WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydropower site parameters

  1. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

  2. Hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of the development of hydropower in the UK. Most of the untapped potential has head heights below 10 metres and recent developments in turbines to exploit such installations are reported. (UK)

  3. Siting and assessment of small hydropower potential using GIS and hydrological modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosain, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rao, S. [INRM Consultants Pvt Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    2010-07-01

    Small-scale hydropower can solve the energy problems in remote and hilly areas. Small hydro projects are particularly useful because they allow installation of generating capacity in smaller increments to provide greater economic flexibility. However, most of the prospective small hydropower project sites are likely to be ungauged. Therefore, there is generally no flow data available for analyses of power potential for proposed sites. This presentation described a new solution for evaluating the feasibility of proposed small-scale hydropower schemes at ungauged sites. The solution involves a combination of geographic information system (GIS) based technologies and hydrological modeling for selection and assessment of small hydropower sites. The presentation discussed the use of the drainage system of Nagaland State in India. The presentation discussed the methodology, including the various steps that were used, such as the use of GIS technologies to extract the longitudinal profiles of the drainage systems and thereby the prevailing drops along the profile; demarcation of contributing areas of the drainage systems at identified locations; use of a soil and water assessment tool hydrological model for generation of continuous flow series at the locations of interest in the drainage system; formulation of a flow duration curve for each of the identified locations on the stream using the flow data generated through the hydrological modelling; and hydropower assessment at the sites, thereby helping in the initial selection of key sites. It was concluded that the methodology of water yield assessment works satisfactorily when the input data are reasonable. figs.

  4. Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

    1955-12-01

    An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

  5. Application of geographical information system to site selection of small run-of-river hydropower project by considering engineering/economic/environmental criteria and social impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojanamon, Pannathat; Chaisomphob, Taweep [School of Civil Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Rangsit campus, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Bureekul, Thawilwadee [King Prajadhipok' s Institute, 47/101, Tiwanon Road, Taladkwan Subdistrict, Muang District, Nonthaburi 11000 (Thailand)

    2009-12-15

    In the process of site selection of a small run-of-river hydropower project in Thailand, some problems are addressed as follows: the accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, the large amount of data required, and the lack of participation of the local people living nearby. In order to cope with these problems, this study proposes a new method to select feasible sites of small run-of-river hydropower projects by using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. A combination of engineering, economic, and environmental criteria, as well as social impact is employed in this study. The selected study area is the upper Nan river basin situated in the north of Thailand. For the engineering criteria, the project locations are found by GIS in visual basic platform, and then economic evaluations of the selected projects are performed. Next, the environmental parameters are used to rank the projects by total weighted scores. Finally, a social impact study at the potential sites is conducted based on the public participation process, i.e. questionnaire survey and focus group discussions. The applicability of the proposed method is verified by the results of site selection of the small hydropower projects located on the Nan river basin in Thailand. This case study can be the model for the process of site selection of similar projects. (author)

  6. Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M.; Hildebrand, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

  7. Environmental governance in the Mekong. Hydropower site selection processes in the Se Son and Sre Pok basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oejendal, J.; Mathur, V.; Sithirith, M.

    2002-02-01

    This report aims to highlight regional environmental governance in the Lower Mekong Basin. The emphasis on regional governance is not only motivated by the shared and interdependent natural resources and threat of transboundary impacts within the Basin, but also by growing economic interdependence, increasing population density and political interactions within and between the countries. The study has chosen hydropower as it represents a key sector in terms of environmental protection. Hydropower projects on the Mekong River and its tributaries have been viewed as one of the primary engines of economic growth for the countries of the Lower Mekong Basin: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam. Yet this is occurring against a backdrop of prevailing poverty, widespread dependence on natural resources and degenerating ecosystems. Recent experience shows a range of adverse social and environmental impacts from already completed hydropower projects, both directly (i.e. from the project activities) and indirectly (from economic activity or demographic change induced by the projects). This experience has led a variety of civil society groups to oppose the construction of infrastructure projects under current procedures. To address the issue of environmental governance, we conducted an empirical review using a 'process tracing method'. Through this approach we followed the process of hydropower planning in an international tributary to the Mekong River, the Se San/Sre Pok sub-basins, where major hydropower development plans are currently being developed. Our research approach combined secondary sources with primary data from interviewing the people involved in decision-making on Mekong issues. Our research questions were: What are the historical patterns of hydropower site selection in the Lower Mekong Basin? What institutions and actors attempt to exercise what kind of governance for environmental purposes, and with what mandate? What have been the decisive factors for the process of hydropower site selection in the Se San and Sre Pok Basins? How does the social and ecological situation in the concerned areas affect the governance process? Our theoretical approach takes as its point of departure the debate on 'environmental regimes' and discusses whether emerging cooperation on environmental issues in the Lower Mekong Basin represents such a regime. Indeed, reading policy statements, the work on Mekong governance seems to be evolving towards a higher level of cooperation, and towards a more solidly based institutional platform for securing this cooperation. Establishing regimes of this sort in an international basin is, however, an utterly complex undertaking that requires both time and trust. The study reaches a wide range of conclusions: it argues that the regional approach to environmental governance really is unavoidable, since many livelihood systems operate with small margins utilising resources faced with cross boundary concerns. MRC is the only institution with the Lower Mekong Basin governments as members and the only one with a regional mandate. The Agreement should be treated as a joint policy declaration, going beyond its obvious legal implications. MRC's new 'programme approach' is promising, if its value can be conveyed to, and convince, national decision-making fora. It should also be moving forward towards a proactive role in terms of conflict prevention. The study turns out to be fairly critical of hydropower interventions, given the standards the major actors claim to uphold, but rarely seem to respect in practice. If these standards were respected, it is questionable whether it would be possible to build more major hydropower stations. Currently, there seems, however, to be a break with former practices, and 'new' standards vis-a-vis environmental governance seem to be emerging. However, there are major interests vested in large-scale hydropower expansion, which may not be impressed by the new standards as pioneered by the World Commission on Dams (WCD) and subseq

  8. Substantiation of the parameters of wind-power and hydro-power complex in Arkhangelsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Chernova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm that can be used to find out the location of a wind-hydro energy complex and to determine its basic parameters at the stage of the regional development plan was described in this article. Furthermore, this algorithm is applied for Arkhangelsk region. The results can be applied to new energy facilities or to design of wind power stations with existent hydro power plants in different regions of Russia. Obtained parameters should be refined at the following stages.

  9. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  10. Hydropower potential of the New York State barge canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A. S.; Brown, R. S.

    1980-09-01

    The physical characteristics of the canal system as it relates to hydropower development were studied. The hydropower potential of the canal system was determined, including an inventory of existing and proposed hydropower plants. The remaining unrealized potential of the canal system was evaluated. Various sites were selected for further investigation on the basis of the unrealized potential of the barge canal system. Preliminary estimates of the engineering and economic feasibility of developing hydropower at these sites were also studied.

  11. Hydropower economics

    CERN Document Server

    Forsund, Finn R

    2015-01-01

    This is a thorough revision of the 2007 publication, and includes five new chapters and brings all existing chapters completely up to date.  There have been many advances in hydropower and renewable technologies since the original publication, and Europe, and particularly Scandinavia, plan many more in the coming years.     From a review of the original edition: "… it is important to note that the author deals well with his selected topics. … I recommend this book to all readers who wish to learn more about the economics of hydroelectric power."" (Amitrajeet A. Batabyal, Interfaces, Vol. 39

  12. US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  14. US hydropower resource assessment for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

  15. US hydropower resource assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

  16. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  17. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  18. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  19. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  20. Sensitivity of Input Parameters in the PSHA for NPP Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the most uncertain input parameter in the PSHA was identified for Korean NPP sites through sensitivity analysis. Shinuljin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 site was selected in this study. Expert panels developed input parameters for PSHA. Input data were analyzed, and used for sensitivity analysis to see the effects of each parameter on seismic hazard. Through sensitivity analysis, we identified the degree of uncertainty of each parameter. The CONPAS, EQHAZAS, and EQHAZAS Manager codes, which were developed by KAERI, were utilized to compute the seismic hazard. The Gutenberg-Richter parameter was identified as the most uncertain one in this study

  1. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  2. Empirical estimation of school siting parameter towards improving children's safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, I. S.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Rasam, A. R. A.; Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Distance from school to home is a key determination in ensuring the safety of hildren. School siting parameters are made to make sure that a particular school is located in a safe environment. School siting parameters are made by Department of Town and Country Planning Malaysia (DTCP) and latest review was on June 2012. These school siting parameters are crucially important as they can affect the safety, school reputation, and not to mention the perception of the pupil and parents of the school. There have been many studies to review school siting parameters since these change in conjunction with this ever-changing world. In this study, the focus is the impact of school siting parameter on people with low income that live in the urban area, specifically in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In achieving that, this study will use two methods which are on site and off site. The on site method is to give questionnaires to people and off site is to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS), to analyse the results obtained from the questionnaire. The output is a maps of suitable safe distance from school to house. The results of this study will be useful to people with low income as their children tend to walk to school rather than use transportation.

  3. Coupling climate and hydrological models to evaluate the impact of climate change on run of the river hydropower schemes from UK study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten-Zapata, Ernesto; Jones, Julie; Moggridge, Helen

    2015-04-01

    As climate change is expected to generate variations on the Earth's precipitation and temperature, the water cycle will also experience changes. Consequently, water users will have to be prepared for possible changes in future water availability. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on river regimes and the implications to the operation and feasibility of run of the river hydropower schemes by analyzing four UK study sites. Run of the river schemes are selected for analysis due to their higher dependence to the available river flow volumes when compared to storage hydropower schemes that can rely on previously accumulated water volumes (linked to poster in session HS5.3). Global Climate Models (GCMs) represent the main tool to assess future climate change. In this research, Regional Climate Models (RCMs), which dynamically downscale GCM outputs providing higher resolutions, are used as starting point to evaluate climate change within the study catchments. RCM daily temperature and precipitation will be downscaled to an appropriate scale for impact studies and bias corrected using different statistical methods: linear scaling, local intensity scaling, power transformation, variance scaling and delta change correction. The downscaled variables will then be coupled to hydrological models that have been previously calibrated and validated against observed daily river flow data. The coupled hydrological and climate models will then be used to simulate historic river flows that are compared to daily observed values in order to evaluate the model accuracy. As this research will employ several different RCMs (from the EURO-CORDEX simulations), downscaling and bias correction methodologies, greenhouse emission scenarios and hydrological models, the uncertainty of each element will be estimated. According to their uncertainty magnitude, a prediction of the best downscaling approach (or approaches) is expected to be obtained. The current progress of the project will be presented along with the steps to be followed in the future.

  4. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  5. Splice site identification using probabilistic parameters and SVM classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halgamuge SK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances and automation in DNA sequencing technology has created a vast amount of DNA sequence data. This increasing growth of sequence data demands better and efficient analysis methods. Identifying genes in this newly accumulated data is an important issue in bioinformatics, and it requires the prediction of the complete gene structure. Accurate identification of splice sites in DNA sequences plays one of the central roles of gene structural prediction in eukaryotes. Effective detection of splice sites requires the knowledge of characteristics, dependencies, and relationship of nucleotides in the splice site surrounding region. A higher-order Markov model is generally regarded as a useful technique for modeling higher-order dependencies. However, their implementation requires estimating a large number of parameters, which is computationally expensive. Results The proposed method for splice site detection consists of two stages: a first order Markov model (MM1 is used in the first stage and a support vector machine (SVM with polynomial kernel is used in the second stage. The MM1 serves as a pre-processing step for the SVM and takes DNA sequences as its input. It models the compositional features and dependencies of nucleotides in terms of probabilistic parameters around splice site regions. The probabilistic parameters are then fed into the SVM, which combines them nonlinearly to predict splice sites. When the proposed MM1-SVM model is compared with other existing standard splice site detection methods, it shows a superior performance in all the cases. Conclusion We proposed an effective pre-processing scheme for the SVM and applied it for the identification of splice sites. This is a simple yet effective splice site detection method, which shows a better classification accuracy and computational speed than some other more complex methods.

  6. Mini and micro hydropower systems in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower is one of the renewable sources of energy. In the field of hydropower, even though small/mini/micro hydropower systems make fractional increases in the overall energy production, their impact on the local areas in which they are sited can be significant in stimulating growth of rural industry and in meeting the basic energy needs of the local population for domestic and agricultural use. They also help in reducing demand on other non-renewable polluting resources like fossil fuels. Moreover as compared to big hydropower systems, small hydropower systems are cost competitive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They require less time for construction and reduce transmission losses. They can be designed to suit the limits of water resources available and can be tailored to the needs of the end-use market. Aspects of small hydropower projects which needs to be studied are listed. Modelling of turbines and generators for such projects, and factors to be considered in selection of suitable turbine and generator for a particular small hydropower system are discussed. The technology for small hydropower systems is well developed and available in India. The present estimated potential of such systems in India is 5000 MW out of which 207 MW is harnessed. These small hydropower plants are mostly located in the northern states like Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Construction works for 234 MW at 88 sites are going on. During the 8th plan period, 218.5 MW is planned to be developed with an outlay of Rs. 548.25 crores. It is suggested that special subsidies and liberal term loans should be made available for implementing such systems. (M.G.B.). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

  8. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

  9. Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

  10. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Qin Fen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chalise, Dol Raj [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Centurion, Emma E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  11. Kappa (?): estimates, origins, and correlation to site characterisation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktenidou, O. J.; Cotton, F.; Drouet, S.; Theodoulidis, N.; Chaljub, E. O.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the acceleration spectral shape is important for various applications in engineering seismology. At high frequencies spectral amplitude drops rapidly. Anderson and Hough (1984) modelled this drop with the spectral decay factor ?, observing that, above a certain frequency, the acceleration spectrum decreases linearly in lin-log space. Thirty years later, and though the debate as to its source, path and site components is still on, ? constitutes a basic input parameter for the generation of stochastic ground motion and the calibration and adjustment of GMPEs. We study ? in the EUROSEISTEST site (http://euroseis.civil.auth.gr): a geologically complex site in Northern Greece, with a permanent strong motion array including surface and downhole stations. Site effects are of great importance here, and records are available from a variety of conditions ranging from soft soil to hard rock. We derive the site-related component of ? (?0) at 16 stations following two approaches: 1. directly, measuring ? on individual S-wave spectra and regressing to zero distance as per Anderson and Hough (1984), following the procedure proposed by Ktenidou et al. (2012); 2. indirectly, deriving station-specific ?0 values from the high-frequency part of the station transfer functions, which are derived from a source-path-site inversion procedure proposed by Drouet et al. (2008). The agreement in ?0 is good. This supports the notion that ?0 is primarily a site effect, since in the second approach source and path effects are accounted for separately. The two approaches also yield similar results for anelastic attenuation within the frequency range studied: both show low regional Q, comparable to the results of crustal Q studies in Greece. We focus on ?0 values, which range from 0.02 s to 0.08 s depending on site type. As expected, ?0 increases for soft sites, but so does the scatter. Because ?0 is considered a site effect proxy, we examine its correlation with local site conditions. We choose three parameters: the widely used site characterisation parameter Vs30, for which many empirical correlations exist, and two parameters used recently to account for surface geology below 30 m: the resonant frequency and the depth to bedrock. We find that ?0 is correlated (in the order of 30%) to all three parameters. This may be considered as an indication of the deeper origins of ?0. We also find that the large scatter observed in ?0 values for sites of a single class, e.g. class C stations, is partly explained when we group them according to conditions beneath the first 30 m. Hence we believe parameters indicating the 'deeper surface structure' may complement existing ?0-Vs30 correlations. Finally, we compare our ?0s with existing ?0-Vs30 correlations, pushing them to the lower boundary of their validity range; most of them give upper bounds. References: Anderson, J.G. & S.E. Hough (1984). A model for the shape of the fourier amplitude spectrum of acceleration at high frequencies, BSSA 74(5), 1969-1993. Drouet S., S. Chevrot, F. Cotton & A. Souriau (2008). Simultaneous inversion of source spectra, attenuation parameters and site responses. Application to the data of the French Accelerometric Network, BSSA 98(1), 198-219. Ktenidou O.J., C. Gelis & L.F. Bonilla (2012). A study on the variability of kappa in a borehole: Implications of the computation method. BSSA (under revision).

  12. 78 FR 56749 - Site Characteristics and Site Parameters for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Site Characteristics and Site Parameters for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants... Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition. The proposed changes to the...

  13. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  14. Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2006-06-01

    This data package was originally prepared to support a 2004 composite analysis (CA) of low-level waste disposal at the Hanford Site. The Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site (Kincaid et. al. 2004) identified the requirements for that analysis and served as the basis for initial preparation of this data package. Completion of the 2004 CA was later deferred, with the 2004 Annual Status Report for the Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site (DOE 2005) indicating that a comprehensive update to the CA was in preparation and would be submitted in 2006. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently decided to further defer the CA update and will use the cumulative assessment currently under preparation for the environmental impact statement (EIS) being prepared for tank closure and other site decisions as the updated CA. Submittal of the draft EIS is currently planned for FY 2008. This data package describes the facility-specific parameters (e.g. location, operational dates, etc.) used to numerically simulate contaminant flow and transport in large-scale Hanford assessments. Kincaid et al. (2004) indicated that the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Kincaid et al. 2000; Bryce et al. 2002; Eslinger 2002a, 2002b) would be used to analyze over a thousand different waste sites. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site/facility, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future). This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for large-scale Hanford assessments.

  15. Plant parameter envelopes for early site permit evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the US Department of Energy and the US nuclear industry initiated a cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program (ESPDP) to demonstrate the practical implementation of new regulations concerning early site permits (ESPs). The ESPs are expected to contribute to regulatory stability for future nuclear plant orders by addressing site-related issues before an organization makes a major financial investment in committing to build a new plant. The new licensing process increases an organization's ability to respond to future base-load electricity generation needs by open-quotes bankingclose quotes suitable sites and by resolving safety and environmental issues for those sites well before new plants are needed. The objective of the ESPDP is to successfully demonstrate the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESP(S) for US site(s) for one or more advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. Certain specific plant-site information is generally not expected to be available at the time of application for an ESP because an ESP applicant may not have made a final decision on which ALWR design may be built on the site because the applicant can wait up to nearly 20 yr after obtaining an ESP before applying for a plant construction permit. To satisfy National Environmental Policy Act requirements, information on the potential environmental impact of the unspecified future plant must be provided with the ESP application. Therefore, an enveloping approach, called plant parameter envelopes (PPEs), was developed to provide required plant information. This paper provides a description of the PPE concept and explains why it is a prudent approach to use for performing safety and environmental impact assessments in support of an ESP application

  16. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocío Uría-Martínez, Patrick W. O’Connor, Megan M. Johnson

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  17. System analysis approach to verification of site characterization parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in the transition of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) from a preliminary geologic investigation to a part of a major system acquisition program, the following project needs were recognized: (1) site-specific system functional requirements, i.e., the capabilities a deep geologic basalt system must provide to ensure long-term isolation of wastes, (2) complete list of design variables and site characteristics (information and data needs) that could affect system capabilities; and (3) relative importance, availability, and uncertainty of these information and data needs. The first project need was satisfied by a conventional functional analysis. The second was answered by a unique extension of that functional analysis. The results of these two efforts have been released in the BWIP System Functional Analysis (SFA) Document. The third need is presently under study. With the advent of a formalized issue resolution strategy (IRS) process as the basis for the BWIP site characterization program, a subset of the SFA information and data needs was used to verify (a) that no significant variable was omitted from consideration in the IRS process, (b) the necessity of IRS site characterization parameters, and (c) the sufficiency of each issue-related set of IRS parameters to address that issue. An example of a SFA branch is discussed

  18. Real-Time Safety Risk Assessment Based on a Real-Time Location System for Hydropower Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns. PMID:25114958

  19. Hydropower annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL)

    2004-02-01

    This report describes hydropower activities supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2003 (October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003). Background on the program, FY03 accomplishments, and future plans are presented in the following sections.

  20. Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based

  1. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, J. [Fortum Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  2. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  3. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  4. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  5. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  6. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

  8. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  9. Technology Roadmap: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

  10. Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hermansson, Hans-Peter [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO{sub 2} outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}, Fe(OH)3/Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4} 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of {+-}10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO{sub 2} outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS{sup -}/SO{sub 4} 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS{sup -}/SO{sub 4} 2-controls Eh at normal SO{sub 4} 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO{sub 4} 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe{sup 2+} are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe{sup 3+} values

  11. Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO2 outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe3+/Fe2+, Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ and SO4 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of ±10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO2 outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS-/SO4 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS-/SO4 2-controls Eh at normal SO4 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO4 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe3+ values obtained by subtraction of Fe2+ from Fetotal. (iv) There are high uncertainties in EhSO4/HS for Forsmark samples because H

  12. Interactions between land use, climate and hydropower in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, James

    2015-04-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs on a 1 km by 1 km grid across Scotland, using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. Parameter-related uncertainty in the model has been constrained using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to derive posterior probability distributions for key model parameters. Our results give an indication of the sensitivity and vulnerability of Scotland's run-of-river hydropower resources to possible changes in climate and land use. The effects are spatially variable and the range of uncertainty is sometimes large, but consistent patterns do emerge. For example, many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with significantly lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require infrastructural changes in order to continue operating at optimum efficiency. We discuss the implications and limitations of our results, and highlight design and adaptation options for maximising the resilience of hydropower installations under changing future flow patterns.

  13. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

  14. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

  15. Development potential for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

  16. SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-03-14

    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

  17. Sustainability Analysis of Hydropower in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Dwarika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project was to analyze the sustainability of the hydropower in Nepal. As, Nepal is the second richest country in terms of the water resources, this thesis aims to provide a clear picture of the overall sustainability of the hydro power by measuring social, economical, political and environmental factors with worldwide accepted parameters. The analysis of the parameters was made and then expressed in a quantitative form to make it easy for anyone to understand the th...

  18. Assessing hydropower resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses assessing hydroelectric power resources using a standardized computer program. The computer program was developed in response to a need to identify undeveloped potential hydropower resources as part of the development of a National Energy Strategy. The topics discussed in the article include the resource assessment team established by US Department of Energy, and model development and testing

  19. Hydropower development priority using MCDM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin.

  20. The water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  1. Parameter values for the Heysham site for use in the CODAR2 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details are given of parameter values relevant to the Heysham site for the calculation of individual and collective radiation exposure arising from routine discharges of liquid effluent to the sea. These parameters are to be used in the CODAR2 computer program, and the approach taken in their specification is the same as that employed previously for the Sizewell site. (author)

  2. Environmental impact of hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

  3. The Grossmatt hydro-power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented

  4. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

  5. Site-specific parameter values for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's food pathway dose model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Western South Carolina result in radionuclide releases to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiation doses to the off-site maximum individual and the off-site population within 80 km of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are currently generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose-model parameters for facilities without resources to develop site-specific values. A survey of land- and water-use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine site-specific values for water recreation, consumption, and agricultural parameters used in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 (1977) dosimetric models. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; recreational and commercial activities on the Savannah River; and meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates. This paper describes how parameter data were obtained at the Savannah River Site and the impacts of such data on off-site dose. Dose estimates using site-specific parameter values are compared to estimates using the NRC default values

  6. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ''select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards'' prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil

  7. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. Section 108 of Public Law 95-604 states that the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall ``select and perform remedial actions at the designated processing sites and disposal sites in accordance with the general standards`` prescribed by the EPA. Regulations governing the required remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites were promulgated by the EPA in 1983 and are contained in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993), Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings. This document describes the radiological and physical parameters for the remedial action of the soil.

  8. Gis-based procedures for hydropower potential spotting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larentis, Dante G.; Collischonn, Walter; Tucci, Carlos E.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Hidraulicas da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Caixa Postal 15029, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Olivera, Francisco (Texas A and M University, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3136, US)

    2010-10-15

    The increasing demand for energy, especially from renewable and sustainable sources, spurs the development of small hydropower plants and encourages investment in new survey studies. Preliminary hydropower survey studies usually carry huge uncertainties about the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of the undeveloped potential. This paper presents a methodology for large-scale survey of hydropower potential sites to be applied in the inception phase of hydroelectric development planning. The sequence of procedures to identify hydropower sites is based on remote sensing and regional streamflow data and was automated within a GIS-based computational program: Hydrospot. The program allows spotting more potential sites along the drainage network than it would be possible in a traditional survey study, providing different types of dam-powerhouse layouts and two types (operating modes) of projects: run-of-the-river and storage projects. Preliminary results from its applications in a hydropower-developed basin in Brazil have shown Hydrospot's limitations and potentialities in giving support to the mid-to-long-term planning of the electricity sector. (author)

  9. Assessing Hydropower in the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Megan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    On April 27, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released the 2014 Hydropower Market Report, which provides a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States. Although the report shows many interesting trends and figures, this article focuses on those related to the western region.

  10. 78 FR 56749 - Site Characteristics and Site Parameters for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...any of the following methods: Federal Rulemaking...the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear...current staff review methods and practices based...for Site Response and Soil Structure Interaction Analyses,''...

  11. An optimal hydropower contract load determination method considering both human and riverine ecosystem needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin'an; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Cailing; Zhao, Yanwei

    2015-09-01

    In this research, a new method is developed to determine the optimal contract load for a hydropower reservoir, which is achieved by incorporating environmental flows into the determination process to increase hydropower revenues, while mitigating the negative impacts of hydropower generation on riverine ecosystems. In this method, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint of hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximization of mean annual revenue is set as the optimization objective. The contract load in each month and the associated reservoir operating parameters were simultaneously optimized by a genetic algorithm. The proposed method was applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The new method offers two advantages over traditional studies. First, it takes into account both the economic benefits and the ecological needs of riverine systems, rather than only the economic benefits, as in previous methods. Second, although many measures have been established to mitigate the negative ecological impacts of hydropower generation, few have been applied to the hydropower planning stage. Thus, since the contract load is an important planning parameter for hydropower generation, influencing both economic benefits and riverine ecosystem protection, this new method could provide guidelines for the establishment of river protection measures at the hydropower planning stage.

  12. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization. II. High Angular Resolution Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-08-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the design study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Macón range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments, and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A multiple aperture scintillation sensor (MASS) and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing, and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to estimate other important parameters, such as the coherence time of the wavefront and the overall parameter "coherence étendue," additional information of vertical profiles of the wind speed was needed. Data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) archive. Ground wind speed was measured by automatic weather stations (AWS). More aspects of the turbulence parameters, such as their seasonal trend, their nightly evolution, and their temporal stability, were also obtained and analyzed.

  13. Electricity market liberalisation endangers hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the argumentation of the Governmental Conference of the Swiss Mountain Cantons concerning the effects of future electricity market liberalisation on the inland hydropower business. Possible effects such as the postponement of investments in the maintenance and renewal of hydropower plant or merciless predatory competition are listed. Also, problems for the owners that may result from the liberalisation such as being burdened with investments that can no longer be amortised are discussed and possible solutions are mentioned

  14. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  15. Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2004-07-01

    This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for the 2004 Composite Analysis. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future).

  16. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mo...

  17. Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied within different administrative domains. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' annual catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The parameters of representativeness derived were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from very remote coastal to polluted rural sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters of representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the robustness of the derived station categorisation.

  18. Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

  19. Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

  20. Jahn-Teller effects and hyperfine parameters of V4+ on tetragonally distorted tetrahedral sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The g values and hyperfine parameters of V4+ on tetragonal sites in various host lattices are analysed in terms of a theory which includes Jahn-Teller interactions. For garnet hosts Jahn-Teller effects are weak, unlike the case for SiO2 and synthetic zircon where Jahn-Teller quenching is significantly strong. (Auth.)

  1. Parameter optimization of Dome A site testing DIMM by data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingzhe; Pei, Chong

    2012-10-01

    The extreme environment of Antarctic is valuable for astronomical observations. Dome C is proved has excellent seeing and transmission by site testing works. While the higher, colder inland plateau Dome A is widely predicted as even better astronomical site than Dome C. Preliminary site testing developed since the beginning of 2008 shows that Dome A has lower boundary layer and lower precipitable water vapour. Now the automated seeing monitor is urgently needed to quantify the site's optical character which is necessary for the telescope design and deployment. In addition, it has the requirement that DIMM must realize automatic measurement for nearly one year under the case of unmanned intervention during which a great quantity of data will be generated because of the limitation of Dome A. This paper aims at researching how to use the method of mining association rules to automatically analyze observation data, what the relationship between various parameters effecting on optical quality is, and improving the efficiency of telescope observation by parameter optimization. We have modified a commercial telescope with diameter of 35cm to function as site testing DIMM which has been installed at XingLong observation station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, acquired long term observation data, and identified that this method is suitable for optimizing the parameters of DIMM system.

  2. Mapping Site Response Parameters on Cal Poly Pomona Campus Using the Spectral Ratio Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    HO, K. Y. K.; Polet, J.

    2014-12-01

    Site characteristics are an important factor in earthquake hazard assessment. To better understand site response differences on a small scale, as well as the seismic hazard of the area, we develop site response parameter maps of Cal Poly Pomona campus. Cal Poly Pomona is located in southern California about 40 km east of Los Angeles, within 50 km of San Andreas Fault. The campus is situated on top of the San Jose Fault. With about twenty two thousand students on campus, it is important to know the site response in this area. To this end, we apply the Horizontal-to-Vertical (H/V) spectral ratio technique, which is an empirical method that can be used in an urban environment with no environmental impact. This well-established method is based on the computation of the ratio of vertical ambient noise ground motion over horizontal ambient noise ground motion as a function of frequency. By applying the spectral ratio method and the criteria from Site Effects Assessment Using Ambient Excitations (SESAME) guidelines, we can determine fundamental frequency and a minimum site amplification factor. We installed broadband seismometers throughout the Cal Poly Pomona campus, with an initial number of about 15 sites. The sites are approximately 50 to 150 meters apart and about two hours of waveforms were recorded at each site. We used the Geopsy software to make measurements of the peak frequency and the amplitude of the main peak from the spectral ratio. These two parameters have been determined to be estimates of fundamental frequency and a minimum site amplification factor, respectively. Based on the geological map from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and our data collected from Cal Poly Pomona campus, our preliminary results suggest that the area of campus that is covered by alluvial fan material tends to have a single significant spectral peak with a fundamental frequency of ~1Hz and a minimum amplification factor of ~3.7. The minimum depth of the surface layer is about 56 meters, as determined from the peak frequency and an estimate of the local shear wave velocity. We will present two preliminary site response parameter maps: one for fundamental frequency and one for minimum site amplification factor.

  3. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs

  4. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  5. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

  6. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem.

  7. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

  8. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local response surface are comparatively assessed. Preliminary results show that a range of potentially interesting trade-off policies exist able to better control river bed incision downstream without significantly decreasing hydropower production.

  9. Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Regina Gomes, Zoby; Jurandir Itizo, Yanagihara.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system [...] is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

  10. Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

    2010-09-15

    Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

  11. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Mac\\'on range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to e...

  12. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eddlemon, Gerald K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  13. Inferring parameters of mutation, selection and demography from patterns of synonymous site evolution in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Mcvean, GA; Vieira, J

    2001-01-01

    Selection acting on codon usage can cause patterns of synonymous evolution to deviate considerably from those expected under neutrality. To investigate the quantitative relationship between parameters of mutation, selection, and demography, and patterns of synonymous site divergence, we have developed a novel combination of population genetic models and likelihood methods of phylogenetic sequence analysis. Comparing 50 orthologous gene pairs from Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis and 27 ...

  14. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

  15. Conventional Hydropower Technologies Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This factsheet gives a description of the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program's efforts to increase generating capacity and efficiency at existing hydroelectric facilities, add hydroelectric generating capacity to non-powered dams, and reduce the environmental effects of hydropower.

