitigated by taking appropriate steps according to established codes of good practice. As a tool for this purpose, the hydropower sector has recently developed and adopted Sustainability Guidelines. These Guidelines

21

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

22

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Pennsylvania.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-12-01

23

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

24

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-06-01

25

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

26

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Kentucky.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-07-01

27

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

28

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

29

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

30

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

31

76 FR 51022 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Site Visit and Soliciting Scoping Comments...  

Science.gov (United States)

...comments may be filed electronically via the Internet in lieu of paper. The Commission strongly encourages electronic filings. See...a new dock/landing site for boat, seaplane, and/or helicopter access, located on the east shore of Gilbert Bay; (9)...

2011-08-17

32

The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an earlier paper (), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now.

33

Development potential for hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

34

Sensitivity of Input Parameters in the PSHA for NPP Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the most uncertain input parameter in the PSHA was identified for Korean NPP sites through sensitivity analysis. Shinuljin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 site was selected in this study. Expert panels developed input parameters for PSHA. Input data were analyzed, and used for sensitivity analysis to see the effects of each parameter on seismic hazard. Through sensitivity analysis, we identified the degree of uncertainty of each parameter. The CONPAS, EQHAZAS, and EQHAZAS Manager codes, which were developed by KAERI, were utilized to compute the seismic hazard. The Gutenberg-Richter parameter was identified as the most uncertain one in this study

35

Developing hydropower overseas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines how the National Hydropower Association (NHA) has found ways to support its members who desire to expand their business programs to foreign markets through participation in a wide range of government programs. The topics of the article include the market in developing countries, the certificate of review, products and services, and domestic and international competition

36

Hydropower development priority using MCDM method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin.

37

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECTS  

OpenAIRE

The existing solutions for small hydropower plants were consideredconvenient from the technical point of view over a long period, while general environmental concerns of society increased in all directions during the last decades.This paper refers to how to include environmental protection measures during the selection of the sites for a small hydropower plant and its water intake, during the preparation of the project, and then during operation. Investments for modernization of old small hyd...

Theodor Ghind?; Theodora Ardeleanu

2012-01-01

38

Research on efficiency test of a turbine in Khan Khwar hydropower station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency test is an important indicator to evaluate the energy conversion performance of a hydraulic turbine. For hydropower stations which do not have the direct flow measurement conditions, whether the characteristic curve of a turbine obtained through similarity theory conversion by using the comprehensive characteristic curve of the turbine can correctly reflect the operating performance of the prototype unit is a key issue in this industry. By taking the No.1 unit of Khan Khwar hydropower station as the example, the efficiency test of this turbine was studied on the site, including the measurement method of test parameters, the configuration of the computer test system, as well as the processing and analysis of test data.

39

Research on efficiency test of a turbine in Khan Khwar hydropower station  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency test is an important indicator to evaluate the energy conversion performance of a hydraulic turbine. For hydropower stations which do not have the direct flow measurement conditions, whether the characteristic curve of a turbine obtained through similarity theory conversion by using the comprehensive characteristic curve of the turbine can correctly reflect the operating performance of the prototype unit is a key issue in this industry. By taking the No.1 unit of Khan Khwar hydropower station as the example, the efficiency test of this turbine was studied on the site, including the measurement method of test parameters, the configuration of the computer test system, as well as the processing and analysis of test data.

Zhang, H. K.; Liang, Z.; Liu, X. B.; Liu, D. M.; Deng, M. G.; Wang, H. Y.

2012-11-01

40

Environmental impact of hydropower systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

41

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

42

Geotechnical and geomechanical parameters required for characterization of sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterization of disposal sites will involve geotechnical investigations and measurement of dozens of geomechanical parameters. The required investigations may be performed in stages, beginning with a preliminary study, or in a single evaluation. The geotechnical investigation will deal with the actual disposal site and the immediate area surrounding the site, and may include more detailed evaluation of the waste, disposal pits, and waste handling or processing structures. With respect to the actual site, the investigation is likely to focus on evaluating: (1) the types of subsurface soils or rocks present; (2) stability of the site; (3) potential for erosion; (4) ground water conditions; and (5) sources for construction materials. A variety of tests, some routine and some requiring state-of-the-art techniques, would be needed to measure parameters related to strength, compressibility, and permeability. The important mechanical properties of the waste (average density, compressibility, and potential for generation of gas) may be measured or, in some cases, estimated from experience. Detailed characterization will also be needed to evaluate stability of the walls of disposal pits, earthen covers over pits, any liner for the pit, any internal drains for the pit, and any internal system for collection or control of gas. Measurement and evaluation of most of these parameters is within the current state-of-practice. The parameters that will be the most difficult to measrs that will be the most difficult to measure and, at the same time, are of critical importance, are compressibility of the waste, characteristics of the earthen cover over the waste, and hydraulic conductivity of soils that contain thin sand seams, cracks, joints, or other hydraulic defects

43

Hydraulic air pumps for low-head hydropower  

OpenAIRE

Hydropower is a proven renewable energy resource and future expansion potential exists in smaller-scale, low-head sites. A novel approach to low-head hydropower at run-of-river and tidal estuary sites is to include an intermediate air transmission stage. Water is made to flow through a siphon, rather than a conventional water turbine, and at the top of the siphon the pressure is sub-atmospheric and air is entrained into the water. The siphon forms a novel, hydraulically powered vacuum pump or...

Howey, Da; Pullen, Kr

2009-01-01

44

60 FR 27154 - Hydropower Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...recreation mitigation and enhancement needs associated with hydropower project development. A new...Carefully negotiate such enhancements with the potential...difficult to substantiate project impacts with the need for enhancement, be aware that...

1995-05-22

45

Electricity market liberalisation endangers hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes the argumentation of the Governmental Conference of the Swiss Mountain Cantons concerning the effects of future electricity market liberalisation on the inland hydropower business. Possible effects such as the postponement of investments in the maintenance and renewal of hydropower plant or merciless predatory competition are listed. Also, problems for the owners that may result from the liberalisation such as being burdened with investments that can no longer be amortised are discussed and possible solutions are mentioned

46

World Small Hydropower Development Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

2013-07-01

47

An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

2015-02-01

48

Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration fhemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

49

Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

50

Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

Saari, J. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

2000-10-01

51

An empirical analysis of the hydropower portfolio in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indus Basin of Pakistan with 800 hydropower project sites and a feasible hydropower potential of 60 GW, 89% of which is undeveloped, is a complex system poised for large-scale changes in the future. Motivated by the need to understand future impacts of hydropower alternatives, this study conducted a multi-dimensional, empirical analysis of the full hydropower portfolio. The results show that the full portfolio spans multiple scales of capacity from mega (>1000 MW) to micro (<0.1 MW) projects with a skewed spatial distribution within the provinces, as well as among rivers and canals. Of the total feasible potential, 76% lies in two (out of six) administrative regions and 68% lies in two major rivers (out of more than 125 total channels). Once projects currently under implementation are commissioned, there would be a five-fold increase from a current installed capacity of 6720 MW to 36759 MW. It is recommended that the implementation and design decisions should carefully include spatial distribution and environmental considerations upfront. Furthermore, uncertainties in actual energy generation, and broader hydrological risks due to expected climate change effects should be included in the current planning of these systems that are to provide service over several decades into the future. - Highlights: ? Pakistan has a hydropower potential of 60 GW distributed across 800 projects. ? Under-development projects will realize 36.7 GW of this potential by 2030. ? Pr7 GW of this potential by 2030. ? Project locations are skewed towards some sub-basins and provinces. ? Project sizes are very diverse and have quite limited private sector ownership. ? Gaps in data prevent proper risk assessment for Pakistan's hydropower development.

52

Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

2010-09-15

53

Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local response surface are comparatively assessed. Preliminary results show that a range of potentially interesting trade-off policies exist able to better control river bed incision downstream without significantly decreasing hydropower production.

Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

2013-04-01

54

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system [...] is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes, Zoby; Jurandir Itizo, Yanagihara.

2009-03-01

55

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes Zoby

2009-03-01

56

Field test of ultra-low head hydropower package based on marine thrusters. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project includes the design, fabrication, assembly, installation, and field test of the first full-scale operating hydropower package (turbine, transmission, and generator) based on a design which incorporates a marine-thruster as the hydraulic prime mover. Included here are: the project overview; engineering design; ultra-low head hydropower package fabrication; component procurement, cost control, and scheduling; thruster hydraulic section installation; site modeling and resulting recommended modifications; testing; and baseline environmental conditions at Stone Drop. (MHR)

1983-12-01

57

A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

2015-01-01

58

A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL

2014-01-01

59

SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

Jannik, T.

2013-03-14

60

Hydropower strategy for the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government-owned National Power Corporation (NPC) of the Philippines is in the early stages of a complete privatisation programme. The electric power sector is expected eventually to be structured around a company that will own the major transmission facilities and will serve as a broker of power and energy between generating companies and the existing distribution companies, Rural Electric Co-operations and other power users. NPC's non-transmission assets will probably be spun-off into various corporations including three generating companies, an engineering and services company and a company owning the Calivaya-Botocan-Kalayaan hydro complex. Plans for increased capacity include a real term increase in the hydropower contribution although it will decline as a percentage of the energy mix as coal and gas plants are developed. Details of the privatisation of specific hydropower projects in the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids are described. (U.K.)

61

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2012-01-01

62

The importance of hydropower in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

63

System dynamics in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

Stuksrud, Dag Birger

1998-12-31

64

Hydrogen sulfide in hydropower reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to aquatic life and corrosive to hydropower plant construction materials when ? at concentrations that are considerably lower than detection limits of analytical procedures commonly used in the United states. A titrimetric procedure found in the Chinese literature has been translated and converted to a field method with quality control procedures. This method has allowed the measurement of sulfide distribution in two tributary impoundments and one tailwater and has provided the first available information on the occurrence of sulfide at levels below the commonly detection limits. Also investigated were the effects of sulfide and other anoxic constituents on turbine system fouling and corrosion

65

Some characteristic parameters experimental research for irradiation sites of miniature neutron source reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some characteristic parameters for irradiation sites of Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) such as the neutron flux densities (absolute and relative), the energy spectrum parameters (RCd sub-thermal index and neutron temperature), the effects of some samples on the reactor and the comparison among irradiation sites are given. Experiments are performed on the zero power experiment device of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

66

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STAGE –IV KOYNA HYDROPOWER PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroelectric power contributes around 12.45 percent of the electricity supply in India. It is considered to be the most vital, unpolluted, emission-free and an inexpensive renewable source of energy. Hydroelectric power-plants operating all over the world aims to have high electric output with minimum maintenance cost. It’s very different with Koyna Hydropower Plant (KHPP stage IV which generates lower electric output than the installed capacity with higher maintenance. This project aims to build a simulation model which can simulate the regular operation of Koyna Hydropower Plant with Arena®. The study involves to evaluate dynamic response of the system and plant performance under various operating conditions such as head height, quantity of water flow penstock and operating gates. Also to determine and identify the optimum parameters required for maximum power generation. The outcomes of the model helped to analyse the power generation capacity against the required quantity of water flow and head height. The developed simulation model was validated and used as an apparatus to determine the optimal operating parameters that maximise power generation of stage –IV at Koyna Hydropower plant.

Mohd. Imran Ahmed

2014-01-01

67

The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river he designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

68

Probabilistic evaluation of seismic design parameters for NPP sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology of probabilistic evaluation of peak ground Acceleration (PGA) and evaluation of Uniform Hazard Response Spectra (UHRS) for a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A UHRS is a response spectrum having the same mean recurrence interval (MRI), or equivalently, the same probability of exceedence (P), at all frequencies, in a specified span of time. The analysis considers linear and point sources of earthquakes. Numerical results have been presented. It is also shown that the MRI associated with the traditional design response spectra are not the same at all frequencies. The paper examines the issue of the ratio of PGA in OBE to that in SSE from a probabilistic point of view and its effect on design. This paper presents a case study of two NPP sites in India. It is seen that the ratio of the values of PGA for OBE and SSE is highly site-specific. The paper presents a simple case study to determine the limiting value of the ratio of the PGA under OBE to that under SSE for which OBE rather than SSE would govern the design for the case under consideration. (author)

69

Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)ration technologies. (author)

70

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

1993-03-01

71

Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejovi?, S.; Mazij, J.

2014-12-01

72

Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ''select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards'' prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil

73

Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

1994-01-01

74

Hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses hydroelectric power and programs that are underway with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the US Corps of Engineers to try to make hydroelectric power more friendly to and less destructive of rivers. Point one is that dams deplete the river of oxygen. Point two, they change the temperature so that if species are used to a certain temperature downstream a slug of cold water or a slug of warm water can radically change their natural environment. Point three, they collect sediment and in the process often end up collecting heavy metals. Some of these can get through the system at various times. Hydroelectric power plants are particularly rough on rivers because the generators can often grind up fish

75

An analysis of Turkish hydropower policy  

OpenAIRE

Over the last decade, Turkish electricity demand has increased more than 8% per annum as a result of economic development. Being one of the renewable energy sources par excellence, non-exhaustible, non-polluting and economically more attractive than other renewable sources, hydropower has turned out to be an important contributor to the future energy mix of the country. This paper deals with hydropower policies to meet increasing electricity demand for sustainable energy development in Turkey...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2011-01-01

76

Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. PMID:24726970

Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

2014-07-01

77

Identifying evolutionary trees and substitution parameters for the general Markov model with invariable sites  

CERN Document Server

The general Markov plus invariable sites (GM+I) model of biological sequence evolution is a two-class model in which an unknown proportion of sites are not allowed to change, while the remainder undergo substitutions according to a Markov process on a tree. For statistical use it is important to know if the model is identifiable; can both the tree topology and the numerical parameters be determined from a joint distribution describing sequences only at the leaves of the tree? We establish that for generic parameters both the tree and all numerical parameter values can be recovered, up to clearly understood issues of `label swapping.' The method of analysis is algebraic, using phylogenetic invariants to study the variety defined by the model. Simple rational formulas, expressed in terms of determinantal ratios, are found for recovering numerical parameters describing the invariable sites.

Allman, Elizabeth S

2011-01-01

78

Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

None

1979-02-01

79

An economical and technical case study for a small hydropower system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a case study regarding the economical and technical parameters of a hydropower system for a mountain chalet - hotel. The calculations are made using RETScreen software starting from the average flow values of the considered river, and according to this, the hydro power plant equipments are chosen. In this case study the hydropower system is connected to central grid but also having its own storage backup system, part of the energy is consumed by the mountain chalet – hotel and the remaining energy is delivered to the central grid.

Dumitru Pop

2010-12-01

80

An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (?58%) and nuclear power (?38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

81

Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

none,

2011-04-01

82

Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for the 2004 Composite Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for the 2004 Composite Analysis. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future).

Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

2004-07-01

83

Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.

2004-11-15

84

Preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for basic transport parameters at the Horonobe Site, Hokkaido, Japan.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incorporating results from a previously developed finite element model, an uncertainty and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted using preliminary site-specific data from Horonobe, Japan (data available from five boreholes as of 2003). Latin Hypercube Sampling was used to draw random parameter values from the site-specific measured, or approximated, physicochemical uncertainty distributions. Using pathlengths and groundwater velocities extracted from the three-dimensional, finite element flow and particle tracking model, breakthrough curves for multiple realizations were calculated with the semi-analytical, one-dimensional, multirate transport code, STAMMT-L. A stepwise linear regression analysis using the 5, 50, and 95% breakthrough times as the dependent variables and LHS sampled site physicochemical parameters as the independent variables was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the distribution coefficients and hydraulic conductivities are the parameters responsible for most of the variation among simulated breakthrough times. This suggests that researchers and data collectors at the Horonobe site should focus on accurately assessing these parameters and quantifying their uncertainty. Because the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is in an early phase of its development, this work should be considered as a first step toward an integration of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with decision analysis.

James, Scott Carlton; Zimmerman, Dean Anthony (Gram Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM)

2003-10-01

85

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2010-04-01

86

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied within different administrative domains. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' annual catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The parameters of representativeness derived were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from very remote coastal to polluted rural sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters of representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the robustness of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2009-09-01

87

Different Aspects of Flushing of Hydropower Intakes  

OpenAIRE

Different design criteria for successful flushing of hydropower headworks have been evaluated. Main focus has been on handling of floating debris for small hydropower plant in Norway, as well as sediment handling for run of the river-projects in sediment-carrying rivers. As a new way of cleaning intake screens clogged by debris, the concept of backflushing has been investigated. The intake screen, called trash rack, is then cleaned by a reveresed water flow over a short period of time, and th...

Nielsen, Lars Eid; Rettedal, Bjørnar

2012-01-01

88

The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

2010-09-15

89

Hydropower in Switzerland - yesterday, today and tomorrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article takes a look at electricity generation using hydropower in Switzerland. This source of power helps meet 56% of Swiss electricity demand and is the mainstay of Swiss power generation. The findings of a study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) are presented and discussed. The development of hydropower in the past and the factors influencing it are discussed. The current situation is also examined. Periods of development, stagnation and reduction of capacity are commented on and the prospects for future development are looked at. Growth estimation methods are examined and strategies discussed

90

SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs.

Geier, J.E. [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-12-01

91

SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs

92

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opp...

Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.

2009-01-01

93

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In June 1989, the US Department of Energy initiated the development of a National Energy Strategy to identify the energy resources available to support the expanding demand for energy in the US. Public hearings conducted as part of the strategy development process indicated that undeveloped hydropower resources were not well defined. As a result, the Department of Energy established an interagency Hydropower Resource Assessment Team to ascertain the undeveloped hydropower potential. In connection with these efforts by the Department of Energy, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory designed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES), which has been used to perform a resource assessment of the undeveloped conventional hydropower potential in over 30 states. This report presents the results of the hydropower resource assessment for the State of Virginia. Undeveloped pumped storage hydropower potential is not included.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-12-01

94

Assessment of small hydropower potential using remote sensing data for sustainable development in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India being a developing country has witnessed a rapidly growing energy needs owing to fast industrialization. Sustainable and qualitative growth for developing economics and habitat requires increased energy input from various resources while maintaining balance in the ecosystem during exploitation. Paper discusses state of the resource potentials, achievements and various issues related to the power generation in India. The growing concern over environmental degradation caused by fossil fuel based systems, opposition to large hydropower projects on grounds of displacement of land and population, environmental problems with nuclear fuel based systems and the ever-rising shortage of power highlights the need for tapping alternate energy sources for power generation. Amongst the alternate sources utilization of hydropower on a smaller scale (small, mini and micro hydropower) has become the thrust area for sustainable growth in the power sector. Hydropower is an economical and environmentally clean source of renewable energy abundantly available in hilly regions of India. Hydropower stations have an inherent ability for instantaneous starting, stopping, load variations, etc., and help in improving the reliability of power system. Huge hydropower potential in India, yet to be explored is located at inaccessible mountainous region. However, development of this potential is challenging due to difficult and inaccessible terrain profile. Paper presents application of remote ile. Paper presents application of remote sensing data for identification and selection of probable site for hydropower projects. The algorithm for identification and assessment of water resources and its perennial is developed in Visual Basic (VB) platform and it is successfully applied for IRS-1D, LISS III Geo-coded False Color Composite (FCC) satellite image for plain as well as hilly and mountainous regions. Classification of satellite image in to different objects is modeled as the task of clustering based on the intensity of R-G-B values of pixels. Results obtained are presented and compared with the Survey of India Toposheets (53K/2, 53K/3 and 53J/16). Use of Remote sensing data provides a scientific method of hydropower identification and assessment

95

External effects of hydropower in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of hydropower has implications on the environment and the socio-economic system. All these effects have a certain value, either in a positive sense as benefits or in a negative sense as damages. Many of these effects are known, quantified and even internalised, that is, the beneficiary pays for his or her benefits and the sufferer gets a compensation. Yet, this is not the case with all implications. In this case, the effects are so-called externalities, costs or benefits which are not included in the price of the product. Prices for products are a good measure to promote the sustainable development of markets, as long as they contain all externalities, that is, as long as they are 'true' prices. Therefore, the inclusion of externalities in the evaluation of product costs became an important issue during the last years. The study 'External Effects of Hydropower in Switzerland' is an attempt to identify and quantify externalities of hydropower and to attribute a monetary value to all these effects. In a first part, the study gives a list of possible externalities and analyses different methods to quantify and value these effects. The evaluation is then based on a number of specific plants and projects, mainly with available environmental impact studies and project data including the construction phase. In order to extend the result on the total number of Swiss hydropower plants, an extrapolation is done based on selected plant criteria for each effect. (author) plant criteria for each effect. (author)

96

Proven but new. Innovation of hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower has been utilised traditionally and its technology is being further developed and advanced. Current developments are addressed by outlining the challenges for operators and manufacturers. The case examples show a wide range of possible innovations. This refers to single components up to novel overall concepts like hybrid plants and compact turbine plants as well as run-of-river power plants. (orig.)

Harreiter, Herfried [Verbund Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria); Godde, Dominik [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Zickermann, Richard [ALSTOM (Schweiz) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

97

High-Resolution Free-GIS operations to assist hydropower potential assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for renewable energy suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, according to EU and national environmental regulations. High resolution hydrological analysis is then needed to comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants and of other water withdrawals. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. For this study, developed within the RENERFOR-ALCOTRA Project, a regional "spatially smooth" model has been developed for FDC estimation: the procedure adopted relates the L-moments of the FDC to several geomorphoclimatic parameters (more than 100), with the purpose to directly reconstruct a "naturalized" FDC. The proposed procedure is systematically extended to all the gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy, which is an area characterized by the presence of a large number of dams. For each basin, the annual average FDC is computed, its L-moments are calculated and corrected using a simplified model that takes into account the effect of upstream reservoirs and power plants. Then, each corrected L-moment is regionalized using multiple regressions techniques, allowing one to reconstruct the L-moments at any ungauged basin. Finally, the "naturalized" FDC is reconstructed at the ungauged site on the basis of the predicted L-moments. Due to necessity of obtaining high-resolution estimates, the method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences. This feature is obtained considering only raster-summable explanatory variables, which are only a subset of the available descriptors. The residual hydropower potential is evaluated by mapping the mean naturalized flow estimated for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model in two mountain basins used as case studies. Applying extensively the proposed methodology, the mean annual flow is reconstructed not only in some significant sections, but in all the about 25000 sections defined by each network pixel. We used a 50 m DEM to compute, for each network pixel, the upstream watershed and all the morpho-climatic characteristics needed in the regional model. Maps obtained can return flow-altitude relations for each pixel along a drainage path assuming different possible headrace length (1, 2.5 and 5 km). Spatial algorithms and data management are developed by the use of the Free&OpenSource software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL as database manager, integrated with PostGIS elaboration to create the outputs. The large number of data and the complexity of the information derived required some thinking about the best way to access and represent the data, that has to be easy-to-use also for no-expert GIS users.

Ganora, Daniele; Gallo, Enrico; Masoero, Alessandro; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

2013-04-01

98

Comparisons of CAP88PC version 2.0 default parameters to site specific inputs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of varying the input for the CAP88PC Version 2.0 program on the total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) were determined for hypothetical releases from the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Argonne National Laboratory site on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Values for site specific meteorological conditions and agricultural production parameters were determined for the 80 km radius surrounding the HFEF. Four nuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs (with its short lived progeny, {sup 137m}Ba) were selected for this study; these are the radioactive materials most likely to be released from HFEF under normal or abnormal operating conditions. Use of site specific meteorological parameters of annual precipitation, average temperature, and the height of the inversion layer decreased the TEDE from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba up to 36%; reductions for other nuclides were less than 3%. Use of the site specific agricultural parameters reduced TEDE values between 7% and 49%, depending on the nuclide. Reductions are associated with decreased committed effective dose equivalents (CEDEs) from the ingestion pathway. This is not surprising since the HFEF is located well within the INEEL exclusion area, and the surrounding area closest to the release point is a high desert with limited agricultural diversity. Livestock and milk production are important in some counties at distances greater than 30 km from the HFEF.

Lehto, M. A.; Courtney, J. C.; Charter, N.; Egan, T.

2000-03-02

99

Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

100

River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem.

Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

2001-05-01

101

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem.

Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

2000-09-01

102

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

103

MCDA or MCDM Based Selection of Transmission Line Conductor: Small Hydropower Project Planning and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small hydropower projects are emerging as a solution for sustainable, green, environment friendly, long term and cost-effective source of renewable energy in India for the future. Selecting the appropriate small hydropower project and its parameters in which to invest is a critical task involving different factors and policies. Hence such decision-making can be viewed as a multiple criteria analysis problem with correlating criteria and alternatives. This task should take into consideration several conflicting aspects because of the increasing complexity of the social, technological, environmental, and economic factors. Traditional single criteria decision-making approaches cannot handle the complexity of such systems. Multi criteria methods provide a better and flexible tools. This paper aims to evaluate applicability of multi criteria decision aid to decision makers during the small hydropower project planning and development. To the best of the author’s knowledge this novel approach for application of MCDA or MCDM to small hydropower project planning and development scenario is absent in renewable energy literatures due to its assessment complexity.

Priyabrata Adhikary

2014-02-01

104

Selection of biosphere transfer parameter values for radioactive waste disposal impact assessments, a site specific approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to perform radiological impact assessments of radioactive waste disposals, a compartmental model taking into account generic data for biosphere transfer parameters values is usually used. To improve its performance assessments calculations, ANDRA (French national radioactive waste management agency) decided to adapt this type of biosphere model to its sites conditions. On one hand, specific models have been developed such as model for 36Cl based on isotopic dilution and on local stable chlorine contents. On the other hand, biosphere transfer factors values are issued from experimental studies adapted to ANDRA context: soil characteristics, climate, agricultural habits and species. Local maps of radionuclides mobility have thus been able to be established in terms of soils characteristics. These specific data are useful only if main factors controlling mobility have been determined previously for each radionuclide, which implicates good knowledge of environmental radionuclides behaviour. This site-specific approach allows to reduce uncertainty and range of variation of impact calculations and ensure a consistent model. It helps also to achieve scientific community approval by showing mastery of radionuclides environmental processes and public understanding by focusing demonstration on real local conditions. A methodology in two times is presented. The first time is the definition of priority parameters, using a sensibility analysis. The second time is the giving of a value to these priority parameter, using all available knowledge about the behaviour of elements and about site conditions. A few examples for chlorine, uranium, caesium and technetium and limits of this approach are given. (author)

105

One-loop corrections to the S parameter in the four-site model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compute the leading chiral-logarithmic corrections to the S parameter in the four-site Higgsless model. In addition to the usual electroweak gauge bosons of the standard model, this model contains two sets of heavy charged and neutral gauge bosons. In the continuum limit, the latter gauge bosons can be identified with the first excited Kaluza-Klein states of the W± and Z bosons of a warped extra-dimensional model with an SU(2)LxSU(2)RxU(1)X bulk gauge symmetry. We consider delocalized fermions and show that the delocalization parameter must be considerably tuned from its tree-level ideal value in order to reconcile experimental constraints with the one-loop results. Hence, the delocalization of fermions does not solve the problem of large contributions to the S parameter in this class of theories and significant contributions to S can potentially occur at one-loop.

106

Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

107

One-loop Corrections to the S Parameter in the Four-site Model  

CERN Document Server

We compute the leading chiral-logarithmic corrections to the S parameter in the four-site Higgsless model. In addition to the usual electroweak gauge bosons of the Standard Model, this model contains two sets of heavy charged and neutral gauge bosons. In the continuum limit, the latter gauge bosons can be identified with the first excited Kaluza-Klein states of the W^\\pm and Z bosons of a warped extra-dimensional model with an SU(2)_L \\times SU(2)_R \\times U(1)_X bulk gauge symmetry. We consider delocalized fermions and show that the delocalization parameter must be considerably tuned from its tree-level ideal value in order to reconcile experimental constraints with the one-loop results. Hence, the delocalization of fermions does not solve the problem of large contributions to the S parameter in this class of theories and significant contributions to S can potentially occur at one-loop.

Dawson, Sally

2008-01-01

108

Hydropower resources at risk: The status of hydropower regulation and development - 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents today`s hydropower licensing and development status based on published data as follows: (a) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) databases, maintained by FERC`s Office of Hydropower Licensing, of: (1) operating FERC-regulated projects, federal projects, and known unlicensed projects; (2) surrendered licenses; and, (3) recent licensing and relicensing actions; (b) Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on installed capacity and generation from 1949 through 1995 for the various resources used to produce electricity in the U.S.; and, (c) FERC licensing orders, and environmental assessments or environmental impact statements for each individual project relicensed since 1980. The analysis conducted to prepare this paper includes the effects of all FERC hydropower licensing actions since 1980, and applies those findings to estimate the costs of hydropower licensing and development activity for the next 15 years. It also quantifies the national cost of hydropower regulation. The future estimates are quite conservative. The are presented in 1996 dollars without speculating on the effects of future inflation, license surrenders, conditions imposed through open-ended license articles, license terms greater than 30 years, or low water years. Instead, they show the most directly predictable influences on licensing outcomes using actual experiences since ECPA (after 1986).

Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.A. [Richard Hunt Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1997-09-01

109

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

110

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Héctor Zegarra Martínez

2006-08-01

111

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily ...

Arganis, M. L.; Domi?nguez, R.

2008-01-01

112

Hydropower plants in Thuringia; Wasserkraftwerke in Thueringen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Especially due to the existing difference in height and due the higher rainfall, the Federal State Thuringia (Federal Republic of Germany) offers the natural conditions or the utilization of regenerative pumped-storage power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the development of the hydropower utilization in the last 100 years. Due to historical aspects, the author differentiates between the development before the year 1945, between 1945 and 1990 as well as the development subsequent to the year 1991.

Rindelhardt, Udo

2013-02-01

113

Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

2010-10-15

114

Reliability validation of hydropower units of high-head developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout the development of the hydropower special attention was paid to the formation of a theoretical framework and methods of parameters and operating modes of powerhouses study. Under current design standards mathematical modeling of powerhouse is performed in two-dimensional for the axisymmetric problem. Up to now this method of simulation in Russia is the determining, although it has long lagged behind the capabilities of modern universal software of finite element analysis.The article presents analysis of the mathematical modeling methods for powerhouses of high-head hydroelectric power plants. Statement of the problem of three-dimensional modeling of the object – powerhouse is given. The procedure for multilayer three-dimensional modeling of water-conveyance conduits is presented. Outlined are the advantages of detailed numerical models of powerhouses in the context of their reliability verification.

G.L. Kozinets

2012-08-01

115

Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

116

India's hydropower vision to 2030 - environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic advantages of hydropower has been enhanced in the recent years with the steep increases in the energy costs from fossil fuel and the rapid approaching limits to the exploitable resources of such fuels. It is a matter of concern that the share of hydropower in the total installed capacity in India has been declining in successive plans. In the 1962-63, hydro projects had a 50% share in the total installed capacity which has declined to 24%. Such a dismal share of hydro thermal mix is adversely affecting the optimal utilisation of natural and financial resources besides resulting in failure of power grids. Even a layman can appreciate that in the situation of monsoonic weather the storage of river flows during floods is unavoidable not only to meet the basic needs of bulging population for diverse uses but also to moderate the floods, droughts and poverty. This article focuses on the environmental issues related to hydropower and river valley projects, while pinpointing the vital need of large storage projects in India. The water is becoming scarcer in India due to bulging population; but the environmental activism and biased media reporting are creating large scale obstructions in the execution of hydro projects

117

Along-the-net reconstruction of hydropower potential with consideration of anthropic alterations  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, requirements for stable renewable power sources suggest revision of plans of exploitation of water resources, while taking care of the environmental regulations. Mean Annual Flow (MAF) is a key parameter when trying to represent water availability for hydropower purposes. MAF is usually determined in ungauged basins by means of regional statistical analysis. For this study a regional estimation method consistent along-the-river network has been developed for MAF estimation; the method uses a multi-regressive approach based on geomorphoclimatic descriptors, and it is applied on 100 gauged basins located in NW Italy. The method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual flow congruent at the confluences, by considering only raster-summable explanatory variables. Also, the influence of human alterations in the regional analysis of MAF has been studied: impact due to the presence of existing hydropower plants has been taken into account, restoring the "natural" value of runoff through analytical corrections. To exemplify the representation of the assessment of residual hydropower potential, the model has been applied extensively to two specific mountain watersheds by mapping the estimated mean flow for the basins draining into each pixel of a the DEM-derived river network. Spatial algorithms were developed using the OpenSource Software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL/PostGIS. Spatial representation of the hydropower potential was obtained using different mean flow vs hydraulic-head relations for each pixel. Final potential indices have been represented and mapped through the Google Earth platform, providing a complete and interactive picture of the available potential, useful for planning and regulation purposes.

Masoero, A.; Claps, P.; Gallo, E.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.

2014-09-01

118

Vegetation response to 30 years hydropower cascade exploitation in upper stream of Yellow River  

OpenAIRE

The accumulated response of vegetation successive dam constructions and operations is an important concern, but the systematic assessment of impacts induced by cascade hydropower exploitation over long periods are seriously lacking. Using remote sensing data, the variations in grassland, the principal land cover in the upper catchment of the Yellow River, were investigated for eight dams constructed during the period 1977-2006. Two different scales-watershed scale and on-site area-were used t...

Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A. K.; Hao, F. H.; Zhao, C.; Lin, C.

2010-01-01

119

21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt. Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

120

A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

121

Land surface scheme conceptualisation and parameter values for three sites with contrasting soils and climate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to test the performance of the ECMWF land surface module (LSM developed by Viterbo and Beljaars (1995 and to identify primary future adjustments, focusing on the hydrological components. This was achieved by comparing off-line simulations against observations and a detailed state-of-the-art model over a range of experimental conditions. Results showed that the standard LSM, which uses fixed vegetation and soil parameter values, systematically underestimated evapotranspiration, partly due to underestimating bare soil evaporation, which appeared to be a conceptual problem. In dry summer conditions, transpiration was seriously underestimated. The bias in surface runoff and percolation was not of the same sign for all three locations. A sensitivity analysis, set up to explore the impact of using standard parameter values, found that implementing specific soil hydraulic properties had a significant effect on runoff and percolation at all three sites. Evapotranspiration, however affected only slightly at the temperate humid climate sites. Under semi-arid conditions, introducing site specific soil hydraulic properties plus a realistic rooting depth improved simulation results considerably. Future adjustments to the standard LSM should focus on parameter values of soil hydraulic functions and rooting depths and, conceptually, on the bare soil evaporation parameterisation and the soil bottom boundary condition. Implications of changing soil hydraulic properties for future large-simulations were explored briefly. For Europe, soil data requirements can be fulfilled partly by the recent data base HYPRES. Sandy and loamy sand soils will then cover about 65% of Europe, whereas in the present model 100% of the area is loam. Keywords: land surface model; soil hydraulic properties; water balance simulation

M. Soet

2000-01-01

122

User's Guide Virtual Hydropower Prospector Version 1.1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) application for displaying U.S. water energy resource sites on hydrologic region maps. The application assists the user in locating sites of interest and performing preliminary, development feasibility assessments. These assessments are facilitated by displaying contextual features in addition to the water energy resource sites such as hydrograpy, roads, power infrastructure, populated places, and land use and control. This guide provides instructions for operating the application to select what features are displayed and the extent of the map view. It also provides tools for selecting features of particular interest and displaying their attribute information.

Douglas G. Hall; Sera E. White; Julie A. Brizzee; Randy D. Lee

2005-11-01

123

Hydropower - a Green energy? tropical reservoirs and Greenhouse gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reservoirs are man-made lakes that severely impact on river ecosystems, and in addition, the new lake ecosystem can be damaged by several processes. Thus, the benefits of a reservoir, including energy production and flood control, must be measured against their impact on nature. New investigations point out that shallow and tropical reservoirs have high emission rates of the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. The methane emissions contribute strongly to climate change because CH{sub 4} has a 25 times higher global warming potential than CO{sub 2}. The pathways for its production include ebullition, diffuse emission via the water-air interface, and degassing in turbines and downstream of the reservoir in the spillway and the initial river stretch. Greenhouse gas emissions are promoted by a eutrophic state of the reservoir, and, with higher trophic levels, anaerobic conditions occur with the emission of CH{sub 4}. This means that a qualitative and quantitative jump in greenhouse gas emissions takes place. Available data from Petit Saut, French Guinea, provides a first quantification of these pathways. A simple evaluation of the global warming potential of a reservoir can be undertaken using the energy density, the ratio of the reservoir surface and the hydropower capacity; this parameter is mainly determined by the reservoir's morphometry but not by the hydropower capacity. Energy densities of some reservoirs are given and it is clearly seen that some reservoirs have a global warming potential higher than that of coal use for energy production. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Gunkel, Guenter [Department of Water Quality Control, Berlin University of Technology (Germany)

2009-09-15

124

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily demands peak and consider the existing autocorrelation between biweekly volume data.

M. L. Arganis

2008-01-01

125

Temporary bottlenecks, hydropower and acquisitions in networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to study the effects of an acquisition in an energy system dominated by hydropower and with temporary bottlenecks. We apply a model with four markets: Two regions and two time periods. It is shown that an acquisition has an ambiguous effect on welfare. In some instances it would lead to larger differences in prices between different markets, which would lead to a reduction in price differences between different markets. This may happen if the dominant firm acquires a firm that is active in the market where the dominant firm used to dump its energy capacity before the acquisition took place. (Author)

126

The Buchholz small hydro-power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short, illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the commissioning of a small hydro-power installation on the Glatt river, Eastern Switzerland after more than 90 years of downtime. The authors state that the hydro-plant meets all requirements regarding nature conservancy, flood protection and ecology (river continuum for fish). The construction of the plant, which features a dam-integrated powerhouse, is described, as is a novel means of allowing fish to pass the dam. The work done in rebuilding the installation is documented in a series of photographs

127

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

128

Project SHARE Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

SHARE - Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems is a running project early approved and co funded by the European regional development fund in the context of the European Territorial Cooperation Alpine Space programme 2007 - 2013: the project is formally ongoing from August 2009 and it will end July 2012. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for electricity production in alpine areas: it has advantages for the global CO2 balance but creates serious environmental impacts. RES-e Directives require renewable electricity enhance but, at the same time, the Water Framework Directive obliges member States to reach or maintain a water bodies "good" ecological status, intrinsically limiting the hydropower exploitation. Administrators daily face an increasing demand of water abstraction but lack reliable tools to rigorously evaluate their effects on mountain rivers and the social and economical outputs on longer time scale. The project intends to develop, test and promote a decision support system to merge on an unprejudiced base, river ecosystems and hydropower requirements. This approach will be led using existing scientific tools, adjustable to transnational, national and local normative and carried on by permanent panel of administrators and stakeholders. Scientific knowledge related to HP & river management will be "translated" by the communication tools and spent as a concrete added value to build a decision support system. In particular, the Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) will be applied to assess different management alternatives where a single-criterion approach (such as cost-benefit analysis) falls short, especially where environmental, technical, economic and social criteria can't be quantified by monetary values. All the existing monitoring databases will be used and harmonized with new information collected during the Pilot case studies. At the same time, all information collected will be available to end users and actors of related projects. The project openly pursues integrated river management aims (environmental and economic): - define, share and test a decision making framework based on validated methodologies in order to allow public decision makers to take transparent decisions about planning and management of HP concessions, taking account resulting effects on river ecosystems and on all different stakeholders - creation of a technical panel including public decision makers, stakeholders and PPs to promote & transfer the SHARE approach to local, national & transnational level to concretely upgrade the actual standard of problem solving attitude; - classify scenarios of water use optimization, taking into account the different actor needs; - establish a set of generally applicable and comparable indicators & monitoring standards based on transferable guidelines and metrics considering the specific disparities among power stations, diversity of technical approaches and different river ecosystems; - designation and mapping of alpine hydro systems more vulnerable typologies; - designation and mapping of the most convenient sites and typologies of "low impact" new plants; - contribute to the concrete local integration implementation of WFD and RES-e directives. The project partnership embodies different alpine countries & hydrosystems, profiles, status, end users, networks and previous experiences. At the same time the project official observers represent the links with outside the project networks, end users & stakeholders.

Mammoliti Mochet, Andrea

2010-05-01

129

A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

130

Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

1993-10-01

131

New water turbines for existing hydropower plants; Neue Wasserturbinen fuer vorhandene Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, 10% of the electrical energy stems from hydropower, while it is as much as 20% in Bavaria. Consequently, hydropower makes an important contribution to our energy sector. At present there are some 15,000 hydropower plants operating in Germany, with some of the turbines dating back to the period 1900 to 1930. Many of these plants have not yet been modernized. Uprating is most effectively achieved by replacing the old Francis turbines with new Kaplan turbines, since the efficiency of the latter is about 10% higher. By installing new precision gearing and asynchronous generators in the powerhouse, the capacity can be increased by 10 to 30%. The modernization of a hydropower plant in Hausen near Waldshut resulted in a 60% capacity increase. The Kaplan turbine at this plant has a power of 340 kW. However, each hydropower plant is quite unique, so that it is necessary to observe a variety of individual conditions and parameters. For this reason, the modernization should be entrusted to experienced specialists. The costs for a new Kaplan turbine start at around DM 150,000.-. The three modernization examples described here involve small hydropower plants with a capacity of 49 kW (Kaplan turbine/Villforth), 59 kW (Francis turbine/Rosenheim) and 150 kW (Kaplan turbine/Bobzin). This scale is typical for many other plants. (orig.) [German] Will man den Anlagenwirkungsgrad einer Wasserkraftanlage steigern, erreicht man den groessten Effekt durch den Austausch einer alten Francis-gegen eine neue Kaplanturbine. Die Kaplanturbine hat gegenueber der Francis einen ca. 10% hoeheren Wirkungsgrad. Durch den Austausch der veralteten Einrichtung im Maschinenraum, gegen neue Praezisionsgetriebe und Asynchron-Generatoren kann eine Leistungssteigerung von 10 bis 30% erreicht werden. Zur besseren Beurteilung der Vielfaeltigkeit und Entscheidungskriterien werden drei Beispiele von Wasserkraftanlagen beschrieben, in die die neue Francis- bzw. Kaplanmaschinen eingebaut wurden. Es sind typische kleine Wasserkraftanlagen, wie sie an vielen Standorten laufen. Die Leistungen sind 49 kW (Villforth/Kaplanturbine), 59 kW (Rosenheim/Francisturbine) und 150 kW (Bobzin/Kaplanturbine). (orig.)

Nowotny, G. [WKA Anlagenbau GmbH, Heidenheim (Germany)

2000-04-01

132

Hydropower may produce more greenhouse gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to this article, dam projects in hydropower development may lead to increased emission of greenhouse gases and may create great inconveniences for the local community. Hence it is not without problems to sponsor such projects through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. In many countries the great era of hydroelectric development is over and the potential is now in the developing countries. The aim of the CDM is two-fold: sustainable development in the developing countries, and cheap reduction of greenhouse gas emission from developed nations. It has been agreed upon in the climate negotiations that it is the developing country receiving the investments that shall document that the projects conform to the goal of sustainable development of that country. The concept of sustain ability is a vague one, and it is a great challenge to make it more precise so that requirements may be posed on CDM projects. This is important as projects that are suitable from a climate point of view may have undesirable environmental or social effects, which may be in conflict with the goal of sustainable development. This also pertains to hydropower. It also appears that water reservoirs are not always as clean as has been assumed

133

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El método Sondeo Eléctrico Vertical (SEV), conocido desde 1912, ha cambiado sustancialmente durante los últimos 10 años, apareciendo una nueva tecnología llamada Imagen de Resistividad (IR) con interpretación 2D de los datos de resistividad. Otra vía posible de desarrollo del método SEV es, partiend [...] o de las relaciones existentes entre la resistividad eléctrica y los parámetros petrofísicos (PP), estimar estos últimos a partir de datos de IR. Para la realización práctica de este concepto fue desarrollada la teoría del problema directo e inverso que relaciona la resistividad eléctrica con los PP. Cada trabajo de campo deberá incluir un levantamiento de SEV (IR), mediciones de resistividad eléctrica del agua subterránea con el objetivo de determinar su salinidad y la recolección de algunas muestras representativas de suelo del sitio con mediciones hechas en laboratorio de la resistividad eléctrica como función de la salinidad del agua de poro, creando el modelo petrofísico del suelo de este sitio. Esta tecnología puede ser utilizada tanto para la caracterización de sitios limpios como contaminados por hidrocarburos. Para el caso de sitios contaminados, los valores de los PP determinados en laboratorio, salinidad de agua y los datos de IR, permiten establecer la frontera petrofísica entre suelo limpio y contaminado, y por consiguiente, configurar la pluma contaminante. En este trabajo se incluyen, como ejemplos prácticos, los resultados de la aplicación de esta tecnología en algunos sitios contaminados por hidrocarburos en México. Abstract in english Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the [...] relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI) survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Vladimir, Shevnin; Omar, Delgado Rodríguez; Aleksandr, Mousatov; David, Flores Hernández; Héctor, Zegarra Martínez; Albert, Ryjov.

2006-09-01

134

Impact of season and rearing site on the physiological and immunological parameters of the Manila clam Venerupis (=Tapes, =Ruditapes) philippinarum  

OpenAIRE

Juvenile clams were distributed in four rearing sites selected for their varied ecological characteristics to assess the effects of environmental conditions on the physiological and immunological parameters, and Brown Ring Disease (BRD) status. Clams were sampled every 3 months for 15 months at each site. Brittany rearing sites, especially the Bay of Brest, showed the worst performances in terms of immunological and physiological indices and disease status, while the best were obtained in Mar...

Soudant, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Choquet, Gwenaelle; Lambert, Christophe; Reid, H. I.; Marhic, Alain; Donaghy, Ludovic; Birkbeck, Harry

2004-01-01

135

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km  

CERN Document Server

We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The final outcome of the study is to investigate the opportunity to implement an automatic system for the forecast of these parameters at these sites. In this paper we present results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the vertical stratification of the atmospherical parameters along the 20 km above the ground. The very satisfactory performances shown by the model in reconstructing most of these parameters (and in particular the wind speed) put this tool of investigation as the most suitable to be used in as...

Masciadri, E; Fini, L

2013-01-01

136

A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

?ofia Kuzevi?ová

2013-12-01

137

Hydro-power potential of Slovakia and its environmental constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak energy production sector has been utilising renewable energy sources for decades in a hydro-power form. The hydro-power plants produce approximately one sixth of electric energy (16 percent). According to the original conception of utilisation of the Danube River 7.361 GWh/year of usable primary hydro-power potential could be used. The current conception considers utilisation of 6,608 GWh/year. At present time approximately 3, 799 GWh are produced in existing hydro-power plants, what means that hydro-power potential of the country is used only on 57.5 percent. Existing development programmes included in the energy policy consider a growth of production by 671.3 GWh/year by 2001, i.e. by 0.2 percent. It means that use of hydro-power will reach a level of 67.7 percent. This number is approaching to level of hydro-power use in developed countries of Europe

138

DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

2003-07-01

139

Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

140

Analysis of Flow Estimation Methods for Small Hydropower Schemes in Bua River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any hydropower project requires an ample availability of stream flow data. Unfortunately, most of the hydropower projects especially small hydropower projects are conducted on ungauged river and consequently hydrologists have for a longtime used stream flow estimation methods using the mean annual flows to gauge rivers. Unfortunately flow estimation methods which include the runoff data method, area ratio method and the correlation flow methods employ a lot of assumptions which affect their uncertainty. This study was conducted on Bua River in Malawi to unveil the uncertainties of these flow estimation methods. The study was done on a well gauged catchment in order to highlight the variations between the observed, true stream flows and the estimated stream flows for uncertainty analysis. After regionalizing the homogenous sites, catchments using L-moments, an uncertainty analysis was done which showed that the area method is better followed by the correlating flow method and lastly the runoff data method in terms of bias, accuracy and uncertainty.

Chisomo Kasamba

2015-02-01

141

Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

2012-12-01

142

The impact of construction of hydropower plant on water regime  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this degree dissertation is to present the impacts of the hydropower plants Mav?i?e and Medvode located on the Sava River on the water regime. I have presented both hydropower plants, their role in the power supply and the consequences of the construction. In the dissertation I have discussed the changes of the underground and surface flow, which began after the construction of both hydropower plants. For this purpose I have made a model of the underground water of Kranjsko?...

Horvat, Anja

2006-01-01

143

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

A. Tilmant

2009-03-01

144

Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it possible to determine the radionuclides in the whole body by their concentration in one organ, or even without slaughtering the animal, using wool, to give a preliminary estimate of the radionuclide concentration in the animal body. The research results outlined in this paper confirm existing data on the metabolism of 90Sr and 137Cs in animals. However, the transfer factors obtained were an order of magnitude smaller than the average transfer factor presented in the IAEA database. The transuranic radionuclides (239+240Pu, 241Am) intaken with soil is absorbed less than when intaken with food. With long-term intake of 239+240Pu by animals with different components of the environment the radionuclides are accumulated only in the liver, 241Am accumulated in the skin, other organs and tissues do not accumulate. The acquired knowledge about the radionuclide transfer parameters may be used to build predictive models and evaluate dose loads to the population that uses animal products obtained in areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

145

Glen Canyon Hydropower vs. the Grand Canyon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many resource allocation problems currently face the hydropower industry. The current Environmental Impact Statement effort on the operation of Glen Canyon Dam is the focus of this discussion. This paper relates the process of approaching the conflict, the differing views and conflicting strategies of the parties, the emotional and logical investment of the participants, and the concerns for fairness and openness derived from the historic distrust between those with differing views. The paper is prepared from the perspective of the Bureau of Reclamation, the lead Federal agency in the effort, and the perspectives of the author who has been in a lead role in the agency's approach to the challenge. The paper describes the formulation of positions by the interested parties and the surrounding values and depth of concern exhibited in the process

146

Hydro-power and its ecological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydro-power is not only one of the oldest energy sources of man but played also a significant role for his cultural development. During the Antique Age water-puma, watermills and other water driven engines and instruments such as the water-organ and water clocks reached a high level of sophistication. Along with the fast expansion of watermills ecological impacts started during the Middle Ages, when the construction of millstreams and even the damming of lakes became significant activities. The critical change from local towards regional environmental impact, however, started only in connection with hydroelectric power engineering and comprises mainly the period since 1940. Its ecological, socioeconomic and even seismic consequences are underlined and described in this paper: It will be, however, demonstrated that the most unexpected positive ecological outcome from certain constructions of hydroelectric power-plants did also occur. (author)

147

Hydropower Computation Using Visual Basic for Application Programming  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower computation is essential to determine the operating conditions of hydroelectric station. Among the existing methods for hydropower computation, equal monthly hydropower output and dynamic programming are the most commonly used methods, but both of them are too complex in computation and hard to be finished manually. Taking the advantage of the data processing ability of Microsoft Excel and its attached Visual Basic for Application (VBA) program, the complex hydropower computation can be easily achieved. An instance was analyzed in two methods and all delt with VBA. VBA demonstrates its powerful function in solving problem with complex computation, visualizing, and secondary data processing. The results show that the dynamic programming method was more receptive than the other one.