  16. A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  17. A Multi-scale Spatial Approach to Address Environmental Effects of Small Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Hetrick, Shelaine C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  18. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability. PMID:25223621

  19. Biquadratic coupling between two ordering parameters in 1:3 B-site ordered spinels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Letter presents an analysis of the order-disorder phase transition mechanism, Fd3-macron m ? P4332, in 1:3 B-site ordered spinels, Li1.33xCo2-2xTi1+0.67xO4 and Li1-0.5xFe2.5xMn2-2xO4, by using the Landau's theory of phase transitions. Two ordering parameters were used to describe cation distribution: Q1 for cation distribution between tetrahedral and octahedral sites, and Q2 for cation distribution between two octahedral sites. Analysis of the topology of the order parameter vector space indicates biquadratic coupling between Q1 and Q2. For the Li1.33xCo2-2xTi1+0.67xO4 (x=0.50) in the low-temperature ferroelastic phase both ordering parameters differ from zero and they both influence on the spontaneous strain scalar values

  20. Evaluation of the Overall Costs for the Croatian Repository: Varying Site, Design and Financial Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)

  1. Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; De la Cruz, Idalmis; Stenberg, Kristofer; Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and K{sub d} values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

  2. Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (Kd) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and Kd values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

  3. MCDA or MCDM Based Selection of Transmission Line Conductor: Small Hydropower Project Planning and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Priyabrata Adhikary; Susmita Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Small hydropower projects are emerging as a solution for sustainable, green, environment friendly, long term and cost-effective source of renewable energy in India for the future. Selecting the appropriate small hydropower project and its parameters in which to invest is a critical task involving different factors and policies. Hence such decision-making can be viewed as a multiple criteria analysis problem with correlating criteria and alternatives. This task should take into...

  4. MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km

    OpenAIRE

    Masciadri, E.; Lascaux, F.; Fini, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro...

  5. Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Zegarra Martínez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

  7. The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  8. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  9. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

  10. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  11. Hydropower strategy for the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government-owned National Power Corporation (NPC) of the Philippines is in the early stages of a complete privatisation programme. The electric power sector is expected eventually to be structured around a company that will own the major transmission facilities and will serve as a broker of power and energy between generating companies and the existing distribution companies, Rural Electric Co-operations and other power users. NPC's non-transmission assets will probably be spun-off into various corporations including three generating companies, an engineering and services company and a company owning the Calivaya-Botocan-Kalayaan hydro complex. Plans for increased capacity include a real term increase in the hydropower contribution although it will decline as a percentage of the energy mix as coal and gas plants are developed. Details of the privatisation of specific hydropower projects in the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids are described. (U.K.)

  12. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  13. A study of the main atmospheric electric parameters at a little polluted seashore site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the electric elements of the air near the ground, we realized a set of apparatus for the measurement of several parameters: electric field, space charge, conductivities, air-earth current, as well as an automatic condensation nuclei counter. The characteristics of a very important photolytic process of nuclei production closely related to air exposure of living algae, at daytime low-tide periods were first determined. Then a systematic study of the electrical behaviour of the air at the seashore, was also carried out in relation with meteorological parameters. The results observed by sea winds, and especially the data on electric field and space charge showed out a very strong electrode effect above the sea surface, and were very different from those recorded at another site, 20 km inland. Finally, the atmospheric electric fog effect at the coastline and the possibility of using our results for forecasting the phenomenon were studied. (author)

  14. Hydropower development in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present policy on energy development is geared towards harnessing renewable and indigenous energy resource which can offer clean, abundant and efficient power supply for the country. a review of the current generation mix of the power system, especially the Luzon grid will establish a high dependency in imported fuel - oil and coal to power our generating plants. Thus, the policy of reducing dependence on imported fuel will depend largely on the success of tapping the alternative renewable and indigenous sources. The sustainable development era of the 90's brought fresh interest on the performance and commercial viability of indigenous and/or renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, natural gas and water power or hydropower. Among these alternative renewable sources, water or hydropower is the most readily available, and will produce clean domestic source of electricity - no carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide or any other air emissions. The potential is available in most parts of the country that are mountainous and have high rainfall. In terms of production, hydropower leads as the most developed and more proven in terms of commercial viability. It is also more reliable, efficient and less expensive than geothermal, biomass, wind and solar energy, as will be shown later. (author)

  15. Trade-offs Between Electricity Production from Small Hydropower Plants and Ecosystem Services in Alpine River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Schwemmle, Robin; Viviroli, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The need for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and the decision to phase out nuclear power plants in Switzerland and Germany increases pressure to develop the remaining hydropower potential in Alpine catchments. Since most of the potential for large reservoirs is already exploited, future development focusses on small run-of-the-river hydropower plants (SHP). Being considered a relatively environment-friendly electricity source, investment in SHP is promoted through subsidies. However, SHP can have a significant impact on riverine ecosystems, especially in the Alpine region where residual flow reaches tend to be long. An increase in hydropower exploitation will therefore increase pressure on ecosystems. While a number of studies assessed the potential for hydropower development in the Alps, two main factors were so far not assessed in detail: (i) ecological impacts within a whole river network, and (ii) economic conditions under which electricity is sold. We present a framework that establishes trade-offs between multiple objectives regarding environmental impacts, electricity production and economic evaluation. While it is inevitable that some ecosystems are compromised by hydropower plants, the context of these impacts within a river network should be considered when selecting suitable sites for SHP. From an ecological point of view, the diversity of habitats, and therefore the diversity of species, should be maintained within a river basin. This asks for objectives that go beyond lumped parameters of hydrological alteration, but also consider habitat diversity and the spatial configuration. Energy production in run-of-the-river power plants depends on available discharge, which can have large fluctuations. In a deregulated electricity market with strong price variations, an economic valuation should therefore be based on the expected market value of energy produced. Trade-off curves between different objectives can help decision makers to define policies for licensing new SHP and for defining minimum flow requirements. The trade-offs are established using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. A case study on an Alpine catchment is presented. The position of water intake and outlet and the design capacity of SHP, and different environmental flow policies are used as decision variables. The calculation of complex objectives, as described above, relies on an accurate representation of the physical system. The river network is divided into segments of 500 meters length for each of which the slope is calculated. Natural incremental flows are calculated for each segment using the PREVAH hydrological modelling system. Trade-offs are established on the basin scale as well as on the sub-basin scale. This allows the assessment of the influence of different configurations of SHP on ecosystem quality across different spatial scales.

  16. The Grossmatt hydro-power station; Wasserkraftwerk Grossmatt. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented.

  17. Various problems concerning radioactive waste disposal sites and parameters for their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report first describes various methods used for low-level radioactive waste disposal in the U.S. and then discusses major factors affecting the parameters used for quantitative evaluation of the behavior of radioactive nuclides existing in the environment, focusing on the distribution coefficient which is assumed in a model widely used for such evaluation. Some problems encountered in applying these parameters to practical evaluation are also discussed together with further studies required in the future. The distribution coefficient varies with many physical, chemical and biological factors, and it may be unavoidable to rely on experiments with a simplified system in determining the effect of each factor separately. However, the values obtained from such experiments cannot be used as parameters to reflect the behaviors of these nuclides in real environments. They should be considered as such. Efforts should be made to develop techniques to obtain effective values for the distribution coefficient that properly reflect their behaviors in real environments near disposal sites or in far fields. (N.K.)

  18. Interactions Between Land Use, Climate and Hydropower in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, J.

    2014-12-01

    To promote the transition towards a low carbon economy, the Scottish Government has adopted ambitious energy targets, including generating all electricity from renewable sources by 2020. To achieve this, continued investment will be required across a range of sustainable technologies. Hydropower has a long history in Scotland and the present-day operational capacity of ~1.5 GW makes a substantial contribution to the national energy budget. In addition, there remains potential for ~500 MW of further development, mostly in the form of small to medium size run-of-river schemes. Climate change is expected to lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle, leading to changes in both the magnitude and seasonality of river flows. There may also be indirect effects, such as changing land use, enhanced evapotranspiration rates and an increased demand for irrigation, all of which could affect the water available for energy generation. Preliminary assessments of hydropower commonly use flow duration curves (FDCs) to estimate the power generation potential at proposed new sites. In this study, we use spatially distributed modelling to generate daily and monthly FDCs for a range of Scottish catchments using a variety of future land use and climate change scenarios. These are then used to assess Scotland's future hydropower potential under different flow regimes. The results are spatially variable and include large uncertainties, but some consistent patterns emerge. Many locations are predicted to experience enhanced seasonality, with lower power generation potential in the summer months and greater potential during the autumn and winter. Some sites may require infrastructural changes in order to continue operating at optimum efficiency. We discuss the implications and limitations of our results, and highlight design and adaptation options for maximising the resilience of hydropower installations under changing future flow patterns.

  19. Assessment of small hydropower potential using remote sensing data for sustainable development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India being a developing country has witnessed a rapidly growing energy needs owing to fast industrialization. Sustainable and qualitative growth for developing economics and habitat requires increased energy input from various resources while maintaining balance in the ecosystem during exploitation. Paper discusses state of the resource potentials, achievements and various issues related to the power generation in India. The growing concern over environmental degradation caused by fossil fuel based systems, opposition to large hydropower projects on grounds of displacement of land and population, environmental problems with nuclear fuel based systems and the ever-rising shortage of power highlights the need for tapping alternate energy sources for power generation. Amongst the alternate sources utilization of hydropower on a smaller scale (small, mini and micro hydropower) has become the thrust area for sustainable growth in the power sector. Hydropower is an economical and environmentally clean source of renewable energy abundantly available in hilly regions of India. Hydropower stations have an inherent ability for instantaneous starting, stopping, load variations, etc., and help in improving the reliability of power system. Huge hydropower potential in India, yet to be explored is located at inaccessible mountainous region. However, development of this potential is challenging due to difficult and inaccessible terrain profile. Paper presents application of remote sensing data for identification and selection of probable site for hydropower projects. The algorithm for identification and assessment of water resources and its perennial is developed in Visual Basic (VB) platform and it is successfully applied for IRS-1D, LISS III Geo-coded False Color Composite (FCC) satellite image for plain as well as hilly and mountainous regions. Classification of satellite image in to different objects is modeled as the task of clustering based on the intensity of R-G-B values of pixels. Results obtained are presented and compared with the Survey of India Toposheets (53K/2, 53K/3 and 53J/16). Use of Remote sensing data provides a scientific method of hydropower identification and assessment

  20. A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STAGE –IV KOYNA HYDROPOWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Imran Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroelectric power contributes around 12.45 percent of the electricity supply in India. It is considered to be the most vital, unpolluted, emission-free and an inexpensive renewable source of energy. Hydroelectric power-plants operating all over the world aims to have high electric output with minimum maintenance cost. It’s very different with Koyna Hydropower Plant (KHPP stage IV which generates lower electric output than the installed capacity with higher maintenance. This project aims to build a simulation model which can simulate the regular operation of Koyna Hydropower Plant with Arena®. The study involves to evaluate dynamic response of the system and plant performance under various operating conditions such as head height, quantity of water flow penstock and operating gates. Also to determine and identify the optimum parameters required for maximum power generation. The outcomes of the model helped to analyse the power generation capacity against the required quantity of water flow and head height. The developed simulation model was validated and used as an apparatus to determine the optimal operating parameters that maximise power generation of stage –IV at Koyna Hydropower plant.

  1. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site.

  2. Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site

  3. The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several orders of magnitude. Correlations between parameters also make it difficult to separate the contribution from each parameter on the output. Finally, it is concluded that even in cases where correlations between parameters can be disregarded for the sake of the uncertainty analysis, they cannot be disregarded in the sensitivity analysis of the results. A new approach for global sensitivity analysis based on neural networks has been developed and tested on results for the peak releases of caesium. Promising results have been obtained by this method, which is robust and can tackle results from non-linear models even when there are correlations between parameters. This represents a considerable improvement over the capabilities of the commonly used traditional statistical methods

  4. The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Broed, R. [AlbaNova Univ. Center, Stockholm (Sweden). Stockholm Center for Physics Astronomy and Biotechnology

    2002-03-01

    In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several orders of magnitude. Correlations between parameters also make it difficult to separate the contribution from each parameter on the output. Finally, it is concluded that even in cases where correlations between parameters can be disregarded for the sake of the uncertainty analysis, they cannot be disregarded in the sensitivity analysis of the results. A new approach for global sensitivity analysis based on neural networks has been developed and tested on results for the peak releases of caesium. Promising results have been obtained by this method, which is robust and can tackle results from non-linear models even when there are correlations between parameters. This represents a considerable improvement over the capabilities of the commonly used traditional statistical methods.

  5. System dynamics in hydropower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuksrud, Dag Birger

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vladimir, Shevnin; Omar, Delgado Rodríguez; Aleksandr, Mousatov; David, Flores Hernández; Héctor, Zegarra Martínez; Albert, Ryjov.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El método Sondeo Eléctrico Vertical (SEV), conocido desde 1912, ha cambiado sustancialmente durante los últimos 10 años, apareciendo una nueva tecnología llamada Imagen de Resistividad (IR) con interpretación 2D de los datos de resistividad. Otra vía posible de desarrollo del método SEV es, partiend [...] o de las relaciones existentes entre la resistividad eléctrica y los parámetros petrofísicos (PP), estimar estos últimos a partir de datos de IR. Para la realización práctica de este concepto fue desarrollada la teoría del problema directo e inverso que relaciona la resistividad eléctrica con los PP. Cada trabajo de campo deberá incluir un levantamiento de SEV (IR), mediciones de resistividad eléctrica del agua subterránea con el objetivo de determinar su salinidad y la recolección de algunas muestras representativas de suelo del sitio con mediciones hechas en laboratorio de la resistividad eléctrica como función de la salinidad del agua de poro, creando el modelo petrofísico del suelo de este sitio. Esta tecnología puede ser utilizada tanto para la caracterización de sitios limpios como contaminados por hidrocarburos. Para el caso de sitios contaminados, los valores de los PP determinados en laboratorio, salinidad de agua y los datos de IR, permiten establecer la frontera petrofísica entre suelo limpio y contaminado, y por consiguiente, configurar la pluma contaminante. En este trabajo se incluyen, como ejemplos prácticos, los resultados de la aplicación de esta tecnología en algunos sitios contaminados por hidrocarburos en México. Abstract in english Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the [...] relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI) survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

  7. Microalgal diversity in relation to the physicochemical parameters of some Industrial sites in Mangalore, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jyothi; Krishnakumar, G

    2015-11-01

    This study is undertaken to understand the microalgal species composition, diversity, abundance and their association with the polluted sites of an industrial area. The microalgae and the wastewater samples collected from these sites were preserved and analysed using standard methods. One hundred and eight species of the microalgae, belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceace and Desmidaceae, were identified. Of these, the members of Cyanophyceae formed the dominant flora. It was observed that the family Oscillatoriaceae was the most diverse family. In this family, the most diverse genus was found to be the Oscillatoria, with 13 species. Further, the abundance of Oscillatoria princeps indicated that these species are tolerant to the pollution and therefore considered as the 'marker species' of the habitat. The abundance of the Cyanophyceae in these sites was found to be due to the favourable contents of the oxidizable organic matter and the presence of the nutrients, such as the nitrates and the phosphates, in abundance, with less dissolved oxygen. The lesser percentage of the Bacillariophyceae (14%), and the negligible number of the euglenoids (2%) indicated that the sites were rich in the inorganic pollutants and poor in the organic pollutants. The range of Shannon diversity indices was found between 2.10 and 3.50, while the dominance index was found between 0.03 and 0.14, the species evenness between 0.73 and 0.93 and the Margalef index between 1.8 and 6.3. The diversity indices indicated that there is light to moderate level of pollution in the studied sites, with moderate diversity level. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical parameters identified the four possible groups, which were responsible for the data structure, explaining the 74% of the total variance of the data set. In the PCA performed using all the variables, the first principal component showed the positive correlation with the total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, conductivity, temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the sulphates and the negative correlation with the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Pb2+. The second principal component showed the positive correlation with the pH, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates and phosphates, and the negative correlation with the TDS, salinity, conductivity, temperature and BOD. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that there were significant (ppollution can be predicted, based on the structure of the microalgal community. PMID:26433901

  8. Hydrogen sulfide in hydropower reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to aquatic life and corrosive to hydropower plant construction materials when ? at concentrations that are considerably lower than detection limits of analytical procedures commonly used in the United states. A titrimetric procedure found in the Chinese literature has been translated and converted to a field method with quality control procedures. This method has allowed the measurement of sulfide distribution in two tributary impoundments and one tailwater and has provided the first available information on the occurrence of sulfide at levels below the commonly detection limits. Also investigated were the effects of sulfide and other anoxic constituents on turbine system fouling and corrosion

  9. MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Fini, L

    2013-01-01

    We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The final outcome of the study is to investigate the opportunity to implement an automatic system for the forecast of these parameters at these sites. In this paper we present results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the vertical stratification of the atmospherical parameters along the 20 km above the ground. The very satisfactory performances shown by the model in reconstructing most of these parameters (and in particular the wind speed) put this tool of investigation as the most suitable to be used in as...

  10. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3)?(Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  11. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

  12. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it possible to determine the radionuclides in the whole body by their concentration in one organ, or even without slaughtering the animal, using wool, to give a preliminary estimate of the radionuclide concentration in the animal body. The research results outlined in this paper confirm existing data on the metabolism of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in animals. However, the transfer factors obtained were an order of magnitude smaller than the average transfer factor presented in the IAEA database. The transuranic radionuclides ({sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am) intaken with soil is absorbed less than when intaken with food. With long-term intake of {sup 239+240}Pu by animals with different components of the environment the radionuclides are accumulated only in the liver, {sup 241}Am accumulated in the skin, other organs and tissues do not accumulate. The acquired knowledge about the radionuclide transfer parameters may be used to build predictive models and evaluate dose loads to the population that uses animal products obtained in areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are 90Sr, 137Cs, 239+240Pu, 241Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of radionuclides in organs and tissues, which makes it possible to determine the radionuclides in the whole body by their concentration in one organ, or even without slaughtering the animal, using wool, to give a preliminary estimate of the radionuclide concentration in the animal body. The research results outlined in this paper confirm existing data on the metabolism of 90Sr and 137Cs in animals. However, the transfer factors obtained were an order of magnitude smaller than the average transfer factor presented in the IAEA database. The transuranic radionuclides (239+240Pu, 241Am) intaken with soil is absorbed less than when intaken with food. With long-term intake of 239+240Pu by animals with different components of the environment the radionuclides are accumulated only in the liver, 241Am accumulated in the skin, other organs and tissues do not accumulate. The acquired knowledge about the radionuclide transfer parameters may be used to build predictive models and evaluate dose loads to the population that uses animal products obtained in areas with high concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  15. Determination of hydrological parameters using active tracers at radioactive waste burial site - Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst various geohydrological parameters like surface and sub-surface geological conditions, sub-surface drainage, rainfall recharge and water table fluctuations, the rainfall recharge measurement and ground water movement studies are of prime importance from the radioactive waste management point of view. For augmenting the information, required to evaluate these factors in an aquifer, field investigations were carried out. These included detailed surface and sub-surface surveys, by collecting soil and rock samples, using hand augers, from trial pits and bore hole core samples. Survey of sub-surface drainage, water table fluctuations and rainfall records were made and relevant contours plotted. The rainfall recharge studies were carried out over an area of 40 hectars including the waste burial site of 10 hectars by injecting tritium into the ground during the pre-monsoon period of 1978 and monitoring of the same was done during the post-monsoon period to determine the downward movement of rain water i.e. recharge. The ground water movement studies were carried out by multiwell technique, by injecting a tracer in the central well surrounded by six monitoring wells located in a circular pattern at uniform distance. The behaviour and choice of various tracers used such a rhodamine B, tritium etc. has been dealt. The various field techniques adopted for the experiment, the results and conclusion drawn are also dealt. (author)

  16. Influence of meteorological parameters on seasonal pan evaporation at KKNPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisture in the atmosphere plays a significant role in weather and climate that is commonly treated separately from the other constituents of air. Evaporation of water from free water surface is influenced by a number of meteorological variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation. It also depends upon other variables such as, geographical location, season, time of day, etc. These variables have been known for a long time, but their evaluation is rather complex, due to their interdependent effects. In this paper, meteorological variables influencing seasonal evaporation in tropical region were examined for 6 years (2004-2009) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Site. The results of correlation and regression analysis revealed that in winter season, relative humidity is the most influencing parameter on pan evaporation rate, which affected negatively. Ambient air temperature, solar radiation and wind velocity are the main variables which show positive correlation in summer season. In south west monsoon, ambient air temperature and wind velocity are the most influential variables. In addition to that, all the four seasons, solar radiation plays significant role and positively correlated with pan evaporation. During north east monsoon, only solar radiation showed its influence on evaporation

  17. Hydropower and biomass - a successful combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper contains numbers on the importance of biomass and hydropower in the energy balance of Austria. The importance of the CO2 taxes in the European Communities on the economics of different fuels is outlined. (Quittner)

  18. Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  19. Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.

    1992-12-01

    The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

  20. Value of stochasticity in hydropower planning optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Vistica, Marko

    2012-01-01

    With respect to market liberalization, efficient use of resources is becoming more important for players in the market. In order to achieve that different optimization techniques were developed which enable better operational efficiency. These techniques can be segmented into two different categories, depending on their time horizon: • Yearly time horizon – mid-term hydropower scheduling • Daily time horizon – short-term hydropower scheduling These two time horizons account for two case studi...

  1. Risk management of hydropower development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a rapidly increasing demand for hydropower in China. However, little research has been conducted to systematically investigate the overall aspects of hydropower development risks. With support of the data collected from a fieldwork survey, this study reports the multiple facets of hydropower development risks in China as perceived by main project participants. All groups have a common view on the criticality of safety, and the groups also have their own priorities, i.e., resettlement of migrants, incompetence of subcontractors, project delay, inadequate or incorrect design, premature failure of facilities and ecological and environmental impacts are the key risks to clients, whereas quality of work, financial related risks, reputation, and claims and disputes are the main concerns to contractors. A case study of Three Gorges Project further demonstrates that, hydropower development risks can be effectively managed by encouraging joint efforts of all participants to achieve the goals on producing renewable energy, reducing emissions of CO2, and providing important social/economical benefits. Future hydropower development should emphasize the interactions between project delivery, environmental, and economical processes to reach appropriate trade-offs among involving stakeholders, by adequately considering the inter-relations between project participants' risks as well as hydropower project's externalities on a broad view. - Highlights: • Largely attributed to unforeseen geology conditions, safety is critical in hydropower development. • Resettlement of migrants is the principal risk to clients, whereas quality of works is the first concern to contractors. • One group's risks are typically related to others', needing collaborative risk management by participants. • Three Gorges Project plays a key role on producing renewable energy, and providing social/economical benefits. • Hydropower development should emphasize the interactions between project delivery, environmental, and social processes

  2. An analysis of Turkish hydropower policy

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, Turkish electricity demand has increased more than 8% per annum as a result of economic development. Being one of the renewable energy sources par excellence, non-exhaustible, non-polluting and economically more attractive than other renewable sources, hydropower has turned out to be an important contributor to the future energy mix of the country. This paper deals with hydropower policies to meet increasing electricity demand for sustainable energy development in Turkey...

  3. Hydrodynamic parameters estimation from self-potential data in a controlled full scale site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidichimo, Francesco; De Biase, Michele; Rizzo, Enzo; Masi, Salvatore; Straface, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    A multi-physical approach developed for the hydrodynamic characterization of porous media using hydrogeophysical information is presented. Several pumping tests were performed in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory, a controlled full-scale site designed and constructed at the CNR-IMAA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Metodologia per l'Analisi Ambientale), in Marsico Nuovo (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), in order to obtain an intermediate stage between laboratory experiments and field survey. The facility consists of a pool, used to study water infiltration processes, to simulate the space and time dynamics of subsurface contamination phenomena, to improve and to find new relationship between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters, to test and to calibrate new geophysical techniques and instruments. Therefore, the Hydrogeosite Laboratory has the advantage of carrying out controlled experiments, like in a flow cell or sandbox, but at field comparable scale. The data collected during the experiments have been used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity ks [ms-1] using a coupled inversion model working in transient conditions, made up of the modified Richards equation describing the water flow in a variably saturated porous medium and the Poisson equation providing the self-potential ? [V], which naturally occurs at points of the soil surface owing to the presence of an electric field produced by the motion of underground electrolytic fluids through porous systems. The result obtained by this multi-physical numerical approach, which removes all the approximations adopted in previous works, makes a useful instrument for real heterogeneous aquifer characterization and for predictive analysis of its behavior.

  4. Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, William Matthew; Mathis, Melissa L.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40 percent, 60 percent, and 90 percent were made.

  5. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during the period (1961-2010) for Tarapur Maharashtra Site, Tarapur, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of engineering structures requires an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest, which is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand weather stresses. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Tarapur site for the period 1961-2010 is described. The parameters considered are extreme air temperatures, estimated wind gusts at 10 m height, and rainfall data. Extreme value statistical analysis of various meteorological parameters using best fit least square graphical method and order statistics Lieblein technique are compared and results are found to be in good agreement. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in Tarapur area with respect to stresses due to weather conditions

  6. Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes the opportunities and challenges for low-cost renewable hydrogen production from wind and hydropower. The Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower was held September 9-10, 2003.

  7. Small hydropower for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation of electricity in hydropower plants is non-polluting and represents a hundred years of well proven technology based on indigenous renewable resources. Small hydroelectric plants are particularly well suited for rural electrification in both isolated and integrated girds. Although initial development costs are higher than for most other types of generation plants, operation and maintenance costs are low, and there are no fuel costs. Fluctuations in fuel prices and foreign exchange rates will therefore not affect future generation costs. Economic life time for hydro plants are longer than for other type of generation plants. Civil works amounts on average to half of the development costs, and in some developing countries parts of the mechanical equipment can be fabricated locally. Foreign exchange requirements are therefore generally not higher than for other types of generation plants. Construction of civil works offers job opportunities for local labour. Small hydros are typically of the run-of-river type with negligible environmental impacts. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  8. MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. II: atmospherical parameters in the surface layer [0-30] m

    CERN Document Server

    Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This article is the second of a series of articles aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence (Cn2 and the derived astro-climatic parameters like seeing, isoplanatic angle, wavefront coherence time...). This study is done in the framework of the MOSE project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In this paper we present the results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the surface layer atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity, wind direction and absolute temperature, [0-30] m a.g.l.). The model reconstruction of all the atmospherical parameters in the surface layer is very satisfactory. For the temperature, at all levels, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is inferior to 1{\\deg}C. For the wind speed, it is ~2 m/s, and for the wind direction, it is in the ran...

  9. Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

  10. Better estimation of protein-DNA interaction parameters improve prediction of functional sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Flanagan Ruadhan A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing transcription factor binding motifs is a common bioinformatics task. For transcription factors with variable binding sites, we need to get many suboptimal binding sites in our training dataset to get accurate estimates of free energy penalties for deviating from the consensus DNA sequence. One procedure to do that involves a modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment method designed to produce many such sequences. Results We analyzed low stringency SELEX data for E. coli Catabolic Activator Protein (CAP, and we show here that appropriate quantitative analysis improves our ability to predict in vitro affinity. To obtain large number of sequences required for this analysis we used a SELEX SAGE protocol developed by Roulet et al. The sequences obtained from here were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The resulting bioinformatic model characterizes the sequence specificity of the protein more accurately than those sequence specificities predicted from previous analysis just by using a few known binding sites available in the literature. The consequences of this increase in accuracy for prediction of in vivo binding sites (and especially functional ones in the E. coli genome are also discussed. We measured the dissociation constants of several putative CAP binding sites by EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay and compared the affinities to the bioinformatics scores provided by methods like the weight matrix method and QPMEME (Quadratic Programming Method of Energy Matrix Estimation trained on known binding sites as well as on the new sites from SELEX SAGE data. We also checked predicted genome sites for conservation in the related species S. typhimurium. We found that bioinformatics scores based on SELEX SAGE data does better in terms of prediction of physical binding energies as well as in detecting functional sites. Conclusion We think that training binding site detection algorithms on datasets from binding assays lead to better prediction. The improvements in accuracy came from the unbiased nature of the SELEX dataset rather than from the number of sites available. We believe that with progress in short-read sequencing technology, one could use SELEX methods to characterize binding affinities of many low specificity transcription factors.

  11. Hydropower. Backbone of green energy sales; Wasserkraft. Rueckgrat der Gruenstromvermarktung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, David; Bischof, Ralf; Detering, Michael [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Hydro Power and New Technologies

    2012-11-01

    The expansion of renewable energy sources has boosted in recent years and will be promoted in the future. Hydropower shows high capacity factors, is simple to store and highly predictable. Due to its versatility, hydropower is the backbone of most green energy products. Larger portfolios of hydropower plants even allow for structured long-term contracts, normally backed by thermal capacities. (orig.)

  12. Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

    2000-02-28

    This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases.

  13. Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.

    2004-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

  14. Cross-sectional evaluation of clinical parameters to select high prevalence populations for periodontal disease: the site comparative severity methodology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Luís Scombatti de, Souza; Mario, Taba Jr..

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos mostraram fortes evidências de que a doença periodontal não afeta todos os indivíduos da mesma maneira. Existem indivíduos e sítios com maior risco de ocorrer progressão da doença. Este estudo testou parâmetros para a seleção "a priori" de sítios e indivíduos potencialmente d [...] e risco. Foram utilizados para tal os dados dos exames clínicos periodontais de 2273 pacientes. A perda de inserção clínica foi medida em 6 sítios por dente. Usando um programa de computador, os pacientes foram distribuídos em 14 grupos etários, com intervalos de 5 anos, a partir dos 11 anos de idade e até acima de 75 anos. A medida de cada sítio foi comparada com a média e a mediana da faixa etária do indivíduo, com o resultado da comparação com a mediana indicando a comparação da severidade do sítio (CSS). Foram calculados três parâmetros globais do indivíduo: parâmetro 1 (P1) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 4 mm; parâmetro 2 (P2) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 7 mm; parâmetro 3 (P3) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica superando a mediana do grupo etário em 100% ou mais. A amostra tinha 1466 (65%) mulheres e 807 (35%) homens. A maioria dos indivíduos apresentou valores de P1, P2 e P3 menores que 30%. O parâmetro 3 permitiu uma divisão da amostra de forma similar àquela realizada por P1 e P2, com a vantagem de analisar o indivíduo em relação a seu grupo etário. Com base nos resultados, sugere-se que a metodologia da CSS possa ser útil na seleção de uma população de alta prevalência de doença, e que linhas de corte entre 10% e 20% seriam as mais apropriadas para o uso do parâmetro 3. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown strong evidence that periodontal disease does not affect all subjects in the same manner. There are subjects and sites with higher risk for disease progression. This study tested parameters to select "a priori" sites and subjects potentially at risk. The data from [...] periodontal clinical examinations of 2273 subjects was used. The clinical loss of attachment was measured in 6 sites per tooth. Using computer software, the patients were distributed into 14 age groups, with intervals of 5 years, from 11 years to greater than 75 years of age. The measure of each site was compared with the average and the median values of the subject age group, with the results indicating site comparative severity (SCS). Three global parameters were calculated: parameter 1 (P1) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 4 mm; parameter 2 (P2) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 7 mm; parameter 3 (P3) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss surpassing the median value for the age group by 100% or more. There were 1466 (65%) females and 807 (35%) males. Most subjects had P1, P2 and P3 values less than 30%. Parameter 3 allowed a division of the sample similar to that of Parameters 1 and 2, with the advantage of analyzing the subject in relation to his/her age group. It was suggested that the methodology of SCS is useful for selecting a population with a high disease prevalence, and that cut-off lines between 10% and 20% would be appropriate for using Parameter 3.

  15. High-Resolution Free-GIS operations to assist hydropower potential assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganora, Daniele; Gallo, Enrico; Masoero, Alessandro; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2013-04-01

    Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for renewable energy suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, according to EU and national environmental regulations. High resolution hydrological analysis is then needed to comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants and of other water withdrawals. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. For this study, developed within the RENERFOR-ALCOTRA Project, a regional "spatially smooth" model has been developed for FDC estimation: the procedure adopted relates the L-moments of the FDC to several geomorphoclimatic parameters (more than 100), with the purpose to directly reconstruct a "naturalized" FDC. The proposed procedure is systematically extended to all the gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy, which is an area characterized by the presence of a large number of dams. For each basin, the annual average FDC is computed, its L-moments are calculated and corrected using a simplified model that takes into account the effect of upstream reservoirs and power plants. Then, each corrected L-moment is regionalized using multiple regressions techniques, allowing one to reconstruct the L-moments at any ungauged basin. Finally, the "naturalized" FDC is reconstructed at the ungauged site on the basis of the predicted L-moments. Due to necessity of obtaining high-resolution estimates, the method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences. This feature is obtained considering only raster-summable explanatory variables, which are only a subset of the available descriptors. The residual hydropower potential is evaluated by mapping the mean naturalized flow estimated for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model in two mountain basins used as case studies. Applying extensively the proposed methodology, the mean annual flow is reconstructed not only in some significant sections, but in all the about 25000 sections defined by each network pixel. We used a 50 m DEM to compute, for each network pixel, the upstream watershed and all the morpho-climatic characteristics needed in the regional model. Maps obtained can return flow-altitude relations for each pixel along a drainage path assuming different possible headrace length (1, 2.5 and 5 km). Spatial algorithms and data management are developed by the use of the Free&OpenSource software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL as database manager, integrated with PostGIS elaboration to create the outputs. The large number of data and the complexity of the information derived required some thinking about the best way to access and represent the data, that has to be easy-to-use also for no-expert GIS users.

  16. Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

  17. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  18. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  19. Influence of the operation of small hydropower station on the communities of selected groups of macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) of the submountain section of Hucava river (Polana Mts., Slovakia) - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a small hydropower station on communities of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) was studied in the metarhithral section of Hucava stream. Natural flow (Hucava 1 = reference site) was compared with reduced flow (Hucava 2) and peak flow regime (Hucava 3). We have not found significant reduction of the number of taxa and indices of diversity and equitability at sites affected by operation of the hydropower station. Stoneflies were the only group that showed the expected decrease. Relative changes (%) in density of studied groups at affected sites also did not support the assumption of an adverse effect of the small hydropower station. (authors)

  20. Preliminary study: small hydropower installation on the Steintalerbach stream in Ebnat-Kappel - Reactivation of the 'Muehle' hydropower plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the reactivation of an existing but disused hydropower plant. The report describes the current situation at the site, where originally three water-wheels were in use. The new project is described, which foresees a new 231 kW turbine integrated into a new building on the site as well as new weir, a fish ladder and a new water conduit. The local topographical and hydrological situation is discussed. Three project variants for different water volumes are discussed and compared. The variant chosen for possible realisation is described. Figures are given on investment and operating costs, the price of the power produced and the installation's economic viability. Further topics relating to environmental protection issues are also discussed

  1. BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, J.

    1998-09-30

    Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle`s King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels.

  2. BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle's King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels

  3. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  4. Determination of transfer coefficients soil/vegetation by means of site-specific soil parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of Sr and Cs to different forms of vegetation is influenced by a great number of soil properties, some parameters playing a key part for certain nuclides. The dominant factor for the uptake of Sr is the exchangeable Ca content of the soil. The transfer of Cs to different plants on the other hand is affected by several properties of the soil in about equal strength, for different types of plant and soil one or the other parameter having got greater influence. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  5. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

  6. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  7. An investigation of wash-off controlling parameters at urban and commercial monitoring sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, C; Gnecco, I; Lanza, L G; La Barbera, P

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the parameters of the wash-off function and the controlling hydrologic variables are investigated in this paper, assuming that the pollutant generation process basically depends on the watershed rainfall-runoff response characteristics. Data collected during an intense monitoring program carried out by the Department of Environmental Engineering of the University of Genova (Italy) within a residential area, an auto dismantler facility, a tourism terminal and a urban waste truck depot are used to this aim. The observed runoff events are classified into different TSS mass delivery processes and the occurrence of the first flush phenomenon is also investigated. The correlation between the mathematical parameters describing the exponential process and the hydrological parameters of the corresponding rainfall-runoff event is analysed: runoff parameters and in particular the maximum flow discharge over the time of concentration of the drainage network are proposed as the controlling factor for the total mass of pollutant that is made available for wash-off during each runoff event. PMID:18075182

  8. Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Zegarra Martínez; David Flores Hernández; Aleksandr Mousatov; Omar Delgado Rodríguez; Vladimir Shevnin; Albert Ryjov

    2006-01-01

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each...

  9. Optimal sizing of a run-of-river small hydropower plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sizing of a small hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is very critical for the cost effectiveness of the investment. In the present work, a numerical method is used for the optimal sizing of such a plant that comprises two hydraulic turbines operating in parallel, which can be of different type and size in order to improve its efficiency. The study and analysis of the plant performance is conducted using a newly developed evaluation algorithm that simulates in detail the plant operation during the year and computes its production results and economic indices. A parametric study is performed first in order to quantify the impact of some important construction and operation factors. Next, a stochastic evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the optimization process. The examined optimization problem uses data of a specific site and is solved in the single and two-objective modes, considering, together with economic, some additional objectives, as maximization of the produced energy and the best exploitation of the water stream potential. Analyzing the results of various optimizations runs, it becomes possible to identify the most advantageous design alternatives to realize the project. It was found that the use of two turbines of different size can enhance sufficiently both the energy production of the plant and the economic results of the investment. Finally, the sensitivity of the plant performance to other external parameters can be easily studied with the present method, and some indicative results are given for different financial or hydrologic conditions

  10. Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus

  11. MCDA or MCDM Based Selection of Transmission Line Conductor: Small Hydropower Project Planning and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyabrata Adhikary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower projects are emerging as a solution for sustainable, green, environment friendly, long term and cost-effective source of renewable energy in India for the future. Selecting the appropriate small hydropower project and its parameters in which to invest is a critical task involving different factors and policies. Hence such decision-making can be viewed as a multiple criteria analysis problem with correlating criteria and alternatives. This task should take into consideration several conflicting aspects because of the increasing complexity of the social, technological, environmental, and economic factors. Traditional single criteria decision-making approaches cannot handle the complexity of such systems. Multi criteria methods provide a better and flexible tools. This paper aims to evaluate applicability of multi criteria decision aid to decision makers during the small hydropower project planning and development. To the best of the author’s knowledge this novel approach for application of MCDA or MCDM to small hydropower project planning and development scenario is absent in renewable energy literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  12. Next Generation Hydropower Technology: Available, Economical, Quickly Deployed, While Minimizing The Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Imad

    2010-09-15

    The Kinetic Energy Recovery Turbine TREK technology is an innovative technology that will convert a fraction of the kinetic energy contained in rivers currents. The TREK technology targets sites that cannot be economically, technically or environmentally developed using conventional hydropower technologies (i.e. hydroelectric dams). The TREK is expected to deliver renewable base load electricity at a competitive cost compared to other renewable energy options. The technology can also be used to provide dispatchable and remote electricity.

  13. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Simon A. Levin

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We fi...

  14. Assessment of hydropower potential using GIS and hydrological modeling technique in Kopili River basin in Assam (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusre, B.C.; Patra, S.C. [North Eastern Regional Institute of Water and Land Management, PO Kaliabhomora, Dolabari, Tezpur, Assam 784 027 (India); Baruah, D.C.; Bordoloi, P.K. [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India)

    2010-01-15

    A hilly watershed in Kopili River basin in Assam (India) was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using spatial tool (GIS) and hydrological model (SWAT2000). The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study watershed were used to characterize the watershed. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study watershed was simulated through the model. The prediction accuracy of the model was confirmed through three well known efficiency criteria viz., coefficient of determination (R{sup 2} = 0.70), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (E 0.64) and Index of agreement (d 0.91). A total of 107 sites on 9 streams could be identified as potential location for hydropower generation in the study watershed using the model outputs. Distributed power availability through micro units (<0.5 MW) has been the characteristic feature of the watershed. Estimated potential carbon emission reduction (CER) within the watershed might be up to 125 thousand t CO{sub 2}, even 50% of the potential hydropower of the 1204 sq km watershed could be implemented. The result of the study is expected to boost the initiative for hydropower generation in the region considering the limitation of fossil fuels, increasing power demand and availability of untapped water resources. (author)

  15. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and further incentives for business owners of micro/mini hydropower generation along with current feed-in tariff are required if our society choose an option to enhance the renewable energy.

  16. 21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt. Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

  17. Environmental certification for small hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

  18. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  19. Pumped-storage with small hydropower – an option?

    OpenAIRE

    Mailler, Benoît; Heller, Philippe; CRETTENAND, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes towards exploring the technical and institutional feasibility of small hydropower storage and pumped-storage schemes in Switzerland. Within the European and Swiss context of the facilitation of renewable energy technologies, which includes small hydropower (SHP), intermittent sources such as solar and wind increase the need for additional energy storage capacities. Hydropower pumped-storage schemes remain the most efficient and profitable option to “store” electricity. ...

  20. Hydropower Reservoir and Sedimentation : A Study of Nam Ngum Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Sujan

    2013-01-01

    Hydropower accounts for approximately one fifth of the world’s electricity supply and is the best renewable energy source to meet the energy consumption of the world. With ever increasing energy demands hydropower-related construction is on the increase all over the world. Although the energy production from hydropower is efficient and cheap, the social and environmental cost can be high, with downstream ecosystem impacts caused by water quality, hydrological and sediment flux changes. In ...

  1. Supply function equilibria in a hydropower market

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Jostein

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to study the implications of market power in a hydropower based electricity market within the framework of the Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model. We start by developing the standard SFE model with two symmetric players. We then develop a simple numerical example to illustrate the effects of production constraints both related to installed effect capacity and to energy capacity. We illustrate that binding constraints on energy production reduce the num...

  2. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  3. Hydropower plants in Thuringia; Wasserkraftwerke in Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rindelhardt, Udo

    2013-02-01

    Especially due to the existing difference in height and due the higher rainfall, the Federal State Thuringia (Federal Republic of Germany) offers the natural conditions or the utilization of regenerative pumped-storage power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the development of the hydropower utilization in the last 100 years. Due to historical aspects, the author differentiates between the development before the year 1945, between 1945 and 1990 as well as the development subsequent to the year 1991.

  4. Water: resources management under conflicting objectives: hydropower versus national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower plays an essential role in the Austrian energy supply. About two thirds of the electric consumption are covered by hydropower generation. The objective of this paper is to analyse a pending conflict between hydropower utilisation and environmental concerns along the Austrian section of the Danube downstream of Vienna. In the first step the utilizable hydropower potential of the respective section and the environmental impacts are assessed. In a subsequent step a framework is elaborated to compare and to trade off economic and environmental objectives. Such a procedure requires preference values and is thus subjected to subjectivity, introduced either by decision makers or by involved parties. (author)

  5. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  6. The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Colbeck, I. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as `clean continental` during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  7. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable

  8. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  9. Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement. Part 3, Field data and site parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part three of a series of comprehensive reports detailing the results of the IPR Marsden-funded research project 'Cosmogenic nuclides in earth science: validation of production systematics', which set out to validate scaling factors used in determining production rates of cosmogenic nuclides used for surface exposure dating. The research was carried out in Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica, and had two aspects to it: (i) direct measurement of cosmic-ray flux using portable monitors, and (ii) measurement of 7Be and 10Be in sealed water targets. This report presents details of field experiments and measurements carried out between 1997 and 2001, during and after sun-spot cycle 23 solar minimum. Included are measurement times, weather conditions and relevant site parameters. A brief discussion of shielding and neutron scattering effects is also included. (author). 20 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

    2011-12-01

    Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is currently being studied. Typically these studies consider the inherent flexibility of hydropower technologies, but tend to fall short on details regarding grid operations, institutional arrangements, and hydropower environmental regulations. This presentation will focus on an analysis that Argonne National Laboratory is conducting in collaboration with the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The analysis evaluates the extent to which Western's hydropower resources may help with grid integration challenges via a proposed Energy Imbalance Market. This market encompasses most of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council footprint. It changes grid operations such that the real-time dispatch would be, in part, based on a 5-minute electricity market. The analysis includes many factors such as site-specific environmental considerations at each of its hydropower facilities, long-term firm purchase agreements, and hydropower operating objectives and goals. Results of the analysis indicate that site-specific details significantly affect the ability of hydropower plant to respond to grid needs in a future which will have a high penetration of variable resources.

  11. Relationship among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index of Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afif-Khouri, E.; Camara Obregon, M. A.; Oliveira-Prendes, J. A.; Gorgoso-Varela, J. J.; Canga-Libano, E.

    2010-07-01

    The relationships among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index were examined in Pinus radiata D. Don stands in a climatically homogeneous area of NW Spain. Thirty-eight even-aged stands, ranging from 10 to 54 years, were sampled. In each stand, a representative plot of 0.1 ha was selected and different stand variables and parent material were considered. The soils in the study area are strongly acidic, with high proportions of organic matter, high C/N ratios, and low exchangeable base cation and available P concentration extracted by Mehlich 3 method (PM3). Although foliar N was sufficient in every stand studied, widespread deficiencies of K, P and, to a lesser extent, Mg and Ca were diagnosed. The foliar concentrations of P were positively correlated with PM3 and effective cation exchange capacity. The SI values ranged between 9.5 and 28.8 m and were positively correlated with foliar P and extractable K in soil. In the stands developed on quartzite and sandstone lithologies, the SI was negatively correlated with slope and foliar N respectively. The results suggest the importance of site selection and fertilizer treatment in reforestation programmes. (Author) 63 refs.

  12. Assessing Optimal Flight Parameters for Generating Accurate Multispectral Orthomosaicks by UAV to Support Site-Specific Crop Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-Javier Mesas-Carrascosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to acquire remote images using a six-band multispectral sensor. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: three flight altitudes (60, 80 and 100 m, two flight modes (stop and cruising modes and two ground control point (GCP settings were considered to analyze the influence of these parameters on the spatial resolution and spectral discrimination of multispectral orthomosaicked images obtained using Pix4Dmapper. Moreover, it is also necessary to consider the area to be covered or the flight duration according to any flight mission programmed. The effect of the combination of all these parameters on the spatial resolution and spectral discrimination of the orthomosaicks is presented. Spectral discrimination has been evaluated for a specific agronomical purpose: to use the UAV remote images for the detection of bare soil and vegetation (crop and weeds for in-season site-specific weed management. These results show that a balance between spatial resolution and spectral discrimination is needed to optimize the mission planning and image processing to achieve   every agronomic objective. In this way, users do not have to sacrifice flying at low altitudes to cover the whole area of interest completely.

  13. Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakantan, T. R.; K. Sasireka

    2013-01-01

    Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

  14. Geospatial Technology for Mapping Suitable Sites for Hydro Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nagraj S. Patil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, large amount of data is required, consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries. Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT hydrological model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. The study using the above methodology to identifies suitable site in Bennihalla catchment, for small scale hydropower development. The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 and outlet of the catchment are more suitable for small scale hydropower plant.

  15. A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

  16. The Buchholz small hydro-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short, illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the commissioning of a small hydro-power installation on the Glatt river, Eastern Switzerland after more than 90 years of downtime. The authors state that the hydro-plant meets all requirements regarding nature conservancy, flood protection and ecology (river continuum for fish). The construction of the plant, which features a dam-integrated powerhouse, is described, as is a novel means of allowing fish to pass the dam. The work done in rebuilding the installation is documented in a series of photographs

  17. Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. A review of the Se San 3 hydropower project feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.C.

    2000-10-16

    Probe International is a leading energy and environmental organization which examines the economic effects of Canada's aid and trade abroad. In that context, the organization assessed the performance of the Se San 3 Hydropower Project in Vietnam. The Swedish hydropower consultants SWECO and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) recommended the location of the Se San 3 hydropower project after a feasibility study indicated it was the best technical, economic and environmental option. The ADB planned to provide an $80 million start-up loan for the 260 MW dam with the hope of attracting an additional $240 million from international investors such as Hydro-Quebec in Canada and Statkraft in Norway. This decision was deferred following reports that the Ya Li dam, located 20 km upstream of the Se San site had caused flash floods endangering 20,000 people living along the Cambodian stretch of the river. The ADB offered $1.8 million to conduct downstream impact studies, but withdrew its loan for the Se San 3. Vietnam is now expected to pursue other sources of financing. Probe International commissioned a review of the original SWECO feasibility study and found that the dam's international proponents exaggerated the output and economic benefits of the project and ignored potential costs that would probably be imposed on downstream communities beyond Vietnam's borders. A sensitivity analysis by Probe International found that the project is not economically viable. refs., tabs.

  19. Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

  20. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

  2. Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm3. The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

  3. A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ofia Kuzevi?ová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

  4. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9?×?109?m3?(Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6?Gm3 yr-1 or 3.6?m3 of water to produce a GJ (109?J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  5. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

  6. Vulnerability of hydropower generation to climate change in China: Results based on Grey forecasting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the long-term relationships between hydropower generation and climate factors (precipitation), hydropower generation capacity (installed capacity of hydropower station) to quantify the vulnerability of renewable energy production in China for the case of hydropower generation. Furthermore, this study applies Grey forecasting model to forecast precipitation in different provinces, and then sets up different scenarios for precipitation based on the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios and results from PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate projections for Impacts Studies) model. The most important result found in this research is the increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions and the main hydropower generation provinces of China to climate change. Other main empirical results reveal that the impacts of climate change on the supply of hydropower generation in China will be noteworthy for the society. Different scenarios have different effects on hydropower generation, of which A2 scenario (pessimistic, high emission) has the largest. Meanwhile, the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation of every province are distinctly different, of which the Southwest part has the higher vulnerability than the average level while the central part lower. - Highlights: • The hydropower vulnerability will be enlarged with the rapid increase of hydropower capacity. • Modeling the vulnerability of hydropower in different scenarios and different provinces. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the poorest regions to climate change. • The increasing hydropower vulnerability of the main hydropower generation provinces. • Rainfall pattern caused by climate change would be the reason for the increasing vulnerability

  7. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

  8. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters

  9. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after pressure release to atmospheric pressure. The results from the centrifuge capillary pressure measurements were then used for calibrating the cutoff time of NMR T2 relaxation (average value 8 ms) to differentiate between the mobile and immobile water fraction (standard for clean sandstone 33 ms). Following Norden (2010) a cutoff time of 10 ms was applied to estimate the residual saturation as Bound Fluid Volume for the Ketzin core materials and to estimate NMR permeability after Timur-Coates. This adapted cutoff value is also consistent with results from RST logging after injection. The maximum measured CO2 saturation corresponds to the effective porosity for the upper most CO2 filled sandstone horizon. The directly measured values and the estimated residual brine saturations from NMR measurements with the adapted cutoff time of 10 ms are within the expected range compared to the literature data with a mean residual brine saturation of 53%. A. Cerepi et al., 2002, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 35. M. Fleury et al., 2011, SCA2010-06. D. Kiessling et al., 2010, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 4. B. Norden et al. 2010, SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering 13. .

  10. Application of Geochemical Parameters for the Early Detection of CO2 Leakage from Sequestration Sites into Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y. K.; Beers, S.; Thordsen, J.; Thomas, B.; Campbell, P.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Abedini, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geologically sequestered CO2 is buoyant, has a low viscosity and, when dissolved in brine, becomes reactive to minerals and well pipes. These properties of CO2 may cause it to leak upward, possibly contaminating underground sources of drinking water. We have participated in several multi-laboratory field experiments to investigate the chemical and isotopic parameters that are applicable to monitoring the flow of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifers and into potable shallow groundwater. Geochemical results from the deep SECARB Phase III tests at Cranfield oil field, Mississippi, and from the Frio Brine I and II pilots located in the S. Liberty oil field, Dayton, Texas, proved powerful tools in: 1- Tracking the successful injection and flow of CO2 into the injection sandstones; 2- showing major changes in the chemical (pH, alkalinity, and major divalent cations) and isotopic (?13C values of CO2, and ?18O values of CO2 and brine) compositions of formation water; 3-. showing mobilization of metals, including Fe Mn and Pb, and organic compounds , including DOC, BTEX, PAHs, and phenols following CO2 injection; and 4- showing that some of the CO2 injected into the Frio "C" sandstone was detected in the overlying "B" sandstone that is separated from it by 15 m of shale and siltstone. Rapid, significant and systematic changes were also observed in the isotopic and chemical compositions of shallow groundwater at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site located in Bozeman, Montana, in response to four yearly injections of variable amounts of CO2 gas through a slotted pipe placed horizontally at a depth of ~2 m below ground level. The observed changes, included the lowering of groundwater pH from ~7.0 to values as low as 5.6, increases in the alkalinity from about 400 mg/L as HCO3 to values of up to 1330 mg/L, increases in the electrical conductance from ~600 ?S/cm to up to 1800 ?S/cm, as well as increases in the concentrations of cations and metals following CO2 injection. Geochemical modeling, sequential extractions of cations from the ZERT-aquifer sediments, and controlled laboratory CO2-groundwater-sediment interactions demonstrated that calcite dissolution and ion exchange on organic material and inorganic mineral surfaces are responsible for the observed chemical changes. Results from both the deep and shallow field tests show that geochemical methods have highly sensitive chemical and isotopic tracers that are needed at CO2 injection sites to monitor injection performance and for early detection of any CO2 and brine leakages.

  11. Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tilmant

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

  12. Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: ? A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. ? The relative importance of the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. ? The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. ? The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. ? The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

  13. Glen Canyon Hydropower vs. the Grand Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many resource allocation problems currently face the hydropower industry. The current Environmental Impact Statement effort on the operation of Glen Canyon Dam is the focus of this discussion. This paper relates the process of approaching the conflict, the differing views and conflicting strategies of the parties, the emotional and logical investment of the participants, and the concerns for fairness and openness derived from the historic distrust between those with differing views. The paper is prepared from the perspective of the Bureau of Reclamation, the lead Federal agency in the effort, and the perspectives of the author who has been in a lead role in the agency's approach to the challenge. The paper describes the formulation of positions by the interested parties and the surrounding values and depth of concern exhibited in the process

  14. Private hydropower projects: exporting the american experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented

  15. Preliminary analysis of important site-specific dose assessment parameters and exposure pathways applicable to a groundwater release scenario at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop capabilities for compliance determination, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducts total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) in an iterative manner. Because the new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for YM may set a dose or risk limit, an auxiliary study was conducted to develop estimates of site-specific dose assessment parameters for future TSPAS. YM site-relevant data was obtained for irrigation, agriculture, resuspension, crop interception, and soil. A Monte Carlo based importance analysis was used to identify predominant parameters for the groundwater pathway. In this analysis, the GENII-S code generated individual annual total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) for 20 nuclides and 43 sampled parameters based upon unit groundwater concentrations. Scatter plots and correlation results indicate the crop interception fraction, food transfer factors, consumption rates, and irrigation rate are correlated with TEDEs for specific nuclides. Influential parameter groups correspond to expected pathway readily to plants, such as 99Tc, indicate crop ingestion pathway parameters are most highly correlated with the TEDE, and those that transfer to milk (59Ni) or beef (79Se, 129I, 135Cs, 137Cs) show predominant correlations with animal product ingestion pathway parameters. Such relationships provide useful insight to important parameters and exposure pathways applicable to doses from specific nuclides

  16. Hydropower engineering. Paper no. IGEC-1-005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower. (author)

  17. Hydropower's Contribution to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinbilek, D.; Abdel-Malek, R.; Devernay, J.M.; Gill, R.; Leney, S.; Moss, Terry; Schiffer, H.P.; Taylor, R.M.

    2007-07-01

    The role of hydropower within mixed power systems is analysed from the point of view of both quantitative and qualitative performance. Interrelationships with all other generation technologies are discussed and synergies identified. Resources, sustainability criteria and investment challenges are reviewed in the context of development. The objective of the paper is to define hydropower's contribution within the clean, clever and competitive markets of the future.

  18. Hydropower engineering. Paper no. IGEC-1-005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, M. [Hydro Power Univ., Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: michel.cervantes@ltu.se

    2005-07-01

    Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower. (author)

  19. Evaluation of hydropower upgrade projects - a real options approach

    OpenAIRE

    Elverhøi, Morten; Fleten, Stein-Erik; Fuss, Sabine; Heggedal, Ane Marte; Szolgayova, Jana; Troland, Ole Christian

    2010-01-01

    When evaluating whether to refurbish existing hydropower plants or invest in a new power plant, there are two important aspects to take into consideration. These are the capacity chosen for the production facilities and the timing of the investment. This paper presents an investment decision support framework for hydropower producers with production facilities due for restoration. The producer can choose between refurbishing existing power plants and investing in a new production facility. A ...

  20. An in vitro RNA editing system from cauliflower mitochondria: Editing site recognition parameters can vary in different plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Neuwirt, Julia; TAKENAKA, MIZUKI; van der Merwe, Johannes A.; BRENNICKE, AXEL

    2005-01-01

    Most of the 400 RNA editing sites in flowering plant mitochondria are found in mRNAs. Consequently, the sequence vicinities of homologous sites are highly conserved between different species and are presumably recognized by likewise conserved trans-factors. To investigate the evolutionary adaptation to sequence variation, we have now analyzed the recognition elements of an editing site with divergent upstream sequences in the two species pea and cauliflower. This variation is tolerated at the...

  1. Short-term forecasting model for aggregated regional hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Original short-term forecasting model for the hourly hydropower generation. • The use of NWP forecasts allows horizons of several days. • New variable to represent the capacity level for generating hydroelectric energy. • The proposed model significantly outperforms the persistence model. - Abstract: This paper presents an original short-term forecasting model of the hourly electric power production for aggregated regional hydropower generation. The inputs of the model are previously recorded values of the aggregated hourly production of hydropower plants and hourly water precipitation forecasts using Numerical Weather Prediction tools, as well as other hourly data (load demand and wind generation). This model is composed of three modules: the first one gives the prediction of the “monthly” hourly power production of the hydropower plants; the second module gives the prediction of hourly power deviation values, which are added to that obtained by the first module to achieve the final forecast of the hourly hydropower generation; the third module allows a periodic adjustment of the prediction of the first module to improve its BIAS error. The model has been applied successfully to the real-life case study of the short-term forecasting of the aggregated hydropower generation in Spain and Portugal (Iberian Peninsula Power System), achieving satisfactory results for the next-day forecasts. The model can be valuable for agents involved in electricity markets and useful for power system operations

  2. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-01

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

  3. Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

  4. Key techniques for evaluation of safety monitoring sensors in water conservancy and hydropower engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XIANG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of construction quality and the verification of the design of water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects, and especially for the control of dam safety operation behavior, safety monitoring sensors are employed in a majority of engineering projects. These sensors are used to monitor the project during the dam construction and operation periods, and play an important role in reservoir safety operation and producing benefits. With the changing of operating environments and run-time of projects, there are some factors affecting the operation and management of projects, such as a certain amount of damaged sensors and instability of the measured data. Therefore, it is urgent to evaluate existing safety monitoring sensors in water conservancy and hydropower engineering projects. However, there are neither standards nor evaluation guidelines at present. Based on engineering practice, this study examined some key techniques for the evaluation of safety monitoring sensors, including the evaluation process of the safety monitoring system, on-site detection methods of two typical pieces of equipment, the differential resistor sensor and vibrating wire sensor, the on-site detection methods of communication cable faults, and a validity test of the sensor measured data. These key techniques were applied in the Xiaolangdi Water Control Project and Xiaoxi Hydropower Project. The results show that the measured data of a majority of sensors are reliable and reasonable, and can reasonably reflect the structural change behavior in the project operating process, indicating that the availabilities of the safety monitoring sensors of the two projects are high.

  5. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: an assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Kaiser, Dale Patrick [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2015-01-01

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease in annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than 2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of 9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.

  6. Influence of the site of arterial occlusion on multiple baseline hemodynamic MRI parameters and post-thrombolytic recanalization in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this prospective MRI study, we evaluated the impact of the site of occlusion on multiple baseline perfusion parameters and subsequent recanalization in 49 stroke patients who were given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Pretreatment magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed an arterial occlusion in 47 patients: (1) internal carotid artery (ICA) + M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (n=12); (2) M1 MCA occlusion (n=19); (3) M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion (n=16). Patients with ICA occlusion had significantly larger DWI, PWI and mismatch lesion volume on pretreatment MRI compared to patients with other sites of occlusion. The differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and peak height were significantly higher in patients with ICA occlusion compared to patients with other sites of occlusion (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). Day 1 MRA showed recanalization in 28 patients (60%). The rate of recanalization was significantly different depending on the site of occlusion: 33% in ICA + M1 MCA occlusion, 63% in M1 MCA occlusion and 81% in either M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA or ACA occlusion (P=0.002). Our data suggest that CBF and peak height are the most relevant MRI parameters to assess the severity of hemodynamic impairment in regard to the site of occlusion. (orig.)

  7. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  8. Improving real-time inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

    2015-08-01

    Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. A complementary modelling framework presents an approach for improving real-time forecasting without needing to modify the pre-existing forecasting model, but instead formulating an independent additive or complementary model that captures the structure the existing operational model may be missing. We present here the application of this principle for issuing improved hourly inflow forecasts into hydropower reservoirs over extended lead times, and the parameter estimation procedure reformulated to deal with bias, persistence and heteroscedasticity. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an unalterable constant parameter conceptual model. This procedure is applied in the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead times up to 17 h. Evaluation of the percentage of observations bracketed in the forecasted 95 % confidence interval indicated that the degree of success in containing 95 % of the observations varies across seasons and hydrologic years.

  9. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The paper gives a historical technical review of the development and installation of approximately 20 000 MW of hydraulic turbines in Norway after World War II. The non polluting production of electricity was consumed for lightening and heating for civil consume and the growing electric furnace industry in Norway in addition to export in rainy years. The paper is mainly based on the authors experience in the design of large turbines, and control systems for operation of Francis Turbines and Reversible Pump Turbines for high and medium heads and Pelton turbines for high heads. During the last 15 years the development of small hydro power plants has also given an increasing contribution to the power production. A brief discussion will be given on the choice of equipment for small hydro production with a very small winter production and overload during the summer. The possibility of operation of a small hydropower plants connected to an isolated grid will also briefly be presented. In addition to the general design of turbines and control systems for large hydro plants, a detailed description will be given of the stability analysis for the governing system which was developed for the large high head plants with long high pressure tunnels systems. A discussion will be included on the introduction of the air cushioned surge chambers for fast stable operation of power plants with long tunnels, connected to isolated grids. Also the principle of stabilizing unstable turbine governing system by means of pressure feed back systems, will be presented and discussed. A description of such system developed in 1992, will be given proving that stability could be obtained in a system with long conduits connected to the turbines. However, the 'governing speed' needed for isolated operation could not be fulfilled without a fast by pass pressure relieve system for Francis turbines, which was not installed in the case for the analysis. Finally a discussion will be given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  10. A note on the evolution of the daily pattern of thermal comfort-related micrometeorological parameters in small urban sites in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aikaterini; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Studies on human thermal comfort in urban areas typically quantify and assess the influence of the atmospheric parameters studying the values and their patterns of the selected index or parameter. In this paper, the interpretation tools are the first derivative of the selected parameters (?Parameter/?t) and the violin plots. Using these tools, the effect of sites' configuration on thermal conditions was investigated. Both derivatives and violin plots indicated the ability of vegetation to act as a buffer to the rapid changes of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The study is focused on the "thermal extreme" seasons of winter (December, January, and February) and summer (June, July, and August) during a 3-year period of measurements in five selected sites under calm wind and sunny conditions. According to the results, the absence of vegetation leads to high derivative values whereas the existence of dense vegetation tends to keep the parameters' values relatively low, especially under hot weather conditions.

  11. Managing Tradeoffs between Hydropower and the Environment in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Daniel P.; Wild, Thomas B.

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower dams are being designed and constructed at a rapid pace in the Mekong/Lancang River basin in Southeast Asia. These reservoirs are expected to trap significant amounts sediment, decreasing much of the river's capability to transport nutrients and maintain its geomorphology and habitats. We apply a simulation model for identifying and evaluating alternative dam siting, design and operating policy (SDO) options that could help maintain more natural sediment regimes downstream of dams and for evaluating the effect of these sediment-focused SDO strategies on hydropower production and reliability. We apply this approach to the planned reservoirs that would prevent a significant source of sediment from reaching critical Mekong ecosystems such as Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Model results suggest that various SDO modifications could increase sediment discharge from this site by 300-450% compared to current plans, but a 30-55% loss in short-term annual energy production depending on various configurations of upstream reservoirs. Simulation results also suggest that sediment management-focused reservoir operating policies could cause ecological damage if they are not properly implemented.

  12. Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed-load transport rate by Meyer-Petter and Muller bed-load equation. As the results are small, the top set slope is fixed as half of the bed slope. The movement of delta pivot point was 6 and 9 Km for the years 1973 and 1994, respectively. (author)

  13. Normalized sensitivities and parameter identifiability of in situ diffusion experiments on Callovo-Oxfordian clay at Bure site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Dewonck, S.; Zheng, L.; Yang, Q.; Naves, A.