Yan, Wang; Hongliang, Hu

148

Hydropower engineering. Paper no. IGEC-1-005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power Univ programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower. (author)

149

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

OpenAIRE

Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is concerned instead of generated energy. Based on the analysis of time-varying electricity price policy, an optimal operation model of hydropower station reservoir with ecology consideration is establi...

Yuqin Gao; Qianjin Dong; Xianfeng Huang; Guohua Fang

2010-01-01

150

Modelling and control of a typical high head hydropower plant  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes an effective mathematical model of a hydropower plant and how a decentralized control strategy for frequency and terminal voltage can be simulated. Several dynamic equations are presented for each element of a typical high head hydropower with ODEs (ordinary differential equations), except penstock model is carried out with hydraulic PDEs (partial differential equations), while a fourth order of synchronous generator with exciter model is presented as modelling of generat...

Zhou, Wenjing; Lie, Bernt; Glemmestad, Bjørn

2011-01-01

151

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

None

1979-07-01

152

Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: ? A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. ? The relative importance of the risk factors was determined fromf the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. ? The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. ? The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. ? The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

153

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

D. Pinte

2009-07-01

154

Calibrating hydrogeologic parameters for the 3-D site-scale unsaturated zone model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

An important issue in the evaluation of the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the calibration of the parameters used in the 3-D site-scale numerical flow model. The hydrogeologic parameters are calibrated using an inversion code (ITOUGH2) to fit measured core sample and in situ data according to statistical criteria. The available data include saturations, water potentials, pneumatic pressure records, and pore water age estimates based on geochemical analyses. Five 1-D columns are extracted from the 3-D site-scale model and used in an inversion that matches data from the five boreholes simultaneously. This results in layer-averaged fracture and matrix permeabilities and van Genuchten fitting parameters. The columns are then refined and individual inversions are performed with each 1-D model to develop a spatially varying parameter set. A number of sensitivity studies are performed to evaluate the effects of modeling assumptions on the calibrated parameters. Several fracture-matrix interaction formulations are also investigated during the study. The results show that the calibrated parameter set concluded to be most consistent with the conceptual model provides a good fit to the ambient data. The study also shows that the choice of the fracture-matrix interaction formulation has a significant effect on the calibrated parameter set.

Bandurraga, T. M.; Bodvarsson, G. S.

1999-05-01

155

Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: The paper gives a historical technical review of the development and installation of approximately 20 000 MW of hydraulic turbines in Norway after World War II. The non polluting production of electricity was consumed for lightening and heating for civil consume and the growing electric furnace industry in Norway in addition to export in rainy years. The paper is mainly based on the authors experience in the design of large turbines, and control systems for operation of Francis Turbines and Reversible Pump Turbines for high and medium heads and Pelton turbines for high heads. During the last 15 years the development of small hydro power plants has also given an increasing contribution to the power production. A brief discussion will be given on the choice of equipment for small hydro production with a very small winter production and overload during the summer. The possibility of operation of a small hydropower plants connected to an isolated grid will also briefly be presented. In addition to the general design of turbines and control systems for large hydro plants, a detailed description will be given of the stability analysis for the governing system which was developed for the large high head plants with long high pressure tunnels systems. A discussion will be included on the introduction of the air cushioned surge chambers for fast stable operation of power plants with long tunnels, connected to isolated grids. Also the principle of stabilizing unstable turbine governing system by means of pressure feed back systems, will be presented and discussed. A description of such system developed in 1992, will be given proving that stability could be obtained in a system with long conduits connected to the turbines. However, the 'governing speed' needed for isolated operation could not be fulfilled without a fast by pass pressure relieve system for Francis turbines, which was not installed in the case for the analysis. Finally a discussion will be given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

Brekke, Hermod

2010-07-01

156

Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

157

Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

NONE

2001-07-01

158

Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy is of importance for everyone but the growing environmental destruction and disparity between the rich and poor demands adoption of cleaner and better path so as to secure the future resources and achieve sustainable development with better social inclusion. On this regard, the term “green economy” came into light. The Asian Center for Environment Management and Sustainable Development (AEMS then explored the “green economy” concept in Nepal through a regional workshop on May 2012 with participants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Canada, UK and Nepal. Consequently, the hydropower sector of Nepal was recognized as one of the most feasible and potential sector for green economy. Therefore, various case studies of hydropower projects, interaction programs and interviews with relevant personnel were carried out for this study to analyze the scope of hydropower in achieving the three important attributes of green economy, namely—resource efficiency, low carbon and social inclusion. Nepal is rich in water resources; it is therefore possible to use our abundant water resource in an efficient manner. Likewise, the end product of hydropower is clean energy though carbon emission is involved during the construction. It shows the potential to replace considerable amount of carbon emission from biomass based energy resources. Similarly, hydropower project exhibits positive implication on the local society besides making electricity available to the whole nation. The locals also get floating shares and royalty benefits to develop the project affected area. However, the affected areas now have minimal share in royalty. Besides, this study also addresses the issues of policy implication and challenges. All the relevant issues of hydropower as studied reveal that there are required provisions at place in Nepal for hydropower sector to fit perfectly in green economy concept, if only, the prevalent issues are handled efficiently and effectively by the relevant sectors.

Ajay B. Mathema

2013-07-01

159

a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied as well as identifying the main players and milestones to this subject.

Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

2013-05-01

160

Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed.ficial environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

161

Groundwater numerical modelling of the Fjaellveden study site - evaluation of parameter variations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity/uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity distribution in crystalline rocks is considered at the Fjaellveden study site - a site included in the Swedish site selection programme for final storage of spent nuclear fuel. A three-dimensional FEM-model assuming steady-state flow with constant fluid properties under saturated conditions is used. The bedrock of the site is divided into three hydraulic units; rock mass, local and regional fracture zones. The data set of hydraulic conductivity of each unit has been treated statistically in various ways, reflecting different aspects of the physical conditions of the site. A total of nine cases have been prepared, all based on 214 data points. (orig./HP)

162

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31

163

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. II: atmospherical parameters in the surface layer [0-30] m  

CERN Document Server

This article is the second of a series of articles aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence (Cn2 and the derived astro-climatic parameters like seeing, isoplanatic angle, wavefront coherence time...). This study is done in the framework of the MOSE project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In this paper we present the results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the surface layer atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity, wind direction and absolute temperature, [0-30] m a.g.l.). The model reconstruction of all the atmospherical parameters in the surface layer is very satisfactory. For the temperature, at all levels, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is inferior to 1{\\deg}C. For the wind speed, it is ~2 m/s, and for the wind direction, it is in the ran...

Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

2013-01-01

164

Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

165

Modelling and Simulation of Temperature Variations of Bearings in a Hydropower Generation Unit  

OpenAIRE

Hydropower contributes around 20% to the world electricity supply and is considered as the most important, clean, emissions free and economical renewable energy source.  Total installed capacity of Hydropower generation is approximately 777GW in the world (2998TWh/year). Furthermore, estimated technically feasible hydropower potential in the world is 14000TWh/year. The hydropower is the major renewable energy source in many countries and running at a higher plant-factor. Bearing overheating ...

Gunasekara, Cotte Gamage Sarathchandra

2011-01-01

166

Parameter optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of an ecosystem model at a forest flux tower site in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystem models are useful tools for understanding ecological processes and for sustainable management of resources. In biogeochemical field, numerical models have been widely used for investigating carbon dynamics under global changes from site to regional and global scales. However, it is still challenging to optimize parameters and estimate parameterization uncertainty for complex process-based models such as the Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), a modified version of CENTURY, that consider carbon, water, and nutrient cycles of ecosystems. This study was designed to conduct the parameter identifiability, optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of EDCM using our developed EDCM-Auto, which incorporated a comprehensive R package—Flexible Modeling Framework (FME) and the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm. Using a forest flux tower site as a case study, we implemented a comprehensive modeling analysis involving nine parameters and four target variables (carbon and water fluxes) with their corresponding measurements based on the eddy covariance technique. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the plant production-related parameters (e.g., PPDF1 and PRDX) are most sensitive to the model cost function. Both SCE and FME are comparable and performed well in deriving the optimal parameter set with satisfactory simulations of target variables. Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis indicate that the parameter uncertainty and the resulting output uncertainty can be quantified, and that the magnitude of parameter-uncertainty effects depends on variables and seasons. This study also demonstrates that using the cutting-edge R functions such as FME can be feasible and attractive for conducting comprehensive parameter analysis for ecosystem modeling.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Huang, Zhihong; Yan, Wende

2014-06-01

167

Better estimation of protein-DNA interaction parameters improve prediction of functional sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing transcription factor binding motifs is a common bioinformatics task. For transcription factors with variable binding sites, we need to get many suboptimal binding sites in our training dataset to get accurate estimates of free energy penalties for deviating from the consensus DNA sequence. One procedure to do that involves a modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment method designed to produce many such sequences. Results We analyzed low stringency SELEX data for E. coli Catabolic Activator Protein (CAP, and we show here that appropriate quantitative analysis improves our ability to predict in vitro affinity. To obtain large number of sequences required for this analysis we used a SELEX SAGE protocol developed by Roulet et al. The sequences obtained from here were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The resulting bioinformatic model characterizes the sequence specificity of the protein more accurately than those sequence specificities predicted from previous analysis just by using a few known binding sites available in the literature. The consequences of this increase in accuracy for prediction of in vivo binding sites (and especially functional ones in the E. coli genome are also discussed. We measured the dissociation constants of several putative CAP binding sites by EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay and compared the affinities to the bioinformatics scores provided by methods like the weight matrix method and QPMEME (Quadratic Programming Method of Energy Matrix Estimation trained on known binding sites as well as on the new sites from SELEX SAGE data. We also checked predicted genome sites for conservation in the related species S. typhimurium. We found that bioinformatics scores based on SELEX SAGE data does better in terms of prediction of physical binding energies as well as in detecting functional sites. Conclusion We think that training binding site detection algorithms on datasets from binding assays lead to better prediction. The improvements in accuracy came from the unbiased nature of the SELEX dataset rather than from the number of sites available. We believe that with progress in short-read sequencing technology, one could use SELEX methods to characterize binding affinities of many low specificity transcription factors.

O'Flanagan Ruadhan A

2008-12-01

168

Geospatial Technology for Mapping Suitable Sites for Hydro Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, large amount of data is required, consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries. Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT hydrological model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. The study using the above methodology to identifies suitable site in Bennihalla catchment, for small scale hydropower development. The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 and outlet of the catchment are more suitable for small scale hydropower plant.

Dr. Nagraj S. Patil

2013-08-01

169

Methods to develop site specific spectra and a review of the important parameters that influence the spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems with using risk analysis methodologies to estimate the seismic hazard at a site are discussed in the context of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). Various methodologies that may reasonably define seismic hazard are outlined. The major assumptions that can lead to significant variations in the predicted hazard are identified. Guidance is provided to appropriate choices of parameters, and possible corrections that can extend the meager earthquake data base for sites located in the eastern United States are presented. A method that incorporates various interpretations of the same data is recommended

170

Ecological qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a literature review about the state-of-the-art of ecological aspects of hydropower. Hydropower is compared with further energy sources: fossil-fuel power plants, wind power plants, photovoltaic power plants, nuclear power plants. In the overall assessment, hydropower obtains the best result. (author)

171

Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The rnts, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed-load transport rate by Meyer-Petter and Muller bed-load equation. As the results are small, the top set slope is fixed as half of the bed slope. The movement of delta pivot point was 6 and 9 Km for the years 1973 and 1994, respectively. (author)

172

Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases.

Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

2000-02-28

173

Model for 3D-visualization of streams and techno-economic estimate of locations for construction of small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main researches of this dissertation are focused to a development of a model for preliminary assesment of the hydro power potentials for small hydropower plants construction using Geographic Information System - GIS. For this purpose, in the first part of dissertation is developed a contemporary methodological approach for 3D- visualization of the land surface and river streams in a GIS platform. In the methodology approach, as input graphical data are used digitized maps in scale 1:25000, where each map covers an area of 10x14 km and consists of many layers with graphic data in shape (vector) format. Using GIS tools, from the input point and isohyetal contour data layers with different interpolation techniques have been obtained digital elevation model - DEM, which further is used for determination of additional graphic maps with useful land surface parameters such as: slope raster maps, hill shade models of the surface, different maps with hydrologic parameters and many others. The main focus of researches is directed toward the developing of contemporary methodological approaches based on GIS systems, for assessment of the hydropower potentials and selection of suitable location for small hydropower plant construction - SHPs, and especially in the mountainous hilly area that are rich with water resources. For this purpose it is done a practical analysis at a study area which encompasses the watershed area of the Brajchanska River at the east part of Prespa Lake. The main accent considering the analysis of suitable locations for SHP construction is set to the techno-engineering criteria, and in this context is made a topographic analysis regarding the slope (gradient) either of all as well of particular river streams. It is also made a hydrological analysis regarding the flow rates (discharges). The slope analysis is executed at a pixel (cell) level a swell as at a segment (line) level along a given stream. The slope value at segment level gives in GIS platform practical and efficient information regarding the elevation drops along river streams from the potential points of intake locations to the location of objects of the small hydropower plants. In the hydrology analysis are used historic measured data in table format regarding the flow rates and precipitation for the period 1961-2000 from two pluviometric station that are close each other. At the calculation of precipitations at annual level in GIS platform is used a stochastic quadratic equation for correlation between the rainfall (precipitation) and elevation which is valid for the climatic zone of the south-west region of Republic of Macedonia. using more hydrological methods: Rational method, Area-proportion method, Regression analysis and others, are obtained graphic raster maps for numerical values of flow rates at pixel level, and also is executed a comparative analysis of obtained results. Having available data for slope (elevation drops) and values of flows, is made analysis of the hydro power potential and locations for SHP construction along Brajchanska river and its main tributaries. The analysis showed that at the higher elevation of 1000 m.a.s.l. are found more than 10 potential locations for SHP construction. From the executed analysis was also determined, that the combination of more intakes that are directed to one SHP plant gives significantly more power output and energy. Together with the techno-engineering analysis, is also given a short review considering the economic justification for SHP construction and the impact at the environment. The developed model at the study area can also serve as a practical model at the analysis regarding the assessment and the site selection of SHP in all other areas reach with water resources. The methodological approach developed in this research, can contribute to a great extent for quick and efficient decision making regarding the preliminary screening of locations and assessment of the hydro power potentials for SHP construction at small and medium watershed areas. (Author)

174

Cross-sectional evaluation of clinical parameters to select high prevalence populations for periodontal disease: the site comparative severity methodology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Estudos epidemiológicos mostraram fortes evidências de que a doença periodontal não afeta todos os indivíduos da mesma maneira. Existem indivíduos e sítios com maior risco de ocorrer progressão da doença. Este estudo testou parâmetros para a seleção "a priori" de sítios e indivíduos potencialmente d [...] e risco. Foram utilizados para tal os dados dos exames clínicos periodontais de 2273 pacientes. A perda de inserção clínica foi medida em 6 sítios por dente. Usando um programa de computador, os pacientes foram distribuídos em 14 grupos etários, com intervalos de 5 anos, a partir dos 11 anos de idade e até acima de 75 anos. A medida de cada sítio foi comparada com a média e a mediana da faixa etária do indivíduo, com o resultado da comparação com a mediana indicando a comparação da severidade do sítio (CSS). Foram calculados três parâmetros globais do indivíduo: parâmetro 1 (P1) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 4 mm; parâmetro 2 (P2) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 7 mm; parâmetro 3 (P3) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica superando a mediana do grupo etário em 100% ou mais. A amostra tinha 1466 (65%) mulheres e 807 (35%) homens. A maioria dos indivíduos apresentou valores de P1, P2 e P3 menores que 30%. O parâmetro 3 permitiu uma divisão da amostra de forma similar àquela realizada por P1 e P2, com a vantagem de analisar o indivíduo em relação a seu grupo etário. Com base nos resultados, sugere-se que a metodologia da CSS possa ser útil na seleção de uma população de alta prevalência de doença, e que linhas de corte entre 10% e 20% seriam as mais apropriadas para o uso do parâmetro 3. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown strong evidence that periodontal disease does not affect all subjects in the same manner. There are subjects and sites with higher risk for disease progression. This study tested parameters to select "a priori" sites and subjects potentially at risk. The data from [...] periodontal clinical examinations of 2273 subjects was used. The clinical loss of attachment was measured in 6 sites per tooth. Using computer software, the patients were distributed into 14 age groups, with intervals of 5 years, from 11 years to greater than 75 years of age. The measure of each site was compared with the average and the median values of the subject age group, with the results indicating site comparative severity (SCS). Three global parameters were calculated: parameter 1 (P1) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 4 mm; parameter 2 (P2) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 7 mm; parameter 3 (P3) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss surpassing the median value for the age group by 100% or more. There were 1466 (65%) females and 807 (35%) males. Most subjects had P1, P2 and P3 values less than 30%. Parameter 3 allowed a division of the sample similar to that of Parameters 1 and 2, with the advantage of analyzing the subject in relation to his/her age group. It was suggested that the methodology of SCS is useful for selecting a population with a high disease prevalence, and that cut-off lines between 10% and 20% would be appropriate for using Parameter 3.

Sérgio Luís Scombatti de, Souza; Mario, Taba Jr..

175

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute's nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S ampersand M and D ampersand D activities. Battelle's King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed

176

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute`s nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S&M and D&D activities. Battelle`s King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed.

NONE

1995-06-30

177

EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

2010-08-01

178

Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

Kataria, Mitesh [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7013, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-01-15

179

Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

180

Socio environmental policy and populational resettlement in hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims to discuss the resettlement process caused by hydropower plants considering the Brazilian Power Sector ongoing context It is based on the analysis of the hydropower plants that started operation phase in the last tem years There are 17 projects provoking the displacement of 21000 families The paper presents the resettlement modalities used in these projects Finally, the main aspects of the resettlement process in the last decade are focused in order to contribute to the Brazilian Power Sector Resettlement Guidelines improvement and actualization

181

Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

2012-01-10

182

Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

Zhiqun Deng

2011-01-01

183

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

184

Temperature dependence of the electric field gradient parameters at sup 19 F lattice sites in semiconducting and insulating diamonds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electric field gradient parameters in insulating and semiconducting diamond, types IIa and IIb respectively, were measured as a function of temperature at residence sites of recoil implanted {sup 19}F by using the time-dependent perturbed angular distribution nuclear solid state technique. An improved experimental arrangement enables three distinct residence sites to be resolved, where only two had been resolved before. These correspond to quadrupole coupling constants of 62(1), 56(2) and 31(3) MHz. A strong temperature dependence in the fractional population of the second site was observed and is different for each of the two types of diamond. These measurements provide additional evidence for the explanation of this temperature dependence, i.e. a charge transfer from the lattice to the {sup 19}F occurs, which leads to the formation of the negative fluorine ion. (orig.).

Sideras-Haddad, E.; Connell, S.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Stemmet, M.C. (Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Naicker, V.V.; Bharuth-Ram, K. (Univ. of Durban-Westville (South Africa)); Appel, H. (Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany))

1992-01-15

185

Dynamic parameters of seismic waves and the seismic threat to a nuclear power plant site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hypothetical maximum effects of the so-called operating basis earthquake and of the safe shutdown earthquake should be defined for expressing the seismic threat to dimensionally and structurally complex structures which include nuclear power plants. Next to the said variables it will be necessary to take into account accelerograms corresponding to the said two types of earthquake. The objective selection of analogous accelerograms for the two types of earthquake necessitates the comprehensive knowledge of seismic wave parameters in the vicinity of the earthquake and their dependence on the earthquake magnitude and the distance from the epicentre. Relations are given of these parameters and macroseismic intensity and briefly described are other parameters obtained by statistical processing of digitalized seismic wave records. (Z.M.)

186

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle's King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels

187

Site-dependent variation of spectroscopic relaxation parameters in Nd glasses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laser-induced fluorescence line-narrowing has revealed that the emission properties of Nd3+ in various glasses are strongly dependent on the nature of the site. In a mixed anion glass, the multiplicity of ligand combinations causes additional complications. The spectral and kinetic manifestations of these are presented and discussed

188

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle`s King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels.

Fry, J.

1998-09-30

189

BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision

190

DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed a state-of-the-science review of hydropower optimization methods and published reports on alternative operating strategies and opportunities for spill reduction. Carried out feasibility studies of new environmental performance measurements of the new MGR turbine at Wanapum Dam, including measurement of behavioral responses, biomarkers, bioindex testing, and the use of dyes to assess external injuries. Evaluated the benefits of mitigation measures for instream flow releases and the value of surface flow outlets for downstream fish passage. Refined turbulence flow measurement techniques, the computational modeling of unsteady flows, and models of blade strike of fish. Published numerous technical reports, proceedings papers, and peer-reviewed literature, most of which are available on the DOE Hydropower website. Further developed and tested the sensor fish measuring device at hydropower plants in the Columbia River. Data from the sensor fish are coupled with a computational model to yield a more detailed assessment of hydraulic environments in and around dams. Published reports related to the Virtual Hydropower Prospector and the assessment of water energy resources in the U.S. for low head/low power hydroelectric plants. Convened a workshop to consider the environmental and technical issues associated with new hydrokinetic and wave energy technologies. Laboratory and DOE staff participated in numerous workshops, conferences, coordination meetings, planning meetings, implementation meetings, and reviews to transfer the results of DOE-sponsored research to end-users.

Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2006-07-01

191

An investigation of wash-off controlling parameters at urban and commercial monitoring sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the parameters of the wash-off function and the controlling hydrologic variables are investigated in this paper, assuming that the pollutant generation process basically depends on the watershed rainfall-runoff response characteristics. Data collected during an intense monitoring program carried out by the Department of Environmental Engineering of the University of Genova (Italy) within a residential area, an auto dismantler facility, a tourism terminal and a urban waste truck depot are used to this aim. The observed runoff events are classified into different TSS mass delivery processes and the occurrence of the first flush phenomenon is also investigated. The correlation between the mathematical parameters describing the exponential process and the hydrological parameters of the corresponding rainfall-runoff event is analysed: runoff parameters and in particular the maximum flow discharge over the time of concentration of the drainage network are proposed as the controlling factor for the total mass of pollutant that is made available for wash-off during each runoff event. PMID:18075182

Berretta, C; Gnecco, I; Lanza, L G; La Barbera, P

2007-01-01

192

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

193

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

194

Site-Dependent Differences in Clinical, Pathohistological, and Molecular Parameters in Metastatic Colon Cancer  

OpenAIRE

The purpose was to develop a metastatic score specific to the hepatic and peritoneal site in colorectal cancer patients from clinical, pathohistological and molecular markers potentially reflecting oncogenic activation (OA) or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where OA may reflect an activation and EMT the functional loss of certain genes. The primary tumour stage (OA, EMT), lymphonodal stage (OA), the presence of a lymphangiosis carcinomatosa (OA), histological grade (OA, EMT), and im...

Christoph Wilmanns, Sandra Steinhauer

2009-01-01

195

Diurnal variations of the Martian surface layer meteorological parameters during the first 45 sols at two Viking Lander sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind speed, ambient and surface temperatures from both Viking Landers have been used to compute bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov lengths during the earliest phase of the Mars missions. These parameters are used to estimate drag and heat transfer coefficients, friction velocities and surface heat fluxes at the two sites. The principal uncertainty is in the specification of the roughness length. Maximum heat fluxes occur near local noon at both sites, and are estimated to be in the range 15--20 W m-2 at the Viking 1 site and 10--15 W m-2 at the Viking 2 site. Maximum values of friction velocity occur in late morning at Viking 1 and are estimated to be 0.4--0.6 m s-1. They occur shortly after drawn at the Viking 2 site where peak values are estimated to be in the range 0.25--0.35 m s-1. Extension of these calculations to later times during the mission will require allowance for dust opacity effects in the estimation of surface temperature and in the correction of radiation errors of the Viking 2 temperature sensor

196

Site-specific and multielement approach to the determination of liquid-vapor isotope fractionation parameters. The case of alcohols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotope fractionation phenomena occurring at the natural abundance level in the course of liquid-vapor transformation have been investigated by using the SNIF-NMR method (site-specific natural isotope fractionation studied by NMR) which has a unique capability of providing simultaneous access to fractionation parameters associated with different molecular isotopomers. This new approach has been combined with the determination of overall carbon and hydrogen fractionation effects by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The results of distillation and evaporation experiments of alcohols performed in technical conditions of practical interest have been analyzed according to the Rayleigh-type model. In order to check the performance of the column, unit fractionation factors were measured beforehand for water and for the hydroxylic sites of methanol and ethanol for which liquid-vapor equilibrium constants were already known. Inverse isotope effects are determined in distillation experiments for the overall carbon isotope ratio and for the site-specific hydrogen isotope ratios associated with the methyl and methylene sites of methanol and ethanol. In contrast, normal isotope effects are produced by distillation for the hydroxylic sites and by evaporation for all the isotopic ratios

197

Comprehensive investigation of parameter choice in viral integration site analysis and its effects on the gene annotations produced.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introducing therapeutic genes into hematopoietic stem cells using retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer is an effective treatment for monogenic diseases. The risks of therapeutic gene integration include aberrant expression of a neighboring gene, resulting in oncogenesis at low frequencies (10(-7)-10(-6)/transduced cell). Mechanisms governing insertional mutagenesis are the subject of intensive ongoing studies that produce large amounts of sequencing data representing genomic regions flanking viral integration sites (IS). Validating and analyzing these data require automated bioinformatics applications. The exact methods used vary between applications, based on the requirements and preferences of the designer. The parameters used to analyze sequence data are capable of shaping the resulting integration site annotations, but a comprehensive examination of these effects is lacking. Here we present a web-based tool for integration site analysis, called Methods for Analyzing ViRal Integration Collections (MAVRIC), and use its highly customizable interface to look at how IS annotations can vary based on the analysis parameters. We used the integration data of the previously published adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) gene therapy trials for evaluation of MAVRIC. The output illustrates how MAVRIC allows for direct multiparameter comparison of integration patterns. Careful analysis of the SCID data and reanalyses using different parameters for trimming, alignment, and repeat masking revealed the degree of variation that can be expected to arise due to changes in these parameters. We observed mainly small differences in annotation, with the largest effects caused by masking repeat sequences and by changing the size of the window around the IS. PMID:22909036

Huston, Marshall W; Brugman, Martijn H; Horsman, Sebastiaan; Stubbs, Andrew; van der Spek, Peter; Wagemaker, Gerard

2012-11-01

198

Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

2010-07-01

199

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

OpenAIRE

Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each...