    2009-10-01

    DIR (Diffusion of Inert and Reactive tracers) is an experimental program performed by ANDRA at Bure underground research laboratory in Meuse/Haute Marne (France) to characterize diffusion and retention of radionuclides in Callovo-Oxfordian (C-Ox) argillite. In situ diffusion experiments were performed in vertical boreholes to determine diffusion and retention parameters of selected radionuclides. C-Ox clay exhibits a mild diffusion anisotropy due to stratification. Interpretation of in situ diffusion experiments is complicated by several non-ideal effects caused by the presence of a sintered filter, a gap between the filter and borehole wall and an excavation disturbed zone (EdZ). The relevance of such non-ideal effects and their impact on estimated clay parameters have been evaluated with numerical sensitivity analyses and synthetic experiments having similar parameters and geometric characteristics as real DIR experiments. Normalized dimensionless sensitivities of tracer concentrations at the test interval have been computed numerically. Tracer concentrations are found to be sensitive to all key parameters. Sensitivities are tracer dependent and vary with time. These sensitivities are useful to identify which are the parameters that can be estimated with less uncertainty and find the times at which tracer concentrations begin to be sensitive to each parameter. Synthetic experiments generated with prescribed known parameters have been interpreted automatically with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and used to evaluate the relevance of non-ideal effects and ascertain parameter identifiability in the presence of random measurement errors. Identifiability analysis of synthetic experiments reveals that data noise makes difficult the estimation of clay parameters. Parameters of clay and EdZ cannot be estimated simultaneously from noisy data. Models without an EdZ fail to reproduce synthetic data. Proper interpretation of in situ diffusion experiments requires accounting for filter, gap and EdZ. Estimates of the effective diffusion coefficient and the porosity of clay are highly correlated, indicating that these parameters cannot be estimated simultaneously. Accurate estimation of D{sub e} and porosities of clay and EdZ is only possible when the standard deviation of random noise is less than 0.01. Small errors in the volume of the circulation system do not affect clay parameter estimates. Normalized sensitivities as well as the identifiability analysis of synthetic experiments have provided additional insight on inverse estimation of in situ diffusion experiments and will be of great benefit for the interpretation of real DIR in situ diffusion experiments.

  14. 77 FR 47619 - Alcoa Power Generating Inc.; Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...Project No. 2169-104] Alcoa Power Generating Inc.; Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Notice of Application for...31, 2012, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (transferor) and Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC (transferee) filed an...

  15. 77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2447-001] Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application for...

  16. Hidroenergia 2010: International congress on small hydropower. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This conference, held in 2010 in Lausanne, Switzerland, gathered together the main stakeholders of the small hydropower community to debate about topics affecting the development of the sector, to exchange experience and to present new advances in the technological area. The two-day conference was held in a total of nine sessions, a poster session and a workshop. The first session was dedicated to water management in the Alps and covered new regulations, administrative procedures and finance issues. Contributions included a review of the present situation and the development of common guidelines to meet the challenge of conflicting technical and environmental objectives, the facilitation of small hydropower in Switzerland and the institutional frameworks involved, recent trends in small hydro project financing and the growing roles of venture capital, private equity and changing market dynamics. Finally the prospects for small hydropower in Serbia were discussed. In two parallel sessions the following topics were looked at: The promotion of small hydropower in Switzerland using various sources of water and remuneration for the power produced, small hydro in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, the use of karst groundwater for the underground production of power were looked at as well as the analysis of hydraulic facilities for combining pumped storage hydropower systems and wind power in Austria. The final presentation took a look at the new 'La Tzintre' hydropower project. The parallel session dealt with technical innovations and engineering solutions with presentations on the development of small diagonal turbines, the adaptation of propeller turbines to higher specific needs and the problems encountered in doing so. The use of centrifugal pumps as turbines, including a review of technology and applications were also dealt with. Two further parallel sessions looked at EU-funded projects and sustainability issues. The Sustainable Energy Europe project was introduced and its target of improving water resource management was discussed. An assessment of the potential for small hydropower in Switzerland was presented. Further topics discussed included challenges faced in environmental management in Norway, the use of telemetric data for flood management in Thailand, the refurbishment of a small hydro scheme in western Switzerland, the realisation of the Alpbach small hydropower plant station in Kandersteg, Switzerland, the refurbishment of the Rivaz Mill small hydro installation in the vineyards along the Lake of Geneva, Switzerland and the development of a new turbine for very low heads and with low environmental impact. On the second day of the congress, four sessions and a workshop were held. The first set of parallel sessions covered multi-purpose hydro schemes such as the Chievo project on the Adige river in Italy, experience gained at the Boshava scheme in Macedonia and the development of a new tubular propeller. In the second, parallel set of presentations, technical innovations and engineering solutions were looked at. The use of computational fluid design (CFD) in the design of a diagonal turbine, the Ashlu Creek energy dissipation system in British Columbia, the planning of the two Asiganga tandem installations in the Himalayas and performance tests of hydraulic units in low-head small hydropower installations in Poland were discussed. In the second set of parallel sessions the following topics were discussed: The dynamic effects of small hydropower plants and experience gained with the design of small power plants. Finally, the ASEAN Hycom competence centre in Indonesia was presented. In the parallel session, the following topics were discussed: The Hydrobot remote survey of national hydropower resources, the 'Swissrivers' tool for the prediction of mini-hydropower production in Switzerland, increasing energy-efficiency by the use of artificial intelligence, the optimisation of a hydropower project using a real-time forecasting tool and, finally, a method to evaluate the effective potential hydrop

  17. DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

  18. Resource rent taxation and benchmarking: a new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector

    OpenAIRE

    Banfi, Silvia; FILIPPINI, MASSIMO

    2010-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the p...

  19. Resource rent taxation and benchmarking: a new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector

    OpenAIRE

    Banfi, Silvia; FILIPPINI, MASSIMO; Svizzera

    2009-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the p...

  20. Modelling and Simulation of Temperature Variations of Bearings in a Hydropower Generation Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekara, Cotte Gamage Sarathchandra

    2011-01-01

    Hydropower contributes around 20% to the world electricity supply and is considered as the most important, clean, emissions free and economical renewable energy source.  Total installed capacity of Hydropower generation is approximately 777GW in the world (2998TWh/year). Furthermore, estimated technically feasible hydropower potential in the world is 14000TWh/year. The hydropower is the major renewable energy source in many countries and running at a higher plant-factor. Bearing overheating i...

  1. Development of Hydropower in India: Between Global Norms and Local Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Nirmalya

    2013-01-01

    Hydropower is an important source of renewable energy. At the same time hydropower projects are prone to adverse environmental and social impacts. This makes responsible hydropower development an important area of research. This thesis addresses the process governing hydropower development in India through an analysis of the importance of environment impact assessment (EIA) and EIA follow-up in the overall decision-making, existence of resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) norms to mitigate s...

  2. EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

    2010-08-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

  3. Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadus, C.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

  4. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The report summarizes a 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. The study looked at existing large hydropower operations in the U.S., models for different electricity futures, markets, costs of existing and new technologies as well as trends related to hydropower investments in other parts of the world.

  5. Population around the French nuclear power plant sites: a key-parameter for crisis management and safety economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper undertakes an analysis of population around the French nuclear power plant sites, tackles the problem of evacuation planning and provides a glimpse into ongoing research at the Laboratory of Nuclear Safety Economics of the IRSN, about the cost assessment of a nuclear accident and long-term land contamination. (author)

  6. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

  7. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

  8. Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, H; Talbot, R.; Hegarty, J.; J. Koermer

    2011-01-01

    Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (Hgp) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp<...

  9. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the average potential of future hydropower production; it will likely make hydropower more profitable. Yet, the uncertainty in climate change projections remains large and risks are significant, adaptation strategies should ideally consider a worst case scenario to ensure robust power generation. Overall a diversified power generation portfolio, anchored in hydropower and supported by other renewables and fossil fuel-based energy sources, is the best solution for Tanzania

  10. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ahlgrimm, James [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Acker, Tomas L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2004 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  11. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Acker, Thomas L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Northern Arizona State Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications); and (4) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology).

  12. Bidding hydropower generation: Integrating short- and long-term scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Haugstvedt, Daniel; Steinsbø, Jens Arne; Belsnes, Michael; Fleischmann, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Bidding of flexible reservoir hydropower in day-ahead (spot) auctions needs to be done under uncertainty of electricity prices and inflow to reservoirs. The presence of reservoirs also means that the short-term problem of determining bids for the next 12–36 hours is a part of a long term problem in which the question is whether to release water now or store it for the future. This multi-scale challenge is usually addressed by using several models for hydropower planning, at least one l...

  13. Memorandum of Understanding for Hydropower Two-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    On March 24, 2010, the Department of the Army (DOA) through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps), the Department of Energy, and the Department of the Interior signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower. The purpose of the MOU is to “help meet the nation’s needs for reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable hydropower by building a long-term working relationship, prioritizing similar goals, and aligning ongoing and future renewable energy development efforts.” This report documents efforts so far.

  14. CFD computations of hydropower plant intake flow using unsteady RANS

    OpenAIRE

    Nöid, Lovisa

    2015-01-01

    At the intake of hydropower plants, air-core vortex formation is known to cause severe damage. In order to study how to prevent and reduce the origin of the vortex, Vattenfall has built a scale model of the Akkats hydropower plant dam, where scale testing is possible. This thesis work consists of discerning whether Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in terms of solving the Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) can be used as a complement to scale testing. For this work, th...

  15. Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and particulate phase mercury (Hgp were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF, marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI, and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hgo, RGM, and Hgp and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hgo and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hgo at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hgo. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and Hgp was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and Hgp increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and Hgp through deposition. RGM and Hgp levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. In the coastal region relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3–4 higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of Hgp at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of Hgp in all seasons in the marine environment.

  16. Managing flow, sediment, and hydropower regimes in the Sre Pok, Se San, and Se Kong Rivers of the Mekong basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Thomas B.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2014-06-01

    The Lancang/Mekong River Basin is presently undergoing a period of rapid hydropower development. In its natural undeveloped state, the river transports about 160 million metric tons of sediment per year, maintaining the geomorphologic features of the basin, sustaining habitats, and transporting the nutrients that support ecosystem productivity. Despite the importance of sediment in the river, currently little attention is being paid to reservoir sediment trapping. This study is devoted to assessing the potential for managing sediment and its impact on energy production in the Se San, Sre Pok, and Se Kong tributaries of the Mekong River. These tributaries drain a set of adjacent watersheds that are important with respect to biodiversity and ecological productivity, and serve as a significant source of flow and sediment to the mainstream Mekong River. A daily sediment transport model is used to assess tradeoffs among energy production and sediment and flow regime alteration in multiple reservoir systems. This study finds that eventually about 40%-80% of the annual suspended sediment load may be trapped in reservoirs. Clearly, these reservoirs will affect the rivers' sediment regimes. However, even after 100 years of simulated sedimentation, reservoir storage capacities and hydropower production at most reservoir sites are not significantly reduced. This suggests that the strongest motivation for implementing measures to reduce trapped sediment is their impact not on hydropower production but on fish migration and survival and on sediment-dependent ecosystems such as the Vietnam Delta and Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake.

  17. Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

  18. Construction Claim Types and Causes for a Large-Scale Hydropower Project in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower construction projects are complex and uncertain, have long gestational periods and involve several parties. Furthermore, they require the integration of different components (Civil, Mechanical and Electrical to work together as a single unit. These projects require highly specialised designs, detailed plans and specifications, high-risk construction methods, effective management, skilful supervision and close coordination. Thus, claims are common in such projects. These claims are undesirable because they require significant time and resources to resolve and cause adversarial relationships among the parties involved. Therefore, it is in the common interest of all involved parties to prevent, minimise, or resolve claims as amicably as possible. Identifying common claim types and their causes is essential in devising techniques to minimise and avoid them in future projects. This report details a case study performed on a large-scale hydropower project in Bhutan. The findings of this case study indicate that differing site conditions are the major contributor of impact and change claims and 95% of total claims can be settled by negotiation, whereas 5% of claims can be settled by arbitration.

  19. Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and particulate phase mercury (HgP were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF, marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI, and elevated inland rural (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hg0, RGM, and HgP from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hg0, RGM, and HgP and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hg0 and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hg0 at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hg0. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and HgP was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and HgP increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and HgP through deposition. RGM and HgP levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. At the coastal site relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3–4 to two orders of magnitude higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of HgP at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of HgP in all seasons in the marine environment.

  20. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed a state-of-the-science review of hydropower optimization methods and published reports on alternative operating strategies and opportunities for spill reduction. Carried out feasibility studies of new environmental performance measurements of the new MGR turbine at Wanapum Dam, including measurement of behavioral responses, biomarkers, bioindex testing, and the use of dyes to assess external injuries. Evaluated the benefits of mitigation measures for instream flow releases and the value of surface flow outlets for downstream fish passage. Refined turbulence flow measurement techniques, the computational modeling of unsteady flows, and models of blade strike of fish. Published numerous technical reports, proceedings papers, and peer-reviewed literature, most of which are available on the DOE Hydropower website. Further developed and tested the sensor fish measuring device at hydropower plants in the Columbia River. Data from the sensor fish are coupled with a computational model to yield a more detailed assessment of hydraulic environments in and around dams. Published reports related to the Virtual Hydropower Prospector and the assessment of water energy resources in the U.S. for low head/low power hydroelectric plants. Convened a workshop to consider the environmental and technical issues associated with new hydrokinetic and wave energy technologies. Laboratory and DOE staff participated in numerous workshops, conferences, coordination meetings, planning meetings, implementation meetings, and reviews to transfer the results of DOE-sponsored research to end-users.

  1. Soil-biological, soil-chemical and soil-physical parameters along a pollutant gradient on grassland sites in the vicinity o Brixlegg (Tyrol) - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the main aim of this pilot project to check the indicator value of soil organisms by means of distinct pollutant gradients - heavy metals, organic compounds (PCB, dioxins) -. On the basis of available results (1/2/3/), 4 grassland sites at increasing distances from a local emission source (copper production from scrap metal) were selected. Physical and chemical analyses as well as the quantification of habitat structures were used for the characterization of the sites. The following analyses were carried out accompanyingly: The performances of soil microorganisms under pollutant load, the accumulation of pollutants, and the structures of plants and animal communities (macro, meso and microfauna). The investigation area and the examined parameters are introduced, as well as first result on soil chemistry and enzymatics as well as for the accumulation of heavy metals in an earthworm species are introduced. (orig.)

  2. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2007-07-30

    This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling and illustrate the benefits of the methodology I providing better estimates of predictive uncertiay8, quantitative results for use in assessing risk, and an improved understanding of the system behavior and the limitations of the models.

  3. Relationship Between Precipitation Chemistry and Meteorological Parameters at a Urban Site in the North of Queretaro State

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Martínez, R.; Hernández, G.; Solis, S.; Torres, M. D.; Padilla, H.; Báez, A.

    2010-12-01

    A total of 50 wet precipitation samples were collected per event at the Juriquilla site from mid-May 2009 to the end of May 2010. The Juriquilla sampling site was located on the roof of the Geoscience Building, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, at the Juriquilla Campus in the city of Querétaro located at 20°41'58"N and 100°27'28" W, at 1920 meters above sea level (masl). Sampling was done in passive collectors that consisted of a high density polyethylene funnel connected to a 2-liter polyethylene bottle, supported by a rod 1.5 m above the roof. One of the collectors was used to take samples for trace metals. The analysis was done in soluble and insoluble fractions. Al, Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite furnace accessory. The other collector was used to measure pH and major ions (SO4-2, Cl-, NO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4+) in the soluble fractions, because it was assumed that these ions are completely soluble in rainwater. The major ions SO4-2, Cl-, and NO3-, were analyzed by a Varian Model 2010 ion chromatograph; Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and NH4+ by a UV spectrophotometer. In this study, synoptic maps were used to analyze the transport of air masses before rainfall, enabling back trajectories to be used to estimate the source region of pollutants. To understand the variety of synoptic weather conditions, data were associated with the corresponding air mass back trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). Back trajectory models have very simple advection schemes to calculate the previous position of an air parcel by using estimated wind speed and direction for the time period prior to arrival at the selected site. In this study, the origin of the air mass for an event was evaluated by a three-day back-trajectory before arrival to Queretaro. Mass back trajectories were calculated for 1000 and 2000 meters above ground level (MAGL), because winds at these levels should be a good approximation to the mean transport wind, since this pressure level frequently lies near the center of the transport layer. Finally, trajectories were classified by eight different directions according to the directions of the air masses before rainfall.

  4. Conduit-hydropower potential in the City of Tshwane water distribution system: A discussion of potential applications, financial and other benefits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I, Loots; M, van Dijk; S J, van Vuuren; J N, Bhagwan; A, Kurtz.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In water distribution networks, water is often fed under gravity from a higher reservoir to another reservoir at a lower level. The residual pressure head at the receiving reservoir is then dissipated through control valves (mechanically or hydraulically actuated), sometimes augmented by orifice pla [...] tes where there is a propensity for cavitation. There are possibilities to add turbines in parallel and generate hydroelectricity at these locations using the flow and head available. The benefit of this hydropower generating application is that minimal civil works need to be done, as the control valves are normally inside a control room/valve chamber. No negative environmental or social effects require mitigation, and the anticipated lead times should be short. From a topographical perspective the City of Tshwane has a lower elevation than the bulk service reservoirs of Rand Water, which is the main water supply. Water is distributed through a large water system that includes 160 reservoirs, 42 water towers, 10 677 km of pipes and more than 260 pressure reducing stations (PRS) that operate at pressures of up to 250 m. The top ten hydropower potential sites in the City of Tshwane water distribution network have a total energy generating capacity of approximately 10 000 MWh/a. A number of potential conduit-hydropower sites have shown promise of short payback periods. The identifying and development of these sites in Tshwane to convert water pressure to electricity is ongoing and exploited further. Various challenges currently exist with reservoir communication in isolated areas due to vandalism and theft of necessary infrastructure, including electricity cables and solar panels. Because conduit-hydropower systems can be housed completely inside chambers, vandalism and theft can be mitigated. Therefore, one of the major benefits of hydropower turbines at these sites is that the hydroelectric potential could be exploited to power telemetry, pressure management, flow control and monitoring/security systems. Alternatively or additionally, other local demand and/or (depending upon the quantum of energy available) off-site energy demand clusters, or even a municipal or national grid, could also be serviced by these power stations. The capacity of hydroelectric installations can vary to suit the application for the amount of power needed or to be generated. Short payback periods, especially when using pumps as turbines, also make conduit-hydropower systems attractive

  5. Developing a module for estimating climate warming effects on hydropower pricing in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate warming is expected to alter hydropower generation in California through affecting the annual stream-flow regimes and reducing snowpack. On the other hand, increased temperatures are expected to increase hydropower demand for cooling in warm periods while decreasing demand for heating in winter, subsequently altering the annual hydropower pricing patterns. The resulting variations in hydropower supply and pricing regimes necessitate changes in reservoir operations to minimize the revenue losses from climate warming. Previous studies in California have only explored the effects of hydrological changes on hydropower generation and revenues. This study builds a long-term hydropower pricing estimation tool, based on artificial neural network (ANN), to develop pricing scenarios under different climate warming scenarios. Results suggest higher average hydropower prices under climate warming scenarios than under historical climate. The developed tool is integrated with California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) to facilitate simultaneous consideration of climate warming on hydropower supply, demand and pricing. EBHOM estimates an additional 5% drop in annual revenues under a dry warming scenario when climate change impacts on pricing are considered, with respect to when such effects are ignored, underlining the importance of considering changes in hydropower demand and pricing in future studies and policy making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the major gap in previous climate change and hydropower studies in California. ? Developing an ANN-based long-term hydropower price estimation tool. ? Estimating climate change effects on hydropower demand and pricing in California. ? Investigating the sensitivity of hydropower operations to future price changes. ? Underlining the importance of consideration of climate change impacts on electricity pricing.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of groundwater lifetime expectancy to hydro-dispersive parameters: The case of ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of deep geological nuclear waste disposal investigations, ANDRA (French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) has built a numerical model of groundwater flow and hydro-dispersive mass transport with the aim to analyze the characteristics of solutes transfer throughout the multilayered aquifer system including the clay host formation. As an exploratory tool, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the average time for a water molecule flowing through the potential repository emplacement to reach the limits of the model. The correlated hydraulic conductivities and porosities of 14 hydrogeological layers are the uncertain hydro-dispersive parameters under study. A derivative-based method (Elementary Effects) is compared to regression-based global sensitivity analysis techniques (Standardized regression coefficients and Response Surface Method). As a result, the main behavior of the groundwater flow and mass transport through the multilayered system was captured. The relative effects of advective and dispersive processes are analyzed, however some uncertainties remain on the non-linear features of some input factors and their contribution to interaction processes. - Highlights: • 3D multilayered groundwater flow and transport model of the Eastern Paris basin. • Calculation of the mean lifetime expectancy of groundwater flow. • Sensitivity analysis over hydro-dispersive parameters of fourteen geological layers. • Screening exercise using the Elementary Effects method. • Regression-based global sensitivity analysis

  7. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater treatment works. This analysis is achieved through development of an empirical model utilising historical climatic data in conjunction with low, medium and high emission IPCC climate scenarios using the HADCM3 global climate model across a baseline condition and two further time steps. Results highlight projected alterations in flow rates together with the potential for increases in the frequency and persistence of drought/flooding events and the resulting impacts on future energy recovery. Critical climate change limits are also identified indicating the tolerable ranges within which hydropower recovery is financially viable, thus allowing for more informed decision making across potential sites.

  8. Instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric parameters, relevant for IACTs, for site-search and correction of the energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruck, Christian; Hose, Juergen; Engelhardt, Toni; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Schweizer, Thomas; Teshima, Masahiro [Max Plank Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The atmospheric conditions have impact on the measured data by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). Cherenkov light from air showers traverses 5-25 km distance in the atmosphere before reaching the telescopes. This light becomes attenuated because of absorption by oxigen and ozone as well as because of the Rayleigh and the Mie scatterings. The latter is the variable component in the atmosphere that depends on the momentary distribution of aerosols, their size and types and distribution heights. We have developed a micro-LIDAR system for parametrising these losses and plan to locate it next to the MAGIC telescopes for simultaneous operation. This shall allow us to improve the energy resolution of the telescopes for the data taken at non-ideal weather conditions. Also, we are working on developing diverse instrumentation for paramerising the atmosphere and for the searching proper sites for the CTA project. In our presentation we plan to report about the above-mentioned activities.

  9. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  10. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Randall Kahn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

  11. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Hydropower has provided reliable and flexible base and peaking power generation in the United States for more than a century, contributing on average 10.5% of cumulative U.S. power sector net generation over the past six and one-half decades (1949–2013). It is the nation’s largest source of renewable electricity, with 79 GW of generating assets and 22 GW of pumped-storage assets in service, with hydropower providing half of all U.S. renewable power-sector generation (50% in 2014). In addition to this capacity, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified greater than 80 GW of new hydropower resource potential: at least 5 GW from rehabilitation and expansion of existing generating assets, up to 12 GW of potential at existing dams without power facilities, and over 60 GW of potential low-impact new development (LIND) in undeveloped stream reaches. However, despite this growth potential, hydropower capacity and production growth have stalled in recent years, with existing assets even experiencing decreases in capacity and production from lack of sustaining investments in infrastructure and increasing constraints on water use.

  12. Reasoning Under Uncertainty in Seismic Hazard Analysis: Modeling the Joint Probability of Earthquake, Site and Ground-Motion Parameters Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, N. M.; Carsten, R.; Frank, S.

    2008-12-01

    Empirical ground-motion models for use in seismic hazard analysis are commonly described by regression models, where the ground-motion parameter is assumed to be dependent on some earthquake- and site- specific parameters such as magnitude, distance or local vs30. In regression analysis only the target is treated as a random variable, while the predictors are not; they are implicitly assumed to be complete and error-free, which is not the case for magnitudes or distances in earthquake catalogs. However, in research areas such as machine learning or artificial intelligence techniques to overcome these issues exist. Borrowing from these fields, we present a novel multivariate approach to ground-motion estimation by means of the Bayesian network (BN) formalism. This elegant and intuitively appealing framework allows for reasoning under uncertainty by modeling directly the joint probability distribution of all variables, while at the same time offering explicit insight into the probabilistic relationships between variables. The formalism provides us with efficient methods for computing any marginal or conditional distribution of any subset of variables. In particular, if some earthquake- or site-related parameters are unknown, the distribution of the ground motion parameter of interest can still be calculated. In this case, the associated uncertainty is incorporated in the model framework. Here, we explore the use of BNs in the development of ground-motion models. Therefore, we construct BNs for both a synthetic and the NGA dataset, the most comprehensive strong ground motion dataset currently available. The analysis shows that BNs are able to capture the probabilistic dependencies between the different variables of interest. Comparison of the learned BN with the NGA model of Boore and Atkinson (2008) shows a reasonable agreement in distance and magnitude ranges with good data coverage.

  13. Experimental determination of site-specific transfer parameter of 131I, 134,137Cs and 210Pb from fodder into milk and meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of 131I, 134,137Cs and 210Pb in feed and food-stuff during 1978-1994 (approximately 5000 measurements) provided opportunity to determine site-specific feed-to-milk (Fm) and feed-to-meat (Ff) parameter values. Unexpectedly, during summer of 1986 (post-Chernobyl data only) the mean equilibrium Fm and Ff values for cesium were lower as compared with mean pre-Chernobyl data. Post-Chernobyl 1986 winter Fm and Ff values, as well as 1987 and 1988 data, suddenly rose and were larger than pre-Chernobyl ones. Later the values showed a decrease. Post-Chernobyl Ff values for 210Pb were more than expected too. Other changes for 210Pb remains an open question. The mean equilibrium pre-Chernobyl Fm and Ff parameter values for radiocesium and 210Pb was slightly smaller during winter time as compared with summer time. Fm values for radioiodine are in a good agreement with earlier convinced values. Plausible explanation of pre- and post-Chernobyl differences include peculiarity of Chernobyl fallout, differences of physical-chemical forms with different bio-activity and bio-availability, special features of metabolism in farm animals, changing nutrition practices and etc. Food-chain modelling and site-specific Fm and Ff values obtained in this study may be used to predict radioiodine, radiocesium (possible 210Pb) activity in food, especially in the case of Ignalina NPP accident

  14. Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. A Process-based, Climate-Sensitive Model to Derive Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands: Application to 5 Wetland Sites, Sensitivity to Model Parameters and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bernadette P.; Heimann, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Methane emissions from natural wetlands constitutes the largest methane source at present and depends highly on the climate. In order to investigate the response of methane emissions from natural wetlands to climate variations, a 1-dimensional process-based climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands is developed. In the model the processes leading to methane emission are simulated within a 1-dimensional soil column and the three different transport mechanisms diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition are modeled explicitly. The model forcing consists of daily values of soil temperature, water table and Net Primary Productivity, and at permafrost sites the thaw depth is included. The methane model is tested using observational data obtained at 5 wetland sites located in North America, Europe and Central America, representing a large variety of environmental conditions. It can be shown that in most cases seasonal variations in methane emissions can be explained by the combined effect of changes in soil temperature and the position of the water table. Our results also show that a process-based approach is needed, because there is no simple relationship between these controlling factors and methane emissions that applies to a variety of wetland sites. The sensitivity of the model to the choice of key model parameters is tested and further sensitivity tests are performed to demonstrate how methane emissions from wetlands respond to climate variations.

  16. Evaluation of neutron flux parameters in irradiation sites of research reactor using the Westcott-formalism for the k0 neutron activation analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasban, H.; Hamid, Ashraf

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using k0 (k0-INAA) method has been used to determine a number of elements in sediment samples collected from El-Manzala Lake in Egypt. k0-INAA according to Westcott's formalism has been implemented using the complete irradiation kit of the fast pneumatic rabbit and some selected manually loaded irradiation sites for short and long irradiation at Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). Zr-Au and Co sets as neutron flux monitors are used to determine the neutron flux parameters (f and ?) in each irradiation sites. Two reference materials IAEA Soil-7 samples have been inserted and implemented for data validation and an internal monostandard multi monitor used (k0 based IM-NAA). It was given a good agreement between the experimental analyzed values and that obtained of the certified values. The major and trace elements in the sediment samples have been evaluated with the use of Co as an internal and Au as an external monostandard comparators. The concentrations of the elements (Cr, Mn and Zn) in the sediment samples of the present work are discussed regarding to those obtained from other sites.

  17. Small hydropower in southern Africa - an overview of five countries in the region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wim Jonker, Klunne.

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small hydr [...] opower has played an important role in the history of providing electricity in the region. After a period with limited interest in applications of small hydropower, in all five countries, a range of stakeholders from policy makers to developers are showing a renewed interest in small hydropower. Although different models were followed, all five countries covered in the paper do currently see activities around grid connected small scale hydropower. Particular frameworks that facilitate IPPs and Power Purchase Agreements with the national utility do provide a basis for (local) commercial banks to provide finance. Off-grid hydropower for rural electrification purposes sees activities in the countries with an active (support) role of government in this respect only. Small hydropower, renewable energy technology has large potential across the southern Africa region, both for grid connected and off-grid applications. Historically, small hydropower played an important role in the development of the region. Since the mid-1960s, however, the main emphasis has been on centralised fossil fuel-based electricity generation. Developers and policy makers have only recently begun looking at small hydropower again.

  18. Impacts of changes in flow in glacier fed river in Nepal on hydropower production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka Mishra, S.

    2014-12-01

    Variability of water flow in rivers due to change in temperature, precipitation and melting of glacier translates to change in water availability for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, and hydropower production impacting 1.5 billion people living downstream in India and Nepal. Previous studies ranked hydropower sector as the highest priority sector considering the urgency and severity of impacts in countries such as Nepal where hydropower shares 96 percentage of electricity production. In India, 45 per cent of hydroelectricity is generated from glacier fed rivers and hydropower shares 17 per cent of power generation. This study developed a framework to estimate the change in river flow attributed to global climate change and quantify its impact on hydropower generation in South Asian Mountains. The framework is applied on one of the major rivers Koshi River in Nepal with existing and proposed hydropower plants. The integrated assessment approach involved estimation of the change in flow in the river in the first part. Model was developed to estimate the change in flow that uses time series data on precipitation, temperature, remote sensing imagery on snow accumulation and ablation, and slope and surface hydrology. In the second part, another model was developed to investigate the impact of change in flow on hydropower production in various types of hydropower production plants. Data on flow, characteristics of hydropower plants and hydropower produced monthly from power plants in and outside of the river basin were used to model the flow and power generation from various categories of power plants. We will further discuss the results of the integrated assessments of potential changes in hydropower generation in various categories of hydropower plants based on Koshi River under various expected changes in flow and the implications for hydropower generation from other river systems in Nepal and India.

  19. Examination of methane ebullition in a Swiss hydropower reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelSontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; Eugster, W.; McGinnis, D. F.; Wehrli, B.

    2012-04-01

    Ebullition is one of the most important methane emission pathways from inland water bodies, yet the stochastic nature of ebullition complicates its monitoring. Therefore, a bubble-calibrated 120 kHz split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60, Kongsberg Maritime) was utilized to survey the active ebullition area of a small temperate hydropower reservoir (Lake Wohlen, Switzerland), which is known for intense methane bubble release in summer. The performed bubble size calibration agreed well with the literature and the presented hydroacoustic technique to estimate methane bubble flux in the presence of non-bubble targets was determined to be the most appropriate post-processing method for this reservoir. The acoustically-determined average methane ebullition flux from the sediment to the water column from seven campaigns was 580 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (range, 130 to 1450). Bubble size distribution, which mostly included 1 to 20 mm diameter bubbles, was strongly related to the magnitude of sediment ebullition flux. The bubble size distribution is an important consideration when calculating the resulting surface efflux using a bubble dissolution model. Using the Sauter mean diameter to represent the volume to surface area to volume ratio of the bubble size distribution in the bubble model resulted in an average atmospheric emission of 490 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatially-averaged data and the standard deviation from seven sampling campaigns revealed areas of 'high' and 'low' ebullition fluxes that seemed to correlate to geomorphology of the reservoir, which still contains the former river channel. The hydroacoustic flux estimates were compared with other methods of methane flux assessments used simultaneously: the traditional chamber method and the eddy covariance technique combined with spectrometer methane measurements (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos Research). Chamber measurements on all but one day were higher than the hydroacoustic survey results (but within the same order of magnitude), which is likely due to the extended coverage of echosounder surveys identifying more areas of low fluxes. However, hydroacoustic assessments and eddy covariance measurements of methane flux were similar and both revealed a flux dependence on the time of day, which was further related to scheduled water level changes in the reservoir. While the eddy covariance technique can provide continuous data useful for correlating with external forcing factors related to emissions, echosounder surveys provide spatial-specific information and thus resolve the locations of methane ebullition. Ideally, combining these methods would allow for the best coverage of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ebullition over a given study site.

  20. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin. PMID:22393001

  1. A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the facility during the demonstration. We compared the optimized virtual operation identified by the toolset to actual operations at the facility for the same time period to evaluate implications of the optimized operational regime on power/revenue generation and environmental performance. Argonne National Laboratory's work was part of a larger "Water-Use-Optimization" project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Water Power Program, under Announcement DE-FOA-0000070. The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government.

  2. Using the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) to derive source parameters and the site attenuation term, kappa (?), using aftershocks of the 2010 Darfield, New Zealand earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, C.; Cochran, E. S.; Ryan, K. J.; Funning, G.; Kaiser, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize a dense network of Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) MEMs accelerometers to investigate source parameters and the shallow site attenuation parameter, kappa (?), for aftershocks of the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake in Christchurch, NZ. Approximately 190 QCN accelerometers captured over 180 aftershocks ? Mw4.0 from 9 September 2010 to 31 July 2011. Sensors were deployed in local residences as part of the QCN Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Project (RAMP), collecting vast amounts of data at dense spatial scales. The low cost, 14-bit QCN sensors perform within ANSS Class C sensor standards (Evans et al., 2013), and, the time series and response spectra of the sensors compare favorably to the strong-motion 24-bit NZ GeoNet sensors (Cochran et al., 2011). To find ?, we measure deviations from the ?-2 fall-off on the acceleration amplitude spectrum of Fourier-transformed S-wave windows containing 80% of the S-wave energy. We use both manual and automated methods to fit the slope of the fall-off (i.e., ?) following Anderson and Hough (1984). A known issue with this method is that ? should be measured above the corner frequency (f0) to avoid bias from source effects. Studies have recently reported larger than average stress drops for these aftershocks (e.g., Kaiser and Oth, 2013), which may yield significant variation from the theoretically determined f0. Here, we aim to find the site attenuation, ?, by simultaneously solving for f0 and the seismic moment (M0) for each station and event. For robust results, we employ several methods to find the source and site parameters. Initially, we use a linearized least-squares fitting routine for each event-station pair (e.g., Anderson and Humphrey, 1991). This method does not require a single M0 for an event recorded at multiple stations, resulting in disagreements across M0 and f0 for any given event. Consequently, we also employ a more physically meaningful approach that calculates a single M0 and f0 for a given event using a linearized general inversion scheme (e.g., Sarker and Abers, 1998; Stachnik et al., 2004). Due to a strong trade-off between f0 and ?, we lastly try the nonlinear least-squares Gauss-Newton algorithm, which obtains a constant M0 and produces a more reasonable f0 and well-fitted ?. Initial results show ? estimates range from 0.01 to 0.1 sec and our calculated moment magnitudes (Mw) agree with the USGS NEIC catalog. Another goal of this study is to determine if the QCN data can be confidently used to find source parameters. With the vast amount of strong-motion data collected, QCN offers an ideal dataset to determine source parameters from spectral fitting; particularly in Christchurch, where smaller datasets may contain a proportionally higher number of recordings that are biased by local effects, including site amplification and nonlinear response like liquefaction. For a single event, preliminary findings show that QCN sensors yield higher M0 values than GeoNet stations, thus prompting further investigation.

  3. Cost reduction considerations in small hydropower development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minott, D.A.; Delisser, R.A.

    1983-08-04

    The report covers: (1) general concepts: physical components of MHG facilities; site assessments, hydrology, maps, feasibility studies, engineering design, social aspects, economic aspects, detailed civil engineering, tendering, construction, etc.; (2) some ways of reducing capital costs in developing countries: penstocks, speed control, turbines and reverse pumps, voltage control devices, standardization of parts and reduction of equipment variety; (3) other cost reduction considerations.

  4. Land And Water Use Characteristics And Human Health Input Parameters For Use In Environmental Dosimetry And Risk Assessments At The Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6) Air pathway collective doses may go down about 30 percent mainly due to the decrease in the inhalation rate assumed for the average individual.

  5. LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

    2010-08-06

    Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6) Air pathway collective doses may go down about 30 percent mainly due to the decrease in the inhalation rate assumed for the average individual.

  6. Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

  7. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  8. Some data on Hydropower (onshore and offshore). Potential, Costs, Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower generation seems worldwide the most attractive renewable energy by its cost of about 3 cents per KWh and its flexibility. But it will be limited under 10.000 TWh/year with a capacity increased to 3.000 GW and a lakes area increased to 500.000 km2. Pump storage plants may be the best solution for the necessary storage associated with wind and power which will be used for a large part of the world energy needs. The corresponding extra cost for storage will be in the range of 2 cents per KWh of intermittent energy. The necessary P.S.P. capacity in 2050 may be 3.000 GW occupying 30.000 km2 most out of rivers. As for generation, the P.S.P. may be used at least one century. Directly or indirectly, Hydropower will be an essential part of the future world energy. (author)

  9. Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

  10. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered

  11. Technical assessment of the Portuguese national programme for dams with high hydropower potential (PNBEPH)

    OpenAIRE

    De Lembre, Hilde; Adriaenssens, Veronique; Lust, Arnoud; Devoldere, Kris; Willems, Sofie; Laureysens, Ilse; Olmeda, Concha; Ana Maria GERALDES; Guimarães, Ana; Barrios, Violeta; Garcia, David

    2009-01-01

    The Portuguese National Programme for Dams with High Hydropower Potential (PNBEPH) foresees the construction of 10 new hydropower installations in several river basins. Among other relevant impacts that fall out of the scope of this study, hydropower projects can have an important impact on water quality - mainly on hydro-morphological conditions for aquatic life to sustain. According to the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the deadline for achieving a good status of surface...

  12. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wang, Yibo; Feng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) -battery-hydropower microgrids can be considered to enhance electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. However, the coexistence of different renewable energy sources with different inertias and control strategies may affect system stability. In this paper, a hierarchical controller for hybrid PV-battery-hydropower microgrid is proposed in order to achieve the parallel operation of hydropower and PV-battery system with different rates, and to guarantee po...

  13. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; M. S. U. Perera; M. Peviani

    2012-01-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB) and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of t...

  14. Verification Of The SimSphere SVAT Model Performance In Simulating Key Land Surface Parameters At Selected CarboEurope IP Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G.; Wooster, M. J.; Carlson, T.; Drake, N.

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of model simulations versus corresponding validated in situ observations forms an integral and important validatory check of a computer simulation model before the developed code is used in performing any kind of analysis or other operation. The present study presents the results pertaining to the accuracy assessment of a 1D SVAT model named SimSphere, in examining its ability in simulating key parameters characterising land surface interaction processes. For this purpose, model predictions have been compared versus in-situ validated observations obtained from selected test sites and days belonging to the CarboEurope IP measurement network, representing a variety of climatic, topographic and environmental conditions. Overall, despite the occasionally inferior performance of the model in simulating the examined parameters (mainly the underestimation of sensible heat flux), SimSphere was able to identify the patterns of change expected, if not always the magnitudes. SimSphere evaluation results, particularly for the subset of days of comparison including for the cloud-free days and flat terrain sites, evidenced the use of the model as a tool that identifies the patterns of change expected, if not always the magnitudes, thus indicating the usefulness of the model in practical applications either as a stand alone tool or in combination with remote sensing observations. The present study is also very timely, given that this SVAT model is being considered in a methodology being developed by National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), for the operational retrieval of surface moisture content from a series of satellite platforms due to be laucnhed in the next 12 years starting from 2012. KEYWORDS: CarboEurope IP, SimSphere, SVAT evaluation, land surface interactions

  15. Investment timing and optimal capacity choice for small hydropower projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bøckman, Thor; Fleten, Stein-Erik; Juliussen, Erik; Langhammer, Håvard; Revdal, Ingemar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for assessing small hydropower projects that are subject to uncertain electricity prices. We present a real options-based method with continuous scaling, and we find that there is a unique price limit for initiating the project. If the current electricity price is below this limit it is never optimal to invest, but above this limit investment is made according to the function for optimal size. The connection between the real option and the physical properties o...

  16. Hydraulic transient events in hydropower plants with installed Francis turbines.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazij, Jernej

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic transient events are the result of time related changes of hydrodinamical quantities in a hydraulic passage system. Treatise of transient events is essential to ensure safe operation of the hydropower plant, and for suitable design of turbine components and related hydromechanical equipment. Causes of transient events and their characteristics in different hydraulic passage systems are presented in this work. Basic system of water hammer equation was derived, consisting of the momen...

  17. Climate change impacts on financial risk in hydropower projects

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth P. Harrison; Whittington, Bert; Wallace, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among other things, on the continuing and increased use of hydroelectric power. However, climate change itself may alter rainfall patterns, adversely affecting the financial viability of existing and potential hydro schemes. Previous work developed a methodology for quantifying the potential impact of climate change on the economics of hydropower schemes. Here, the analysis is extended to examine the potential fo...

  18. Mekong erosion, hydropower development and sediment trapping by the reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Sah, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Erosion occurs from soil surface due to the kinetic energy of raindrop and surface flowing water. The energy of flowing water causes down cutting of the land, which results from soil migration and forest cutting. Bare land shows easy erosion behavior, and loose soil has greater potential for erosion than the vegetated land. In the twenty-first century, the demand of energy for consumption is increasing. Hydropower is one of the cheaper sources for energy. These dams threaten the risk of ...

  19. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  20. Hydropower generation and storage, transmission constraints and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study hydropower generation and storage in the presence of uncertainty about future inflows, market power and limited transmission capacity to neighboring regions. Within our simple two-period model, market power leads to too little storage. The monopolist finds it profitable to produce more than the competitive amount in the first period and thereby stores little water in the first of two periods in order to become import constrained in the second period. In addition, little storage reduces the probability of becoming export constrained in the second period, even if the second period exhibits large inflow. Empirical findings for an area in the western part of Norway with only hydropower and high ownership concentration at the supply side, fit well to our theoretical model. We apply a numerical model to examine various policies to reduce the inefficiencies created by the local monopoly. Transmission investments have two effects. First, the export possibilities in the first period increase. More export leads to lower storage in the first period. Second, larger import capacity reduces the market power problem in the second period. The two opposite effects of transmission investments in a case with market power may be unique to hydropower systems. Introducing financial transmission rights enhance the market power of the monopolist in our model. Price caps in both or in the second period only, reduce the strategic value of water storage. (Author)

  1. Research on the EPR parameters and local structure of Cr4+ ion at the tetragonal Ge4+ site in ZnGeP2 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2015-09-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors g//, g? and zero-field splitting D) of Cr4+ ion at the tetragonal Ge4+ site in ZnGeP2 crystal are calculated from the high-order perturbation formulas. These formulas consist of the contributions from two mechanisms, the usually-used crystal-field (CF) mechanism (concerning CF excited states) in the CF theory and the frequently-ignored charge-transfer (CT) mechanism (concerning CT excited states). The calculated results are reasonably consistent with the experimental values. The calculations show that the contributions to EPR parameters from the CT mechanism are important for the high valence state dn ion (e.g., Cr4+ studied here) in the covalence crystal (e.g., semiconductors). The local structure of Cr4+ impurity center in ZnGeP2 crystal is also estimated through the calculations. It is suggested that the MP4 tetrahedral cluster in ZnGeP2:Cr4+ crystal changes from the slightly tetragonally-elongated in the host crystal to the slightly tetragonally-compressed in the Cr4+ impurity center because of the impurity-induced local angular distortion.

  2. Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Latsoucabe

    2010-09-15

    Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

  3. Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that economic policy measures could help improve the competitiveness of hydropower. All measures that aim to internalise external costs of power generation are considered as being particularly promising in this respect. Targeted aid for particular enterprises could be provided as a supporting measure

  4. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  5. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

  6. MCMT3DID - a finite-element, 3D MT inversion code using local coordinates for each site and solving for distortion parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miensopust, M. P.; Farquharson, C. G.; Jones, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years different 3D inversion codes for magnetotelluric data, using finite differences, finite elements or integral equations, have been developed, and some have become available. All of these codes are designed to accommodate different aspects (e.g., topography, marine applications, including Tipper, ...). Our inversion program presented here uses a finite-element forward engine, and differs from previous ones by solving for galvanic distortion parameters as well Earth structure, and by using individual, local coordinate systems for each MT site instead of one global coordinate system. The reason for using local coordinate systems is fairly simple: Using a global coordinate system means that measured data need to be rotated from the coordinate system in which the data were recorded to the common, global modelling system. Therefore a rotation will be applied to the complex 2x2 impedance matrix which results in transferring noise of one component into the others - a huge disadvantage that can cause loss of information, especially if only one component is strongly affected by noise, but the others are not. Hence our philosophy is to leave measured data in the acquisition coordinates they are and not to apply any rotations to them. Of course there will be a global coordinate system used for the inversion itself, but for comparison between measured data and synthetic data, the noise-free, synthetic data will be rotated to the local coordinate system of each site to avoid the noise propagation into all components. Another common problem of magnetotelluric field data is galvanic distortion due to charges on small-scale, near-surface conductivity anomalies. Since the magnetic effects of the galvanic distortion decay rapidly with increasing periods they can be neglected in the MT case and only the electric effects, which persist to all periods, will be taken into account. Therefore the relation between the measured field data (Zmeasured), the impedance tensor of the true structure (Ztrue) and the distortion matrix (C) can be written as: Zmeasured = C Ztrue Inverting for conductivities only would result in an image of a structure related to Zmeasured rather than being an accurate representation of the subsurface. To gain a result being more alike the true structure, we invert for conductivities and distortion parameters simultaneously to accommodate these small-scale, near- surface anomalies causing the galvanic distortion. We will present the 3D finite-element code with the focus on some of the more interesting aspects (e.g., local coordinate system and distortion). We will also show some preliminary inversion results obtained from the first test data sets.

  7. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  8. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

    2012-08-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  9. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040. Current hydropower production is estimated based on historic available data while future energy production is deduced from the maximum available water in the catchment, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin, were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000 and topographical characteristics of the area.

    Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called Vapidro-Aste released by the Research on Energy System (Italy. The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering that first the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served and than hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  10. Preliminary study: small hydropower installation on the Steintalerbach stream in Ebnat-Kappel - Reactivation of the 'Muehle' hydropower plant; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk Muehle am Steintalerbach in Ebnat-Kappel. Reaktivierung der ehemaligen Wasserkraftanlage Muehle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, J.; Binder, F.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the reactivation of an existing but disused hydropower plant. The report describes the current situation at the site, where originally three water-wheels were in use. The new project is described, which foresees a new 231 kW turbine integrated into a new building on the site as well as new weir, a fish ladder and a new water conduit. The local topographical and hydrological situation is discussed. Three project variants for different water volumes are discussed and compared. The variant chosen for possible realisation is described. Figures are given on investment and operating costs, the price of the power produced and the installation's economic viability. Further topics relating to environmental protection issues are also discussed.

  11. Quantifying eco-sustainable water releases from small hydropower plants by means of the Principle of Marginal Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, L.; Characklis, G.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water use for hydropower production is increasing in mountain regions, as is an awareness of the importance of generating sustainable water releases for riparian ecosystems. Traditionally, hydropower releases have been regulated by minimum flow release policies, but these can have a number of shortcomings. Perona and Dürrenmatt propose a method of determining releases that is based on the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU), which considers the environment as a (non-traditional) water user that is in full competition with other uses. Although simple, this model suggests a way of generating quasi-natural flow releases at diversion nodes while maximizing the aggregate economic benefit of all uses, including environmental. In this paper we demonstrate the implementation of the method of Perona and Dürrenmatt for several real-cases in Switzerland, evaluating the long term performances of various release policies from both an ecological and economic point of view. The model is implemented by proposing some simple environmental utility functions, followed by an examination of: i) the statistics of the flow releases predicted by the model using the "Range of Variability Approach" originally proposed by Richter et al. (1997); ii) the meaning of environmental benefits, through use of a parametric analysis which evaluates the best allocation strategy; iii) the implicit economic valuation of ecosystem health underlying each simulated alternative. This last point is evaluated assuming that allocating a unit of water to the environment and not to hydropower means assigning a higher economic value to the environment. The long term mean of the ratio between the allocated flows may be used as a suitable engineering parameter, which allows for a comparison of the environmental value of water with other uses over the system lifetime. Results are used to explore the idea that the balance between cumulative financial value, loss of biodiversity and the future costs of ecosystem restoration can be used as a means of improving water resource management.

  12. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  13. Electric Energy Conversion Systems : Wave Energy and Hydropower

    OpenAIRE

    Thorburn, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Electric energy conversion is an important issue in today's society as our daily lives largely depend on the supplies of energy. Two energy sources are studied for conversion in the present thesis, ocean waves and hydropower. The work focuses on the generator and the transmission of its output to the electric grid. Different approaches have been used, over the years, to convert the energy in ocean waves, and the method presently used is based on a point absorber (buoy) directly coupled to a l...

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower. Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This is a formal Department of Energy report to Congress. It outlines the findings of an assessment directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities.

  15. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  16. Portfolio management of hydropower producer via stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a stochastic linear programming framework for the hydropower portfolio management problem with uncertainty in market prices and inflows on medium term. The uncertainty is modeled as a scenario tree using the Monte Carlo simulation method, and the objective is to maximize the expected revenue over the entire scenario tree. The portfolio decisions of the stochastic model are formulated as a tradeoff involving different scenarios. Numerical results illustrate the impact of uncertainty on the portfolio management decisions, and indicate the significant value of stochastic solution.

  17. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be a...

  18. Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [M.J. Sale and Associates, Hanson, MA (United States); Shih-Chieh, Kao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ashfaq, Moetasim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kaiser, Dale P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Cindy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wei, Yaxing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    As directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities. This Oak Ridge National Laboratory report, referred to as the “9505 Assessment,” describes the technical basis for the report to Congress that was called for in the SECURE Water Act.

  19. Evaluation of hydropower potential in Pohorje streams considering environmental objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Skroza, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Harmonizing objectives of the two European Directives, Directive 2000/60/EC and Directive 2009/28/EC, is a challenging task. The objective of Directive 2009/28/EC is to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, while the objective of Directive 2000/60/EC is to maintain and improve good quality of water. Both directives affect the development of obtaining energy from small hydropower plants. Directive 2009/28/EC aims to increase the production of energy from small hydroelectric...

  20. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ?ada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2003 the under four program areas at the time: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Testing of the Alden/NREC pilot scale runner, and Improved Mitigation Practices); (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Biological Design Criteria, Computer and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis); (3) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Wind/Hydro Integration Studies and Technical Support and Outreach); and (4) Engineering and Analysis (Innovative Technology Characterization).

  1. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

  2. Climate change impact on the discharge in meso-scale catchments and consequences for the hydropower-production in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Ole; Hänggi, Pascal; Köplin, Nina; Meyer, Rapahel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    The potential effect of climate change on hydrology is the acceleration of the hydrological cycle that in turn will likely cause changes in the discharge regime. As a result, socio-economic systems (e.g., tourism, hydropower industry) may be drastically affected. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of climate change on different hydrological components like mean and low-flow levels, and drought stress in mesoscale catchments of Switzerland. In terms of mean flows approx. 200 catchments in Switzerland were simulated for the reference period 1984-2005 using the hydrological model PREVAH and projection for near (2025-2046) and far future (2074-2095) are based on delta-change values of 10 ENSEMBLES regional climate models assuming A1B emission scenario (CH2011 climate scenario data sets). We found seven distinct response types of catchments, each exhibiting a characteristic annual cycle of hydrologic change. A general pattern observed for all catchments, is the clearly decreasing summer runoff. Hence, within a second analysis of future discharge a special focus was set on summer low flow in a selection of 29 catchments in the Swiss Midlands. Low flows are critical as they have great implications on water usage and biodiversity. We re-calibrated the hydrological model PREVAH with a focus on base-flow and gauged discharge and used the aforementioned climate data sets and simulation time periods. We found low flow situations to be very likely to increase in both, magnitude and duration, especially in central and western Switzerland plateau. At third, the drought stress potential was analyzed by simulating the soil moisture level under climate change conditions in a high mountain catchment. We used the distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH for this aspect as soil characteristics are much better represented in this model. Soil moisture in forests below 2000 m a.s.l. were found to be affected at most, which might have implication to their function as avalanche protection forests. However, we found high uncertainties related to the downscaling method applied. Finally, we analyzed the effect of changed discharge characteristics on the hydropower production by coupling the hydrological model BERNHYDRO with a hydropower management model. For the near future (until 2050), the results indicate that losses in the hydropower production during the summer can be compensated by benefit during winter. These different aspects of climate change impacts on the hydrosphere reveal a differentiated picture involving potentially threatened and widely unaffected catchments, hydrologic parameters and hydrologic constraints to the society.

  3. Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Mateus

    2007-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

  4. Development and practical testing of an action plan for the environmentally compatible use of hydropower; Erarbeitung und Praxiserprobung eines Massnahmenplanes zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Wasserkraftnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The use of rivers for generating electric power and the efforts to conserve important ecological habitats mark a classic conflict between two different aims of society. While passing hydropower plants migrating fish risk injuries and death. This affects the development of fish populations, particularly of diadromous fish populations in river basins. The aim of this study was to find conditions for serving a self sustaining fish population in the Weser basin. The influence of the river continuity and the quality of spawning and nursery habitats were varied. The survival rates of the diadromous species salmon and eel were modeled on the basis of literature data and additional data from own investigations. A self-reproducing salmon population would require the upstream and downstream passibility at each obstacle. Especially the protection at hydropower plants in the tributaries is of major importance. In addition, the hydro-morphological conditions of the spawning habitats have to be improved and further losses (such as predation or fishing) must be decreased. The survival rate of 40%, required by the EC Regulation on European eel can be achieved by the establishment of upstream continuity at all sites and by protective measures at the hydropower plants in the tributaries of the Weser. (orig.)

  5. Single-well tracer test sensitivity w. r. to hydrofrac and matrix parameters (case study for the Horstberg site in the N-German Sedimentary Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, I.; Behrens, H.; Holzbecher, E.; Jung, R.; Sauter, M.; Tischner, T.

    2012-04-01

    At the geothermal pilot site Horstberg in the N-German Sedimentary Basin, a complex field experiment program was conducted (2003-2007) by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) together with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (GGA), aimed at evaluating the performance of innovative technologies for heat extraction, for direct use, from a single geothermal well[1],[2]. The envisaged single-well operation schemes comprised inter-layer circulation through a large-area hydrofrac (whose successful creation could thus be demonstrated), and single-screen 'huff-puff' in suitable (stimulated) layers, seated in sandstone-claystone formations in 3-4 km depth, with temperatures exceeding 160 ° C. Relying on Horstberg tracer-test data, we analyze heat and solute tracer transport in three characteristic hydraulic settings: (A) single-screen, multi-layer push-pull, with spiking and sampling at lower well-screen in low-permeability sandstone layer ('Detfurth'), from which hydrofrac propagation (through several adjacent layers) was initiated; (B) single-screen, single-layer push-pull, with spiking and sampling at upper well-screen within a more permeable sandstone layer ('Solling'); (C) inter-layer vertical push through above-mentioned hydrofrac, with spiking at well-screen of A, and sampling at well-screen of B. Owing to drill-hole deviation, the hydraulically-induced frac will, in its vertical propagation, reach the upper sandstone layer in a certain horizontal distance X from the upper well-screen, whose value turns out to be the major controlling parameter for the system's thermal lifetime under operation scheme C (values of X below ~8 m leading to premature thermal breakthrough, with the minimum-target rate of fluid turnover; however, the injection pressure required for maintaining the target outflow rate will also increase with X, which renders scheme C uneconomical, or technically-infeasible, when X exceeds ~15 m). Tracer signals in C are, as well, sensitive w. r. to X, but the effects of increasing X, upon tracer signals, are largely indistinguishable from those of increasing Solling porosity. Further numerical simulations of heat and solute tracer transport in above-named test settings reveal significant disparities between parameter sensitivities attainable in the same kind of test (A, B) conducted at different layers, as well as between solute concentration and temperature signal sensitivities w. r. to transport parameters in one and the same test (C). Why? - Test A features fracture flow, and dual-continuum transport, whereas test B features single-continuum flow and transport (within the host rock, with negligible losses to the hydrofrac). Flow is rapid in test A (being fracture-dominated), but slow in test B (being confined to the host rock). In test C, fluid first flows through the hydrofrac mainly, next it 'must' flow through the upper sandstone; heat transport is dominated by matrix diffusion across the hydrofrac (along which it thus experiences strong retardation), whereas solute transport is dominated by matrix micro-fissure and intra-particle diffusion within the upper sandstone (where it experiences strong retardation). We examine the implications of these findings upon the inversion of transport-effective hydrofrac parameters from measured tracer signals, and upon the tracer-based predictability of the system's thermal lifetime under different operation schemes. [1]http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/SGW/2005/jung.pdf [2]http://www.geothermal-energy.org/pdf/IGAstandard/WGC/2010/2272.pdf Acknowledgement: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task units 'G6' and 'G7' of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' (Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling).

  6. Free energy calculation using molecular dynamics simulation combined with the three dimensional reference interaction site model theory. I. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration along a coupling parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Tatsuhiko; Ikuta, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Fumio

    2010-07-01

    This article proposes a free energy calculation method based on the molecular dynamics simulation combined with the three dimensional reference interaction site model theory. This study employs the free energy perturbation (FEP) and the thermodynamic integration (TDI) along the coupling parameters to control the interaction potential. To illustrate the method, we applied it to a complex formation process in aqueous solutions between a crown ether molecule 18-Crown-6 (18C6) and a potassium ion as one of the simplest model systems. Two coupling parameters were introduced to switch the Lennard-Jones potential and the Coulomb potential separately. We tested two coupling procedures: one is a "sequential-coupling" to couple the Lennard-Jones interaction followed by the Coulomb coupling, and the other is a "mixed-coupling" to couple both the Lennard-Jones and the Coulomb interactions together as much as possible. The sequential-coupling both for FEP and TDI turned out to be accurate and easily handled since it was numerically well-behaved. Furthermore, it was found that the sequential-coupling had relatively small statistical errors. TDI along the mixed-coupling integral path was to be carried out carefully, paying attention to a numerical behavior of the integrand. The present model system exhibited a nonmonotonic behavior in the integrands for TDI along the mixed-coupling integral path and also showed a relatively large statistical error. A coincidence within a statistical error was obtained among the results of the free energy differences evaluated by FEP, TDI with the sequential-coupling, and TDI with the mixed-coupling. The last one is most attractive in terms of the computer power and is accurate enough if one uses a proper set of windows, taking the numerical behavior of the integrands into account. TDI along the sequential-coupling integral path would be the most convenient among the methods we tested, since it seemed to be well-balanced between the computational load and the accuracy. The numerical results reported in this article qualitatively agree with the experimental data for the potassium ion recognition by the 18C6 in aqueous solution.

  7. Integrating multicriteria evaluation and stakeholders analysis for assessing hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of hydroelectric potential and the protection of the river ecosystem are two contrasting aspects that arise in the management of the same resource, generating conflicts between different stakeholders. The purpose of the paper is to develop a multi-level decision-making tool, able to support energy planning, with specific reference to the construction of hydropower plants in mountain areas. Starting from a real-world problem concerning the basin of the Sesia Valley (Italy), an evaluation framework based on the combined use of Multicriteria Evaluation and Stakeholders Analysis is proposed in the study. The results of the work show that the methodology is able to grant participated decisions through a multi-stakeholders traceable and transparent assessment process, to highlight the important elements of the decision problem and to support the definition of future design guidelines. - Highlights: • The paper concerns a multi-level decision-making tool able to support energy planning. • The evaluation framework is based on the use of AHP and Stakeholders Analysis. • Hydropower projects in the Sesia Valley (Italy) are evaluated and ranked in the study. • Environmental, economic, technical and sociopolitical criteria have been considered. • 42 stakeholder groups have been included in the evaluation

  8. DOE/PSU Graduate Student Fellowship Program for Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimbala, John M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2014-03-30

    The primary objective of this project is to stimulate academic interest in the conventional hydropower field by supplying research support for at least eight individual Master of Science (MS) or Doctoral (PhD) level research projects, each consisting of a graduate student supervised by a faculty member. We have completed many of the individual student research projects: 2 PhD students have finished, and 4 are still working towards their PhD degree. 4 MS students have finished, and 2 are still working towards their MS degree, one of which is due to finish this April. In addition, 4 undergraduate student projects have been completed, and one is to be completed this April. These projects were supervised by 7 faculty members and an Advisory/Review Panel. Our students and faculty have presented their work at national or international conferences and have submitted several journal publications. Three of our graduate students (Keith Martin, Dan Leonard and Hosein Foroutan) have received HRF Fellowships during the course of this project. All of the remaining students are anticipated to be graduated by the end of Fall Semester 2014. All of the tasks for this project will have been completed once all the students have been graduated, although it will be another year or two until all the journal publications have been finalized based on the work performed as part of this DOE Hydropower project.

  9. A progress report on DOE's advanced hydropower turbine systems program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent hydropower research within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on the development of new turbine designs that can produce hydroelectricity without such adverse environmental affects as fish entrainment/impingement or degradation of water quality. In partnership with the hydropower industry, DOE's advanced turbine program issued a Request for Proposals for conceptual designs in October 1994. Two contracts were awarded for this initial program phase, work on which will be complete this year. A technical advisory committee with representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and natural resource agencies was also formed to guide the DOE turbine research. The lack of quantitative biological performance criteria was identified by the committee as a critical knowledge gap. To fill this need, a new literature review was completed on the mechanisms of fish mortality during turbine passage (e.g., scrape/strike, shear, press change, etc.), ways that fish behavior affects their location and orientation in turbines, and how these turbine passage stresses can be measured. Thus year, new Laboratory tests will be conducted on fish response to shear, the least-well understood mechanism of stress. Additional testing of conceptual turbine designs depends on the level of federal funding for this program

  10. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R. T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, G. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Rinehart, B. N. [Consultant; Flynn, J. V. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Brookshier, P. A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2001. The program’s focus for FY 2002 was on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research was to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these were tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners (e.g., work by Alden Research Laboratory and Concepts NREC) to modifications to existing designs (e.g., Voith Siemens work on Minimum Gap Runners). Biological criteria have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria were combined with computational design tools to locate and eliminate damaging areas inside turbine systems.

  11. Factors influencing particle number concentrations, size distributions and modal parameters at a roof-level and roadside site in Leicester, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of urban particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 5-1000 nm were taken at elevated (roof-level) and roadside sampling sites on Narborough Road in Leicester, UK, along with simultaneous measurements of traffic, NOx, CO and 1,3-butadiene concentrations and meteorological parameters. A fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of up to five modal groups present in the particle size distributions. All particle modal concentrations peaked during the morning and evening rush hours. Additional events associated with the smallest mode, that were not observed to be connected to primary emissions, were also present suggesting that this mode consisted of newly formed secondary particles. These events included peaks in concentration which coincided with peaks in solar radiation, and lower concentrations of the larger modes. Investigation into the relationships between traffic flow and occupancy indicated three flow regimes; free-flow, unstable and congested. During free-flow conditions, positive linear relationships existed between traffic flow and particle modal number concentrations. However, during unstable and congested periods, this relationship was shown to break-down. Similar trends were observed for concentrations of the gas phase pollutants NOx, CO and 1,3-butadiene. Strong linear relationships existed between NOx, CO, 1,3-butadiene concentrations, nucleation and Aitken mode concentrations at both sampling locations, indicating a local traffic related emission source. At the roadside, both nucleation and Aitken mode are best represented by a decreasing exponential function with wind speed, whereas at the roof-level this relationship only occurred for Aitken mode particles. The differing relationships at the two sampling locations are most likely due to a combination of meteorological factors and distance from the local emission source

  12. EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

  13. Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are combined into a robust and fast data cleansing and interpolation system. One experience from this work is that advanced interpolation techniques (kriging), do not outperform calibrated inverse distance methods when also computational speed is used as a criteria for model selection. The paper also discusses several challenges related to uncertainty in simulated snow reservoir, regionalization of parameters, choice of spatial resolution, techniques for reducing computational needs without compromising information needs, amongst others.