Héctor Zegarra Martínez; David Flores Hernández; Aleksandr Mousatov; Omar Delgado Rodríguez; Vladimir Shevnin; Albert Ryjov

2006-01-01

200

Using Analytical and Numerical Modeling to Assess the Utility of Groundwater Monitoring Parameters at Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is becoming an important bridge to commercial geologic sequestration (GS) to help reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While CCUS at brownfield sites (i.e. mature oil and gas fields) has operational advantages over GS at greenfield sites (i.e. saline formations) such as the use of existing well infrastructure, previous site activities can add a layer of complexity that must be accounted for when developing groundwater monitoring protection networks. Extensive work has been done on developing monitoring networks at GS sites for CO2 accounting and groundwater protection. However, the development of appropriate monitoring strategies at commercial brownfield sites continues to develop. The goals of this research are to address the added monitoring complexity by adapting simple analytical and numerical models to test these approaches using two common subsurface monitoring parameters, pressure and aqueous geochemistry. The analytical pressure model solves for diffusivity in radial coordinates and the leakage rate derived from Darcy's law. The aqueous geochemical calculation computer program PHREEQC solves the advection-reaction-dispersion equation for 1-D transport and mixing of fluids .The research was conducted at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) field on the Gulf Coast of Texas. We modeled the performance over time of one monitoring well from the EOR field using physical and operational data including lithology and water chemistry samples, and formation pressure data. We explored through statistical analyses the probability of leakage detection using the analytical and numerical methods by varying the monitoring well location spatially and vertically with respect to a leaky fault. Preliminary results indicate that a pressure based subsurface monitoring system provides a better probability of leakage detection than geochemistry alone, but together these monitoring parameters can improve the chances of leakage detection. By assessing the probability of leakage detection, an initial finding on the use and implementation of each monitoring technique can be made at this field and realistically extrapolated to other CCUS fields.

Porse, S. L.; Hovorka, S. D.; Young, M.; Zeidouni, M.

2012-12-01

201

Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

202

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is concerned instead of generated energy. Based on the analysis of time-varying electricity price policy, an optimal operation model of hydropower station reservoir with ecology consideration is established. The model takes the maximum annual power generation benefit, the maximum output of the minimal output stage in the year and the minimum shortage of eco-environment demand as the objectives, and reservoir water quantity balance, reservoir storage capacity, reservoir discharge flow and hydropower station output and nonnegative variable as the constraints. To solve the optimal model, a chaotic optimization genetic algorithm which combines the ergodicity of chaos and the inversion property of genetic algorithm is exploited. An example is given, which shows that the proposed model and algorithm are scientific and feasible to deal with the optimal operation of hydropower station.

Yuqin Gao

2010-08-01

203

False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

James Randall Kahn

2014-09-01

204

Developing a module for estimating climate warming effects on hydropower pricing in California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate warming is expected to alter hydropower generation in California through affecting the annual stream-flow regimes and reducing snowpack. On the other hand, increased temperatures are expected to increase hydropower demand for cooling in warm periods while decreasing demand for heating in winter, subsequently altering the annual hydropower pricing patterns. The resulting variations in hydropower supply and pricing regimes necessitate changes in reservoir operations to minimize the revenue losses from climate warming. Previous studies in California have only explored the effects of hydrological changes on hydropower generation and revenues. This study builds a long-term hydropower pricing estimation tool, based on artificial neural network (ANN), to develop pricing scenarios under different climate warming scenarios. Results suggest higher average hydropower prices under climate warming scenarios than under historical climate. The developed tool is integrated with California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) to facilitate simultaneous consideration of climate warming on hydropower supply, demand and pricing. EBHOM estimates an additional 5% drop in annual revenues under a dry warming scenario when climate change impacts on pricing are considered, with respect to when such effects are ignored, underlining the importance of considering changes in hydropower demand and pricing in future studies and policy making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the major gap in previous climate change and hydropower studies in California. ? Developing an ANN-based long-term hydropower price estimation tool. ? Estimating climate change effects on hydropower demand and pricing in California. ? Investigating the sensitivity of hydropower operations to future price changes. ? Underlining the importance of consideration of climate change impacts on electricity pricing.

205

The use of multicriteria decision making methods to find the environmental costs of hydropower development alternatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference paper deals with a decision support system (DSS) developed to find the costs of environmental goods. The system is based on multicriteria decision making and uses pairwise comparisons of two and two criteria. The criteria weights are calculated with linear regression. When one criterion is monetary, all criteria weights can be expressed in monetary units when the weights are known. The DSS has been tested on a hydropower project in the area of Sauda in Norway. To represent the decision makers, three panels each consisting of three persons were formed. The persons were selected from governmental agencies, the developers, the local environmental administration and a local politician. The DSS worked well with the panels. One problem was that impacts of hydropower projects are very site specific and also hard to quantify. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was used in creating a cognitive understanding of the issues involved and how they were represented by quantitative criteria. Some had also difficulties in accepting the principle of expressing environmental goods in monetary units. The results so far are preliminary. This research work is part of the Norwegian research programme Energy, Environment and Development. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

206

Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lancang/Mekong River Basin is presently undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development. In its natural undeveloped state, the river transports about 160 million metric tons of sediment per year, maintaining the geomorphologic features of the basin, sustaining habitats, and transporting the nutrients that support ecosystem productivity. Despite the importance of sediment in the river, currently little attention is being paid to reservoir sediment trapping. This study is devoted to assessing the potential for managing sediment and its impact on energy production in the Se San, Sre Pok, and Se Kong tributaries of the Mekong River. These tributaries drain a set of adjacent watersheds that are important with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity, and serve as a significant source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. A daily sediment transport model is used to assess tradeoffs among energy production and sediment and flow regime alteration in multiple reservoir systems. This study finds that eventually about 40%-80% of the annual suspended sediment load may be trapped in reservoirs. Clearly, these reservoirs will affect the rivers' sediment regimes. However, even after 100 years of simulated sedimentation, reservoir storage capacities and hydropower production at most reservoir sites are not significantly reduced. This suggests that the strongest motivation for implementing measures to reduce trapped sediment is their impact not on hydropower production but on fish migration and survival and on sediment-dependent ecosystems such as the Vietnam Delta and Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake.

Wild, Thomas B.; Loucks, Daniel P.

2014-06-01

207

MOSE: meso-scale prediction of near-ground meteorological parameters at ESO sites (Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the MOSE project, we present in this contribution a detailed analysis of the results obtained by comparison between Meso-NH numerical model simulations and measurements from in situ instruments. The important amount of meteorological data comes from in situ measurements from masts (distributed from the ground up to 30 m) and automatic weather stations (AWS). Parameters analyzed are wind speed, wind direction and temperature, at both sites. Different numerical set-up have been tested, with the highest model horizontal resolution equal to 100 m. A sample of 20 nights in 2007 have been simulated. Model outputs have been compared to the in situ measurements from masts and AWS. The Meso-NH model succeeded very well in reproducing the meteorological parameters near the surface. We obtained excellent results for both wind and temperature parameters. These very encouraging results proved that the model could be used in operational mode at ESO E-ELT site to forecast wind speed, wind direction and temperature with a good level of accuracy, for application to the telescope management. Among the most important applications we cite the near-ground temperature forecast fundamental for the thermalization of the dome and the wind forecast extremely useful to evaluate telescope and secondary mirror vibrations.

Lascaux, Franck; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

2013-12-01

208

Geological and geophysical techniques for development of siting and design parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It appears that the USNRC has made much of lessons learned from nuclear power plant licensing. These lessons, together with the concerned participation of the Earth Science community at large, have given NRC a basis for what is perceived by this commentator as being as much as we in the waste management community could ask for. Much is granted to us in freedom to apply good judgement without the bounds of prescription; much is asked of us toward delivering the most diligent of work product. The licenseability and functionality of each low-level radioactive waste disposal facility will be determined by the geologic environment in which it is to be placed, and by the expertise and goodwill of the scientists and engineers involved in its design and licensing. Geologic site characterization is the first and most basic step in that process. The geological and geophysical means by which this characterization is accomplished must be chosen and employed in the full mutuality of the fact that geology governs geophysical response and that geophysical interpretation is absolutely essential in characterizing the length, breadth, and depth of each site. Each step in the employment of geological and geophysical techniques must be made with total incorporation of related data and findings. Severe introspection and questioning must be accomplished immediately on the development of each line of evidence, and the results must be applied directly and immediately to each remaining activiy and immediately to each remaining activity

209

Operating multireservoir hydropower systems for downstream water quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower reservoir operations often impact tailwater quality and water quality in the stream or river below the impoundment for many miles. Determining optimal operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs involves solving a highly dimensional nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. This research adds the additional complexities of downstream water quality considerations within the optimization formulation to determine operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs operating in series (tandem) or parallel. The formulation was used to determine operating strategies for six reservoirs of the upper Cumberland river basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Significant dissolved oxygen (DO) violations occur just upstream of Nashville, Tennessee below Old Hickory dam during the months of August and September. Daily reservoir releases were determined for the period of June through September which would produce the maximum hydropower revenue while meeting downstream water quality objectives. Optimal releases for three operational strategies were compared to historical operations for the years 1985, 1986, and 1988. These strategies included: spilling as necessary to meet water quality criteria, near normal operation (minimal spills), and drawdown of reservoirs as necessary to meet criteria without spills. Optimization results showed an 8% to 15% hydropower loss may be necessary to meet water quality criteria through spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DOgh spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DO below Old Hickory may be possible without significant spills. Results also showed that substantial increases in initial headwater elevations would be necessary to meet daily DO criteria and avoid spills. The optimal control theory algorithm used to solve the problem proved to be an efficient and robust solver of this large optimization problem

210

A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

2014-01-01

211

Small hydropower in southern Africa - an overview of five countries in the region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small hydr [...] opower has played an important role in the history of providing electricity in the region. After a period with limited interest in applications of small hydropower, in all five countries, a range of stakeholders from policy makers to developers are showing a renewed interest in small hydropower. Although different models were followed, all five countries covered in the paper do currently see activities around grid connected small scale hydropower. Particular frameworks that facilitate IPPs and Power Purchase Agreements with the national utility do provide a basis for (local) commercial banks to provide finance. Off-grid hydropower for rural electrification purposes sees activities in the countries with an active (support) role of government in this respect only. Small hydropower, renewable energy technology has large potential across the southern Africa region, both for grid connected and off-grid applications. Historically, small hydropower played an important role in the development of the region. Since the mid-1960s, however, the main emphasis has been on centralised fossil fuel-based electricity generation. Developers and policy makers have only recently begun looking at small hydropower again.

Wim Jonker, Klunne.

212

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-05-01

213

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

214

Conduit-hydropower potential in the City of Tshwane water distribution system: A discussion of potential applications, financial and other benefits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In water distribution networks, water is often fed under gravity from a higher reservoir to another reservoir at a lower level. The residual pressure head at the receiving reservoir is then dissipated through control valves (mechanically or hydraulically actuated), sometimes augmented by orifice pla [...] tes where there is a propensity for cavitation. There are possibilities to add turbines in parallel and generate hydroelectricity at these locations using the flow and head available. The benefit of this hydropower generating application is that minimal civil works need to be done, as the control valves are normally inside a control room/valve chamber. No negative environmental or social effects require mitigation, and the anticipated lead times should be short. From a topographical perspective the City of Tshwane has a lower elevation than the bulk service reservoirs of Rand Water, which is the main water supply. Water is distributed through a large water system that includes 160 reservoirs, 42 water towers, 10 677 km of pipes and more than 260 pressure reducing stations (PRS) that operate at pressures of up to 250 m. The top ten hydropower potential sites in the City of Tshwane water distribution network have a total energy generating capacity of approximately 10 000 MWh/a. A number of potential conduit-hydropower sites have shown promise of short payback periods. The identifying and development of these sites in Tshwane to convert water pressure to electricity is ongoing and exploited further. Various challenges currently exist with reservoir communication in isolated areas due to vandalism and theft of necessary infrastructure, including electricity cables and solar panels. Because conduit-hydropower systems can be housed completely inside chambers, vandalism and theft can be mitigated. Therefore, one of the major benefits of hydropower turbines at these sites is that the hydroelectric potential could be exploited to power telemetry, pressure management, flow control and monitoring/security systems. Alternatively or additionally, other local demand and/or (depending upon the quantum of energy available) off-site energy demand clusters, or even a municipal or national grid, could also be serviced by these power stations. The capacity of hydroelectric installations can vary to suit the application for the amount of power needed or to be generated. Short payback periods, especially when using pumps as turbines, also make conduit-hydropower systems attractive

I, Loots; M, van Dijk; S J, van Vuuren; J N, Bhagwan; A, Kurtz.

2014-10-01

215

Studies of wind profile and estimation of surface layer scaling parameters for the coastal site of Tarapur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the directional dependence of surface scaling parameters namely roughness length and corresponding friction velocity, for neutral category of Tarapur coastal site. The average roughness length of lowest value of 0.07 m (SW) and the highest value of 0.32 m (E) and average friction velocity of lowest value 1.6 m/sec(SSE) and a highest value 2.8 m/sec (SW) for the year 2006 were observed. Wind profile studies for the coastal site Tarapur with the wind data measured from meteorological tower of 30m which is at 1500m downwind fetch distance from the coastal line in the east direction gave the wind profile index parameter 'p' as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.75 for Unstable, Neutral and Stable weather conditions respectively. Sector Average Turbulent kinetic energy estimated as 17.7m2/s2 and its dissipation rate is 3.1 m2/s3 for the 10m elevation from the surface. A surface drag coefficient CD for the 10m height is 0.0076 for the smooth ocean surface and 0.0107 for the land surface. (author)

216

Hydrological parameter estimations from a conservative tracer test with variable-density effects at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable predictions of groundwater flow and solute transport require an estimation of the detailed distribution of the parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity) controlling these processes. However, such parameters are difficult to estimate because of the inaccessibility and complexity of the subsurface. In this regard, developments in parameter estimation techniques and investigations of field experiments are still challenging and necessary to improve our understanding and the prediction of hydrological processes. Here we analyze a conservative tracer test conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site in 2001 in a heterogeneous unconfined fluvial aquifer. Some relevant characteristics of this test include: variable-density (sinking) effects because of the injection concentration of the bromide tracer, the relatively small size of the experiment, and the availability of various sources of geophysical and hydrological information. The information contained in this experiment is evaluated through several parameter estimation approaches, including a grid-search-based strategy, stochastic simulation of hydrological property distributions, and deterministic inversion using regularization and pilot-point techniques. Doing this allows us to investigate hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity distributions and to compare the effects of assumptions from several methods and parameterizations. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of variable-density transport processes and the hydrological relevance of incorporating various sources of information in parameter estimation approaches. Among others, the variable-density effect and the effective porosity distribution, as well as their coupling with the hydraulic conductivity structure, are seen to be significant in the transport process. The results also show that assumed prior information can strongly influence the estimated distributions of hydrological properties.

Dafflon, B.; Barrash, W.; Cardiff, M.; Johnson, T. C.

2011-12-01

217

Examination of methane ebullition in a Swiss hydropower reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

Ebullition is one of the most important methane emission pathways from inland water bodies, yet the stochastic nature of ebullition complicates its monitoring. Therefore, a bubble-calibrated 120 kHz split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60, Kongsberg Maritime) was utilized to survey the active ebullition area of a small temperate hydropower reservoir (Lake Wohlen, Switzerland), which is known for intense methane bubble release in summer. The performed bubble size calibration agreed well with the literature and the presented hydroacoustic technique to estimate methane bubble flux in the presence of non-bubble targets was determined to be the most appropriate post-processing method for this reservoir. The acoustically-determined average methane ebullition flux from the sediment to the water column from seven campaigns was 580 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (range, 130 to 1450). Bubble size distribution, which mostly included 1 to 20 mm diameter bubbles, was strongly related to the magnitude of sediment ebullition flux. The bubble size distribution is an important consideration when calculating the resulting surface efflux using a bubble dissolution model. Using the Sauter mean diameter to represent the volume to surface area to volume ratio of the bubble size distribution in the bubble model resulted in an average atmospheric emission of 490 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatially-averaged data and the standard deviation from seven sampling campaigns revealed areas of 'high' and 'low' ebullition fluxes that seemed to correlate to geomorphology of the reservoir, which still contains the former river channel. The hydroacoustic flux estimates were compared with other methods of methane flux assessments used simultaneously: the traditional chamber method and the eddy covariance technique combined with spectrometer methane measurements (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos Research). Chamber measurements on all but one day were higher than the hydroacoustic survey results (but within the same order of magnitude), which is likely due to the extended coverage of echosounder surveys identifying more areas of low fluxes. However, hydroacoustic assessments and eddy covariance measurements of methane flux were similar and both revealed a flux dependence on the time of day, which was further related to scheduled water level changes in the reservoir. While the eddy covariance technique can provide continuous data useful for correlating with external forcing factors related to emissions, echosounder surveys provide spatial-specific information and thus resolve the locations of methane ebullition. Ideally, combining these methods would allow for the best coverage of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ebullition over a given study site.

DelSontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; Eugster, W.; McGinnis, D. F.; Wehrli, B.

2012-04-01

218

Forsmark Site: M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the hydrochemical parameters in Forsmark groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work represents the stage 2.3 of the hydrochemical evaluation and modelling of the Forsmark data. This comprises M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the data along the boreholes. The following conclusions can be drawn: - M3 modelling helped to summarise and understand the data, by using as variables the major elements and the isotopes ?18O and ?D. - Previous alternative models and the experience from Forsmark 1.2, 2.1 and 2.2, helped to clarify different previously unsolved issues such as: the use of variables, tests with different endmembers, the use of only groundwater data in order to build a bedrock hydrochemical model. - The visualisation of the mixing proportions along the boreholes helps to understand the distribution of the data in the domain and to check and compare the results of different models; and therefore to chose the model which best describes the measured data. - The different M3 modelling tests resulted in the following conclusions: a) When calculating mixing proportions only samples from the boreholes will be used, b) the altered meteoric end-member which best describes the more shallow groundwater compositions is defined by a representative upper bedrock sample; the Littorina end-member employed the existing modelled compositions; the Deep saline and glacial end-members compositions were tested by means of a feasibility study and employed in the modelling. - Three models were presented. All the models are good and can be used, bl the models are good and can be used, but the best is to use the one that fits the conceptual model best and the hydrogeochemical understanding. - The use of Littorina, Glacial, Deep Saline and Altered Meteoric end-members makes possible the comparison of different sites such as Laxemar and Forsmark. - All the data used in the M3 modelling and the results of the modelling and visualisation along the boreholes are presented in SKB database SIMON. - The extended data do not affect the results of the modelling of the Forsmark 2.3 dataset (the difference between the mixing proportions calculated with both models is less than 1%)

219

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

220

The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered

221

Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

222

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2001-07-01

223

Rock Mass Classification of Karstic Terrain in the Reservoir Slopes of Tekeze Hydropower Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower reservoirs in deep gorges usually experience slope failures and mass movements. History also showed that some of these projects suffered severe landslides, which left lots of victims and enormous economic loss. Thus, it became vital to make substantial slope stability studies in such reservoirs to ensure safe project development. This study also presents a regional scale instability assessment of the Tekeze Hydropower reservoir slopes. Tekeze hydropower project is a newly constructed double arch dam that completed in August 2009. It is developed on Tekeze River, tributary of Blue Nile River that runs across the northern highlands of Ethiopia. It cuts a savage gorge 2000m deep, the deepest canyon in Africa. The dam is the highest dam in Ethiopia at 188m, 10 m higher than China's Three Gorges Dam. It is being developed by Chinese company at a cost of US350M. The reservoir is designed at 1140 m elevation, as retention level to store more than 9000 million m3 volume of water that covers an area of 150 km2, mainly in channel filling form. In this study, generation of digital elevation model from ASTER satellite imagery and surface field investigation is initially considered for further image processing and terrain parameters' analyses. Digitally processed multi spectral ASTER ortho-images drape over the DEM are used to have different three dimensional perspective views in interpreting lithological, structural and geomorphological features, which are later verified by field mapping. Terrain slopes are also delineated from the relief scene. A GIS database is ultimately developed to facilitate the delineation of geotechnical units for slope rock mass classification. Accordingly, 83 geotechnical units are delineated and, within them, 240 measurement points are established to quantify in-situ geotechnical parameters. Due to geotechnical uncertainties, four classification systems; namely geomorphic rock mass strength classification (RMS), slope mass rating (SMR), rock slope stability probability classification (SSPC) and geological strength index (GSI) are employed to classify the rock mass. The results are further compared with one another to delineate the instability conditions and produce an instability map of the reservoir slopes. Instability of the reservoir slopes is found to be mainly associated with daylighting discontinuities, thinly bedded/foliated slates, and karstified limestone. It is also noted that these features are mostly located in the regional gliding plane and shear zone, which are related with old slides scars. In general, the instabilities are found relatively far from the dam axis, in relatively less elevated and less steep slopes, which are going to be nearly covered by the impoundment; thus, they are normally expected to have less hazard in relation to the reservoir setting. Some minor failures will be generally expected during the reservoir filling.

Hailemariam Gugsa, Trufat; Schneider, Jean Friedrich

2010-05-01

224

Coherence between institutions and technologies - The case of mini hydropower in Switzerland  

OpenAIRE

Switzerland, with the forecasted electricity gap between domestic production and demand, aims to significantly increase renewable energy sources including hydropower. Mini hydropower (below 1MW) currently has considerable unused technical potential. As a renewable energy source (RES) it can contribute to climate change mitigation. CO2-taxes or emission trading systems (ETS) for planned thermal power plants could help facilitate mini hydropower (MHP). The technology is mature, but requires ade...

Crettenand, Nicolas

2009-01-01

225

The facilitation of mini and small hydropower through institutional mechanisms for development  

OpenAIRE

Mini and small hydropower is a renewable, clean and efficient resource for the production of mechanical and electrical power. By offsetting thermal generation, it can be a leading technology in climate change mitigation and sustainable development. Small hydropower plants combine the advantages of hydropower and decentralised power generation. There are limited environmental costs, marginal costs for the electricity transport, minor need for expensive maintenance and independence from importe...

Crettenand, Nicolas; Hemund, Carol

2010-01-01

226

The political ecology of hydropower development in Guatemala:Actors, power and spaces  

OpenAIRE

In this study I analyse the human and environmental interactions in the hydropower sector in Guatemala, with en emphasis on actors, spaces and power relations, using a political ecology framework. The local and civil society agency and participation in decision making about hydropower development has been explored through the various invited, claimed, and transformed spaces. Guatemala is a relevant case because of its potential for hydropower development; it is also a country with a high perc...

Hirsch, Cecilie Karina Von

2010-01-01

227

Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir wat...

Slavko Krajcar; Ivan Rajšl; Perica Ilak; Marko Delimar

2012-01-01

228

The economic value of short-term regulated hydropower production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic value of short-term regulation of hydropower depends on the marginal price of electricity. A systematic method to estimate the revenue from short-term regulated hydropower production has been developed. It can thus be used to compare the cost of different restrictions and constraints imposed on the regulation practice. Constraints on water level or discharge variations in the river can be imposed e.g because of environmental reasons. In this method the total hydropower production of the river is optimized. Input to the model consists of the amount of available water, the marginal price of production, price elasticity and the given constraints. The following constraints can be applied: maximum and minimum discharge at each power plant, maximum and minimum reservoir levels at each power plant, maximum variation of tailwaters at each power plant during the period of interest, maximum change of discharge per time unit and the minimum spinning reserves of the system. Output data comprises power output, discharge and water levels (head) at each power plant, and the calculated revenue based on produced power and the given marginal price of production. The method has two basic components: an optimization algorithm and a river simulation algorithm. The optimization algorithm is based on a quadratic cost function and a linear model. The model has been applied to Oulujoki River in Northern Finland. There are seven hydropower plants along the river, it is over 100 km plants along the river, it is over 100 km long and it is extensively used for peak power production. Two typical weeks were simulated with different restrictions set on water level variation and available amount of water

229

Thermographical analysis in hydropower plants; Thermografische Analysenverfahren in Wasserkraftwerken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this contribution thermography - contactless inspection method - is discussed. Beside other general information special applications in hydropower plants are presented devided in three section, namely: Inspection of electric devices, Inspection of mechanical devices, Inspection of buildings. (GL) [German] In diesem Beitrag soll die Thermografie - ein beruehrungsloses Inspektionsverfahren - betrachtet werden. Neben allgemeinen Informationen sollen die im Wasserkraftwerk moeglichen Anwendungen eroertert werden. Zunaechst sollen die fuer die Wasserkraftanlagen interessanten Anwendungen in drei Gebiete aufgeteilt werden: - Inspektion elektrischer Anlagen, - Inspektion mechanischer Anlagen, - Inspektion von Gebaeuden. (orig.)