  14. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service

  15. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  16. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  17. Modelling the impact of large dams on flows and hydropower production of the Sekong, Sesan and Srepok Rivers in the Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piman, T.; Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Water flow patterns in the Mekong River and its tributaries are changing due to water resources development, particularly as a result of on-going rapid hydropower development of tributaries for economic growth. Local communities and international observers are concerned that alterations of natural flow patterns will have great impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem services, food securing and livelihood in the basin. There is also concern that un-coordinated dam development will have an adverse impact on energy production potential of individual hydropower plants. Of immediate concern is the proposed hydropower development in the transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Srekong (3S) Basin, which contributes up to 20% of the Mekong's annual flows, has a large potential for energy production, and provides critical ecosystem services to local people and the downstream Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong delta. To assess the magnitude of potential changes in flows and hydropower production, daily flows were simulated over 20 years (1986-2005) using the SWAT and HEC ResSim models for a range of dam development and operations scenarios. Simulations of all current and proposed hydropower development in the 3S basin (41 dams) using an operation scheme to maximize electricity production will increase average dry seasonal flows by 88.1% while average wet seasonal flows decrease by 24.7% when compared to the baseline (no dams) scenario, About 55% of dry season flows changes are caused by the seven largest proposed dams (Lower Srepok 3, Lower Srepok4, Lower Sesan 3, Lower Sesan and Srepok 2, Xekong 5, Xekong 4, and Xe Xou). The total active storage of the existing and ongoing hydropower projects is only 6,616 million m3 while the cumulative active storage of the seven large proposed dams is 17,679 million m3. The Lower Srepok 3 project causes the highest impact on seasonal flow changes. Average energy production of the existing and ongoing hydropower projects is 73.2 GWh/day. Additional benefits from energy production of the seven large proposed dams (33.0 GWh/day) are less than half compared to the cumulative benefits of the exiting and ongoing projects. In total, potential energy production of all dams is 129.1 GWh/day. Cascade dam simulations, under an independent operation regime, result in high electricity production of downstream dams, particularly of small storage dams. Hourly flow alterations, however, can be significant due to intra daily reservoir operations and warrant further study as well as impact of climate change on flows and hydropower operation. Strategic site selection and coordinated reservoir operations between countries and dam operators are necessary to achieve an acceptable level of energy production in the basin and mitigate negative impacts to seasonal flow patterns which sustain downstream ecosystem productivity and livelihoods.

  18. The hygroscopicity parameter (? of ambient organic aerosol at a field site subject to biogenic and anthropogenic influences: relationship to degree of aerosol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y.-W. Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations were measured at Egbert, a rural site in Ontario, Canada during the spring of 2007. The CCN concentrations were compared to values predicted from the aerosol chemical composition and size distribution using ?-Köhler theory, with the specific goal of this work being to determine the hygroscopic parameter (? of the oxygenated organic component of the aerosol, assuming that oxygenation drives the hygroscopicity for the entire organic fraction of the aerosol. The hygroscopicity of the oxygenated fraction of the organic component, as determined by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, was characterised by two methods. First, positive matrix factorization (PMF was used to separate oxygenated and unoxygenated organic aerosol factors. By assuming that the unoxygenated factor is completely non-hygroscopic and by varying ? of the oxygenated factor so that the predicted and measured CCN concentrations are internally consistent and in good agreement, ? of the oxygenated organic factor was found to be 0.22±0.04 for the suite of measurements made during this five-week campaign. In a second, equivalent approach, we continue to assume that the unoxygenated component of the aerosol, with a mole ratio of atomic oxygen to atomic carbon (O/C ? 0, is completely non-hygroscopic, and we postulate a simple linear relationship between ?org and O/C. Under these assumptions, the ? of the entire organic component for bulk aerosols measured by the AMS can be parameterised as ?org=(0.29±0.05·(O/C, for the range of O/C observed in this study (0.3 to 0.6. These results are averaged over our five-week study at one location using only the AMS for composition analysis. Empirically, our measurements are consistent with ?org generally increasing with increasing particle oxygenation, but high uncertainties preclude us from testing this hypothesis. Lastly, we examine select periods of different aerosol composition, corresponding to different air mass histories, to determine the generality of the campaign-wide findings described above.

  19. Current and Future Environmental Balance of Small-Scale Run-of-River Hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John; Styles, David; McNabola, Aonghus; Williams, A Prysor

    2015-05-19

    Globally, the hydropower (HP) sector has significant potential to increase its capacity by 2050. This study quantifies the energy and resource demands of small-scale HP projects and presents methods to reduce associated environmental impacts based on potential growth in the sector. The environmental burdens of three (50-650 kW) run-of-river HP projects were calculated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The global warming potential (GWP) for the projects to generate electricity ranged from 5.5-8.9 g CO2 eq/kWh, compared with 403 g CO2 eq/kWh for UK marginal grid electricity. A sensitivity analysis accounted for alternative manufacturing processes, transportation, ecodesign considerations, and extended project lifespan. These findings were extrapolated for technically viable HP sites in Europe, with the potential to generate 7.35 TWh and offset over 2.96 Mt of CO2 from grid electricity per annum. Incorporation of ecodesign could provide resource savings for these HP projects: avoiding 800 000 tonnes of concrete, 10 000 tonnes of steel, and 65 million vehicle miles. Small additional material and energy contributions can double a HP system lifespan, providing 39-47% reductions for all environmental impact categories. In a world of finite resources, this paper highlights the importance of HP as a resource-efficient, renewable energy system. PMID:25909899

  20. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  1. Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans

  2. Concession rules for hydropower production without reference to ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the socio-economic consequences of various ways of changing the regulations defined in the industrial concession law about reversion of hydroelectric power plants. Currently only public Norwegian owners may be given concession unlimited in time, which makes a sort of lock-up effect. Discontinuation of reversion will remove the lock-up effect. On certain conditions this also applies to models based on reversion for all and option for the Government to implement reversion, and time limited concessions without reversion. All the alteration models may therefore lead to easier trading of Norwegian hydropower plants. The alteration models have different consequences for the total external conditions for the power sector

  3. Trempel hydropower station - renewal and extension of the existing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the refurbishment and/or extension of a 450 kW hydropower plant near Krummenau, Switzerland. Three possible variants are presented, one involving the renewal of the installation and two variants for enhancing production to provide 1 MW and 2.25 MW of power respectively. Details on the hydrology of the location are given and the equipment of the existing two-turbine power station is described. Residual water questions are discussed and the civil works envisaged are described. The report also presents data on the economics of the project and assesses the effects on the environment, landscape and ground water it would bring with it

  4. 76 FR 19765 - Toutant Hydropower Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...direct coupled to a 120 kilowatt, 2300 volt, AC synchronous vertically mounted generator. The ``fire pump'' turbine is located in...and re-install the turbine and install the generator occurred within the existing hydropower...

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  6. Small hydropower stations in Greece: The local people's attitudes in a mountainous prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malesios, Chrisovalantis [Department of Agricultural Development, Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, 68200 Orestiada (Greece); Arabatzis, Garyfallos [Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, Orestiada (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    During the last years, it has become evident that operation of hydropower stations creates discussions and different views on the local communities. Especially, although the issue of operation of small hydropower (SHP) stations or plants is of considerable interest in Greece, almost no study has been conducted to investigate the current status of Greek citizens' attitudes towards utilization of the available hydropower potential through SHP. The present study, therefore, aims to examine in the prefecture of Ioannina, Greece, the local people's attitudes on operation of SHP stations in connection with the increased public interest for environmental and social dimensions of small hydropower stations, and to determine how these attitudes change with respect to various factors. (author)

  7. Climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Larijani, Kaveh

    The high-elevation hydropower system in California, composed of more than 150 hydropower plants and regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), supplies 74 percent of in-state hydropower. The system has modest reservoir capacities and has been designed to take advantage of snowpack. The expected shift of runoff peak from spring to winter as a result of climate warming, resulting in snowpack reduction and earlier snowmelt, might have important effects on hydropower operations. Estimation of climate warming effects on such a large system by conventional simulation or optimization methods would be tedious and expensive. This dissertation presents a novel approach for modeling large hydropower systems. Conservation of energy and energy flows are used as the basis for modeling high-elevation high-head hydropower systems in California. The unusual energy basis for reservoir modeling allows for development of hydropower operations models to estimate large-scale system behavior without the expense and time needed to develop traditional streamflow and reservoir volume-based models in absence of storage and release capacity, penstock head, and efficiency information. An Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) is developed to facilitate a practical climate change study based on the historical generation data high-elevation hydropower plants in California. Employing recent historical hourly energy prices, energy generation in California is explored for three climate warming scenarios (dry warming, wet warming, and warming-only) over 14 years, representing a range of hydrologic conditions. Currently, the high-elevation hydropower plants in California have to renew their FERC licenses. A method based on cooperative game theory is developed to explore FERC relicensing process, in which dam owners negotiate over the available instream water with other interest groups downstream. It is discussed how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long delay in FERC relicensing in practice and argued how climate change may provide an incentive for cooperation among the parties to hasten the relicensing. An "adaptive FERC license" framework is proposed, to improve the performance and adaptability of the system to future changes with no cost to the FERC, in face of uncertainty about future hydrological and ecological conditions. Keywords. Hydropower, Climate Change, Energy-Based Optimization Model (EBHOM), No-Spill Method (NSM), Optimization, Modeling, Cooperative Game Theory, Conflict Resolution, Decision Support System (DSS), FERC, Licensing, California.

  8. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious problem, and there is a strong need of a more accurate planning and management optimization of the resources. The partnership includes a well balance mixing of public administrations, agencies ruling hydropower development, water bodies conservation and scientific institutions having the most advanced technology applied to water management and hydropower generation. Furthermore, a permanent "consultant panel" integrated by target groups representatives from different European countries are involved in key decisions and meetings, that guaranty a concrete regional scale participation. The present work reports the overall strategy of the project and the description of the main informatic tools that are under development and implementation in five pilot regions, located in Italy, Austria, Romania, Slovenia and Greece. Keywords: WFD Directive, RES-e Directive, water multi-purpose uses, renewable energy, small hydropower production, environmental balance, minimum environmental flow, flood protection

  9. Long-term scheduling of large cascade hydropower stations in Jinsha River, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Proposing a Gaussian group selection strategy to overcome premature convergence. • Multi-population ant are developed to enhance the search ability. • Proposing a circulatory solution correction to handle constraints. • Numerical and real hydropower system simulation are used to verify its performance. • Compensation analysis has been done to large hydropower stations in Jinsha River. - Abstract: The Jinsha River is the third longest river in the world. It consists of four large hydropower stations with total installed capacity 42,960 MW lying on the upper stretches of the Yangtze River, which is the longest river in the word. Due to the great potential of large cascade hydropower stations on power generation, long-term scheduling of large cascade hydropower stations (LSLCHS) plays an important role in electrical power system. As more and more concentrations focused on the optimal operation of large cascade hydropower stations, the LSLCHS has been taken into a multi-dimensional, non-convex and non-linear optimization problem due to its complicated hydraulic connection relationships and varieties of complex constraints with considering its power generation, shipping and ecological characteristics. In order to solve this problem, a multi-population ant colony optimization for continuous domain (MACOR) is proposed in this paper. A Gaussian group selection strategy is applied to overcome premature convergence and ants with different characteristics are employed to enhance search ability, and circulatory solution correction strategy is presented to handle outflow, water level and output constraints. Furthermore, the efficiency and stability of MACOR are verified by its more desirable results in comparison to other latest works in numerical simulation, and it can be a viable alternative for solving those complicated optimal problems. With the applications in hydropower operation, LSLCHS can obtain more power generation benefit than other alternatives in dry, normal and wet year, and the compensation analysis reveals that joint operation of cascade hydropower stations can enhance the total power generation especially in wet season

  10. Thermal counditions of the lower sava river during the construction of a chain of hydropower plants

    OpenAIRE

    Volkar, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The thermal burden of the lower Sava River from the already existing infrastructure operating along its stream is increasing due to the new hydropower plants that are being built in the area. In the year 2003, an evaluation study based on different mathematical models was made concerning the influence of Trbovlje Thermoelectric Power Plant, Krško Nuclear Power Plant and the existing hydropower plants on river water temperature rise by the company IBE. In 2007, a continuous temperature monitor...

  11. Effects of Mining and Hydropower on Metals in Surface Waters : Case: Nam Ngum

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Nam Ngum, a river in Lao PDR, is experiencing rapid development of hydropower and mining. Hydropower dams may influence the water quality via sediment trapping and hydrology changes. They also create barriers for migration of aquatic animals. Mining, on the other hand, has potential severely impair water quality in their surroundings. Nam Ngum River Basin is located north of Vientiane. The watershed contains tropical and sub-tropical areas of distinct dry and wet seasons. It is divided in...

  12. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    OpenAIRE

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We ...

  13. Modelling the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing South African dams

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vuuren, S.J.; Blersch, C.L.; Van Dijk, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was carried out with the primary objective of ascertaining whether it is possible to develop a model for determining the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing dams in South Africa. The need for such a model is primarily due to the growing importance of small-scale hydropower projects resulting from the global shift towards renewable energy and the South African energy crisis, the increased price of energy and the introduction of feed-in tariffs for renewables. Th...

  14. Impact of climate change and electricity market liberalization on hydropower plants with reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudard, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is a very important component of the Swiss energy mix, but its future is jeopardized by several factors. To clarify the long-term scenarios, an assessment of the risks and opportunities is necessary. This thesis analyses these complex dynamics, and focuses more particularly on the problems related to climate change and the liberalization of electricity markets. A general analysis of all the drivers that can affect hydropower is first carried out on the basis of a rich literature. T...

  15. Viewpoint – Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Pittock

    2010-01-01

    Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD) report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin wate...

  16. 2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Hydropower Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

  17. Cost determination of the electro-mechanical equipment of a small hydro-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogayar, B.; Vidal, P.G. [Grupo de Investigacion IDEA, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas, s/n. 23071-Jaen (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    One of the most important elements on the recovery of a small hydro-power plant is the electro-mechanical equipment (turbine-alternator), since the cost of the equipment means a high percentage of the total budget of the plant. The present paper intends to develop a series of equations which determine its cost from basic parameters such as power and net head. These calculations are focused at a level of previous study, so it will be necessary to carry out the engineering project and request a budget to companies specialized on the construction of electro-mechanical equipment to know its cost more accurately. Although there is a great diversity in the typology of turbines and alternators, data from manufacturers which cover all the considered range have been used. The above equations have been developed for the most common of turbines: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan and semiKaplan for a power range below 2 MW. The obtained equations have been validated with data from real installations which have been subject to analysis by engineering companies working on the assembly and design of small plants. (author)

  18. Resource rent taxation and benchmarking. A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs. (author)

  19. Resource rent taxation and benchmarking-A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs.

  20. Disappearing rivers — The limits of environmental assessment for hydropower in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlewein, Alexander, E-mail: erlewein@sai.uni-heidelberg.de

    2013-11-15

    The mountain rivers of the Indian Himalaya possess a vast potential for hydropower generation. After decades of comparatively modest development recent years have seen a major intensification in the construction of new hydropower dams. Although increasingly portrayed as a form of renewable energy generation, hydropower development may lead to extensive alterations of fluvial systems and conflicts with resource use patterns of local communities. To appraise and reduce adverse effects is the purpose of statutory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and corresponding mitigation plans. However, in the light of ambitious policies for hydropower expansion conventional approaches of environmental assessment are increasingly challenged to keep up with the intensity and pace of development. This paper aims to explore the systemic limitations of environmental assessment for hydropower development in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Based on a qualitative methodology involving interviews with environmental experts, document reviews and field observations the study suggests that the current practice of constraining EIAs to the project level fails to address the larger effects of extensive hydropower development. Furthermore, it is critically discussed as to what extent the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) might have the potential to overcome existing shortcomings.

  1. Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

  2. The future of hydropower in Europe: Interconnecting climate, markets and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Connecting the knowledges from various domains, in particular economics, engineering, policy and hydrology. • Giving the keys to assess the linking between hydropower, climate and electricity market. • Making an overall analysis. - Abstract: Hydropower is very important for electricity supply security in the European inter-connexion as well as for the economy of regions (primarily peripheral) that possess water resources. Its future may however be jeopardized by several factors: climate change, the development of new renewable energy, the creation of super and micro-grids, and progress in power storage technology. Energy and climate policy, as well as electricity market design and dynamics play a pivotal role. This article carries out a comprehensive analysis of all these factors and discusses the future of hydropower. This discussion follows an overview of the present situation and of future drivers. The technical, environmental, economic and political aspects of the problem are analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach. The stakes as well as the uncertainties are highlighted. The conclusion is that hydropower has a promising future, particularly in light of emerging sustainable energy policy, but that the risks should not be overlooked. Academics will find a comprehensive interdisciplinary analysis of hydropower in this article, whereas public bodies, communities and hydropower companies can identify the strategic variables that should be taken into consideration in the decision making process. The end of water concessions or authorizations is also evoked

  3. Modelling of input data uncertainty based on random set theory for evaluation of the financial feasibility for hydropower projects

    OpenAIRE

    Beisler, Matthias Werner

    2011-01-01

    The design of hydropower projects requires a comprehensive planning process in order to achieve the objective to maximise exploitation of the existing hydropower potential as well as future revenues of the plant. For this purpose and to satisfy approval requirements for a complex hydropower development, it is imperative at planning stage, that the conceptual development contemplates a wide range of influencing design factors and ensures appropriate consideration of all related aspects. Sin...

  4. Dynamic analysis of the impact of grid connection of "La Higuera" hydropower plant to the transmission grid

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Isbi

    2006-01-01

    Studies regarding the development of a new hydropower plant exploiting the water resources offered by the upper Tinguiririca river, located about 150 km south-east of the capital Santiago in Chile, has been done by Pacific Hydro Ltd from Australia and Lahmeyer International from Germany. These studies have resulted in proposals to construct two Hydropower Stations, ?La Higuera? and ?Confluencia?. Both hydropower stations will have a total installed capacity of 300 MW. When setting up a new hy...

  5. What is the color of Chinese water? : Challenges and opportunities for European hydropower companies in the Chinese market

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Background: China is the country with the worldwide hugest hydropower reserves. Interms of meeting its electricity demand, further development of its reserves is necessary.European companies are leading on the hydropower market and strive for projects inChina, resulting in challenges and opportunities while facing emerging market features.Aim: This study presents an analysis of the Chinese electricity market with the aim toidentify challenges and opportunities European hydropower companies fa...

  6. Arc-based constrained ant colony optimisation algorithms for the optimal solution of hydropower reservoir operation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini, R.; Afshar, M.H.

    2011-07-15

    Hydropower is currently the number one source of electricity production in the world. For the design and construction of such systems, mathematical modelling is often use for reservoir operations. As conventional methods present some shortcomings in solving reservoir operation problems, a new method is presented here. It consists in an arc-based formulation of hydropower reservoir operation problems which can be applied to ant colony optimization algorithms. This paper first described this formulation and then applied it to solve two hydropower reservoir operation problems. The results showed that this formulation can optimally solve large-scale hydropower reservoir operation problems while offering a clear definition of heuristic information.

  7. The necessity of field research in prescription of Environmental Flows - A case of the hydropower dominated Middle Zambezi Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwelwa, Elenestina; Crosato, Alessandra; Wright, Nigel; Beevers, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The research work in the Middle Zambezi sub-catchment has the key objective to investigate the state of the river and its flood plain in terms of flow variation, river and flood plain morphological variation for both the pre and post hydropower schemes. From the rich biodiversity that this area supports, both Zambia and Zimbabwe has established National Parks with Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore safari areas being designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984. The habitat sustenance depend on the river channels and the associated morphological features with the flood and recession interaction whose modification can lead to negative environmental consequences. The research findings on the state of the sub-catchment flows and morphology will be outlined. Highlights will be given on the following findings: dominance of hydropower regulation in the water balance of the river reach, historical map analysis and related rates of river channel morphology changes associated to dam operating events and, bed load sediment characterisation and distribution. With the use of SOBEK-Rural (1D/2D) model, analysis of future state of the sub-catchment will be outlined, taking into account the following scenarios: no dam state of the river reach; continue with current water regulation and operations; modification in water regulation to take into account favorable changes and; climate related variation of droughts. The research deductions and implications for maintaining the current dam operation practices will be outline as relates to the sustainability of the hydro-morphology and ecosystem of the catchment which support a rich wildlife habitat. The research observed critical water needs form the basis for environmental flows prescription and recommendation. Whereas the restoration of regular flooding has been identified to be important, the most critical need however is the timing of flood gate regulation which has been observed as a trigger to loss of islands and bars due to channel bank slumps. This phenomenon could only be observed and monitored during field research. In addition the water needs and vitality of the biological indicator - Faidherbiah Albida tree has been identified as being critical to sustenance of the habitat. The understanding gained from the research output can feed into decision making frameworks for the water resources managers in charge of the hydropower dam operation in order to consider modifications to the current dam operating rules and water allocation for environmental flows.

  8. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial or Heavily Modified (following the definitions of the WFD) in most cases have to fulfil more limited environmental targets. The involvement of local stakeholders must be ensured along the whole certification procedure and, when completed, during the lifespan of the label. The methodology includes a predefined framework where pressure factors due to hydropower production are related to potentially impacted environmental quality elements. For each of these cause-effect relationships possible mitigation measures are suggested. In the long run, it is expected that the certification will have a positive impact on hydro power generation in Europe, will help focusing the conception of new HPPs towards more sustainable solutions and making easier authorization procedure.

  9. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  10. The use of public participation and economic appraisal for public involvement in large-scale hydropower projects: Case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining public acceptance is one of the main issues with large-scale low-carbon projects such as hydropower development. It has been recommended by the World Commission on Dams that to gain public acceptance, public involvement is necessary in the decision-making process (). As financially-significant actors in the planning and implementation of large-scale hydropower projects in developing country contexts, the paper examines the ways in which public involvement may be influenced by international financial institutions. Using the case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in Laos, the paper analyses how public involvement facilitated by the Asian Development Bank had a bearing on procedural and distributional justice. The paper analyses the extent of public participation and the assessment of full social and environmental costs of the project in the Cost-Benefit Analysis conducted during the project appraisal stage. It is argued that while efforts were made to involve the public, there were several factors that influenced procedural and distributional justice: the late contribution of the Asian Development Bank in the project appraisal stage; and the issue of non-market values and discount rate to calculate the full social and environmental costs. - Highlights: ? Public acceptance in large-scale hydropower projects is examined. ? Both procedural and distributional justice are important for public acceptance. ? International Financial Institutions can influence the level of public involvement. ? Public involvement benefits consideration of non-market values and discount rates.

  11. Painting Instruction for hydropower stations; Maalningsanvisning foer vattenkraftstationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssander, Maerit; Carlsson, Roger; Edwardson, Wille; Persson, Charlotte

    2012-12-15

    This protective coating recommendations are intended for information and guidance to undertake high quality protective coating in hydro power stations. The manual should be a supplement and an explanation to the specific technical descriptions that are provided separately for each individual object. The recommendations are based on the 'Handbok i rostskyddsmaalning', (Handbook on corrosion protection painting), Bulletin no. 107 published by the Swedish Corrosion Institute (Korrosionsinstitutet; NB. From 2006, the Swedish Corrosion Institute is incorporated in the Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB). The Bulletin no. 107 is in turn based on the standard SS-EN ISO 12944 concerning corrosion protection of steel structures by painting. The recommendations comprises and refers to applicable laws, regulations, directives and 'state-of-the-art' in the field. They are also intended to give guidance concerning selection of appropriate coating systems in hydro power stations. This guidance has been established through identification of corrosivity classes and corresponding appropriate coating systems for hydropower station components. The intention is to keep the recommendations updated concerning standards and coating systems and according to practical experiences. Ceramic composites has been identified as an interesting new field for surface coating in erosive and corrosive environments. A summary of characteristics and guidelines for application in the field of hydro power could be of interest. A complete translation of the protective coating recommendations for hydro power stations is available in Elforsk report 06:50, 'Protective coating recommendations in hydro power stations'.

  12. Current developments in the assessment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: Analysis, interpretation, and use of the TPH parameter for quantitative risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP) estimated that petroleum-only cases comprised approximately one-half of the state's hazardous waste sites currently under investigation and/or remediation. Because of this significant percentage, it became clear that assessing petroleum sites more efficiently in terms of risk and cleanup alternatives was necessary. One of these key MDEP policies describes an alternative risk assessment approach enabling the quantitative characterization of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-related health risks. The approach relies on the use of an analytical technique by which the mass of petroleum hydrocarbons within specified carbon ranges is quantified. MDEP's TPH risk assessment approach was successfully employed at a residential site contaminated with No. 2 fuel oil. The combined use of MDEP's suggested analytical methods, alternative reference compounds and toxicity values, as well as chromatograms, standard dose equations, and an EPA-approved box model, facilitated the performance of a more realistic and cost-effective assessment of risk. Such assessment provided key management information to regulatory agencies, and project managers, as well as property owners concerned with potential property value loss

  13. Estimating the Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower and Power Marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently preparing an assessment of the effects of climate change on federal hydropower, as directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the Secure Water Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-11). This paper describes the assessment approach being used in a Report to Congress currently being prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The 9505 assessment will examine climate change effects on water available for hydropower operations and the future power supplies marketed from federal hydropower projects. It will also include recommendations from the Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) on potential changes in operation or contracting practices that could address these effects and risks of climate change. Potential adaption and mitigation strategies will also be identified. Federal hydropower comprises approximately half of the U.S. hydropower portfolio. The results from the 9505 assessment will promote better understanding among federal dam owners/operators of the sensitivity of their facilities to water availability, and it will provide a basis for planning future actions that will enable adaptation to climate variability and change. The end-users of information are Congressional members, their staff, the PMAs and their customers, federal dam owners/operators, and the DOE Water Power Program.

  14. Why is electricity from hydropower schemes worth more than one thinks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure produced by the Swiss Society for Water Economics examines the role of hydropower in Switzerland. The aim of the brochure is to demonstrate the ecological advantages offered to consumers by the use of hydropower as a source of energy. The topics discussed include the use of rivers and streams for power generation and the conflicts of interest between the supply of power and the protection of natural resources. Also, the economics of hydropower and its effect at the national economic level are discussed and the ecological aspects - both positive and negative - of hydropower plant are examined. Measures taken to enhance streams and rivers used for power generation as far as their ecology is concerned are discussed and the factors involved in the decision process on the use a particular river for energy production are examined. The brochure lists the advantages of hydropower as a sustainable source of energy and the social and economic advantages of this form of power. References are made to further sources of information on the subject

  15. Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

  16. Expanding the toolbox for studying the biological responses of individual fish to hydropower infrastructure and operating strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydropower infrastructure and the operational strategies used by power utilities have the potential to change local aquatic environments. However, few studies have evaluated sub-organismal responses such as physiological consequences of individual fish to fluctuating flows or hydropower infrastructure such as fishways or turbines. Rather than review the impacts of hydropower on fish, this paper detailed the behavioural, energetic, genomic, molecular, forensic, isotopic, and physiological tools available for studying sub-organismal responses of fish to hydropower infrastructure and operating procedures with a critical assessment of their benefits and limitations. A brief summary of the current state of knowledge regarding the 12 types of tools was provided along with their usefulness in fisheries science and environmental management. The benefits and limitations of using these techniques for evaluating hydropower impacts on fish and fish habitat were discussed. Two case studies were presented to demonstrate how the inclusion of individual-based information into hydropower research has helped to improve the understanding of complex fish and hydropower issues. Practitioners can use the expanded toolbox to assess fishway performance, migration delays, and fish responses to fluctuating flows through a mechanistic approach. These tools are also relevant for evaluating other anthropogenic impacts such as water withdrawal for irrigation or drinking water, habitat alteration, and fisheries interactions. The expanded toolbox can contribute to a more sustainable hydropower industry by providing regulators with tools for making informed decisions and evaluating compliance issues. 150 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. The calculation interest for administration of hydropower in the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of important findings in newer, economic literature on discount rate in the long term is presented. Based on this review, two questions relating to the administration of Norwegian hydropower resources are briefly discussed. Firstly, which discount rate should be used as basis when valuating the existent Norwegian hydropower plants? Secondly, how should the socio-economic discount rate for investments in hydro projects be determined compared relatively to other types of investments in the power sector? The main conclusion is that the existing rate for administration of hydropower need not be substituted. Neither theory nor empiricism provides a conclusive answer. Certain relevant aspects that may be further investigated are put forth (ml)

  18. Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Krajcar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir water balance is affected by decisions by both companies which are independently seeking maximal profit. Methods for water use settlement and preventing of spillage are proposed. A mixed-integer linear programming approach is used. Head effects on output power levels are also considered. Existences of dispatches that satisfy both companies are shown.

  19. Small hydropower station Duennern Olten, Switzerland; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Munzingerareal, Duennern Olten. Vorprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenberger, P.

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Olten, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to build a new hydropower installation on the Duennern stream in which the approximately 10 metres difference in height is to be used to generate around 1.6 GWh of power annually using a 345 kW turbine. The present situation is described as far as the existing channelled stream, water quantities and concessions, land ownership etc. are concerned. Four variants for the realisation of the new hydropower installation are presented and discussed. The report recommends a single variant that should be further studied and lists details of the project, including plans and cost estimates.

  20. Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

    Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also generally well simulated, mostly limited by the accuracy of inflow hydrology. System-wide hydropower generation is reduced by 9% with 6 °C warming. Most reductions in hydropower generation occur in the highly productive watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada. The central Sierra Nevada sees less reduction in annual runoff and can adapt better to changes in runoff timing. Generation in southern watersheds is expected to decrease. System-wide, reservoirs adapt to capture earlier runoff, but mostly decrease in mean reservoir storage with warming due to decreasing annual runoff. Second, a multi-reservoir optimization model is developed using linear programming that considers the minimum instream flows (MIFs) and weekly down ramp rates (DRRs) in the Upper Yuba River in the northern Sierra Nevada. Weekly DRR constraints are used to mimic spring snowmelt flows, which are particularly important for downstream ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada but are currently missing due to the influence of dams. Trade-offs between MIFs, DRRs and hydropower are explored with air temperature warming (+0, 2, 4 and 6 °C). Under base case operations, mean annual hydropower generation increases slightly with 2 °C warming and decreases slightly with 6 °C warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduce hydropower generation 5.5% compared to base case operations and a historical climate, which has important implications for re-licensing the hydropower project. Finally, reservoir management for downstream temperatures is explored using a linear programming model to optimally release water from a reservoir using selective withdrawal. The objective function is to minimize deviations from desired downstream temperatures, which are specified to mimic the natural temperature regime in the river. One objective of this study was to develop a method that can be readily integrated into a basin-scale multi-reservoir optimization model using a network representation of system features. The second objective was to explore the potential use of reservoirs to maintain an ideal str

  1. Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Geopolitical Vulnerabilities to Hydropower Development on the Nu River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree D. Tullos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid hydropower development is occurring in China's Yunnan province in response to increasing clean energy demands, exposing potential vulnerabilities of the area's ecosystems, communities, and geopolitical systems. Here, we present original data on the cultures, economics, hydro-politics, and environments of the Nu River basin, based on household surveys, analysis of geopolitical events, and hydrological, hydraulic, and landscape modeling. We identify sources of vulnerability and investigate relationships among biophysical, socioeconomic, and geopolitical elements that contribute to vulnerability. Our results illustrate the role of geographic isolation in intensifying vulnerability to hydropower development and how access to information, data uncertainty, and geopolitics influence the vulnerability of people and the environment. We emphasize specific needs for developing support mechanisms for social, ecological, and political groups that are vulnerable to hydropower development.