Maurer, H.J.

2003-07-01

230

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STAGE –IV KOYNA HYDROPOWER PLANT  

OpenAIRE

Hydroelectric power contributes around 12.45 percent of the electricity supply in India. It is considered to be the most vital, unpolluted, emission-free and an inexpensive renewable source of energy. Hydroelectric power-plants operating all over the world aims to have high electric output with minimum maintenance cost. It’s very different with Koyna Hydropower Plant (KHPP) stage IV which generates lower electric output than the installed capacity with higher maintenance. This project aims ...

Mohd. Imran Ahmed; Abed, Siraj Y.

2014-01-01

231

Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids  

OpenAIRE

To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

Gustafsson, Martin

2013-01-01

232

Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

2013-06-01

233

Small hydropower plants in the region of Mariovo (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the results of an initial Pre-feasibility study within the framework of the PHARE Programme for Cross Border Cooperation between Republic of Macedonia and Republic of Greece. In this study we have looked at the existing research originating from three sources. The Strategies for Economic Development of Republic of Macedonia, the Development Plans of the Electric Power Company of Macedonia as well as the existing technical documentation and studies on a level of idea projects for specific location for small hydropower plants in Mariovo region. Furthermore, analysis and evaluation of this documentation is included. Research done in this region has produced evidence of numerous potential locations for small hydropower plants (total of 46) generating power between 58 kW and 4900 kW, discharging between 0,082 m3/s and 30 m3/s with a head between 6 m and 208 m for which we have detailed data. Furthermore, in the paper we pay attention to the enormous and so far unrealised hydro energetic power which could be utilised by constructing small hydropower plants in Republic of Macedonia. specifically in the Mariovo region. (Original)

234

Hydropower generation and storage, transmission constraints and market power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study hydropower generation and storage in the presence of uncertainty about future inflows, market power and limited transmission capacity to neighboring regions. Within our simple two-period model, market power leads to too little storage. The monopolist finds it profitable to produce more than the competitive amount in the first period and thereby stores little water in the first of two periods in order to become import constrained in the second period. In addition, little storage reduces the probability of becoming export constrained in the second period, even if the second period exhibits large inflow. Empirical findings for an area in the western part of Norway with only hydropower and high ownership concentration at the supply side, fit well to our theoretical model. We apply a numerical model to examine various policies to reduce the inefficiencies created by the local monopoly. Transmission investments have two effects. First, the export possibilities in the first period increase. More export leads to lower storage in the first period. Second, larger import capacity reduces the market power problem in the second period. The two opposite effects of transmission investments in a case with market power may be unique to hydropower systems. Introducing financial transmission rights enhance the market power of the monopolist in our model. Price caps in both or in the second period only, reduce the strategic value of water storage. (Author)r storage. (Author)

235

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

2013-06-01

236

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.enges of sustainability.

237

Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

Fall, Latsoucabe

2010-09-15

238

Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that economic policy measures could help improve the competitiveness of hydropower. All measures that aim to internalise external costs of power generation are considered as being particularly promising in this respect. Targeted aid for particular enterprises could be provided as a supporting measure

239

Watershed sediment balance and local denudation rate based on hydropower reservoir sedimentation data  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower reservoirs built in the lateral valleys of Valais (Switzerland) trap the sediment flux, so that their catchment areas become a sedimentary almost closed system, depending on hydrological regime and storage capacity. The rate of sediment infilling supplies data of sediment balance on the watershed. In this study, data of sediment volumes accumulated behind 11 hydropower dams and 3 settling basins were collected through bathymetrical surveys and camera or visual observations. Data analysis allows quantifying the sediment flux deposited since the time of dam construction and a local mean denudation rate can be assessed from a geographic information system. Estimated volumes are corrected according to the sediment trap efficiency of the reservoirs. The conversion of sediment volume into denudation rate is obtained according to the ratio of dry bulk density of the deposited material to solid bedrock density. Hence, density of loose sediment stored in the reservoir is estimated through grain-size distribution and degree of compaction. In some reservoirs, this evaluation was strongly restricted due to fragmentary information in space and time, so that the interpretation was limited to a general overview. In three watersheds, however, more data is available. A short-term trend of the sediment supply magnitude in the lake could be reconstructed. Local mean denudation rates range between 0.39 mm/y to 0.62 mm/y for 7 of 12 of the investigated watersheds. 2 highly-glaciated watersheds show a mean denudation rate of about 1.5 mm/y and 2 other have a rate below 0.15 mm/y. The overall mean denudation rate of the considered catchment areas is about 0.7 mm/y, which corresponds of an eroded mass of about 2'000 t/km2 per year. Results are compared to characteristic surface processes and discussed according to the geomorphology, the recent glacial retreat and the fluvial network connectivity. Quantitative data analysis of hydropower reservoir sedimentation is a complementary approach to existing methods, such as measurement of river sediment load and debris trap structures. The watershed sediment balance is fundamental information for the classification and understanding of slope erosion processes, as well as the inception condition of debris flows, which are key parameters in hazard assessment and reservoir management.

Loye, A.; Minoia, R.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Rouiller, J.-D.; Boillat, J.-L.

2009-04-01

240

Improving inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead-time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. We present here a new approach for issuing hourly reservoir inflow forecasts that aims to improve on existing forecasting models that are in place operationally, without needing to modify the pre-existing approach, but instead formulating an additive or complementary model that is independent and captures the structure the existing model may be missing. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an un-alterable constant parameter conceptual model, the models being demonstrated with reference to the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead-times up to 17 h. Season based evaluations indicated that the improvement in inflow forecasts varies across seasons and inflow forecasts in autumn and spring are less successful with the 95% prediction interval bracketing less than 95% of the observations for lead-times beyond 17 h.

Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

2014-10-01

241

Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.  

Science.gov (United States)

In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

2009-07-01

242

Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands  

Science.gov (United States)

La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

2012-08-01

243

Technical and economic qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing ecological and technical aspects of hydropower with other forms of electricity production, we are able to assess its potential in terms of economic added value. The most obvious benefits of hydropower are its storage capability, high level of efficiency, ease of control and provision of reactive power. An assessment of the technical qualities of hydropower encompasses today's power generation and capacity, as well as the interaction with the power transmission network in both normal operation and in the case of disturbances. The benefits of hydropower versus other forms of electricity production are as follows: an energy production with the highest level of electrical efficiency (between 80% and 90%); advantage of energy production via water storage systems; excellent tradability thanks to ready availability upon demand; ideally suited for use for bridging discrepancies between purchased volume and demand thanks to high efficiency at partial load; thanks to its ready availability, hydropower can be used to quickly restore power following major damage to, or disturbances in, the electricity transmission network; provision of reactive power. Hydropower offers the following economic benefits: in an open market, services provided by hydropower plants are compensated directly; higher energy prices have to be paid for load compensation; energy production from storage systems may be utilised like a call option; hydropower plants produce electricity from a renewar plants produce electricity from a renewable energy source, which makes it more easily marketable. (author)

244

Mini-hydropower development in human province of China and its position in the national economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hunan province is situated in the southern part of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. With a population of 61 million, it covers an area of about 211,800 km2, equivalent to forty percents of the territorial area of France. Throughout the province, there are more than 5300 rivers and 13000 reservoirs completed before 1991, of which over 7300 mini-hydropower stations are under operation. The theoretical hydropower potential is 15320 MW among them 12990 MW can be exploited with a total installed capacity of 1320 MW and an annual generation output of 4150 GWh. The paper will describe the general condition of the hydropower resources, development of mini-hydropower in Human province and its positive role in the national economy. Additionally, the standard of classification, the type of equipment for the medium and small-sized hydropower plants and market conditions in Hunan will be also involved in the paper. 5 tabs

245

Multi-impact evaluation of new medium and large hydropower plants in Portugal centre region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower plants projects, has been based mostly on technical and economical analyses focused on the electric production aspects. Nowadays a broader approach is necessary, which takes into consideration multiple impacts such as: Energy impacts; Water resources impacts; Social-economics development impacts; Agricultural sector impacts; Environmental impacts. In order to establish a ranking of the 14 new medium and large (power above 10 MW) hydropower plants identified in the Centre Region of Portugal, a multi-disciplinary team of Coimbra University carried out a study about the impacts associated to each of the hydropower plants. The analysis considered the different aspects associated to the multi-functional character of the hydropower plants. The overall ranking of the hydropower plants was achieved using a methodology that integrates the different aspects using a weighing function. (author)

Almeida, A.T. de; Moura, P.S. [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Marques, A.S.; Almeida, J.L. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2005-04-01

246

Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang @ Temerloh  

Science.gov (United States)

Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang @ Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang @ Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

Sidek, L. M.; Zaki, A. Z. A.; Mustaffa, Z.; Ibrahim, M. I. H.; Muda, Z. C.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Basri, H.

2013-06-01

247

Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang - Temerloh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are p>/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

248

Portfolio management of hydropower producer via stochastic programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a stochastic linear programming framework for the hydropower portfolio management problem with uncertainty in market prices and inflows on medium term. The uncertainty is modeled as a scenario tree using the Monte Carlo simulation method, and the objective is to maximize the expected revenue over the entire scenario tree. The portfolio decisions of the stochastic model are formulated as a tradeoff involving different scenarios. Numerical results illustrate the impact of uncertainty on the portfolio management decisions, and indicate the significant value of stochastic solution.

249

Portfolio management of hydropower producer via stochastic programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a stochastic linear programming framework for the hydropower portfolio management problem with uncertainty in market prices and inflows on medium term. The uncertainty is modeled as a scenario tree using the Monte Carlo simulation method, and the objective is to maximize the expected revenue over the entire scenario tree. The portfolio decisions of the stochastic model are formulated as a tradeoff involving different scenarios. Numerical results illustrate the impact of uncertainty on the portfolio management decisions, and indicate the significant value of stochastic solution. (author)

250

Contractual risk and liability sharing in hydropower construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Construction activities are uncertain and dynamic, and associated risks are often permanent and complex in construction projects. In large-scale infrastructure projects, theoretically, risks and liabilities should be fairly shared among project participants through contractual arrangements. In order to prevent unexpected risks and thus disputes during construction, international contractors should pay close attention to local project characteristics and contract practices. This paper identifies typical construction risks and describes the comparison between FIDIC (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils) and the Taiwanese government Conditions of Contract for hydropower construction projects. (author)

251

Wind power pumped storage system for hydropower plants  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis, an idea to use a wind pumped storage system to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir and use it to reduce the construction size of a new reservoir or to increase electricity production in a hydropower plant, is presented. Instead of using a wind turbine to produce electricity to drive the pumps, a shaft is proposed to connect the wind turbine and the pumps. A profitability assessment is performed for the reservoir reduction and the electricity production. A w...

Árni Vignir Pálmason 1963

2010-01-01

252

Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm3. The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

253

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

None

1979-07-01

254

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

255

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters

256

Application of Geochemical Parameters for the Early Detection of CO2 Leakage from Sequestration Sites into Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Geologically sequestered CO2 is buoyant, has a low viscosity and, when dissolved in brine, becomes reactive to minerals and well pipes. These properties of CO2 may cause it to leak upward, possibly contaminating underground sources of drinking water. We have participated in several multi-laboratory field experiments to investigate the chemical and isotopic parameters that are applicable to monitoring the flow of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifers and into potable shallow groundwater. Geochemical results from the deep SECARB Phase III tests at Cranfield oil field, Mississippi, and from the Frio Brine I and II pilots located in the S. Liberty oil field, Dayton, Texas, proved powerful tools in: 1- Tracking the successful injection and flow of CO2 into the injection sandstones; 2- showing major changes in the chemical (pH, alkalinity, and major divalent cations) and isotopic (?13C values of CO2, and ?18O values of CO2 and brine) compositions of formation water; 3-. showing mobilization of metals, including Fe Mn and Pb, and organic compounds , including DOC, BTEX, PAHs, and phenols following CO2 injection; and 4- showing that some of the CO2 injected into the Frio "C" sandstone was detected in the overlying "B" sandstone that is separated from it by 15 m of shale and siltstone. Rapid, significant and systematic changes were also observed in the isotopic and chemical compositions of shallow groundwater at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site located in Bozeman, Montana, in response to four yearly injections of variable amounts of CO2 gas through a slotted pipe placed horizontally at a depth of ~2 m below ground level. The observed changes, included the lowering of groundwater pH from ~7.0 to values as low as 5.6, increases in the alkalinity from about 400 mg/L as HCO3 to values of up to 1330 mg/L, increases in the electrical conductance from ~600 ?S/cm to up to 1800 ?S/cm, as well as increases in the concentrations of cations and metals following CO2 injection. Geochemical modeling, sequential extractions of cations from the ZERT-aquifer sediments, and controlled laboratory CO2-groundwater-sediment interactions demonstrated that calcite dissolution and ion exchange on organic material and inorganic mineral surfaces are responsible for the observed chemical changes. Results from both the deep and shallow field tests show that geochemical methods have highly sensitive chemical and isotopic tracers that are needed at CO2 injection sites to monitor injection performance and for early detection of any CO2 and brine leakages.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Beers, S.; Thordsen, J.; Thomas, B.; Campbell, P.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Abedini, A. A.

2011-12-01

257

A progress report on DOE's advanced hydropower turbine systems program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent hydropower research within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on the development of new turbine designs that can produce hydroelectricity without such adverse environmental affects as fish entrainment/impingement or degradation of water quality. In partnership with the hydropower industry, DOE's advanced turbine program issued a Request for Proposals for conceptual designs in October 1994. Two contracts were awarded for this initial program phase, work on which will be complete this year. A technical advisory committee with representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and natural resource agencies was also formed to guide the DOE turbine research. The lack of quantitative biological performance criteria was identified by the committee as a critical knowledge gap. To fill this need, a new literature review was completed on the mechanisms of fish mortality during turbine passage (e.g., scrape/strike, shear, press change, etc.), ways that fish behavior affects their location and orientation in turbines, and how these turbine passage stresses can be measured. Thus year, new Laboratory tests will be conducted on fish response to shear, the least-well understood mechanism of stress. Additional testing of conceptual turbine designs depends on the level of federal funding for this program

258

Loss of European silver eel passing a hydropower station  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to assess escapement success of silver eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in a lowland river while passing a reservoir and a hydropower station. It was hypothesized that passage success would be lowest at the hydropower station and that survival and migration speed would be highest in the free-flowing river section upstream the reservoir. Forty-five female silver eels 56–86 cm in length were tagged with acoustic transmitters and released in November 2006. Their migration was monitored via automatic listening stations (ALS) in various sections of the river, covering a total migration distance of 64 km. Survival and progression rate of downstream migration was highest in the upstream river section and significantly lower in the reservoir. The eels apparently had trouble finding their way past the turbines and spent between 1.5 and 35 h in the forebay. The results show that within the study period, only 23% of the tagged eels reached the tidal limit, mainly due to difficulties in passing thehydropower dam. With such high loss-rates, the escapement goals set in the management plan cannot be achieved

Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels

2012-01-01

259

Stormwater Storage Pond Configuration for Hydropower Solutions: Adaptation and Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze different storage pond configurations used to manage the water inflow from storm events and to establish a methodology to optimize the energy production using this water. The case study area is a catchment based on the Alcântara zone, in Lisbon, Portugal. This is an urban area, which faces severe occurrences of storm events. These events are caused by a non-efficient drainage system, and the proximity of the river and the sea, which cannot handle large storm event inflows. Due to climate change effects, the storm rainfall hyetographs are modified and runoff in this urban area has increased for the last decades causing major inundations.The Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI MIKE BASIN (MB and Bentley PondPack software are used to define solutions for this case study by embodying some of the Alcântara’s catchment characteristics. Different relevant components used to create the models are presented. In order to model completely the studied area, several physical elements such as reservoirs or hydropower plants are included. The Nedbør-Afstrømnings-Model (NAM model is also presented. It is a rainfall-runoff simulator, included in DHI MB, which can create runoff time series from rainfall time series. The methodologies used to optimize energy production in each of case studies developed are detailed. Results are presented showing that some ponds configurations permit to produce more energy than others and the production of energy can be maximized by optimizing the hydropower production target demand.

Helena M Ramos

2012-07-01

260

A neural network optimizer for scheduling hydropower generations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Short-term scheduling of hydropower is complex because it has a nonlinear objective function of the reservoir storage and release. There are also constraints on reservoir storage volume and net reservoir release variables. Many techniques for solving such problems have been reported in literature, but they require long computational time. This paper proposed a neural network optimizer based on the Lagrange multiplier method to determine the optimal hourly water release from reservoirs over the entire planning time intervals to minimize the overall energy shortages over the planning horizon. The proposed algorithm was applied to a 4 reservoir interconnected network in which each hydropower plant had a nonlinear generation function. Optimal hydro-scheduling involves finding the periodic water releases from each reservoir and through each power house while minimizing the energy shortages from overall demand. The ALPNN optimizer was used to determine the optimal hourly amounts of water releases from each reservoir during each interval to meet the operational objectives. The approach considers the concurrent interaction among all the water release variables of the problem. The approach also takes into account the water transportation delays between upstream and downstream reservoirs. Results were compared with those obtained using the conventional augmented Lagrange multiplier method. It was concluded that the proposed method is very effective in providing a good optimal solution along with constraint satisfaction. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

Sharma, V.; Naresh, R. [National Inst. of Technology, Hamirpur (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Jha, R. [National Inst. of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab (India). Dept. of Instrumentation and Control Engineering

2009-07-01

261

Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

2006-07-01

262

Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this challenge, the following study was designed to investigate the potential for wind power integration to alter riparian flow regimes below hydroelectric dams. A hydrological model of a three-dam cascade in the Roanoke River basin (Virginia, USA) is interfaced with a simulated electricity market (i.e. a unit commitment problem) representing the Dominion Zone of PJM Interconnection. Incorporating forecasts of electricity demand, hydro capacity and wind availability, a mixed-integer optimization program minimizes the system cost of meeting hourly demand and reserve requirements by means of a diverse generation portfolio (e.g. nuclear, fossil, hydro, and biomass). A secondary 'balancing' energy market is executed if real-time wind generation is less than the day-ahead forecast, calling upon reserved generation resources to meet the supply shortfall. Hydropower release schedules are determined across a range of wind development scenarios (varying wind's fraction of total installed generating capacity, as well as its geographical source region). Flow regimes for each wind development scenario are compared against both historical and simulated flows under current operations (negligible wind power), as well as simulated natural flows (dam removal), in terms of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Results quantify the ability of wind power development to alter within-week stream flows downstream from hydropower dams.

Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

2012-12-01

263

EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

None

2011-12-01

264

Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs  

Science.gov (United States)

In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

2014-04-01

265

The impact of global change on the hydropower potential of Europe: a model-based analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a model-based approach for analyzing the possible effects of global change on Europe's hydropower potential at a country scale. By comparing current conditions of climate and water use with future scenarios, an overview is provided of today's potential for hydroelectricity generation and its mid- and long-term prospects. The application of the global water model WaterGAP for discharge calculations allows for an integrated assessment, taking both climate and socioeconomic changes into account. This study comprises two key parts: First, the 'gross' hydropower potential is analyzed, in order to outline the general distribution and trends in hydropower capabilities across Europe. Then, the assessment focuses on the 'developed' hydropower potential of existing hydropower plants, in order to allow for a more realistic picture of present and future electricity production. For the second part, a new data set has been developed which geo-references 5991 European hydropower stations and distinguishes them into run-of-river and reservoir stations. The results of this study present strong indications that, following moderate climate and global change scenario assumptions, severe future alterations in discharge regimes have to be expected, leading to unstable regional trends in hydropower potentials with reductions of 25% and more for southern and southeastern European countries. (author)

266

The impact of global change on the hydropower potential of Europe: a model-based analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a model-based approach for analyzing the possible effects of global change on Europe's hydropower potential at a country scale. By comparing current conditions of climate and water use with future scenarios, an overview is provided of today's potential for hydroelectricity generation and its mid- and long-term prospects. The application of the global water model WaterGAP for discharge calculations allows for an integrated assessment, taking both climate and socioeconomic changes into account. This study comprises two key parts: First, the 'gross' hydropower potential is analyzed, in order to outline the general distribution and trends in hydropower capabilities across Europe. Then, the assessment focuses on the 'developed' hydropower potential of existing hydropower plants, in order to allow for a more realistic picture of present and future electricity production. For the second part, a new data set has been developed which geo-references 5991 European hydropower stations and distinguishes them into run-of-river and reservoir stations. The results of this study present strong indications that, following moderate climate and global change scenario assumptions, severe future alterations in discharge regimes have to be expected, leading to unstable regional trends in hydropower potentials with reductions of 25% and more for southern and southeastern European countries

267

Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

Ricardo, Mateus

2007-07-01

268

Development and practical testing of an action plan for the environmentally compatible use of hydropower; Erarbeitung und Praxiserprobung eines Massnahmenplanes zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Wasserkraftnutzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of rivers for generating electric power and the efforts to conserve important ecological habitats mark a classic conflict between two different aims of society. While passing hydropower plants migrating fish risk injuries and death. This affects the development of fish populations, particularly of diadromous fish populations in river basins. The aim of this study was to find conditions for serving a self sustaining fish population in the Weser basin. The influence of the river continuity and the quality of spawning and nursery habitats were varied. The survival rates of the diadromous species salmon and eel were modeled on the basis of literature data and additional data from own investigations. A self-reproducing salmon population would require the upstream and downstream passibility at each obstacle. Especially the protection at hydropower plants in the tributaries is of major importance. In addition, the hydro-morphological conditions of the spawning habitats have to be improved and further losses (such as predation or fishing) must be decreased. The survival rate of 40%, required by the EC Regulation on European eel can be achieved by the establishment of upstream continuity at all sites and by protective measures at the hydropower plants in the tributaries of the Weser. (orig.)

Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

2011-05-15

269

Preliminary analysis of important site-specific dose assessment parameters and exposure pathways applicable to a groundwater release scenario at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop capabilities for compliance determination, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducts total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) in an iterative manner. Because the new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for YM may set a dose or risk limit, an auxiliary study was conducted to develop estimates of site-specific dose assessment parameters for future TSPAS. YM site-relevant data was obtained for irrigation, agriculture, resuspension, crop interception, and soil. A Monte Carlo based importance analysis was used to identify predominant parameters for the groundwater pathway. In this analysis, the GENII-S code generated individual annual total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) for 20 nuclides and 43 sampled parameters based upon unit groundwater concentrations. Scatter plots and correlation results indicate the crop interception fraction, food transfer factors, consumption rates, and irrigation rate are correlated with TEDEs for specific nuclides. Influential parameter groups correspond to expected pathway readily to plants, such as 99Tc, indicate crop ingestion pathway parameters are most highly correlated with the TEDE, and those that transfer to milk (59Ni) or beef (79Se, 129I, 135Cs, 137Cs) show predominant correlations with animal product ingestion pathway parameters. Such relationships provide useful insight to important paips provide useful insight to important parameters and exposure pathways applicable to doses from specific nuclides

270

Numerical simulation of catastrophic flood: the case study of hypothetical failure of the Bielkowo hydro-power plant reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

The numerical modeling of flood wave propagation following the hypothetical breaks of the embankments of the Bielkowo hydro-power plant storage reservoir (Kolbudy II Reservoir) on the Radunia River in Poland has been presented. The results of computations were used to estimate the parameters of the flood waves, which are indispensable for the flood zone determination and mapping and then for the flood risk analysis. When estimating the reach and area of the inundation, related to the embankments failures, digital terrain model, and mathematical model of flood wave propagation are necessary. For the numerical simulations of flood, the mathematical model of free surface, two-dimensional unsteady water flow was applied. Four locations of potential breaks of the reservoir embankments were considered. The computed flood zones were presented on the flood hazard maps. The maps have been used by the local authorities and the dam owner to manage the flood risk related to hydro-power plants operations on the Radunia River. This type of research has been done for the first time for the water plant managed by the ENERGA Elektrownie Straszyn.

Szyd?owski, Micha?; Szpakowski, Wojciech; Zima, Piotr

2013-10-01

271

Study on the stability of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the fact that the effects of penstock, unit and governor on stability of water level fluctuation for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber are neglected in previous researches, in this paper, Thoma assumption is broken through, the complete mathematical model of waterpower-speed control system for hydropower station with air cushion surge chamber is established, and the comprehensive transfer function and linear homogeneous differential equation that characterize the dynamic characteristics of system are derived. The stability domain that characterizes the good or bad of stability quantitatively is drawn by using the stability conditions. The effects of the fluid inertia in water diversion system, the air cushion surge chamber parameters, hydraulic turbine characteristics, generator characteristics, and regulation modes of governor on the stability of waterpower-speed control system are analyzed through stability domain. The main conclusions are as follows: The fluid inertia in water diversion system and hydraulic turbine characteristics have unfavorable effects on the system while generator characteristics have favorable effect. The stability keeps getting better with the increase of chamber height and basal area and the decrease of air pressure and air polytropic exponent. The stability of power regulation mode is obviously better than that of frequency regulation mode.

Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Teng, Y.

2014-12-01

272

Ecological quality of hydropower in comparison with other ways of producing electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article compares the ecological quality of hydropower with other electricity production systems. Hydropower is compared with steam-turbine power stations burning coal, oil or uranium and combined gas turbine / steam turbine power stations with natural gas firing. Also, hydropower is compared with wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). The methodology of the assessment of the ecological quality of the various systems is discussed. The results of the comparison and suggestions for the improvement of the ecological quality of the various systems are presented

273

Small Hydropower Projects for Rural Electrification in Nigeria: A Developer’s Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Power generation in developing nations is a vital index for the socio-economic development of these countries. Renewable and sustainable options for electric power generation have become attractive to many nations. This paper addresses power generation for rural applications by means of small hydropower plants. A flowchart is developed for use by Power utilities and Independent Power Producers that are interested in small hydropower generation. Recommendations and possible cost reductions for small hydropower projects for interested developers are also highlighted.

Anyaka Boniface Onyemaechi,

2013-10-01

274

Hydropower potential of Switzerland. Possibilities and limits; Wasserkraftpotenzial der Schweiz. Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower accounts for more than 50 % of the Swiss power generation and is considered its backbone. Given the governmental exclamation of phasing-out the operation of nuclear energy plants and promoting renewable energies instead, the importance of hydropower is going to further increase. In particular, this applies to its most valuable strengths; i.e., flexibility in generation and capacity for storage. Regarding the annual production, Switzerland has reached roughly 85-90 % of the hydropower potential. Whether the remaining potential can be developed strongly depends upon the economic benefit and ecological restrictions. The present article gives an overview on possibilities and limits. (orig.)

Pfammatter, Roger [Schweizerischer Wasserwirtschaftsverband (SWV), Baden (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

275

Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are combined into a robust and fast data cleansing and interpolation system. One experience from this work is that advanced interpolation techniques (kriging), do not outperform calibrated inverse distance methods when also computational speed is used as a criteria for model selection. The paper also discusses several challenges related to uncertainty in simulated snow reservoir, regionalization of parameters, choice of spatial resolution, techniques for reducing computational needs without compromising information needs, amongst others.

Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

2014-05-01

276

Parameter-induced uncertainty quantification of crop yields, soil N2O and CO2 emission for 8 arable sites across Europe using the LandscapeDNDC model  

Science.gov (United States)

When using biogeochemical models to estimate greenhouse gas emissions at site to regional/national levels, the assessment and quantification of the uncertainties of simulation results are of significant importance. The uncertainties in simulation results of process-based ecosystem models may result from uncertainties of the process parameters that describe the processes of the model, model structure inadequacy as well as uncertainties in the observations. Data for development and testing of uncertainty analisys were corp yield observations, measurements of soil fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from 8 arable sites across Europe. Using the process-based biogeochemical model LandscapeDNDC for simulating crop yields, N2O and CO2 emissions, our aim is to assess the simulation uncertainty by setting up a Bayesian framework based on Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Using Gelman statistics convergence criteria and parallel computing techniques, enable multi Markov Chains to run independently in parallel and create a random walk to estimate the joint model parameter distribution. Through means distribution we limit the parameter space, get probabilities of parameter values and find the complex dependencies among them. With this parameter distribution that determines soil-atmosphere C and N exchange, we are able to obtain the parameter-induced uncertainty of simulation results and compare them with the measurements data.

Santabarbara, Ignacio; Haas, Edwin; Kraus, David; Herrera, Saul; Klatt, Steffen; Kiese, Ralf

2014-05-01

277

Sustainable planning of the operation of reservoirs for hydropower generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reliability programming model was developed to consider the uncertainty in inflows and energy demands in planning the operation of single or multipurpose water reservoirs. The model was also designed to evaluate the hydrologic risks as a measure of the system not being able to satisfy the storage requirements for hydropower generation and flood control. The model determines the optimal levels of risk by trading off the total benefits accrued from the operation with the economic losses which may be incurred as a consequence of these risk levels. Direct implementation of the reliability model was found to be limited by the assumption of independence between monthly reservoir inflows, which tends to lead to conservative planning of the operation of reservoirs. Three new approaches were proposed to alleviate the problem of conservative planning, thus making the model a robust tool for planning purposes. Application and practical implementation of the reliability model were demonstrated in a case study for Manitoba Hydro. refs., figs

278

Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans

279

Optimised deployment of hydro-power generation facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how the opening-up of the European electricity market has led to the creation of more room for manoeuvre in the deployment of the generation capacity of dam and pumped-storage-based hydropower facilities and low-head power stations. Software tools for the optimisation of the operation of power generation facilities that can take care of complex hydraulic interdependencies are described. The use of the software for the assessment of new installations being planned or of older installations being extended is examined. The influence of climatic conditions, market prices for power, the general requirements placed on the system and other influences on financial gain are looked at. The article makes recommendations on those factors influencing the design of the software and for its optimal use in practice

280

Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the smoke spreading in the transport passage under different mechanical exhaust rates, and the same smoke spreading processes are simulated using FDS. By comparing the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and FDS simulations, it is showed that the mechanical exhaust rate prescribed in the regulation of China is adequate for the transport passage of main transformer under a main transformer hall fire.

Jiang Hu

2012-09-01

281

Modelling the impact of large dams on flows and hydropower production of the Sekong, Sesan and Srepok Rivers in the Mekong Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

Water flow patterns in the Mekong River and its tributaries are changing due to water resources development, particularly as a result of on-going rapid hydropower development of tributaries for economic growth. Local communities and international observers are concerned that alterations of natural flow patterns will have great impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem services, food securing and livelihood in the basin. There is also concern that un-coordinated dam development will have an adverse impact on energy production potential of individual hydropower plants. Of immediate concern is the proposed hydropower development in the transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Srekong (3S) Basin, which contributes up to 20% of the Mekong's annual flows, has a large potential for energy production, and provides critical ecosystem services to local people and the downstream Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong delta. To assess the magnitude of potential changes in flows and hydropower production, daily flows were simulated over 20 years (1986-2005) using the SWAT and HEC ResSim models for a range of dam development and operations scenarios. Simulations of all current and proposed hydropower development in the 3S basin (41 dams) using an operation scheme to maximize electricity production will increase average dry seasonal flows by 88.1% while average wet seasonal flows decrease by 24.7% when compared to the baseline (no dams) scenario, About 55% of dry season flows changes are caused by the seven largest proposed dams (Lower Srepok 3, Lower Srepok4, Lower Sesan 3, Lower Sesan and Srepok 2, Xekong 5, Xekong 4, and Xe Xou). The total active storage of the existing and ongoing hydropower projects is only 6,616 million m3 while the cumulative active storage of the seven large proposed dams is 17,679 million m3. The Lower Srepok 3 project causes the highest impact on seasonal flow changes. Average energy production of the existing and ongoing hydropower projects is 73.2 GWh/day. Additional benefits from energy production of the seven large proposed dams (33.0 GWh/day) are less than half compared to the cumulative benefits of the exiting and ongoing projects. In total, potential energy production of all dams is 129.1 GWh/day. Cascade dam simulations, under an independent operation regime, result in high electricity production of downstream dams, particularly of small storage dams. Hourly flow alterations, however, can be significant due to intra daily reservoir operations and warrant further study as well as impact of climate change on flows and hydropower operation. Strategic site selection and coordinated reservoir operations between countries and dam operators are necessary to achieve an acceptable level of energy production in the basin and mitigate negative impacts to seasonal flow patterns which sustain downstream ecosystem productivity and livelihoods.

Piman, T.; Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.

2013-12-01

282

Guide for assessing relicensing risk for hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the years since enactment of the Electric Consumers' Protection Act of 1986 (ECPA), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has become more exacting, special interests have become more potent, applicants are less willing to propose new development, and the process has become longer and more risky as measured in the following ways: (1) Is relicensing measurably more difficult since 1986? Yes. Since 1986, the time required for FERC to process an application is longer, particularly for projects over 3 MW. The FERC noted deficiencies or requested additional information from virtually every project whose license expired in 1993 (the open-quotes Class of 1993close quotes). Every project over 3 MW had multiple commenters and interveners. Competition for relicenses was rare because of the difficulty and cost of the process. More relicenses were completed in court because of more frequent challenges of FERC's ultimate authority to balance resources. (2) Is there increased risk for post-1986 relicensing applicants? Yes. While there is little chance that a project filing a relicense application will not ultimately receive a relicense, nearly two-thirds of recently relicensed projects lost generation and output. By 1991, 100 percent of the relicenses issued had reopener articles or open-ended requirements, indicating unresolved issues. (3) Is there measurable increased cost for post-1986 relicenses? Yes. The cost of relicensing a hydropower project is strongly related a hydropower project is strongly related to the time spent in the process. Processing time for relicenses has more than doubled in the past four years, greatly increasing the administrative and refinancing costs of relicensing. (4) What is the relicensing risk for your project? This section provides very specific guidance to allow self-assessment of risk by those who are considering whether or not to relicense their projects

283

Challenges in model-data fusion: Detecting and quantifying parameter equifinality and uncertainty in a recently clear-cut site in Harvard forest  

Science.gov (United States)

Model-data fusion techniques have been increasingly used to forge new understanding on the carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the atmosphere and land. Such techniques integrate multiple data streams into a modeling framework and derive parameter estimates by maximizing the fit between model predictions and observations. These techniques are advantageous because they overcome some of the challenges in parameter estimation caused by mismatches of scale of data collected and analyzed, inability to transfer parameter values in space and time, and lack of direct field based observations. Most of the attention in past model-data fusion studies has been with deriving model parameters, and subsequently applying those parameters to model underlying fluxes. However the caveats of these techniques need to be addressed for deriving meaningful parameter estimates to understand the processes controlling these fluxes. One of the major problems in the modeling process relates to parameter equifinality (i.e., correlations) where non-unique parameter solutions exist that can explain the variability in observed data. Parameter equifinality is associated with different model parameter estimates producing sufficiently high fit between model predictions and observations. This study presents a new set of statistical measures to detect and quantify parameter equifinality in a model-data fusion scheme, and applies these measures to a SVAT (soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer) model constrained by multiple data streams (e.g., eddy covariance and micrometerological observations) in a recently clear-cut forest site in Harvard forest, Massachusetts. The results of this study demonstrate that equifinality is a complex phenomenon, and varies with the size of the parameter space. The parameters influenced by equifinality can be segregated into discrete groups. For example, maximum Rubisco capacity, Ball-Berry slope, and leaf area index parameters belong to a highly correlated parameter group because different values of these parameters can replicate the same ecosystem productivity level observed in the field data. Finally some of the broader challenges encountered in model-data fusion studies are presented. These challenges relate to data complexity, parameter identification, constraining variables, algorithm characteristics, cost function and model over-fitting.

Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Panday, P. K.

2012-12-01

284

Finding Multiple Optimal Solutions to Optimal Load Distribution Problem in Hydropower Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimal load distribution (OLD among generator units of a hydropower plant is a vital task for hydropower generation scheduling and management. Traditional optimization methods for solving this problem focus on finding a single optimal solution. However, many practical constraints on hydropower plant operation are very difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled, and the optimal solution found by those models might be of limited practical uses. This motivates us to find multiple optimal solutions to the OLD problem, which can provide more flexible choices for decision-making. Based on a special dynamic programming model, we use a modified shortest path algorithm to produce multiple solutions to the problem. It is shown that multiple optimal solutions exist for the case study of China’s Geheyan hydropower plant, and they are valuable for assessing the stability of generator units, showing the potential of reducing occurrence times of units across vibration areas.

Xinhao Jiang

2012-05-01

285

Rietveld refinement of site-occupancy parameters of Mg2-xMnxSiO4 using a new weight function in least-squares fitting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystal structures of olivine-type Mg2-xMnxSiO4 (x = 0, 1, 1.4 and 2) were refined using high-resolution synchrotron radiation data and the Rietveld method, adopting the new weight function with the form 1/Yoe (e ? 2) (Yo is the observed profile intensity) [Toraya (1998)]. Positional parameters were accurately determined by optimizing e in 1/Yoe. Derived structures were in accordance with observations on olivine structures, having a constant tetrahedral Si-O distance and octahedral metal-oxygen distances which increase linearly on substitution of octahedral atoms with those having larger atomic radii. Site-occupancy parameters of octahedral atoms were refined under various refinement conditions and could be determined within ±1.2% under the constraint of chemical composition. Deviations of x from assumed chemical compositions, when the site-occupancy parameters were refined without the constraint, were 1.0-3.5% using the new weight function; they are comparable with values obtained in single-crystal studies on Mg-Fe olivine (0.5-2.7%). The use of atomic scattering factors for fully ionized atoms gave better site-occupancy parameters, by 0.1-2.5%, than those for neutral atoms in the present analysis. (orig.)

286

Studies of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters and the defect structure for Cu2+ at the rhombic Be2+ site of beryl crystal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spin-Hamiltonian (SH) parameters (g factors gi and hyperfine structure constants Ai, where i=x, y, z) for Cu2+ at the rhombic Be2+ site of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) crystals are calculated from both the perturbation theory method (PTM) and the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CDM). The two methods are based on the cluster approach and so both the contribution to the SH parameters from the spin-orbit coupling parameters of central dn ion and that of ligand ion are included. The calculated results from the two theoretical methods are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values, suggesting that both methods are effective for the studies of SH parameters of 3d9 ion in rhombic symmetry. The defect structural data (which are unlike the corresponding data in the host beryl crystal) of the rhombic Cu2+ center in beryl are also acquired from the calculations. The results are discussed.

287

SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production  

Science.gov (United States)

The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious problem, and there is a strong need of a more accurate planning and management optimization of the resources. The partnership includes a well balance mixing of public administrations, agencies ruling hydropower development, water bodies conservation and scientific institutions having the most advanced technology applied to water management and hydropower generation. Furthermore, a permanent "consultant panel" integrated by target groups representatives from different European countries are involved in key decisions and meetings, that guaranty a concrete regional scale participation. The present work reports the overall strategy of the project and the description of the main informatic tools that are under development and implementation in five pilot regions, located in Italy, Austria, Romania, Slovenia and Greece. Keywords: WFD Directive, RES-e Directive, water multi-purpose uses, renewable energy, small hydropower production, environmental balance, minimum environmental flow, flood protection

Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

2010-05-01

288

Viewpoint – The role of the German development cooperation in promoting sustainable hydropower  

OpenAIRE

After long and intense discussions on the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams (WCD), large dams are back on the agenda of international finance institutions. Asia, Latin America and Africa are planning to expand their hydropower utilisation. Hydropower is a key component of renewable energy, and therefore supports protection against climate change. Water storage over the long term and flood control are the main issues discussed with regard to climate adaptation measures.Such trend...

Cathleen Seeger; Kirsten Nyman; Richard Twum

2010-01-01

289

Optimal Operation of Multi-Objective Hydropower Reservoir with Ecology Consideration  

OpenAIRE

Aiming at the problem that traditional optimal operation of hydropower reservoir pays little attention to ecology, an optimal operation model of multi-objective hydropower reservoir with ecology consideration is established which combines the ecology and power generation. The model takes the maximum annual power generation benefit, the maximum output of the minimal output stage in the year and the minimum shortage of ecological water demand as objectives, and water quantity balance of reservo...

Xuewen Wu; Xianfeng Huang; Guohua Fang; Fei Kong

2011-01-01

290

Viewpoint – Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change  

OpenAIRE

Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD) report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin wate...

Jamie Pittock

2010-01-01

291

Small Hydropower Projects for Rural Electrification in Nigeria: A Developer’s Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Power generation in developing nations is a vital index for the socio-economic development of these countries. Renewable and sustainable options for electric power generation have become attractive to many nations. This paper addresses power generation for rural applications by means of small hydropower plants. A flowchart is developed for use by Power utilities and Independent Power Producers that are interested in small hydropower generation. Recommendations and possible cost reductions for...

Anyaka Boniface Onyemaechi,; Imeaka I. Charles,

2013-01-01

292

A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties  

OpenAIRE

It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, “ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration—Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts—Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants,” ...

Na?sselqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpa?a?, Jan-olov

2013-01-01

293

Thermal counditions of the lower sava river during the construction of a chain of hydropower plants  

OpenAIRE

The thermal burden of the lower Sava River from the already existing infrastructure operating along its stream is increasing due to the new hydropower plants that are being built in the area. In the year 2003, an evaluation study based on different mathematical models was made concerning the influence of Trbovlje Thermoelectric Power Plant, Krško Nuclear Power Plant and the existing hydropower plants on river water temperature rise by the company IBE. In 2007, a continuous temperature monito...

Volkar, Nina

2011-01-01

294

Scenario based learning regarding contested articulations of sustainability: The example of hydropower and Sweden's energy future:  

OpenAIRE

Providing electricity from renewable sources is of key importance both to reduce depletion of fossil fuels and reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses. Many of the renewable energy technologies are not ideal for electricity networks. Reservoir hydropower is one of the most ideal renewable sources as it can store energy efficiently, and can be made quickly available in cases of peak loads. Reservoir hydropower generation has considerable impact on the landscape. Reservoirs and dams are perhap...

Mulder, K. F.; Petrik, O.; Parandian, A.; Grondahl, F.

2012-01-01

295

STABILTY ASSESSMENT OF HEADRACE TUNNEL SYSTEM FOR PUNATSANGCHHU II HYDROPOWER PROJECT, BHUTAN  

OpenAIRE

Bhutan is a small Buddhist country nested in the cradles of the eastern Himalayas. It has rugged mountainous terrains with altitudes ranging from 500 masl in its southern plains to 4500masl in the snowy capped mountains in north. This rugged mountainous topography blessed Bhutan with huge hydropower potential. The hydropower potential of Bhutan is estimated at 30000MW with projects above 10MW capacity as per the power system master plan. This is one of the highest in the world considering its...

Tshering, Karma

2012-01-01

296

Normalized sensitivities and parameter identifiability of in situ diffusion experiments on Callovo-Oxfordian clay at Bure site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DIR (Diffusion of Inert and Reactive tracers) is an experimental program performed by ANDRA at Bure underground research laboratory in Meuse/Haute Marne (France) to characterize diffusion and retention of radionuclides in Callovo-Oxfordian (C-Ox) argillite. In situ diffusion experiments were performed in vertical boreholes to determine diffusion and retention parameters of selected radionuclides. C-Ox clay exhibits a mild diffusion anisotropy due to stratification. Interpretation of in situ diffusion experiments is complicated by several non-ideal effects caused by the presence of a sintered filter, a gap between the filter and borehole wall and an excavation disturbed zone (EdZ). The relevance of such non-ideal effects and their impact on estimated clay parameters have been evaluated with numerical sensitivity analyses and synthetic experiments having similar parameters and geometric characteristics as real DIR experiments. Normalized dimensionless sensitivities of tracer concentrations at the test interval have been computed numerically. Tracer concentrations are found to be sensitive to all key parameters. Sensitivities are tracer dependent and vary with time. These sensitivities are useful to identify which are the parameters that can be estimated with less uncertainty and find the times at which tracer concentrations begin to be sensitive to each parameter. Synthetic experiments generated with prescribed known parameters have been interpreted automatically with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and used to evaluate the relevance of non-ideal effects and ascertain parameter identifiability in the presence of random measurement errors. Identifiability analysis of synthetic experiments reveals that data noise makes difficult the estimation of clay parameters. Parameters of clay and EdZ cannot be estimated simultaneously from noisy data. Models without an EdZ fail to reproduce synthetic data. Proper interpretation of in situ diffusion experiments requires accounting for filter, gap and EdZ. Estimates of the effective diffusion coefficient and the porosity of clay are highly correlated, indicating that these parameters cannot be estimated simultaneously. Accurate estimation of D{sub e} and porosities of clay and EdZ is only possible when the standard deviation of random noise is less than 0.01. Small errors in the volume of the circulation system do not affect clay parameter estimates. Normalized sensitivities as well as the identifiability analysis of synthetic experiments have provided additional insight on inverse estimation of in situ diffusion experiments and will be of great benefit for the interpretation of real DIR in situ diffusion experiments.

Samper, J.; Dewonck, S.; Zheng, L.; Yang, Q.; Naves, A.

2009-10-01

297

A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (?Parameter/?t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions. PMID:25388948

Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

2014-11-12

298

Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

Science.gov (United States)

Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

2014-01-01

299

The future of hydropower in Europe: Interconnecting climate, markets and policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Connecting the knowledges from various domains, in particular economics, engineering, policy and hydrology. • Giving the keys to assess the linking between hydropower, climate and electricity market. • Making an overall analysis. - Abstract: Hydropower is very important for electricity supply security in the European inter-connexion as well as for the economy of regions (primarily peripheral) that possess water resources. Its future may however be jeopardized by several factors: climate change, the development of new renewable energy, the creation of super and micro-grids, and progress in power storage technology. Energy and climate policy, as well as electricity market design and dynamics play a pivotal role. This article carries out a comprehensive analysis of all these factors and discusses the future of hydropower. This discussion follows an overview of the present situation and of future drivers. The technical, environmental, economic and political aspects of the problem are analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach. The stakes as well as the uncertainties are highlighted. The conclusion is that hydropower has a promising future, particularly in light of emerging sustainable energy policy, but that the risks should not be overlooked. Academics will find a comprehensive interdisciplinary analysis of hydropower in this article, whereas public bodies, communities and hydropower companies can identify the strategic variables that should be taken into consideration in the decision making process. The end of water concessions or authorizations is also evoked

300

Disappearing rivers — The limits of environmental assessment for hydropower in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mountain rivers of the Indian Himalaya possess a vast potential for hydropower generation. After decades of comparatively modest development recent years have seen a major intensification in the construction of new hydropower dams. Although increasingly portrayed as a form of renewable energy generation, hydropower development may lead to extensive alterations of fluvial systems and conflicts with resource use patterns of local communities. To appraise and reduce adverse effects is the purpose of statutory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and corresponding mitigation plans. However, in the light of ambitious policies for hydropower expansion conventional approaches of environmental assessment are increasingly challenged to keep up with the intensity and pace of development. This paper aims to explore the systemic limitations of environmental assessment for hydropower development in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Based on a qualitative methodology involving interviews with environmental experts, document reviews and field observations the study suggests that the current practice of constraining EIAs to the project level fails to address the larger effects of extensive hydropower development. Furthermore, it is critically discussed as to what extent the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) might have the potential to overcome existing shortcomings.

Erlewein, Alexander, E-mail: erlewein@sai.uni-heidelberg.de

2013-11-15

301

Resource rent taxation and benchmarking. A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs. (author)

302

Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation  

Science.gov (United States)

The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

Lee, T.

2013-12-01

303

Clean development mechanism and off-grid small-scale hydropower projects: Evaluation of additionality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global climate change mitigation policies and their stress on sustainable development have made electrification of rural mountainous villages, using small hydro, an attractive destination for potential clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. This invariably involves judging the additionality of such projects. The paper suggests a new approach to judge the additionality of such stand-alone small hydropower projects. This has been done by breaking up additionality into two components: external and local. The external additionality is project developer dependent. For determining the local additionality, the paper takes into account the probability of a village getting electrified over a period of time, which is kept equal to the possible crediting period. This is done by defining an electrification factor (EF) whose value depends on the degree of isolation, financial constraints and institutional constraints encountered while electrifying a mountainous village. Using this EF, the additionality of a CDM project can be judged in a much easier and accurate way. The paper is based on the data and inputs gathered during site visits to many isolated villages located in the eastern Indian Himalayas

304

Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipment of a small hydro-power plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important elements on the recovery of a small hydro-power plant is the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine-alternator), since the cost of the equipment means a high percentage of the total budget of the plant. The present paper intends to develop a series of equations which determine its cost from basic parameters such as power and net head. These calculations are focused at a level of previous study, so it will be necessary to carry out the engineering project and request a budget to companies specialized on the construction of electro-mechanical equipment to know its cost more accurately. Although there is a great diversity in the typology of turbines and alternators, data from manufacturers which cover all the considered range have been used. The above equations have been developed for the most common of turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan and semiKaplan for a power range below 2 MW. The obtained equations have been validated with data from real installations which have been subject to analysis by engineering companies working on the assembly and design of small plants. (author)

Ogayar, B.; Vidal, P.G. [Grupo de Investigacion IDEA, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas, s/n. 23071-Jaen (Spain)

2009-01-15

305

Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB)

306

Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

Payne, Suzette

2008-08-01

307

What is the color of Chinese water? : Challenges and opportunities for European hydropower companies in the Chinese market  

OpenAIRE

Background: China is the country with the worldwide hugest hydropower reserves. Interms of meeting its electricity demand, further development of its reserves is necessary.European companies are leading on the hydropower market and strive for projects inChina, resulting in challenges and opportunities while facing emerging market features.Aim: This study presents an analysis of the Chinese electricity market with the aim toidentify challenges and opportunities European hydropower companies fa...

Seidel, Julia

2011-01-01

308

Criteria for search for sites of burial of liquid radioactive wastes using thermodynamic parameters of rock mass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermodynamic method was used for studying geological sites suitable for burial of radioactive wastes. Characteristic equation of thermodynamic model was applied for description of the conditions. Examples presented for calculation of seam pressure distribution, porosity as well as linear and nonlinear stresses in rock mass lends support to the validity of the method used for search of sites for underground disposal of radioactive wastes. Application of this method does not involve the mass statistics for measurements of seam pressure by manometer, laboratory measurements of porosity, density of rock mass by specimens. 9 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

309

Arc-based constrained ant colony optimisation algorithms for the optimal solution of hydropower reservoir operation problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the number one source of electricity production in the world. For the design and construction of such systems, mathematical modelling is often use for reservoir operations. As conventional methods present some shortcomings in solving reservoir operation problems, a new method is presented here. It consists in an arc-based formulation of hydropower reservoir operation problems which can be applied to ant colony optimization algorithms. This paper first described this formulation and then applied it to solve two hydropower reservoir operation problems. The results showed that this formulation can optimally solve large-scale hydropower reservoir operation problems while offering a clear definition of heuristic information.