  2. Phasing in wind-power in Norway: Network congestion and crowding-out of hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects on utilisation of existing hydropower in a region of investing in significant wind-power in the region within the present network. Policy simulations are conducted using a dynamic system-wide model that is calibrated to reflect the structure of the Nordic power market. This model is the one used by the Norwegian electricity regulator and large hydropower companies in Norway for scheduling of hydro and market analyses. Simulations are carried out for different inflow situations based on past observations going back 60 years. Introduction of wind-power leads to significant increase in network congestion in the region, lower hydropower production, higher level of storage, increased spillage of water, and considerably lower price level in the local region in question. (author)

  3. Integration of Hydropower in a Competitive power market model for water-energy scenario analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Carrion-Sanchez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Hydrological systems and power systems are strongly linked: water is needed for most electricity generation technologies, and electricity is required for all stages of water usage. Growing water and energy demands, and potential climate changes suggest this relationship will become more important for the management of both water and energy resources, and should be assessed. We propose a coupled water-energy modeling approach in which a hydrological model imposes the water constraints on the power system model; hydropower generation is bid to the power market based on the hydrological state of the system; and the demands from one system to the other are computed by both models jointly. For this purpose, we develop a bidding strategy for a price-taker hydropower generator based on reservoir volumes and expected electricity prices. The results from the methodology are comparable to those from a dynamic program. The hydropower bidding strategy showed reasonable performance when tested in a simplified model of a competitive power market.

  4. Magnetic properties of lithium rare-earth fluorides: Ferromagnetism in LiErF4 and LiHoF4 and crystal-field parameters at the rare-earth and Li sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. E.; Johansson, Torben

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals of LiErF4 and LiHoF4 have been grown and their magnetic properties measured from 1.3 K to 300 K. LiHoF4 turned out to be a nearly ideal Ising ferromagnet with TC=1.30±0.05 K and a saturation magnetization along the crystalline c axis of (6.98±0.02)?B. In LiErF4 no ordering was observed, but extrapolation indicates that below 0.5 K it will be ferromagnetic with the magnetic moments in the crytalline ab plane. From the susceptibilities the crystal-field parameters Bnm with (n, m)=(2, 0), (4, 0), (4, 4), (6, 0), (6, 4) have been extracted giving for Er3+ in LiErF4: 430., -985., 1185., -5., 740.+i135. (cm-1) and for Ho3+ in LiHoF4: 470., -825., 1050., -10., 760.+i150 (cm-1). The exchange constants were found to be small compared to the dipole interactions. Furthermore the 7Li NMR spectra have been obtained in these materials as well as in LiTbF4 thereby determining the second-order crystal-field parameters at the Li site: q=0.0363, 0.0354, and 0.0343 Å-3 for the Er, Ho, and Tb compound, respectively. The crystal-field parameters are compared to values calculated from point charges, showing agreement at the Li sites but not at the rare earth sites.

  5. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahlers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  6. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  7. Initiatives in the hydro sector post-World Commission on Dams – The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Locher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD has called for developers, governments, civil society, etc. to use its Strategic Priorities as a starting point for dialogue and initiatives to address issues regarding the development of dams. One very notable follow-up initiative has been led by the hydropower industry. The International Hydropower Association developed Sustainability Guidelines (IHA, 2004 and a Sustainability Assessment Protocol (IHA, 2006, and most recently has been involved in a two-year process with governments, NGOs and the finance sector to develop a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool based on review and update of the IHA Sustainability Assessment Protocol. This cross-sectoral process, known as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF, has drawn on the knowledge base and many of the findings and recommendations of the World Commission on Dams, as well as a number of other developments in the last ten years. A fundamental premise of the work of the Forum is that an industry-driven and -owned initiative has far-reaching potential to influence performance in the hydropower sector. At the same time, the potential for the use of a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool for hydropower by those in other sectors is well recognised and aspired to by the Forum. This paper describes the work of the Forum up to August 2009 and the contents of the Draft Protocol released publicly in August 2009, and considers some of the commonalities and points of departure between this process and the WCD. The Forum’s work on the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is a work in progress, so this paper can describe but not give a full analysis of the work while it is in train.

  8. Dissolved oxygen analysis for hydropower additions on the Illinois River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Illinois Waterway is comprised of a system of eight locks along the Illinois River, the Des Plaines River, and the Chicago Sanitary Ship Canal which allow commercial barge traffic between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan at the City of Chicago. Opportunities for production of hydroelectric power is present at several of these lock and dams. This paper presents the field study and computer simulation conducted to determine the feasibility of constructing hydroelectric powerhouses on two of these lock and dams. So as not to degrade recent improvements to water quality, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in issuing the construction and operating licenses for these two hydroelectric facilities, requires the hydropower additions to not reduce the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) level downstream of the hydroelectric facilities below 6 parts per million (ppm). Presently, the waterway discharge passes through taintor gates at both of these lock and dam facilities which creates aeration. The addition of hydroelectric powerhouses would divert water from these spillways through generation equipment; consequently, the spillway aeration would not occur. The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of power generation from these facilities, given the existing waterway water quality and the FERC D.O. criteria. A computer simulation generation analysis was conducted to provide a database of the waterway water quality. A four-month extensive field collection survey was conducted over the 63 kilometer (39 mile) reach of the waterway which comprises the two downstream pools of the Brandon Road and Dresden Island projects, and 3 kilometers (2 miles) upstream of the Brandon Road Project. The analysis revealed that the hydroelectric additions were economically feasible and are an example of how the benefits of hydroelectric development can be balanced with environmental concerns

  9. Role of hydropower development for improving energy mix with reference to India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, P.C.

    2010-09-15

    With more than 70% of the electricity requirement in India being contributed from thermal sources and various issues and problems such as peaking shortage, low PLF operation of many thermal generating stations etc., there is an urgent need to review the prevailing energy mix. Hydropower potential is abundantly available to the tune of about 148,700 MW and more than 75% of which remaining untapped and with all the inherent advantages associated with hydropower, the energy mix can be improved by the development of the balance huge potential.

  10. Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamududu, Byman H.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is projected for a slight decrease (0.05%), Asia with an increase of 0.27%, Europe a reduction up to 0.16% while America is projected to have an increase of 0.05%. In the eastern African region, it was shown that hydropower production is likely to increase by 0.59%, the central with 0.22% and the western with a 0.03%. The southern, and northern African regions were projected to have reductions of 0.83% and 0.48% respectively. The basins with increases in flow projections have a slight increase on hydropower production but not proportional to the increase in precipitation. The basins with decreases had even high change as the reduction was further increased by evaporation losses. The hydropower production potential of most of southern African basins is likely to decrease in the future due to the impact of climate change while the central African region shows an increasing trend. The hydropower system in these regions will be affected consequently. The hydropower production changes will vary from basin to basin in these regions. The Zambezi, Kafue and Shire river basins have negative changes while the Congo, Kwanza and Kabompo river basins have positive changes. The hydropower production potential in the Zambezi basin decreases by 9 - 34%. The hydropower production potential in the Kafue basin decreases by 8 - 34% and the Shire basin decreases by 7 - 14 %. The southern region will become drier with shorter rainy seasons. The central region will become wetter with increased runoff. The hydropower production potential in the Congo basin reduces slightly and then increases by 4% by the end of the century. The hydropower production potential in the Kwanza basin decreases by 3% and then increases by 10% towards the end of the century and the Kabompo basin production increases by 6 - 18%. It can be concluded that in the central African region hydropower production will, in general, increase while the southern African region, hydropower production will decrease. In summary, the analysis has shown that the southern African region is expected to experience decreases in rainfall

  11. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are an important source of renewable energy for many countries in Europe. In Switzerland, for instance, they represent the most important domestic source of renewable energy (around 55%). However, future hydropower production may be threatened by unprecedented challenges, such as a decreasing water availability, due to climate change (CC) and associated glacier retreat, and uncertain operating conditions, such as future power needs and highly fluctuating demand on the energy market. This second aspect has gained increasingly relevance since the massive introduction of solar and wind generating systems in the portfolios of many European countries. Because hydropower systems have the potential to provide backup storage of energy to compensate for fluctuations that are typical, for instance, of solar and wind generation systems, it is important to investigate how the increased demand for flexible operation, together with climate change challenge and fluctuating markets, can impact their operating policies. The Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (www.sccer-soe.ch) has been recently established to explore new potential paths for the development of future power generation systems. In this context, we develop modelling and optimization tools to design and assess new operation strategies for hydropower systems to increase their reliability, flexibility, and robustness to future operation conditions. In particular, we develop an advanced modelling framework for the integrated simulation of the operation of hydropower plants, which accounts for CC-altered streamflow regimes, new demand and market conditions, as well as new boundary conditions for operation (e.g., aquatic ecosystem conservation). The model construction consists of two primary components: a physically based and spatially distributed hydrological model, which describes the relevant hydrological processes at the basin scale, and an agent based decision model, which describes the behavior of hydropower operators. This integrated model allows to quantitatively explore possible trajectories of future evolution of the hydropower systems under the combined effect of climate and socio-economic drivers. In a multi-objective perspective, the model can test how different hydropower operation strategies perform in terms of power production, reliability and flexibility of supply, profitability of operation, and ecosystem conservation. This contribution presents the methodological framework designed to formulate the integrated model, its expected outcomes, and some preliminary results on a pilot study.

  12. Site characterization for the final disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (DFDSMA) by physico-chemical properties of the deep ground water and by the transport parameters of the critical radionuclides contained in the wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For DFDSMA site selection, geological, hydrological studies and transport measurements of the radionuclides contained in wastes were initiated at INR Pitesti in 1996, which led to choose Saligny site in the neighborhood of Cernavoda NPP as optimal. Geologically, the Saligny site appears to be a sedimentary formation covered with quaternary loessoid based on clay and sand deposits. To estimate the radionuclide transport, experiments were carried out to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the deep ground water and the distribution and diffusion coefficients for the 137 Cs and 60 Co radionuclides. In the first case, pH, the conductivity, the content of solved salts, the concentrations of inter-exchangeable cations and major anions were determined. The physical chemical processes contributing to 137 Cs and 60 Co retaining on the surfaces of the mineral constituting the rocks were evaluated from investigation of the behavior of the solutions of these radionuclides in contact with the cores extracted at various depths (0-80 m) at Saligny site. Distribution coefficients, retardation factors, the migration speed and time were determined for characterizing the radionuclide migration in the intervening soils. The diffusion coefficients were determined by measuring transfer in diffusion cells with samples of loess and clay from Saligny site. The concentration profile was deduced by measuring the activity of the radionuclide in different locations in the sample. The experimental results were used as input data of the codes for performance evaluation of the final repository. The variation in time of the physico-chemical parameters of the deep water, the diffusion and distribution coefficients (Ds, Kd) and the retardation factor (R) for the geological samples for Saligny are given

  13. Subsequent malignancies associated with carcinoma of the uterine cervix: including an analysis of the effect of patient and treatment parameters on incidence and sites of metachronous malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Grady, K.J.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1982-02-01

    The incidence and sites of metachronous malignancies were retrospectively determined from the records of 763 patients seen at Yale University Medical Center and affiliated hospitals with previously untreated, invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix from 1953-1972. These patients were treated predominantly with radiation therapy; follow-up status was known for periods of 5-25 years or until time of death in over 96% of the patients. Forty-four patients had second malignancies noted at least 6 months after the initial cervical cancer was diagnosed. The expected incidence of second malignancies was determined from the Connecticut State Tumor Registry data controlling for year of diagnosis of the cervical cancer, patient age, sex, and time at risk (person-years exposure). To correct for any error in estimation of second malignancies introduced by the existence of a latency period for the development of a second cancer, the expected incidence of malignancies was also computed for 5-year time intervals following the cervical cancer. No significant increase in second malignancies was found (observed/expected-44/36) for the entire follow-up period nor for any individual 5-year interval. However, a statistically significant increase in lung cancer and vulva-vaginal cancer was noted and a significant decrease in breast cancer was observed. Cox regression analyses were performed to study the effect of total radium exposure and total external beam treatment, adjusting for other factors. No statistically significant increased risks were found.

  14. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  15. Hydropower research programme 2008 - 2011; Forschungsprogramm Wasserkraft 2008 - 2011. Schlussbericht zur Entwicklung eines Forschungsprogramms. Aktualisierte Fortschreibung vom September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    2007-07-01

    This revised final report on the development of a research programme for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the proposals for the development of a concept for Swiss hydropower research activities for the period 2008 - 2011. According to the authors, the new research programme will not only include activities in the small hydropower area, but rather all aspects of hydropower usage, including dams and large hydropower stations. The results of a survey made concerning research and further education in the hydropower area are discussed. These results formed the basis of the new concept. The report also presents a review of the present situation with regard to hydrological questions and dams as well as mechanical and electrical equipment. The education and training of professionals is looked at and national and international co-operation in the hydropower area is also discussed. Future developments are looked at, as are the economic aspects of the use of hydropower. Measures to be taken in the research area are proposed.

  16. International investigation of breast MRI: results of a multicentre study (11 sites) concerning diagnostic parameters for contrast-enhanced MRI based on 519 histopathologically correlated lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multicentre study was undertaken to provide fundamentals for improved standardization and optimized interpretation guidelines of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Only patients scheduled for biopsy of a clinical or imaging abnormality were included. They underwent standardized dynamic MRI on Siemens 1.0 (163 valid lesions ? 5 mm) or 1.5 T (395 valid lesions ? 5 mm) using 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH; 87 s) before and five times after standardized bolus of 0.2 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg. One-Tesla and 1.5 T data were analysed separately using a discriminant analysis. Only histologically correlated lesions entered the statistical evaluation. Histopathology and imaging were correlated in retrospect and in open. The best results were achieved by combining up to five wash-in or wash-out parameters. Different weighting of false-negative vs false-positive calls allowed formulation of a statistically based interpretation scheme yielding optimized rules for the highest possible sensitivity (specificity 30 %), for moderate (50 %) or high (64-71 %) specificity. The sensitivities obtained at the above specificity levels were better at 1.0 T (98, 97, or 96 %) than at 1.5 T (96, 93, 86 %). Using a widely available standardized MR technique definition of statistically founded interpretation rules is possible. Choice of an optimum interpretation rule may vary with the clinical question. Prospective testing remains necessary. Differences of 1.0 and 1.5 T are not statistically significant but may be due to pulse sequences (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of Power Generation Efficiency of Cascade Hydropower Plants: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Wei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of scarce water resources has presented a significant challenge to respond to the needs created by rapid economic growth in China. In this study, the efficiency of the joint operation of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba cascade hydropower plants in terms of power generation was evaluated on the basis of a precise simulation-optimization technique. The joint operation conditions of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba hydropower plants between 2004 and 2010 were utilized in this research in order to investigate the major factors that could affect power output of the cascade complex. The results showed that the current power output of the Three Gorges and Gezhouba cascade complex had already reached around 90% of the maximum theoretical value. Compared to other influencing factors evaluated in this study, the accuracy of hydrological forecasts and flood control levels can have significant impact on the power generating efficiency, whereas the navigation has a minor influence. This research provides a solid quantitative-based methodology to assess the operation efficiency of cascade hydropower plants, and more importantly, proposes potential methods that could improve the operation efficiency of cascade hydropower plants.

  18. Export of Norwegian hydropower under a common European regime of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out to investigate the strategic position of Norwegian hydropower and, in particular, to study optimal decisions with respect to the installation of new export transmission lines. For this purpose an integrated long-run equilibrium model for the northern European electricity market determining production, consumption and trade is constructed. (author)

  19. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  20. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 1; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration is the first appendix to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. This appendix contains a description of the locations in the tributaries of the German river Weser.

  1. Viewpoint – Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Pittock

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin water transfers. As a former Director of Freshwater for WWF International and now as a researcher on the water-energy nexus, I spent much of the past decade seeking to influence the direction of water infrastructure development, and in this viewpoint I have been asked to reflect on the changes that have occurred, and the opportunities in an era of climate change to reduce the environmental and social impacts of hydropower development while maximising the benefits. Better outcomes are more likely with a renewed focus on limiting the perverse impacts of climate change policies, implementing standards for certification of more sustainable hydropower, building capacities within developing countries, and enhancing management of existing dams.

  2. Hydropower development in South East Europe. Experience report; Wasserkraft in Suedosteuropa entwickeln. Erfahrungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Gerald [KELAG-Kaerntner Elektrizitaets-Aktiengesellschaft, Klagenfurt (Austria). Bereich Erzeugung; KI-KELAG International GmbH, Klagenfurt (Austria); Funke, Hans-Christoph [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Development International and Engineering

    2012-11-01

    South East Europe offers high undeveloped potential of hydropower compared to West Europe. That is the main reason why Austrian's Kelag and Germany's RWE Innogy started project development in this region. An overview about the projects under development, construction and in operation is given. Finally the characteristics and track record of individual projects is described. (orig.)

  3. Should we build more large dams? The actual costs of hydropower megaproject development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brisk building boom of hydropower mega-dams is underway from China to Brazil. Whether benefits of new dams will outweigh costs remains unresolved despite contentious debates. We investigate this question with the “outside view” or “reference class forecasting” based on literature on decision-making under uncertainty in psychology. We find overwhelming evidence that budgets are systematically biased below actual costs of large hydropower dams—excluding inflation, substantial debt servicing, environmental, and social costs. Using the largest and most reliable reference data of its kind and multilevel statistical techniques applied to large dams for the first time, we were successful in fitting parsimonious models to predict cost and schedule overruns. The outside view suggests that in most countries large hydropower dams will be too costly in absolute terms and take too long to build to deliver a positive risk-adjusted return unless suitable risk management measures outlined in this paper can be affordably provided. Policymakers, particularly in developing countries, are advised to prefer agile energy alternatives that can be built over shorter time horizons to energy megaprojects. - Highlights: • We investigate ex post outcomes of schedule and cost estimates of hydropower dams. • We use the “outside view” based on Kahneman and Tversky's research in psychology. • Estimates are systematically and severely biased below actual values. • Projects that take longer have greater cost overruns; bigger projects take longer. • Uplift required to de-bias systematic cost underestimation for large dams is +99%

  4. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity. The authors consider that an improved conceptual framework is needed in order to calculate the water footprint from hydropower projects in a more reasonable way.

  5. Water consumption from hydropower plants – review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Bakken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012 was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously to water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close to natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity. The authors consider that an improved conceptual framework is needed in order to calculate the water footprint from hydropower projects in a more reasonable way.

  6. Impact of glacier shrinkage and adapted hydropower potential in the Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is an alarming reality and likely leads to an increase of multiple pressures on socio-economic systems. However, in high-mountain regions it might also become an opportunity to adapt existing hydropower schemes and to develop new projects to this reality. In the Alps, the melting of glaciers first produces over the near future an increase of the average annual discharge depending on glacier and catchment characteristics, especially during the summer season. Nevertheless after a certain time, significant decrease of runoff related to glacier melting must be considered for hydropower management. Moreover, the shrinking glaciers free new areas, having the potential for the construction of new dams and reservoirs. The opportunity to build new dams and hydropower plants downstream of retreating glaciers is studied using two models. The first (GlabTop) is used to predict the future topography and geomorphology underneath the melting glaciers, in order to define the optimal locations of the future dams and reservoirs. Secondly, the RS3.0 CLIMATE rainfall-runoff hydrological model computes the glacier evolution, the river discharge at the outlet of the catchment area as well as the hydropower production of the new schemes. As a case study the Upper Aare River basin in Switzerland is presented. The opportunity of the construction of a new dam and a hydropower plant is studied, including its economic benefit. The result of the case study provides a basis to assess the potential of investing in such projects to ensure the Swiss hydroelectricity production also in future as well as peak energy for the European grid. (authors)

  7. Local stakeholder participation in CDM and new climate mitigation mechanisms – case study of a small scale hydropower project in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2014-01-01

    Public participation is recognized as a key principle for effective climate governance in Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In Warsaw 2013 the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) decided that the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board should collect information on practices for local stakeholder consultation in collaboration with the Designated National Authorities (DNA) Forum and provide technical assistance for the development of guidelines for local stakeholder participation, if a country requests assistance. Learning from a case study of how local stakeholder participation is practiced in CDM in a small scale hydropower project in China, this paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses of how the concept is applied in practice. To understand the execution of both CDM policies and China’s stakeholder participation policies in environment impact assessment at project level, the PDD of this project and similar projects were analyzed providing an overall impression of the stakeholder participations process and results in such projects. Afterwards, we focused on a single case, where 11 interviews and a trip to the project site was conducted. Results of the case study point to weak CDM procedures for local stakeholder consultations (LSC) and non-transparent national practices. The weaknesses of existing CDM LSC practices and procedures are not unique to the China case and highlight the need for good practice guidelines that can inspire countries to strengthen public participation in CDM and other mitigation mechanisms.

  8. Failures during Load-Frequency Control Maneuvers in an Upgraded Hydropower Plant: Causes, Identification of Causes and Solution Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I. Pérez-Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the cause of several unexpected high amplitude oscillations that occurred in the surge tank water level of a real hydropower plant during secondary load-frequency control (LFC maneuvers, after the replacement of the turbine runner, and to propose solutions that allow the power plant to continue providing secondary LFC in a safe and reliable manner. For this purpose, a simulation model has been developed and calibrated from data gathered during several on-site tests. Two different solutions are proposed in order to cope with the observed problem: using a state-dependent load change rate limiter or modifying the hydro turbine governor gains; the turbine governor remains the same as before the runner replacement. The proposed solutions are tested against a set of realistic secondary LFC signals by means of simulations and compared to each other as a function of the probability that the surge tank water level descends below a minimum safe level and the quality of the secondary LFC response. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the validity of the methodology proposed to determine the state-dependent ramp limit, as well as its effectiveness to prevent the surge tank drawdown and to provide clear insight into the trade-off between response quality and power plant safety.

  9. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

  10. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

  11. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to generate a set of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models.

  12. Assessing Stochastic Optimization for Rio Tinto Alcan's Hydropower System in Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, P.; Latraverse, M.; Leconte, R.; Larouche, B.

    2012-04-01

    Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) is a multinational aluminium producer with smelters in Quebec, Canada. RTA also owns and operates power houses on Péribonka and Saguenay Rivers. The system, which is run by RTA's Quebec Power Operations Division, consists of 6 generating stations and 3 major reservoirs, for an installed capacity of 2900 MW. One of the significant issues that had to be resolved for effective operation of this system was to determine the volume of water release per week for all generating stations. Several challenges had to be dealt with before a suitable solution could be found. Last year, RTA started a five year R&D project for improving the management of the hydropower system. This project includes data monitoring, Hydrological Ensemble Prediction (HEP) and stochastic optimization (SO) methods. Development of SO methods is particularly interesting for RTA since, until now, the decision making process has been based on a deterministic solver even if it is impossible to predict naturally contributed volumes with any accuracy beyond a few days. Moreover, the production at the generating stations follows a non-linear, non-convex function of turbine flow rates and water head. Both of these factors have the effect of requiring that the decision should be based upon solving a non-linear and non-convex stochastic optimization problem. The following presentation describes the first part of the SO project and aims to assess the value of using a stochastic solver instead of a deterministic solver. Two different SO approaches were evaluated: lag-1 Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) and Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SSDP) algorithms. HEP are used to capture the spatio-temporal variability of the inflows. Scenarios are generated using a hydrological model (HM) by initialising the HM with the same initial conditions (hydrologic state variables). These hydrologic variables are estimated using real-time observations available for the catchment area. Inter-scenario variability is provided by using different sequences of meteorological observations entered into the HM. The scenarios are used to estimate the parameters of the auto-regressive model utilized by SDP and the hydrologic state variables are used to estimate the probability transition between scenarios required by the SSDP algorithm. The optimization methods were implemented in RTA's system and the results compared with the actual deterministic decision procedure. Methods were compared using a test bench into which were incorporated the characteristics of the facilities and the HEP database.

  13. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a basis for further design of environmental instrument such as payment for watershed ecosystem services.

  14. A light left in the dark: The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, M.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key actors in the government, multilateral organisations and the private sector which show an often simplified and overly negative attitude towards pico-hydropower. Based on empirical research carried out...

  15. Flood retention in alpine catchments equipped with complex hydropower schemes - A case study of the upper Aare catchment in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schleiss, Anton J.; Boes, Robert M.; Bieri, Martin; Schleiss, Anton; Jordan, F.; Fankhauser, A.; Ursin, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of run-off in alpine catchment areas is an important issue for the optimal operation of hydropower plants for normal flow conditions, but also during flood events. A semi-lumped numerical approach combines hydrological modelling and operation of hydraulic elements. It allows simulation of operating mode of complex storage hydropower plants and its impacts on the downstream river system for different scenarios. The modelling of the upper Aare catchment with the Oberhasli hydropo...

  16. A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässelqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-07-01

    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial bearing load can be determined using load cells, bearing properties multiplied by shaft displacement, or bearing bracket stiffness multiplied by housing compression or movement. Different load measurement methods should be used depending on the design of the machine and accuracy demands in the load measurement. The methodology presented in the paper is applied to a 40?MW hydropower unit; suggestions are presented for the alarm and trip levels for the machine based on the mechanical properties and radial loads. PMID:23917729

  17. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likel...

  18. New construction of the Kelchbach hydropower installation - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt Neubau Kraftwerk Kelchbach. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbermatten, J.

    2009-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the preliminary project for the new construction of a small hydropower installation on the Kelchbach stream in Naters, Switzerland. After a pressure-pipe rupture, the old, over 100 year-old installation was closed down. The replacement installation is planned to increase power production. The works necessary for the realisation of this hydropower project are described and discussed. Several older studies on the replacement of the installation are listed. Three variants are presented and discussed as are hydrological data on the project. Cost estimates are presented and discussed. Estimates of energy production are also presented and discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. Environmental aspects of the project are also examined.

  19. Gross Error Denoising Method for Slope Monitoring Data at Hydropower Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are mainly two types of errors existed in monitoring displacement of a rock slope: gross errors and random errors. Monitoring data is very important for the safety construction and operation of the Hydropower Station. The use of slope monitoring data for safety evaluation is influenced by the gross errors during the monitoring process. This paper presents a gross error denosing method for a nonlinear time series based on the three-standard-deviation rule (3-? rule, and then reconstructing the time series by a first-order Lagrange interpolation method. The present method is applied to the gross error analysis of the slope displacement monitoring data collected at the Jinping I Hydropower Station. Computed results show that the first-order difference values of the gross errors can be above or below the upper or lower three-standard-deviation boundary, and the gross errors can be removed effectively.

  20. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Since a large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments, however it is possible to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer (BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the structure of BOT contracts and through an economic evaluation based on different percentage of investments of private sector in providing the expenses of small and medium hydro-power plants (S and M-HPP) (e.g. MHPP in 'Bookan, Iran' and SHPP in 'Nari, Iran'), demonstrates that by increasing the percentage the share of the private sector in the investment, the economic indices B/C and NPV improve substantially

  1. Sustainable hydropower in Lower Mekong Countries: Technical assessment and training travel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), through their partnership with the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), requested the support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide specialized technical assistance as part of the Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong (SIM) Program in Thailand. Introduced in July 2013 by U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, SIM is a U.S. Government Inter-Agency program that provides Lower Mekong partner countries with targeted, demand-driven technical and scientific assistance to support environmentally sound, climate conscious and socially equitable infrastructure, clean energy development, and water resources optimization. The U.S. Government is committed to supporting sustainable economic development within the region by providing tools, best practices, technical assistance, and lessons learned for the benefit of partner countries. In response to a request from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), a SIM project was developed with two main activities: 1) to promote hydropower sustainability and efficiency through technical assessment training at two existing hydropower assets in Thailand, and 2) the design and implementation of one national and two or three regional science and policy workshops, to be co-hosted with EGAT, to build common understanding of and commitment to environmental and social safeguards for Mekong Basin hydropower projects. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the technical assessment (Activity 1), and has contracted ORNL to provide expert technical assistance focused on increasing efficiency at existing projects, with the goal of increasing renewable energy generation at little to no capital cost. ORNL is the leading national laboratory in hydropower analysis, with a nationally recognized and highly qualified team of scientists addressing small to large-scale systems (basin-, regional-, and national-scale) energy generation optimization analysis for DOE. The mission of the ORNL Water Power Program is to develop technologies, decision-support tools, and methods of analysis that enable holistic management of water-dependent energy infrastructure and natural resources in support of the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office (DOE-EERE), Federal hydropower agencies, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), energy producers, and other entities. In support of SIM, ORNL completed technical assessments of two hydropower plants owned and operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT): Vajiralongkorn (VRK), with an installed capacity of 300 MW, and Rajjaprabha (RPB), with an installed capacity of 240MW. Technical assessment is defined as the assessment of hydropower operation and performance, and the identification of potential opportunities for performance improvement through plant optimization. At each plant, the assessment included an initial analysis of hydropower operating and performance metrics, provided by dam owners. After this analysis, ORNL engaged with the plant management team in a skills exchange, where best practices, operational methods, and technical challenges were discussed. The technical assessment process was outlined to plant management followed by a presentation of preliminary results and analysis based on 50 days of operational data. EGAT has agreed to provide a full year of operational data so a complete and detailed assessment that captures seasonal variability can be completed. The results of these assessments and discussions will be used to develop a set of best practices, training, and procedure recommendations to improve the efficiency of the two assessed plants

  2. Rebuilding of the Altermatt hydropower installation in Frauenfeld, Switzerland - Building permission and implementation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project concerning the rebuilding of the existing Altermatt hydropower station in Frauenfeld, Switzerland. The history of the installation, built in 1860 and put out of service in the 1980s, is briefly discussed. The project for the reactivation of the location with a new hydropower station is discussed and various studies made concerning the location are examined. Figures on the water flow to be expected are presented and the concept behind the project is discussed, as are details such as water levels and installations that will help fish and beavers get past the power station's dam. The electromechanical installations of the 120 kW power station are briefly described. Environmental aspects are also discussed and figures are quoted on the energy production to be expected and the costs involved.

  3. Hybrid Model Predictive Control as a LFC solution in Hydropower Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaisky Emerson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For Electric Power System safety and stable operation, planning and analysis by using simulation environments are necessary. An important point for frequency stability analysis is, on one hand, an adequate representation of Load-Frequency Control (LFC loops and, on the other hand, the design of advanced control strategies to deal with the power system dynamic complexity. Therefore, in this paper we propose to represent the group turbine/penstock, found in hydropower plants, in a Piecewise Affine (PWA modelling structure. Based on such modelling, we also propose the use of a Hybrid Model Predictive algorithm to be use as a control law in LFC loops. Among the advantages of this PWA representation is the use of this model in the controller algorithm, thereby improving the Load-Frequency Control performance. Simulation results, on a 200 MW hydropower plant compares the performance of predictive control strategy presented with the classical PID control strategy in an isolated condition.

  4. Hydropower potential in the Neckar river basin; Potenziale der Wasserkraft im Einzugsgebiet des Neckars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, Johannes [Buero am Fluss e.V., Wendlingen am Neckar (Germany); Dussling, Uwe [Buero Gewaesser und Fisch, Eriskirch (Germany); Heimerl, Stephan [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The state of Baden-Wuerttemberg commissioned a study on how the existing and further use of hydropower within the Neckar river basin could be harmonised with ecological upgrading. The method adopted took account oft he environmental objectives embodied in the European Water Framework Directive on water policy and used a wide range of ecological, hydrological and technical data. All potentia Is of at least 8 kW were identified. The economic efficiency was also studied based on current remuneration rates under the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). The additional technical/economic/ecological hydropower potential in the Neckar river basin amounts to between 27 and 25 MW, equal to additional annual energy of between around 121 to 103 GWh/a. Around ten per cent of this amount is probably economically attractive. (orig.)

  5. Projecting hydropower production under future climates: a review of modelling challenges and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is a pillar for renewable electricity production in almost all world regions. The planning horizon of major hydropower infrastructure projects stretches over several decades and consideration of evolving climatic conditions plays an ever increasing role. This review of model-based climate change impact assessments provides a synthesis of the wealth of underlying modelling assumptions, highlights the importance of local factors and attempts to identify the most urgent open questions. Based on existing case studies, it critically discusses whether current hydro-climatic modelling frameworks are likely to provide narrow enough water scenario ranges to be included into economic analyses for end-to-end climate change impact assessments including electricity market models. This will be completed with an overview of not or indirectly climate-related boundary conditions, such as economic growth, legal constraints, national subsidy frameworks or growing competition for water, which might locally largely outweigh any climate change impacts.

  6. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources with conventional constant P/Q and P/V controls coexisting in the microgrid may affect frequency stability. In this paper, a hierarchical control is proposed to perform power sharing among PV voltage source inverters (VSIs), while injecting the dispatched power to the main grid. Further, frequency stability analysis is presented based on small signal models of the hybrid PV-HP microgrid, including 2 MWp PV station, 15.2 MWh battery storage system, and 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Simulation results of the microgrid and experimental results on a scaled-down laboratory prototype verify the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical controller.