Moeini, R.; Afshar, M.H.

2011-07-15

310

A specific and correlative study of natural atmospheric radioactivity, condensation nuclei and some electrical parameters in marine or urban sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the correlations between the following atmospheric parameters: radon and condensation nuclei concentrations, total conductivity and space charge, we analysed their behavior over a long period, in connection with meteorological data. We simulaneously studied the equilibrium state between 222Rn and its short-lived daughters pointing out a radioactive desequilibrium as a function of the meteorological conditions. Simultaneously, we established average experimental curves of cumulated particle size distributions of natural radioactivity in the air, differentiating urban and marine influences. Finally, a comparison between the various parameters showed that the total conductivity greatly depends on condensation nuclei and radon concentrations in the air

311

An examination of the variability of some environmental transfer parameters evaluated using the contamination produced by the Chernobyl accident in various Italian sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the accident at the Chernobyl power plant a considerable effort was carried out by some Italian laboratories to evaluate the levels of contamination in the environment and the components of the human food chain. The radionuclide concentrations measured in samples of atmospherical particulates, soils, edible fruits, vegetation and milk offered the opportunity to estimate some of the parameters concerning the environmental transfer of 131I and 137Cs (dry deposition velocity, weathering-decay constant, vegetation-interception factor, transfer factor from vegetation to cow's and sheep's milk, foliar translocation coefficient etc.) An analysis of the variability of these parameters was carried out using data collected in various Italian sites showing different environmental situations. The values obtained have been compared with the ones in some models for assessing the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Within the limits of their variability the parameters estimated are not significantly lower than the conservative data suggested in the literature. (15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.)

312

Evaluation of the environmental transfer parameters for 131I and 137Cs using the contamination produced by the Chernobyl accident at a site in central Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Simple methods are described for evaluating transfer parameters for 137Cs and 131I within the deposition-vegetation-milk pathway (dry-deposition velocity, washout-proportionality constant, weathering-decay constant, vegetation-interception factor, transfer factor from vegetation to cow's and sheep's milk). These methods were applied to the contamination data collected at a site in central Italy (Anguillara Sabazia- ENEA CRE Casaccia Institute) following the Chernobyl accident. Values calculated here are approximately equal to those generally used in conservative models (e.g. IAEA Safety Series No. 57). The only estimated parameter differing significantly from the accepted conservative value is the dry-deposition velocity of 137Cs, the dry-deposition velocity is influenced by a variety of factors, such as the nature of depositing particles, properties of the surface on which deposition occurs and micrometeorological conditions. This parameter, then, shows a high degree of variability according to circumstances of deposition. (author)

313

The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia  

Science.gov (United States)

River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial or Heavily Modified (following the definitions of the WFD) in most cases have to fulfil more limited environmental targets. The involvement of local stakeholders must be ensured along the whole certification procedure and, when completed, during the lifespan of the label. The methodology includes a predefined framework where pressure factors due to hydropower production are related to potentially impacted environmental quality elements. For each of these cause-effect relationships possible mitigation measures are suggested. In the long run, it is expected that the certification will have a positive impact on hydro power generation in Europe, will help focusing the conception of new HPPs towards more sustainable solutions and making easier authorization procedure.

Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

2010-05-01

314

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland rural (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hg0, RGM, and HgP from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hg0, RGM, and HgP) and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation) were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hg0 and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hg0 at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hg0. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and HgP was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and HgP increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and HgP through deposition. RGM and HgP levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. At the coastal site relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3-4 to two orders of magnitude higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD) during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of HgP at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of HgP in all seasons in the marine environment.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Hegarty, J.; Koermer, J.

2012-05-01

315

Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. - Research Highlights: ? Economic impact of environmental constraints on hydropower operation has been evaluated. ? The reduction in revenues obtained from selling energy in the day-ahead market has been calculated. ? The sensitivity of hydropower revenues to different minimum envir revenues to different minimum environmental flows has been explored. ? The sensitivity of hydropower revenues to different maximum flow ramping rates has been explored. ? The importance of controlling the flow released through the bottom outlets has been highlighted.

316

Analysis of parameters for the off-site dose calculation due to HTO, OBT, and radioactive carbon ingestion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For assessment of tritium and radiocarbon ingestion dose to off site individuals, water, hydrogen, and carbon content of main farm produce of Korea were investigated to replace the existing data in K-DOSE60, the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual(ODCM) of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (KHNP). Main items and weighting factors of farm produce were determined with the nationwide food intake data in 2001, 2002. Main farm produce were sampled around Kori, Wolsong, Ulchin, Yonggwang nuclear power sites. Content of each produce was multiplied by weighting factor and summed up to make the weighted mean group value. For grains, water, hydrogen, and carbon content was not much different from the existing data currently used in K-DOSE60, but root vegetables had 3.5 times more hydrogen, and leafy vegetables and fruits had 0.7 - 1.3 times more or less water, hydrogen, and carbon contents than K-DOSE60

317

The use of public participation and economic appraisal for public involvement in large-scale hydropower projects: Case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaining public acceptance is one of the main issues with large-scale low-carbon projects such as hydropower development. It has been recommended by the World Commission on Dams that to gain public acceptance, public involvement is necessary in the decision-making process (). As financially-significant actors in the planning and implementation of large-scale hydropower projects in developing country contexts, the paper examines the ways in which public involvement may be influenced by international financial institutions. Using the case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in Laos, the paper analyses how public involvement facilitated by the Asian Development Bank had a bearing on procedural and distributional justice. The paper analyses the extent of public participation and the assessment of full social and environmental costs of the project in the Cost-Benefit Analysis conducted during the project appraisal stage. It is argued that while efforts were made to involve the public, there were several factors that influenced procedural and distributional justice: the late contribution of the Asian Development Bank in the project appraisal stage; and the issue of non-market values and discount rate to calculate the full social and environmental costs. - Highlights: ? Public acceptance in large-scale hydropower projects is examined. ? Both procedural and distributional justice are important for public acceptance. ? International Financial Institutions can inflonal Financial Institutions can influence the level of public involvement. ? Public involvement benefits consideration of non-market values and discount rates.

318

Multiscale Heterogeneity and Solute Transport Model Parameter Uncertainty Study for a Fractured Low-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Site in the Eastern United States  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research is to determine multiscale fluid and solute transport parameters in support of a site characterization effort at the Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG 5) at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in eastern Tennessee, USA. The study site is located within the top 10 m of the subsurface, in which groundwater flow dynamics is influenced by both infiltration and recharge events. The soil and rock formations are macroporous and/or highly fractured at WAG 5. A natural gradient, multiple tracer injection experiment (bromide, helium and neon), was conducted to quantify the solute transport and mass transfer processes in the highly fractured shale bedrock. The field site is intensively instrumented with arrays of drive point and multi-level sampling wells. Field observations of hydraulic head and bromide solute movement dynamics are used in this study to calibrate a two-pore-domain, fracture-matrix flow and non-reactive solute transport model. We use a nested Latin hypercube (NLH) sampling technique to determine the near-optimal combinations of model parameters. As a result of the sampling technique, empirical probability distributions of model parameters are derived. Heterogeneity in two scales, field and matrix block, are quantified in terms of field scale distribution of hydraulic and solute transport properties and fracture spacing between matrix blocks. Uncertainties arising from tracer source density effect are also addressed through model prediction uncertainty analysis. It is also concluded that NLH is a relatively effective optimization technique, often capable of locating the near-optimal combination of model parameters in a few iterations.

Gwo, J. J.; Jardine, P. M.

2003-12-01

319

The necessity of field research in prescription of Environmental Flows - A case of the hydropower dominated Middle Zambezi Catchment  

Science.gov (United States)

The research work in the Middle Zambezi sub-catchment has the key objective to investigate the state of the river and its flood plain in terms of flow variation, river and flood plain morphological variation for both the pre and post hydropower schemes. From the rich biodiversity that this area supports, both Zambia and Zimbabwe has established National Parks with Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore safari areas being designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The habitat sustenance depend on the river channels and the associated morphological features with the flood and recession interaction whose modification can lead to negative environmental consequences. The research findings on the state of the sub-catchment flows and morphology will be outlined. Highlights will be given on the following findings: dominance of hydropower regulation in the water balance of the river reach, historical map analysis and related rates of river channel morphology changes associated to dam operating events and, bed load sediment characterisation and distribution. With the use of SOBEK-Rural (1D/2D) model, analysis of future state of the sub-catchment will be outlined, taking into account the following scenarios: no dam state of the river reach; continue with current water regulation and operations; modification in water regulation to take into account favorable changes and; climate related variation of droughts. The research deductions and implications for maintaining the current dam operation practices will be outline as relates to the sustainability of the hydro-morphology and ecosystem of the catchment which support a rich wildlife habitat. The research observed critical water needs form the basis for environmental flows prescription and recommendation. Whereas the restoration of regular flooding has been identified to be important, the most critical need however is the timing of flood gate regulation which has been observed as a trigger to loss of islands and bars due to channel bank slumps. This phenomenon could only be observed and monitored during field research. In addition the water needs and vitality of the biological indicator - Faidherbiah Albida tree has been identified as being critical to sustenance of the habitat. The understanding gained from the research output can feed into decision making frameworks for the water resources managers in charge of the hydropower dam operation in order to consider modifications to the current dam operating rules and water allocation for environmental flows.

Mwelwa, Elenestina; Crosato, Alessandra; Wright, Nigel; Beevers, Lindsay

2013-04-01

320

Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-01

321

Painting Instruction for hydropower stations; Maalningsanvisning foer vattenkraftstationer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This protective coating recommendations are intended for information and guidance to undertake high quality protective coating in hydro power stations. The manual should be a supplement and an explanation to the specific technical descriptions that are provided separately for each individual object. The recommendations are based on the 'Handbok i rostskyddsmaalning', (Handbook on corrosion protection painting), Bulletin no. 107 published by the Swedish Corrosion Institute (Korrosionsinstitutet; NB. From 2006, the Swedish Corrosion Institute is incorporated in the Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB). The Bulletin no. 107 is in turn based on the standard SS-EN ISO 12944 concerning corrosion protection of steel structures by painting. The recommendations comprises and refers to applicable laws, regulations, directives and 'state-of-the-art' in the field. They are also intended to give guidance concerning selection of appropriate coating systems in hydro power stations. This guidance has been established through identification of corrosivity classes and corresponding appropriate coating systems for hydropower station components. The intention is to keep the recommendations updated concerning standards and coating systems and according to practical experiences. Ceramic composites has been identified as an interesting new field for surface coating in erosive and corrosive environments. A summary of characteristics and guidelines for application in the field of hydro power could be of interest. A complete translation of the protective coating recommendations for hydro power stations is available in Elforsk report 06:50, 'Protective coating recommendations in hydro power stations'.

Forssander, Maerit; Carlsson, Roger; Edwardson, Wille; Persson, Charlotte

2012-12-15

322

Consolidation and ownership trends of nonfederal hydropower generating assets, 1980-2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes ownership trends of nonfederal hydropower generating assets from 1980-2003. Previous research has shown that the overall electricity industry is unique in that, because of the extreme inelasticity of demand for power, even small sectors of the industry have the potential to exhibit substantial price setting behavior. Hydropower assets especially, with their unique ability to ''shift'' electricity between time periods, have the potential to be used to exhibit horizontal market power. For this reason, an analysis of consolidation trends of hydropower assets is important. Our empirical results show that from 1980-2003, while transfer rates of nonfederal hydropower dams have been substantial (at 46%), there is little evidence of consolidation leading to the potential exercise of horizontal market power as a result of this. A detailed look at the data reveals that it is smaller dams, with less power production capacity, that have tended to be transferred more than other dams over this time period, and that it is private industrial owners and private utilities that are selling dams to private non-utility generation companies. This suggests that a realignment of hydropower assets, most likely in response to state-and federal-level regulatory initiatives, is taking place, but that increasing consolidation along with this is currently not a threat. (author)

323

Relationship Between Precipitation Chemistry and Meteorological Parameters at a Urban Site in the North of Queretaro State  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 50 wet precipitation samples were collected per event at the Juriquilla site from mid-May 2009 to the end of May 2010. The Juriquilla sampling site was located on the roof of the Geoscience Building, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, at the Juriquilla Campus in the city of Querétaro located at 20°41'58"N and 100°27'28" W, at 1920 meters above sea level (masl). Sampling was done in passive collectors that consisted of a high density polyethylene funnel connected to a 2-liter polyethylene bottle, supported by a rod 1.5 m above the roof. One of the collectors was used to take samples for trace metals. The analysis was done in soluble and insoluble fractions. Al, Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite furnace accessory. The other collector was used to measure pH and major ions (SO4-2, Cl-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4+) in the soluble fractions, because it was assumed that these ions are completely soluble in rainwater. The major ions SO4-2, Cl-, and NO3-, were analyzed by a Varian Model 2010 ion chromatograph; Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and NH4+ by a UV spectrophotometer. In this study, synoptic maps were used to analyze the transport of air masses before rainfall, enabling back trajectories to be used to estimate the source region of pollutants. To understand the variety of synoptic weather conditions, data were associated with the corresponding air mass back trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). Back trajectory models have very simple advection schemes to calculate the previous position of an air parcel by using estimated wind speed and direction for the time period prior to arrival at the selected site. In this study, the origin of the air mass for an event was evaluated by a three-day back-trajectory before arrival to Queretaro. Mass back trajectories were calculated for 1000 and 2000 meters above ground level (MAGL), because winds at these levels should be a good approximation to the mean transport wind, since this pressure level frequently lies near the center of the transport layer. Finally, trajectories were classified by eight different directions according to the directions of the air masses before rainfall.

García Martínez, R.; Hernández, G.; Solis, S.; Torres, M. D.; Padilla, H.; Báez, A.

2010-12-01

324

Soil-biological, soil-chemical and soil-physical parameters along a pollutant gradient on grassland sites in the vicinity o Brixlegg (Tyrol) - a pilot project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was the main aim of this pilot project to check the indicator value of soil organisms by means of distinct pollutant gradients - heavy metals, organic compounds (PCB, dioxins) -. On the basis of available results (1/2/3/), 4 grassland sites at increasing distances from a local emission source (copper production from scrap metal) were selected. Physical and chemical analyses as well as the quantification of habitat structures were used for the characterization of the sites. The following analyses were carried out accompanyingly: The performances of soil microorganisms under pollutant load, the accumulation of pollutants, and the structures of plants and animal communities (macro, meso and microfauna). The investigation area and the examined parameters are introduced, as well as first result on soil chemistry and enzymatics as well as for the accumulation of heavy metals in an earthworm species are introduced. (orig.)

325

Combining Forces - The Use of Landsat TM Satellite Imagery, Soil Parameter Information, and Multiplex PCR to Detect Coccidioides immitis Growth Sites in Kern County, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI). Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1) We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m×750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2) We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3) We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp. PMID:25380290

Lauer, Antje; Talamantes, Jorge; Castañón Olivares, Laura Rosío; Medina, Luis Jaime; Baal, Joe Daryl Hugo; Casimiro, Kayla; Shroff, Natasha; Emery, Kirt W.

2014-01-01

326

Combining forces--the use of Landsat TM satellite imagery, soil parameter information, and multiplex PCR to detect Coccidioides immitis growth sites in Kern County, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease acquired through the inhalation of spores of Coccidioides spp., which afflicts primarily humans and other mammals. It is endemic to areas in the southwestern United States, including the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County, California, our region of interest (ROI). Recently, incidence of coccidioidomycosis, also known as valley fever, has increased significantly, and several factors including climate change have been suggested as possible drivers for this observation. Up to date details about the ecological niche of C. immitis have escaped full characterization. In our project, we chose a three-step approach to investigate this niche: 1) We examined Landsat-5-Thematic-Mapper multispectral images of our ROI by using training pixels at a 750 m × 750 m section of Sharktooth Hill, a site confirmed to be a C. immitis growth site, to implement a Maximum Likelihood Classification scheme to map out the locations that could be suitable to support the growth of the pathogen; 2) We used the websoilsurvey database of the US Department of Agriculture to obtain soil parameter data; and 3) We investigated soil samples from 23 sites around Bakersfield, California using a multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based method to detect the pathogen. Our results indicated that a combination of satellite imagery, soil type information, and multiplex PCR are powerful tools to predict and identify growth sites of C. immitis. This approach can be used as a basis for systematic sampling and investigation of soils to detect Coccidioides spp. PMID:25380290

Lauer, Antje; Talamantes, Jorge; Castañón Olivares, Laura Rosío; Medina, Luis Jaime; Baal, Joe Daryl Hugo; Casimiro, Kayla; Shroff, Natasha; Emery, Kirt W

2014-01-01

327

Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling and illustrate the benefits of the methodology I providing better estimates of predictive uncertiay8, quantitative results for use in assessing risk, and an improved understanding of the system behavior and the limitations of the models.

Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2007-07-30

328

Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on an extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hdwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling and illustrate the benefits of the methodology I providing better estimates of predictive uncertainty, quantitative results for use in assessing risk, and an improved understanding of the system behavior and the limitations of the models

329

Instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric parameters, relevant for IACTs, for site-search and correction of the energy spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric conditions have impact on the measured data by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). Cherenkov light from air showers traverses 5-25 km distance in the atmosphere before reaching the telescopes. This light becomes attenuated because of absorption by oxigen and ozone as well as because of the Rayleigh and the Mie scatterings. The latter is the variable component in the atmosphere that depends on the momentary distribution of aerosols, their size and types and distribution heights. We have developed a micro-LIDAR system for parametrising these losses and plan to locate it next to the MAGIC telescopes for simultaneous operation. This shall allow us to improve the energy resolution of the telescopes for the data taken at non-ideal weather conditions. Also, we are working on developing diverse instrumentation for paramerising the atmosphere and for the searching proper sites for the CTA project. In our presentation we plan to report about the above-mentioned activities.

330

Relationship between Selected Physiographic Features and Landslide Occurrence around Four Hydropower Projects in Bhagirathi Valley of Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya, India  

OpenAIRE

The Himalayan mountain range is an internationally recognised landscape but one under increasing developmental threat. The lower Himalayan region possesses immense potential for hydropower generation but is also highly susceptible to tectonic deformation and mass wasting, especially landslides. Susceptibility to landslides increases markedly with human activity, especially large scale developmental projects. The impacts of massive hydropower plant construction in the Bhagira...

Hari Ballabh; Srinivasan Pillay; Girish Chandra Singh Negi; Kamleshan Pillay

2014-01-01

331

Preliminary investigation report on the hydropower potential of Obudu Cattle Ranch Resort Plateau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to estimate the hydropower potential of the rivers running through the Obudu Cattle Ranch Resort Plateau. The intent of the project was to offer an alternative electrical energy source to the current diesel driven generator electricity supply at the Ranch. The criteria for the alternative energy supply was that it should be environmentally friendly, low cost and eliminate the need for transporting fuel. The study methodology included a land survey of the Plateau to identify rivers for the study; estimates of elevation and flow of the selected rivers; and a preliminary assessment of the socio-economic status of the project area. The study concluded that a more detailed feasibility study of the hydropower potential of the Obudu Cattle Ranch Plateau is required in order to examine specific details such as layout, design and costing of components of the hydropower scheme. 7 tabs., 1 fig.

Nwachukwu, E.M.C. [Anambra-Imo River Basin Dev. Authourity, (Nigeria)

2005-07-01

332

Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Geopolitical Vulnerabilities to Hydropower Development on the Nu River, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid hydropower development is occurring in China's Yunnan province in response to increasing clean energy demands, exposing potential vulnerabilities of the area's ecosystems, communities, and geopolitical systems. Here, we present original data on the cultures, economics, hydro-politics, and environments of the Nu River basin, based on household surveys, analysis of geopolitical events, and hydrological, hydraulic, and landscape modeling. We identify sources of vulnerability and investigate relationships among biophysical, socioeconomic, and geopolitical elements that contribute to vulnerability. Our results illustrate the role of geographic isolation in intensifying vulnerability to hydropower development and how access to information, data uncertainty, and geopolitics influence the vulnerability of people and the environment. We emphasize specific needs for developing support mechanisms for social, ecological, and political groups that are vulnerable to hydropower development.

Desiree D. Tullos

2013-09-01

333

Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir water balance is affected by decisions by both companies which are independently seeking maximal profit. Methods for water use settlement and preventing of spillage are proposed. A mixed-integer linear programming approach is used. Head effects on output power levels are also considered. Existences of dispatches that satisfy both companies are shown.

Slavko Krajcar

2012-09-01

334

Improved intake design for downstream migrating fish at hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on hydroelectric power projects on the Columbia River which provided low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest. However, they are detrimental to anadromous fisheries resources. Anadromous fish are migratory. They begin their life in shallow mountain streams. After several months, they migrate to the ocean, where the fish grow to maturity before their return migration. Remarkably, most anadromous fish return to spawn in their natal streams. At dams, the upstream migration of grown salmon and steelhead is accomplished through fishways. The downstream migration of juveniles remains a serious problem. Juvenile fish follow the water flow during their sea-ward migration. When passing through a turbine, fish can be severely injured due to the sudden pressure drop, high velocity shear zones, and rotating turbine blades. Stunned fish that survive the gauntlet of the turbine are easy prey for sea gulls and squawfish in the tailrace of the powerhouse. Fish mortality per turbine passage is estimated at 15 percent. With nine hydropower projected on the main steam of the Columbia River, their combined mortality is very serious. The historical Columbia River anadromous run of about 12 million fish has declined to 2.5 million in recent years. Modern high-output hydraulic turbines are designed to be placed at a lower elevation to minimize cavitation damage to turbine blades. The modern design trend of deep intake submergence has caused parallel and unsteady vortence has caused parallel and unsteady vortex flow patterns in the forebay, resulting in a decrease in the guiding efficiency of the screens, such as at Bonneville Second Powerhouse and at Rocky Reach Project

335

Dissolved oxygen analysis for hydropower additions on the Illinois River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Illinois Waterway is comprised of a system of eight locks along the Illinois River, the Des Plaines River, and the Chicago Sanitary Ship Canal which allow commercial barge traffic between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan at the City of Chicago. Opportunities for production of hydroelectric power is present at several of these lock and dams. This paper presents the field study and computer simulation conducted to determine the feasibility of constructing hydroelectric powerhouses on two of these lock and dams. So as not to degrade recent improvements to water quality, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in issuing the construction and operating licenses for these two hydroelectric facilities, requires the hydropower additions to not reduce the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) level downstream of the hydroelectric facilities below 6 parts per million (ppm). Presently, the waterway discharge passes through taintor gates at both of these lock and dam facilities which creates aeration. The addition of hydroelectric powerhouses would divert water from these spillways through generation equipment; consequently, the spillway aeration would not occur. The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of power generation from these facilities, given the existing waterway water quality and the FERC D.O. criteria. A computer simulation generation analysis was conducted to provide a database of the waterway water quality. A four-month extensive field collection s A four-month extensive field collection survey was conducted over the 63 kilometer (39 mile) reach of the waterway which comprises the two downstream pools of the Brandon Road and Dresden Island projects, and 3 kilometers (2 miles) upstream of the Brandon Road Project. The analysis revealed that the hydroelectric additions were economically feasible and are an example of how the benefits of hydroelectric development can be balanced with environmental concerns

336

Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

R. Ahlers

2014-11-01

337

Ecoelectricity - new perspectives of hydropower generation; Oekostrom - neue Perspektiven der Wasserkraftnutzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'Ecoelectricity Project' headed by the EAWAG (Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology) aims to develop an ecolabel as an economic instrument for the promotion of ecologically sound hydropower generation. However, it is not always quite clear which methods of electricity generation can be considered unobjectionable in environmental terms. Hydropower operations, in particular, present a certain dilemma: On the one hand, hydropower is a renewable energy source without emissions and hence desirable from a global perspective. On the other hand, hydropower operations can be highly detrimental to the local and regional aquatic ecosystems. As a result, there is a need for an objective, scientifically based method for the ecological evaluation of hydropower operations. The EAWAG 'Ecoelectricity Project' is developing such a method together with a process for the certification of 'green hydropower'. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Projekts 'Oekostrom' ist die Entwicklung eines Oekokabels zur Foerderung umweltfreundlich gewonnener Elektrizitaet. Was aber im Bereich der Energiegewinnung als oekologisch unbedenklich gelten kann, ist nicht immer klar. Besonders im Fall der Wasserkraftnutzung ergibt sich ein Dilemma. Weitgehend regenerativ und im Betrieb emissionsfrei ist die hydroelektrische Nutzung global gesehen wuenschenswert. Lokal fuehrt sie jedoch haeufig zu massiven Eingriffen in die Gewaessersysteme. Ein Konflikt, der eine glaubwuerdige Zertifizierung von 'Oekostrom aus Wasserkraft' notwendig macht. Das hier vorgestellte EAWAG-Projekt entwickelt daher in Zusammenarbeit mit verschiedenen Behoerden, Forschungsinstituten und Unternehmen ein wissenschaftlich fundiertes Verfahren fuer eine Oekostrom-Zertifizierung. Globale wie lokale Umweltbelastungen sind dabei moeglichst gering zu halten. (orig.)

Bratrich, C.; Truffer, B. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland). Forschungszentrum fuer Limnologie; Jorde, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

1999-10-01

338

Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

2013-12-01

339

??????????????????? Brief Discussion of Several Issues on Development of Hydropower Energy under Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The global climate change has been doing greater and greater influence on nature and human society. After a brief discussion on the great opportunities, as well as challenge, that brought by the global climate change, this paper try to probe several issues such as the development and utilization, running risk analysis, and optimal scheduling of hydropower energy under the climate change. The main research contents existed in this field are analyzed finally. It is only way, for the social development and modern management of hydropower energy, that to minimize the its sensitivity to climate change taking full account of all kinds of extreme weather.

???

2012-11-01

340

Small and medium-sized hydropower projects in competitive markets: the case of Rio Piedras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes the case of the Rio Piedras Hydropower Project, a first private hydropower generation initiative in Colombia, within the new regulatory framework for the provision of public services and electric generation under laws 142 and 143, passed in 1994. Reference is made in this article to the background and characteristics of the Project, and some obstacles, challenges and risks encountered are described, as well as the way in which they are being controlled. The investment and commercialization modules developed in analyzing the project are also presented. Finally, some reflections are given as to the medium and long term prospects for electric generation projects in Colombia. (The author)

341

Long-term effects of climatic change on the use of hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines how climate change, after the hot and dry summer of 2003, will affect Swiss hydropower schemes in the long term. In particular, the effects on electricity production are looked at. The question is posed on how the increases in the average temperature noted over recent years will affect production in the various seasons of the year. A general shift of production maxima from the summer to the winter season is to be expected. The possibility of conflict between climate protection and hydropower production is examined

342

Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is projected for a slight decrease (0.05%), Asia with an increase of 0.27%, Europe a reduction up to 0.16% while America is projected to have an increase of 0.05%. In the eastern African region, it was shown that hydropower production is likely to increase by 0.59%, the central with 0.22% and the western with a 0.03%. The southern, and northern African regions were projected to have reductions of 0.83% and 0.48% respectively. The basins with increases in flow projections have a slight increase on hydropower production but not proportional to the increase in precipitation. The basins with decreases had even high change as the reduction was further increased by evaporation losses. The hydropower production potential of most of southern African basins is likely to decrease in the future due to the impact of climate change while the central African region shows an increasing trend. The hydropower system in these regions will be affected consequently. The hydropower production changes will vary from basin to basin in these regions. The Zambezi, Kafue and Shire river basins have negative changes while the Congo, Kwanza and Kabompo river basins have positive changes. The hydropower production potential in the Zambezi basin decreases by 9 - 34%. The hydropower production potential in the Kafue basin decreases by 8 - 34% and the Shire basin decreases by 7 - 14 %. The southern region will become drier with shorter rainy seasons. The central region will become wetter with increased runoff. The hydropower production potential in the Congo basin reduces slightly and then increases by 4% by the end of the century. The hydropower production potential in the Kwanza basin decreases by 3% and then increases by 10% towards the end of the century and the Kabompo basin production increases by 6 - 18%. It can be concluded that in the central African region hydropower production will, in general, increase while the southern African region, hydropower production will decrease. In summary, the analysis has shown that the southern African region is expected to experience decreases in rainfall

Hamududu, Byman H.

2012-11-15

343

Grimsel Test Site: Investigation of hydraulic parameters in the saturated and unsaturated zone of the ventilation drift  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the results of Nagra investigations in the ventilation drift during Phase 3 (1991-1993) at the Grimsel Test Site. The investigations focused on issues related to the unsaturated zone in the vicinity of underground tunnels induced by the ventilation. The unsaturated zone was described through point-measurements of water potential and water content. The former was measured with thermocouple-psychrometers and the latter with time-domain reflectometry. Both techniques were specially modified for the low-permeability crystalline rock. The measurements were performed under re-and desaturation conditions; no irreversible effects due to tunnel ventilation were observed. An approach for estimating inflow into the tunnel from low-permeability rock sections by discrete measurements was also developed. The vapor flux at the tunnel surface is calculated from measurements of the temperature and relative humidity difference within a measurement cell (Evapometer). The results were used to perform the water balance for the first tunnel section of the ventilation drift; comparison with the results of classical ventilation tests from Phase 2 showed that the discharge is slightly lower (about a factor of two). A first study for estimating the mean water flux into a tunnel section and its variability, assuming geostatistical characteristics for discrete point flux measurements was performed. The study showed that based on a small number of regularly distributed measumall number of regularly distributed measurements, linked to the structural units of the tunnel section, it is possible to calculate the mean water flux with an error of less than 20%. (author) figs., tabs., refs

344

A Process-based, Climate-Sensitive Model to Derive Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands: Application to 5 Wetland Sites, Sensitivity to Model Parameters and Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane emissions from natural wetlands constitutes the largest methane source at present and depends highly on the climate. In order to investigate the response of methane emissions from natural wetlands to climate variations, a 1-dimensional process-based climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands is developed. In the model the processes leading to methane emission are simulated within a 1-dimensional soil column and the three different transport mechanisms diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition are modeled explicitly. The model forcing consists of daily values of soil temperature, water table and Net Primary Productivity, and at permafrost sites the thaw depth is included. The methane model is tested using observational data obtained at 5 wetland sites located in North America, Europe and Central America, representing a large variety of environmental conditions. It can be shown that in most cases seasonal variations in methane emissions can be explained by the combined effect of changes in soil temperature and the position of the water table. Our results also show that a process-based approach is needed, because there is no simple relationship between these controlling factors and methane emissions that applies to a variety of wetland sites. The sensitivity of the model to the choice of key model parameters is tested and further sensitivity tests are performed to demonstrate how methane emissions from wetlands respond to climate variations.

Walter, Bernadette P.; Heimann, Martin

1999-01-01

345

Using the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) to derive source parameters and the site attenuation term, kappa (?), using aftershocks of the 2010 Darfield, New Zealand earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

We utilize a dense network of Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) MEMs accelerometers to investigate source parameters and the shallow site attenuation parameter, kappa (?), for aftershocks of the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake in Christchurch, NZ. Approximately 190 QCN accelerometers captured over 180 aftershocks ? Mw4.0 from 9 September 2010 to 31 July 2011. Sensors were deployed in local residences as part of the QCN Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Project (RAMP), collecting vast amounts of data at dense spatial scales. The low cost, 14-bit QCN sensors perform within ANSS Class C sensor standards (Evans et al., 2013), and, the time series and response spectra of the sensors compare favorably to the strong-motion 24-bit NZ GeoNet sensors (Cochran et al., 2011). To find ?, we measure deviations from the ?-2 fall-off on the acceleration amplitude spectrum of Fourier-transformed S-wave windows containing 80% of the S-wave energy. We use both manual and automated methods to fit the slope of the fall-off (i.e., ?) following Anderson and Hough (1984). A known issue with this method is that ? should be measured above the corner frequency (f0) to avoid bias from source effects. Studies have recently reported larger than average stress drops for these aftershocks (e.g., Kaiser and Oth, 2013), which may yield significant variation from the theoretically determined f0. Here, we aim to find the site attenuation, ?, by simultaneously solving for f0 and the seismic moment (M0) for each station and event. For robust results, we employ several methods to find the source and site parameters. Initially, we use a linearized least-squares fitting routine for each event-station pair (e.g., Anderson and Humphrey, 1991). This method does not require a single M0 for an event recorded at multiple stations, resulting in disagreements across M0 and f0 for any given event. Consequently, we also employ a more physically meaningful approach that calculates a single M0 and f0 for a given event using a linearized general inversion scheme (e.g., Sarker and Abers, 1998; Stachnik et al., 2004). Due to a strong trade-off between f0 and ?, we lastly try the nonlinear least-squares Gauss-Newton algorithm, which obtains a constant M0 and produces a more reasonable f0 and well-fitted ?. Initial results show ? estimates range from 0.01 to 0.1 sec and our calculated moment magnitudes (Mw) agree with the USGS NEIC catalog. Another goal of this study is to determine if the QCN data can be confidently used to find source parameters. With the vast amount of strong-motion data collected, QCN offers an ideal dataset to determine source parameters from spectral fitting; particularly in Christchurch, where smaller datasets may contain a proportionally higher number of recordings that are biased by local effects, including site amplification and nonlinear response like liquefaction. For a single event, preliminary findings show that QCN sensors yield higher M0 values than GeoNet stations, thus prompting further investigation.

Neighbors, C.; Cochran, E. S.; Ryan, K. J.; Funning, G.; Kaiser, A. E.

2013-12-01

346

Hydropower research programme 2008 - 2011; Forschungsprogramm Wasserkraft 2008 - 2011. Schlussbericht zur Entwicklung eines Forschungsprogramms. Aktualisierte Fortschreibung vom September 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This revised final report on the development of a research programme for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the proposals for the development of a concept for Swiss hydropower research activities for the period 2008 - 2011. According to the authors, the new research programme will not only include activities in the small hydropower area, but rather all aspects of hydropower usage, including dams and large hydropower stations. The results of a survey made concerning research and further education in the hydropower area are discussed. These results formed the basis of the new concept. The report also presents a review of the present situation with regard to hydrological questions and dams as well as mechanical and electrical equipment. The education and training of professionals is looked at and national and international co-operation in the hydropower area is also discussed. Future developments are looked at, as are the economic aspects of the use of hydropower. Measures to be taken in the research area are proposed.

Jorde, K.

2007-07-01

347

Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

348

Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

2013-06-01

349

Export of Norwegian hydropower under a common European regime of environmental taxes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper sets out to investigate the strategic position of Norwegian hydropower and, in particular, to study optimal decisions with respect to the installation of new export transmission lines. For this purpose an integrated long-run equilibrium model for the northern European electricity market determining production, consumption and trade is constructed. (author)

350

Viewpoint – Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin water transfers. As a former Director of Freshwater for WWF International and now as a researcher on the water-energy nexus, I spent much of the past decade seeking to influence the direction of water infrastructure development, and in this viewpoint I have been asked to reflect on the changes that have occurred, and the opportunities in an era of climate change to reduce the environmental and social impacts of hydropower development while maximising the benefits. Better outcomes are more likely with a renewed focus on limiting the perverse impacts of climate change policies, implementing standards for certification of more sustainable hydropower, building capacities within developing countries, and enhancing management of existing dams.

Jamie Pittock

2010-06-01

351

Evaluation of Power Generation Efficiency of Cascade Hydropower Plants: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective utilization of scarce water resources has presented a significant challenge to respond to the needs created by rapid economic growth in China. In this study, the efficiency of the joint operation of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba cascade hydropower plants in terms of power generation was evaluated on the basis of a precise simulation-optimization technique. The joint operation conditions of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba hydropower plants between 2004 and 2010 were utilized in this research in order to investigate the major factors that could affect power output of the cascade complex. The results showed that the current power output of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba cascade complex had already reached around 90% of the maximum theoretical value. Compared to other influencing factors evaluated in this study, the accuracy of hydrological forecasts and flood control levels can have significant impact on the power generating efficiency, whereas the navigation has a minor influence. This research provides a solid quantitative-based methodology to assess the operation efficiency of cascade hydropower plants, and more importantly, proposes potential methods that could improve the operation efficiency of cascade hydropower plants.

Jiahua Wei

2013-02-01

352

Estimating the future ice sheet hydropower potential in Paakitsoq, Ilulissat, West Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Meltwater running off the Greenland ice sheet yield significant hydropower potentials in catchments bordering the ice sheet, especially in West and South Greenland. Hydropower has been chosen as the most desired source of energy by the Greenland Home Rule, but recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet has emphasized the risk of sudden changes in catchment supply. In this study, we present a thorough investigation of hydropower feasibility at the Paakitsoq basin, near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The catchment is completely dominated by the Greenland ice sheet which provides large quantities of meltwater during the summer season. However, geometrical changes in the ice sheet, for example due to a retreat or an advance of the ice sheet margin, could change the hydrological catchment within the ice sheet. Such a change would have a devastating economical impact as a hydropower plant is a significant long-term investment for an Arctic community of modest population. Here we present a new bedrock and surface map of the Paakitsoq/Swiss Camp part of the Greenland ice sheet and a prediction of the future discharge up to 2080 AD using regional climate model output, dynamic ice sheet modelling and surface melt modelling. The results are aimed at supporting the political decision-making regarding the future energy supply in Greenland.

AhlstrØm, Andreas P.; Mottram, R.H.

2008-01-01

353

Hydropower development in South East Europe. Experience report; Wasserkraft in Suedosteuropa entwickeln. Erfahrungsbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

South East Europe offers high undeveloped potential of hydropower compared to West Europe. That is the main reason why Austrian's Kelag and Germany's RWE Innogy started project development in this region. An overview about the projects under development, construction and in operation is given. Finally the characteristics and track record of individual projects is described. (orig.)

Berger, Gerald [KELAG-Kaerntner Elektrizitaets-Aktiengesellschaft, Klagenfurt (Austria). Bereich Erzeugung; KI-KELAG International GmbH, Klagenfurt (Austria); Funke, Hans-Christoph [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Development International and Engineering

2012-11-01

354

77 FR 71590 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...200-foot-long stone masonry spillway dam with concrete retaining walls...generation of the proposed Cochrane Dam Project would be about 811 megawatt-hours. The existing Cochrane Dam and appurtenant works, including...Applicant Contact: Mr. Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower...

2012-12-03

355

78 FR 2988 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...520-foot-long earth embankment dam with a 173- foot-long stone...generation of the proposed Eagleville Dam Project would be about 630 megawatt-hours. The existing Eagleville Dam and appurtenant works, including...Applicant Contact: Mr. Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower...

2013-01-15

356

77 FR 75630 - New England Hydropower Company, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...10-foot-high, 85-foot-long stone masonry dam; (2) an existing 8.32-acre impoundment...megawatt-hours. The existing Starr Mill Dam and appurtenant works, including a former...owned. Applicant Contact: Mr. Michael C. Kerr, New England Hydropower Company,...

2012-12-21

357

Land And Water Use Characteristics And Human Health Input Parameters For Use In Environmental Dosimetry And Risk Assessments At The Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irridividual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6) Air pathway collective doses may go down about 30 percent mainly due to the decrease in the inhalation rate assumed for the average individual.

358

LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6) Air pathway collective doses may go down about 30 percent mainly due to the decrease in the inhalation rate assumed for the average individual.

Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

2010-08-06

359

How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation and Value  

Science.gov (United States)

Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is “run-of-river” (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

Jager, Henriette I.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

2007-12-01

360

Gross greenhouse gas fluxes from hydro-power reservoir compared to thermo-power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the findings of gross carbon dioxide and methane emissions measurements in several Brazilian hydro-reservoirs, compared to thermo power generation. The term 'gross emissions' means gas flux measurements from the reservoir surface without natural pre-impoundment emissions by natural bodies such as the river channel, seasonal flooding and terrestrial ecosystems. The net emissions result from deducting pre-existing emissions by the reservoir. A power dam emits biogenic gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. However, studies comparing gas emissions (gross emissions) from the reservoir surface with emissions by thermo-power generation technologies show that the hydro-based option presents better results in most cases analyzed. In this study, measurements were carried in the Miranda, Barra Bonita, Segredo, Tres Marias, Xingo, and Samuel and Tucurui reservoirs, located in two different climatological regimes. Additional data were used here from measurements taken at the Itaipu and Serra da Mesa reservoirs. Comparisons were also made between emissions from hydro-power plants and their thermo-based equivalents. Bearing in mind that the estimated values for hydro-power plants include emissions that are not totally anthropogenic, the hydro-power plants studied generally posted lower emissions than their equivalent thermo-based counterparts. Hydro-power complexes with greater power densities (capacity/area flooded-W/m{sup 2}), such as Itaipu, Xingo, Segredo and Miranda, have the best performance, well above thermo-power plants using state-of-the-art technology: combined cycle fueled by natural gas, with 50% efficiency. On the other hand, some hydro-power complexes with low-power density perform only slightly better or even worse than their thermo-power counterparts. (author)

Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos [IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ and Energy Planning Program/COPPE/UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala 129, Cidade Universitaria, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sikar, Bohdan [Department of Hydraulics, University of Sao Paulo at Sao Carlos (Brazil); Sikar, Elizabeth [Construmaq Sao Carlos Ind. e Com. Ltda. (Brazil)

2006-03-01

361

Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

2011-12-01

362

CONVERTERS AND STABILIZERS OF ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES WITH ENHANCES TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we have examined the following is-sues: structure flowcharts’ settlements and opera-tional peculiarities of converters and stabilizers of electrical parameters of wind power plants, solar power plants and mini-hydropower plants. All tech-nical decisions are covered by patents of the Russian Federation

Grigorash O. V.

2013-11-01

363

75 FR 5071 - Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock + TM  

Science.gov (United States)

...preliminary permit for the proposed Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Project...projects, to be located on the Mississippi River, in Adams County, Illinois, and Marion County...be located at the existing Mississippi River Lock and Dam No....

2010-02-01

364

75 FR 76001 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hydropower L.P. e. Name of Project: Hogansburg Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...Commission must include on the first page, Hogansburg Hydroelectric Project No. 7518-012...Wolfclan 37 Hotel, 1450 State Route 37, Hogansburg, NY 13655. Phone: (518)...

2010-12-07

365

A light left in the dark: The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR  

OpenAIRE

The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key actors in the government, multilateral organisations and the private sector which show an often simplified and overly negative attitude towards pico-hydropower. Based on empirical research carried out...

Smits, M.; Bush, S. R.

2010-01-01

366

Assessing Stochastic Optimization for Rio Tinto Alcan's Hydropower System in Eastern Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) is a multinational aluminium producer with smelters in Quebec, Canada. RTA also owns and operates power houses on Péribonka and Saguenay Rivers. The system, which is run by RTA's Quebec Power Operations Division, consists of 6 generating stations and 3 major reservoirs, for an installed capacity of 2900 MW. One of the significant issues that had to be resolved for effective operation of this system was to determine the volume of water release per week for all generating stations. Several challenges had to be dealt with before a suitable solution could be found. Last year, RTA started a five year R&D project for improving the management of the hydropower system. This project includes data monitoring, Hydrological Ensemble Prediction (HEP) and stochastic optimization (SO) methods. Development of SO methods is particularly interesting for RTA since, until now, the decision making process has been based on a deterministic solver even if it is impossible to predict naturally contributed volumes with any accuracy beyond a few days. Moreover, the production at the generating stations follows a non-linear, non-convex function of turbine flow rates and water head. Both of these factors have the effect of requiring that the decision should be based upon solving a non-linear and non-convex stochastic optimization problem. The following presentation describes the first part of the SO project and aims to assess the value of using a stochastic solver instead of a deterministic solver. Two different SO approaches were evaluated: lag-1 Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) and Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SSDP) algorithms. HEP are used to capture the spatio-temporal variability of the inflows. Scenarios are generated using a hydrological model (HM) by initialising the HM with the same initial conditions (hydrologic state variables). These hydrologic variables are estimated using real-time observations available for the catchment area. Inter-scenario variability is provided by using different sequences of meteorological observations entered into the HM. The scenarios are used to estimate the parameters of the auto-regressive model utilized by SDP and the hydrologic state variables are used to estimate the probability transition between scenarios required by the SSDP algorithm. The optimization methods were implemented in RTA's system and the results compared with the actual deterministic decision procedure. Methods were compared using a test bench into which were incorporated the characteristics of the facilities and the HEP database.

Cote, P.; Latraverse, M.; Leconte, R.; Larouche, B.

2012-04-01

367

Assessing impacts of hydropower schemes in upland rivers and sensitivity to hydrological change: new modelling tools for evaluating environmental flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Upland river systems provide a suite of critical ecosystem services, such as the provision of high quality downstream water supplies and the maintenance of in-stream habitats. Environmental legislation dictates that exploiting the hydro-power potential of such headwaters requires that the ecological status of in-stream habitats is maintained. This requires that decision makers have adequate scientific understanding of natural flow regimes, the nature of regulation impacts, and the sensitivity of managed systems to future change. This is often limited by a lack of adequate pre- regulation data. Here we present a new modelling tool that can be used in data sparse mountain river ecosystems to assess current impacts, evaluate sensitivity to future change and provide a basis for discussing the development of new adaptive management strategies. The HBV rainfall-runoff model was adapted to incorporate regulation components (reservoirs, water transfers), and applied to the heavily regulated River Lyon (391 km2), Scotland, UK. The Lyon has long been subjected to hydropower generation, which is supported by several river impoundments and a complex network of inter- and intra-catchment water transfers, and there are concerns that these are affecting high conservation status freshwater populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). In the absence of adequate pre-regulation data, the model was used to characterise the natural flow regime, assess the regulation impacts, and explore sensitivities to hydrological changes in water management. Overall, changes following regulation in the Lyon include decreases in inter-and intra annual variability of all parameters of the flow regime in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration and timing that are important in various life stages of the Atlantic Salmon. Although these effects are most pronounced closest to the impoundments, the regulation affects the regime for a considerable distance downstream. Sensitivity tests showed that a more variable release regime, as opposed to changes in the efficiency of the present regulation regime, could be most beneficial for the ecological status of the Lyon. The simple, conceptual modelling approach presented here captures the dominant catchment and regulation processes well, especially at the time scale at which operation rules apply. Consequentially, it is data undemanding, flexible, widely applicable, and its results are easily communicated to stakeholders. Hence, it is providing a basis for assessing impacts on flow regimes and informing environmental flows in other (data sparse) regions with heavily regulated mountain river ecosystems.

Tetzlaff, D.; Geris, J.; Seibert, J.; Vis, M.; Soulsby, C.

2013-12-01

368

Sagenbach-Abfrutt small hydropower plant in Goeschenen; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Sagenbach Abfrutt Goeschenen - Vorprojekt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the preliminary project for a small hydropower plant in Goeschenen, Switzerland. The project foresees the conversion of an existing potable water supply to provide power generation for over 200 households. The report reviews the history of water power use at this location and its present use as well as a feasibility study previously made. The project is described, including water collection points, conduits and the power station building in Frutt. Technical details on water quantities and energy production are presented. Financial aspects including construction and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the project is discussed. Environmental aspects are reviewed. Further steps to be taken in the realisation of this hydropower installation are listed.

NONE

2008-11-15

369

Potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the main potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of large size hydropower plants in Brazil. A number of preventive, mitigation and compensatory measures are traditionally adopted by the Brazilian power sector to deal with these impacts. The magnitude and the importance of environmental impacts are discussed, considering the geographical areas where the projects are located and the specific differences of the social groups affected. The environmental impacts are grouped into two main blocks, one including the physico-biotic environment and the other the socioeconomic environment; the construction stage and the operation stage of hydropower plants are discussed separately in some cases. It is concluded that the conditions in the region where the project is located, as well as the relative degree of conservation and development, are the basis for classifying the importance and magnitude of the impacts. (author). 1 fig

370

Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources with conventional constant P/Q and P/V controls coexisting in the microgrid may affect frequency stability. In this paper, a hierarchical control is proposed to perform power sharing among PV voltage source inverters (VSIs), while injecting the dispatched power to the main grid. Further, frequency stability analysis is presented based on small signal models of the hybrid PV-HP microgrid, including 2 MWp PV station, 15.2 MWh battery storage system, and 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Simulation results of the microgrid and experimental results on a scaled-down laboratory prototype verify the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical controller.

Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

2014-01-01

371

Rebuilding of the Altermatt hydropower installation in Frauenfeld, Switzerland - Building permission and implementation project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This illustrated final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project concerning the rebuilding of the existing Altermatt hydropower station in Frauenfeld, Switzerland. The history of the installation, built in 1860 and put out of service in the 1980s, is briefly discussed. The project for the reactivation of the location with a new hydropower station is discussed and various studies made concerning the location are examined. Figures on the water flow to be expected are presented and the concept behind the project is discussed, as are details such as water levels and installations that will help fish and beavers get past the power station's dam. The electromechanical installations of the 120 kW power station are briefly described. Environmental aspects are also discussed and figures are quoted on the energy production to be expected and the costs involved.

372

New construction of the Kelchbach hydropower installation - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt Neubau Kraftwerk Kelchbach. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke - Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the preliminary project for the new construction of a small hydropower installation on the Kelchbach stream in Naters, Switzerland. After a pressure-pipe rupture, the old, over 100 year-old installation was closed down. The replacement installation is planned to increase power production. The works necessary for the realisation of this hydropower project are described and discussed. Several older studies on the replacement of the installation are listed. Three variants are presented and discussed as are hydrological data on the project. Cost estimates are presented and discussed. Estimates of energy production are also presented and discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. Environmental aspects of the project are also examined.

Kalbermatten, J.

2009-09-15

373

?????????????????????????? Optimal Operation Model for Hydropower Reservoirs Considering Probability of Non-Failure and Failure Extent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????For the problem of power generation reliability, a stochastic dynamic programming model considering chance constraint of non-failure and extreme failure extent is proposed for hydropower reservoirs operation. An algorithm incorporating Lagrangian relaxation and penalty function is used to solve the model. The chance constraint is relaxed and the extreme fail constraint is addressed by penalty function, and a new benefit function is constructed. The Lagrangian multiplier and penalty coefficient are renewed on the basis of simulated operation results. The proposed method is used to the cascaded hydropower system of middle and lower Lancang River. Case study shows that the proposed method can meet the requirements of chance constraint of firm power and avoid severe failure, and the power generation benefit is kept also.

???

2013-06-01

374