  7. Perspectives for hydropower in Switzerland - chances offered by the 'green power' market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short article discusses the chances offered to operators of hydropower stations by 'green power' markets for the sale of power produced under strict conditions in environment-friendly power generation facilities. The development of these markets is discussed as are the interdependencies between the public's use of green power markets and measures taken by the state to promote the use of renewable forms of energy. The results of market research on customer willingness to purchase environment-friendly electricity are discussed and the important role of hydropower in this business is stressed. The differing interests of various customer segments are discussed and the part played by 'green stocks' and other sustainable investments in the financial market is looked at

  8. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A possible technology which would allow the accomplishment of the proposed targets is the use of a Cross-Flow turbine, arranged according to the scheme of Fig.1, where: - the position of the rotating wall (rw) is set according to the pressure measured at its top, so that a small but constant falling discharge (Q2) is guaranteed. This falling discharge allows the transition of floating objects and hid the all machinery, with an obvious skyline improvement. - the average distance d is set in order to guarantee in the confined channel below the turbine an average velocity V similar to the original one existing in the river. PIC Fig.1 - Scheme of the river Cross-Flow turbine. Observe in Fig.2 the results of a CFX simulation, carried on with the following input data for a large rectangular section per unit width: ho (m) h1(m) h2 (m) d(m) 1.5314 1.99 0.082 0.1021 Q2(m2/s) Q3(m2/s)w (r.p.m.)V0(m/s) 0.04 0.267 27 2.61 Table 1. Input data for the CFD simulation. Simulation have been carried out using ANSYS code, with a computational domain divided using both tetrahedral and prismatic elements. The mechanical power estimated at the rotational shaft was of 4.84 KW/m and the hydraulic power of the water stream was of 7.25 KW/m. Thus the turbine efficiency was of about 49.97 %. PIC Fig.2 - Vectors velocity water field close to the Cross-Flow turbine domain. From the environmental point of view the turbine constitutes nonetheless a physical barrier that moving organisms will have to negotiate on their movements through the blades, particularly larger ones such as fish. Also, the hydraulic environment of the river will be modified, e.g. turbulence, shear stress, pressure and flow patterns, affecting as well the smaller organisms. While developing the turbine, a thorough appraisal of its environmental consequences for aquatic ecosystems has to be done, in order to develop an environmentally-friendly structure, embedding mitigation aspects. Furthermore, the structure itself will be subject to colonization on its surfaces by a biological matrix including microbial organisms but also

  9. Gross Error Denoising Method for Slope Monitoring Data at Hydropower Station

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Hu; Xingguo Yang; Jiawen Zhou; Huige Xing; Jian Xiang

    2013-01-01

    There are mainly two types of errors existed in monitoring displacement of a rock slope: gross errors and random errors. Monitoring data is very important for the safety construction and operation of the Hydropower Station. The use of slope monitoring data for safety evaluation is influenced by the gross errors during the monitoring process. This paper presents a gross error denosing method for a nonlinear time series based on the three-standard-deviation rule (3-? rule), and then reconstru...

  10. Incorporating Hydrologic Routing into Reservoir Optimization Model: Implications for Hydropower Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmijewski, N.; Worman, A. L. E.; Bottacin-Busolin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Renewable and intermittent energy sources are likely to become more important in the future and consequently lead to a change in the production strategies of hydropower to account for expected production fluctuations. Optimization models are used as a tool to achieve the best overall result in a network of reservoirs and hydropower plants. The computational demand increases for large networks, making simplification of the physical description of the stream flows necessary. In management optimization models, the flows behavior is often described using a constant time-lag for water on flow stretches, i.e., the release of water mass from an upstream reservoir is time-shifted as inflow to the subsequent reservoir. We developed an optimization model that included the kinematic-diffusion wave equation for flow on stretches, which was used to evaluate the role of the model improvement for short term production planning in Dalälven River, a study case with 36 hydropower stations and 13 major reservoirs . The increased complexity of the time-lag distributions of the streams resulting from the kinematic-diffusion wave equation compared to the constant time-lag model was found to be highly important for many situation of hydropower production planning in a regulated water system. The deviation of optimized power production resulting from the two models (time-lag and kinematic-diffusive) increases with decreasing Peclet number for the flow stretches - the latter being evaluated for all included stretches. A procedure emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern systems, using the receding horizon approach, was used in order to describe the dynamic effect of the resulting flow prediction deviation. The procedure also demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for highly effected streams, which implies that the error in predicted power production decreases with decreasing time step of forecast updating.

  11. Managing Sustainable Development Conflicts: The Impact of Stakeholders in Small-Scale Hydropower Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S.; Williams, Ian D.; Harwood, Ian A.

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources and Hydropower Systems : in central and southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hamududu, Byman Hikanyona

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change o...

  13. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on annual hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower operation are becoming increasingly restrictive. These constraints may reduce the operational flexibility of a hydro plant and therefore its revenue. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of minimum environmental flows and maximum ramping rates on the annual operation of a hydropower plant. For this purpose, a revenue-driven annual optimization model based on discrete dynamic programming and mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers hourly water inflows and energy prices, limits on reservoir level and water discharge, power generation dependence on the available head, wear and tear costs of hydro units caused by power variations, start-up and shut-down costs of hydro units, and the above-mentioned environmental constraints. In order to show the applicability of the proposed methodology, it is used in a real hydropower plant under five different water year types and 56 distinct combinations of the considered environmental constraints. The results indicate that the revenues of the hydropower plant are very sensitive to the presence and magnitudes of these constraints. Annual losses increase quadratically as a function of the maximum ramping rates and almost linearly as a function of the minimum environmental flows. - Highlights: • The effect of environmental constraints on the annual income of a hydro plant has been assessed. • A revenue-driven optimization model has been used for this purpose. • The model is based on discrete dynamic programming and mixed integer linear programming. • Different water year types and magnitudes of the environmental constraints have been studied. • Results show that annual income is very sensitive to the presence and magnitude of these constraints

  14. Scenario tree reduction in stochastic programming with recourse for hydropower operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhong, Ping-An; Zambon, Renato C.; Zhao, Yunfa; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-08-01

    A stochastic programming with recourse model requires the consequences of recourse actions be modeled for all possible realizations of the stochastic variables. Continuous stochastic variables are approximated by scenario trees. This paper evaluates the impact of scenario tree reduction on model performance for hydropower operations and suggests procedures to determine the optimal level of scenario tree reduction. We first establish a stochastic programming model for the optimal operation of a cascaded system of reservoirs for hydropower production. We then use the neural gas method to generate scenario trees and employ a Monte Carlo method to systematically reduce the scenario trees. We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample tests to evaluate the impact of scenario tree reduction on the objective function of the hydropower optimization model. We then apply a statistical hypothesis test to determine the significance of the impact due to scenario tree reduction. We develop a stochastic programming with recourse model and apply it to real-time operation for hydropower production to determine the loss in solution accuracy due to scenario tree reduction. We apply the proposed methodology to the Qingjiang cascade system of reservoirs in China. The results show: (1) the neural gas method preserves the mean value of the original streamflow series but introduces bias to variance, cross variance, and lag-one covariance due to information loss when the original tree is systematically reduced; (2) reducing the scenario number by as much as 40% results in insignificant change in the objective function and solution quality, but significantly reduces computational demand.

  15. An approach to the investment analysis of small and medium hydro-power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Hosseini, S.M.H.; Vakilian, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydro-power plants, as a part of infrastructure projects, play an important role in the economic-social development of countries. Since a large amount of investment is needed for construction of these power plants, which appeared to be an obstacle in these developments, however it is possible to finance these infrastructure plants by assigning these affairs to private sectors by using build operate transfer (BOT) method, which is quite well-known all around the world. This paper reviews the stru...

  16. Evaluation of Finite Element Method Based Software for Simulation of Hydropower Generator - Power Grid Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Persarvet, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy, ease of use, and execution time of the finite element method based software Maxwell coupled to the system simulation software Simplorer was evaluated for simulation of hydropower generator - power grid interaction. A generator test rig were modelled in Maxwell and coupled to Simplorer with a strong circuit coupling as a single machine infinite bus system. The accuracy of the model was measured by comparing the simulated output power oscillation frequency and damping characterist...

  17. Soil erosion modeling using RUSLE and GIS on Cameron highlands, Malaysia for hydropower development

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Huey Teh

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentation is one of the major problems in the hydropower scheme in Malaysia. Cameron Highlands is known to have one of the worse if not the worst sedimentation problem in Malaysia. Uncontrolled deforestation and indiscriminate land clearing for agricultural, housing development and road construction resulted in widespread soil erosion over the land surface of Cameron Highlands leading to sedimentation of the rivers and of the Ringlet Reservoir. The objective of this thesis is to determine...

  18. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Dan; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid photovolvaic battery-hydropower microgrids can increase electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. In those microgrids with grid-connected and islanded modes capabilities, seamless transition between both modes is needed as well. However, the different resources with conventional constant P/Q and P/V controls coexisting in the microgrid may affect frequency stability. In this paper, a hierarchical control is proposed to perform power sharing among PV voltage source invert...

  19. Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqun Deng; Thomas J. Carlson; Dennis D. Dauble; Gene R. Ploskey

    2011-01-01

    Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Was...

  20. Impact of alternative environmental flow prescriptions on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, Serena; Pugliese, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Galeati, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognised to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyse the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (?10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the derivation of optimal water resource management strategies in order to ensure both hydropower production and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  1. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  2. Generating Power: debates on development around the Nepalese Arun-3 hydropower project

    OpenAIRE

    van der Rest, M

    2012-01-01

    Contested since 1990, the Arun-3 dam in Nepal has so far generated more heat than hydropower involving a host of complex negotiations between its advocates and critics on the local, national and transnational levels. Cancelled after a complaint before the World Bank Inspection Panel in 1995, work is soon to be resumed. An Indian public sector company interested in exporting the electricity to India will finance it. This paper focuses on how local communities have experienced the decade-long u...

  3. Determination of installation capacity in reservoir hydro-power plants considering technical, economical and reliability indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S.M.H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotouh-Firuzabad, Mahmood; Vakilian, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the ‘‘reservoir” type of hydro-power plants (HPP) is to determine the installation capacity of the HPPs and estimate its annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented. A computer program has been developed to analyze energy calculation and estimation of the most important economic indices of an HPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calculates the reliability indices for a number of units ...

  4. Optimal Installation Capacity of Medium Hydro-Power Plants Considering Technical, Economic and Reliability Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, S. M. H.; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important issues in planning the reservoir type of Medium Hydro-Power Plants (MHPP) is to determine the optimal installation capacity of the MHPP and estimate its optimal annual energy value. In this paper, a method is presented to calculate the annual energy. A computer program has been developed to analyse energy calculation and estimation of the most important economic indices of an MHPP using the sensitivity analysis method. Another program, developed by Matlab software, calc...

  5. Development of biological criteria for the design of advanced hydropower turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ?ada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coutant, Charles C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, Richard R. [Leavenworth, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.

  6. Power purchase agreements for risk and rent sharing in Himalayian hydropower developments

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Glenn P.; Dhakal, D. N. S.

    2008-01-01

    The Himalayan Rivers have an enormous hydropower potential that is still not exploited fully for the benefit of the region. Bhutan and Nepal together have an economically feasible potential of 60,000 MW of hydroelectric power generation capacity but are too weak financially to bear alone the risks associated with the development of their hydro resources. India is the only potential market for the electricity supplied from these sources. The power purchase agreement framework for the 336 MW Ch...

  7. Disrupting the riverine DIC cycling by series hydropower exploitation in Karstic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fushun, E-mail: fswang@shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Congqiang; Wang Baoli; Liu Xiaolong; Li Ganrong; Guan Jin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Yao Chenchen; Wu Yiying [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Series hydropower exploitation disrupt riverine DIC cycling. > Hypoliminion introduction for hydropower lead to discontinuity of water chemistry. > Deep water released from reservoir can cause CO{sub 2} evasion. - Abstract: Two reservoirs in series in a Karst area were investigated in this study to understand the impact of river damming on riverine C cycling. Monthly sampling strategy was performed in Hongfeng and Baihua reservoirs, from July, 2007 to June, 2008. DIC and its isotopic compositions were determined. pCO{sub 2}, and calcite saturation index (SIc) were then calculated. Results show that {delta}{sup 13}C-DIC in surface water of these reservoirs responded clearly to the transformation between photosynthesis and respiration, which also changes the inorganic C equilibrium. Based on monthly monitoring data, the major biogeochemical processes along the water column in these reservoirs, was also discussed. It is noted that hypoliminion introduction for hydropower generation and then release can lead to the discontinuity of water chemistry along a river course, and has adverse effects on the downstream environment.

  8. Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Coruh river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Adem [Guemueshane University, Civil Engineering Department, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Kankal, Murat [Karadeniz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the sustainable development of hydropower plants in the Coruh river basin of Turkey, which is least problem river of Turkey in respect to international cooperation as compared with Turkey's other trans-boundary waters. Initial studies concerning the hydropower production potential in Coruh basin had been carried out by Turkish authorities in the late 1960s. Total installed power capacity and annual average energy generation of 37 dams and run of river (without storage) hydropower plants developed at various project stages by The Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EiE) in Coruh basin are 3132.70 MW and 10.55 TWh/yr, respectively. Today, this generation value corresponds 6.45% of Turkey's energy consumption in 2006 while it meets 6.3% of total electricity energy production of Turkey which is equal to 167.9 TWh/yr in 2006. Besides, this potential developed at various project stages in Coruh basin will provide 24.1% of Turkey's hydroelectric energy generation being equal to 43.8 TWh/yr in 2006. (author)

  9. Condition-Based Maintenance Decision-making Support System (DSS of Hydropower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Jamil

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Condition-based maintenance is a kind of maintenance which conducted before fault by judging device exception and predicting device fault based on device condition information provided through monitoring device condition. The analysis result of fault diagnosis technology and production management information system which has namely arranged the maintenance plan. The implement device maintenance in light of device health condition due to prevents excessive maintenance or disrepair of device to the utmost extent. During operation, primary device of hydropower plant constantly suffers from sand abrasion, cavitation damage, mechanical wear and other mechanical or electrical damage, which reduces the efficiency of generating equipment and shortens the service life. If timely monitoring and diagnosis and appropriate maintenance are not provided, accident may be induced and cause great economic losses; to make primary devices for production and transmission of electric energy of hydropower plant have high reliability and be in good operating conditions, such primary devices must be maintained. The aim of this paper is to define the gradually improving sensor and monitoring technology which offer the possibility of condition-based maintenance of hydroelectric generating unit and the extraction and analysis methods of fault characteristics. Therefore discussion is summarized briefly on composition, configuration and functions of Condition-based Maintenance System (DSS. And also describes the short introduction of Condition-based Maintenance (DSS system in typically project of Songjianghe Hydropower Plant as used for primary devices.

  10. Hydro-power as a source of peak energy - Chances and risks. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This overview of the presentations made at a congress held in November 2008 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, lists the contributions presented concerning the chances and risks of the use of hydro-power to cover peak energy demands. This first congress on the subject was organised by a wide range of institutions and companies active in the area. Ecological aspects with regard to Swiss rivers and streams were emphasised. Many are heavily affected by the operation of hydro-power plant. Various ways of reducing these influences were discussed. An operator of a hydropower installation discussed various optimisation measures and the influence of legislation on the protection of streams and rivers. The importance of being able to offer 'green' power was stressed by a representative of a power utility. International aspects discussed included the importance of the position of Switzerland in the European electricity market and the importance of sufficient storage facilities and future 'super-grids'. Further, interesting legal aspects were looked at and the need for increasing energy efficiency and generation capacity was noted. The importance of wind energy on an international scale was discussed and the large increase in installed capacity in Spain, the USA and Japan commented on. Finally, the importance of providing regulating energy to meet peak loads was discussed. Such pump-storage power stations were quoted as being an ecological alternative to coal-fired or nuclear power generation facilities.

  11. Impacts on Tocantins River aquatic ecosystems resulting from the development of the hydropower potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado Damasio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Regardless the obvious success of using hydropower plants to supply energy for economic development, they may result in several environmental and social impacts with different levels of severity on the aquatic ecosystems and on the human communities living in the region. The objective of this study was to identify environmental problems and impacts to the aquatic ecosystems in Tocantins river related to the development of its hydropower potential and contribute to the target of balancing of energy generation with biodiversity and genetic flux preservation. The scenario considered the hydropower plants Peixe Angical and São Salvador. The Causal Chain Analysis (CCA was used to identify the environmental impacts and their immediate, sectarian and root causes. The impacts were ranked according to the characterization matrix, having the fish communities as the main indicators. The most relevant impacts were: (i degradation of water resources, (ii loss and changes in habitats, (iii changes in the ecosystems stability, (iv reduction of fish stocks, (v interference with benthic communities and microorganism’s populations, (vi changes in the food-chain and (vii interference with the dispersion of fishes and mammals.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  13. Tapping hidden hydropower potential in Swiss Alpine catchments in the context of the planned nuclear power phase out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Schleiss, Anton; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In its Energy Strategy 2050, Switzerland is revising its energy perspectives with a strong focus on renewable sources of energy and in particular hydropower. In this context, the Swiss Government funded a number of competence centers for energy research (SCCERs), including one on the Supply of Energy (SCCER-SoE), which develops fundamental research and innovative solutions in geoenergies and hydropower . Hydropower is already the major energy source in Switzerland, corresponding to approximately 55% of the total national electricity production (which was 69 TWh in 2014). The Energy Strategy 2050 foresees at least a net increase by 1.53 TWh/year in average hydrological conditions, in a context were almost all major river systems are already exploited and a straightforward application of recent environmental laws will impact (reduce) current hydropower production. In this contribution, we present the roadmap of the SCCER-SoE and an overview of our strategy to unravel currently non-exploited hydropower potential, in particular in river systems that are already used for hydropower production. The aim is hereby to quantify non-exploited natural flows, unnecessary water spills or storage volume deficits, whilst considering non-conventional approaches to water resources valuation and management. Such a better understanding of the current potential is paramount to justify future scenarios of adaptation of the existing hydropower infrastructure combining the increase of storage capacity with new connections between existing reservoirs, heightening or strengthening existing dams, increasing the operational volume of natural lakes (including new glacier lakes), or by building new dams. Tapping hidden potential shall also require operational changes to benefit from new flow patterns emerging under an evolving climate and in particular in the context of the ongoing glacier retreat. The paper shall present a broad view over the mentioned issues and first conclusions of ongoing research at the country scale.

  14. Viewpoint – The role of the German development cooperation in promoting sustainable hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Seeger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After long and intense discussions on the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams (WCD, large dams are back on the agenda of international finance institutions. Asia, Latin America and Africa are planning to expand their hydropower utilisation. Hydropower is a key component of renewable energy, and therefore supports protection against climate change. Water storage over the long term and flood control are the main issues discussed with regard to climate adaptation measures.Such trends are reflected by the increasing engagement of the German Development Cooperation (GDC in the field of integrated water resources management (IWRM programmes on the national and regional levels. A number of projects on transboundary water management in Africa, Central Asia and in the Mekong region have been initiated. In the context of these and other bilateral water and energy projects, partner countries are increasingly requesting the GDC to advise on the planning and management of sustainable hydropower.The German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ has for the last decade been known as a promoter of multi-stakeholder dialogues and as a supporter during the WCD process and the Dams and Development Project (DDP of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP. In addition, it has a reputation as an important bilateral and neutral partner. The BMZ recognises hydropower as a source of renewable energy, and acknowledges the potential and need for multipurpose usages of dams, as well as its role in global energy change. However, large dams also have to meet social and ecological requirements for their sustainable use. In this respect, the BMZ endorsed the WCD recommendations.Germany’s engagement in the promotion of participatory processes on dam-related issues is building on the WCD and follow-up processes, as outlined in this article. On the global level, BMZ, represented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, is currently part of the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF. On the national level, one example of support is the contribution to and interaction with the Ghana Dam Dialogue, which is facilitated through two local partners: the International Water Management Institute (IWMI and the Volta Basin Development Foundation (VBDF.

  15. Short-term hydro generation scheduling of Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade hydropower stations using improved binary-real coded bee colony optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • STHGS problem is decomposed into two parallel sub-problems of UC and ELD. • Binary coded BCO is used to solve UC sub-problem with 0–1 discrete variables. • Real coded BCO is used to solve ELD sub-problem with continuous variables. • Some heuristic repairing strategies are designed to handle various constraints. • The STHGS of Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascade stations is solved by IB-RBCO. - Abstract: Short-term hydro generation scheduling (STHGS) of cascade hydropower stations is a typical nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem to minimize the total water consumption while simultaneously meeting the grid requirements and other hydraulic and electrical constraints. In this paper, STHGS problem is decomposed into two parallel sub-problems of unit commitment (UC) and economic load dispatch (ELD), and the methodology of improved binary-real coded bee colony optimization (IB-RBCO) algorithm is proposed to solve them. Firstly, the improved binary coded BCO is used to solve the UC sub-problem with 0–1 discrete variables, and the heuristic repairing strategy for unit state constrains is applied to generate the feasible unit commitment schedule. Then, the improved real coded BCO is used to solve the ELD sub-problem with continuous variables, and an effective method is introduced to handle various unit operation constraints. Especially, the new updating strategy of DE/best/2/bin method with dynamic parameter control mechanism is applied to real coded BCO to improve the search ability of IB-RBCO. Finally, to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed IB-RBCO method, it is applied to solve the STHGS problem of Xiluodu and Xiangjiaba cascaded hydropower stations, and the simulating results are compared with other intelligence algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed IB-RBCO method can get higher-quality solutions with less water consumption and shorter calculating time when facing the complex STHGS problem

  16. A preliminary evaluation of environmental indexes of great hydropower plants localized in various Brazilian states and geographical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominantly tropical climate and the predominance of plateaus in Brazil contributed to the development of a high hydroelectric potential, which determined the choice of hydropower plants as main technology of electricity generation. Though this is a renewable source, dams must being established to guarantee high amount of water all over the year generating high environmental and social impact. One of the ways to evaluate environmental impacts caused by large hydropower plants is adoption of environmental indexes which are formed by ratio of installed or firm power with dam area of a hydropower plant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact caused by these dams through the use of environmental indexes. Statistical instruments were utilized to evaluate environmental indexes in the five Brazilian regions, twenty six states, and fifteen main rivers (where at least three large hydropower plants are encountered). The periods when each hydropower plant operation was initiated were also considered. In this study, the greatest media values were found in South, Southeast, and Northeast regions respectively, and the smallest media values were found in North and Mid-West regions, respectively. More, the greatest encountered media indexes were also found in dams established in the 1950s. (author)

  17. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  18. A light left in the dark: The practice and politics of pico-hydropower in the Lao PDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the widespread use of an estimated 60,000 low-head pico-hydropower turbines and well-developed networks of supply and support in the Northern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This apparent widespread use is contrasted with the policy narratives of key actors in the government, multilateral organisations and the private sector which show an often simplified and overly negative attitude towards pico-hydropower. Based on empirical research carried out in three upland districts and the capital, Vientiane, the paper critically investigates the apparent disjuncture between policy and practice by placing pico-hydropower within the broader political context of rural electrification in the Lao PDR. It is argued that the neglect of pico-hydropower and other off-grid household electrification technologies is a result of an endemic lack of information on which to base policy decisions, the orientation of the government to facilitate large scale foreign investment in large hydropower dams, the universal applicability of solar home systems, and the broader state agenda of centralisation and control over service provision to remote upland areas.

  19. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on the fishes of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Aerial videography and modeling were used to evaluate the impacts of four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, on trout and native fishes in the Green River, Utah and Colorado. The four operational scenarios studied were year-round high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. Impacts on trout were evaluated by examining differences among scenarios in the areas of inundated substrates that serve as spawning and feeding habitat. All scenarios would provide at least 23 acres per mile of habitat for spawning and food production; seasonally adjusted operations would provide additional areas during periods of sustained high release. Seasonally adjusted high fluctuations would increase inundated areas by 12 to 26% for a short period in winter and spring, but food production and reproduction would not be expected to increase. Seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations and steady flows would produce similar increases in area, but the longer period of inundation could also result in increased food production and provide additional spawning sites for trout. Impacts on native fishes were assessed by examining daily changes in backwater nursery areas. Compared with year-round high fluctuations, the daily changes in backwater area would decrease by about 47, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. Similarly, daily stage fluctuations during the nursery period would decrease by 72, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. These reductions in daily fluctuations in backwater area and stage would improve conditions in nursery habitats and could in turn improve recruitment and overwinter survival. Introduced fish species could also benefit from the seasonally adjusted operational scenarios.

  20. The Facilitation of Mini and Small Hydropower in Switzerland: Shaping the Institutional Framework (with a Particular Focus on Storage and Pumped-Storage Schemes)

    OpenAIRE

    CRETTENAND, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The electricity sector in Switzerland is undergoing important changes following the liberalisation process and the facilitation of renewable energy technologies. Furthermore, the phasing out of nuclear power will increase the demand for new domestic electricity generation. According to the Federal Energy Strategy 2050, additional generation will have to come from hydropower (currently 57% of Swiss electricity production), including small hydropower ...

  1. The calculation interest for administration of hydropower in the long-term; Kalkulasjonsrenta for vannkraftforvaltning paa lang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    A review of important findings in newer, economic literature on discount rate in the long term is presented. Based on this review, two questions relating to the administration of Norwegian hydropower resources are briefly discussed. Firstly, which discount rate should be used as basis when valuating the existent Norwegian hydropower plants? Secondly, how should the socio-economic discount rate for investments in hydro projects be determined compared relatively to other types of investments in the power sector? The main conclusion is that the existing rate for administration of hydropower need not be substituted. Neither theory nor empiricism provides a conclusive answer. Certain relevant aspects that may be further investigated are put forth (ml)

  2. Modelling the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing South African dams

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SJ, van Vuuren; CL, Blersch; M, van Dijk.

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out with the primary objective of ascertaining whether it is possible to develop a model for determining the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing dams in South Africa. The need for such a model is primarily due to the growing importance of small-scale hydro [...] power projects resulting from the global shift towards renewable energy and the South African energy crisis, the increased price of energy and the introduction of feed-in tariffs for renewables. The model is intended for engineers, typically working on behalf of a client who would like a simple first order assessment of feasibility. It therefore takes all technical, environmental, social and financial considerations into account in order to provide a recommendation on whether or not a project would be feasible. Achieving the primary objective required an in-depth study of the theory and literature related to the current electricity situation in South Africa as well as all the different components and considerations of hydropower projects. This theoretical knowledge could then be utilised to develop a computer model which combines the most important considerations into a cohesive whole in order to make a recommendation on feasibility. The accuracy and applicability of the model could then be ascertained through testing, using actual case studies in South Africa. Three test cases were utilised which yielded positive results. A number of difficulties were encountered. These related mainly to the development of an accurate means for pricing the different components primarily due to a lack of response from suppliers. Such issues were solved through the use of theoretical formulas and studies which provided good results. Ultimately, a model was developed which includes financial, environmental and social considerations and provides values that are accurate enough as an initial tool in determining whether or not to continue with a retrofitted hydropower project.

  3. Renewable energy in pakistan: part-II mini/micro hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part-1 of this series dealt with Wind-Energy Prospects in Pakistan. This second part gives a brief account Mini/Micro Hydro-Power Plants in Pakistan. Hydropower is well-known throughout the world and currently contributes 6-7% of total world energy-production and 20% of total world electricity generation. Most of the hydro-plants are usually designed for higher generation capacity than that which could be needed to utilize the average water-flows. Small hydro-plants are another potential source of energy among the non-conventional energy sources, which can reduce the load on conventional-energy production. Small hydropower technology is today a mature and proven technology. Civil works and installation of equipment involve simple process, which offer good opportunity to local people for employment and use locally available materials Nevertheless a small decentralized hydel plant, based on natural waterfalls is a very desirable option for geographically remote, but naturally suitable locations which are otherwise far from the national physical infrastructure. The development of Mini/Micro hydel stations in these areas, with isolated, thinly clustered, population, is a very appropriate solution to meet power-needs of such areas for lighting as well as cottage industry. The unique feature of these installations is the participation of local community to the optimum extent. The entire civil works, the intake system, power channel, forebay, penstock and power house building, as well as labour is provided by the inhabitants voluntarily. While maximum use is made of stone, with minimum use of cement, the generator, distribution wires, etc., need to be arranged from the market. The turbine is manufactured using indigenous materials. The installation-cost per KW is relatively low i.e. Rs. 25,000/- as compared to large-scale installations. There could of course be variations, in the installation-cost, depending on the market prices of the material. (author)

  4. Water balance estimation with the Budyko method to assess the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Small and medium hydropower has a large potential for future development in West Africa, a region that is facing a constant shortage of energy supply and thereby limiting economic growth. The river reaches suitable for small and medium hydropower development are usually located in headwater areas. Mean annual discharge (along with slope) is a key variable for assessing the hydropower potential of a river reach. As discharge gauges are typically located at larger, downstream rivers a regionalization of flow is required. In this study we use the Budyko method to establish the spatially distributed mean annual water balance for whole West Africa (appr. 5 Mio km²), including the basins of e.g. Niger, Volta, and Senegal rivers. The spatially distributed inputs of mean annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are used to compute actual evapotranspiration and thus runoff. Runoff is aggregated along the river network to compute discharge. Due to the impact of different soils and vegetation cover the Budyko curve is calibrated with observed discharge data of about 100 basins covering a wide range of humid to semi-arid conditions. A framework is developed to properly account for the distinctive decadal variations of rainfall (and discharge) in West Africa. Specific challenges are (a) apparently biased discharge measurements at some gauges and (b) uncertainties in the precipitation data (station-based and satellite-based). The results of this study will give (1) an overview about the hydropower potential in each West African country and (2) the theoretical hydropower potential of about 100,000 river reaches. The results will be published on a website with interactive maps to enable the selection of regions of interest for further, detailed assessment of small and medium hydropower development.

  5. Wind Farms Influence on Stability in an area with High Concentration of Hydropower Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The number of large-scale wind farms integrated to the power system in Sweden is increasing. Two generator concepts that are widely used are Doubly-Fed Induction Generators (DFIG) and Full Power Converters (FPC). The study is of a quantitative character and the aim of the Master thesis is to compare DFIG-models with FPC-models integrated in an area with high concentration of hydropower. Then it is possible to examine how the dynamics in the power system change depending on the selection of te...

  6. Implementation of a micro hydropower supply scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal Drakensberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskom has implemented a 5 kW micro hydropower supply scheme in the Kwazulu-Natal Drakensberg. The scheme supplies electrical power to five schools using a Single Wire Earth Return (SWER) transmission line. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme and covers the social aspects, the mechanical, civil and electrical works, and also scheme economics. The main aim of this project was to obtain experience in the design and implementation of a micro hydro system, both technically and socially, so that the technology could be used with confidence in Eskom's non-grid electrification programme. 5 refs., 3 figs

  7. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  8. Analysis of hydraulic pressure transients in the waterways of hydropower stations

    OpenAIRE

    Hillgren, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    Hydropower plants have the ability to go from a full load to no load in just a few seconds. In order to go from full load to no load in a few seconds the flow is controlled by movement of guide vanes. At fault detection the guide vanes closes quickly for safety reasons. This causes hydraulic transients in the waterways, which leads to a pressure rise in the spiral case and a pressure drop in the draft tube.   There have been a few accidents related to these quick closures of the guide vanes w...

  9. Use of wood stave pipelines for hydropower plants; Einsatz von Druckrohrleitungen aus Holz bei Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass, Hans Joachim; Toews, Dietrich [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen; Fellmoser, Peter [Blass und Eberhart Ingenieurbuero fuer Baukonstruktionen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Wood stave pipelines were mainly used in the 19{sup th} century in North America as inlet pipe for hydropower plants. After a distinct decrease in the middle of the 20{sup th} century the use of wood stave pipelines became particularly important in the last years because of the increasing significance of renewable resources. With regard to the utilisation of underground water resources in mattock caves in Java, Indonesia, studies for the application of wood stave pipelines as inlet pipe for hydroelectric power plants were performed. (orig.)

  10. Hydropower and Water Framework Directive. Appendix 2 to 4; Wasserkraftnutzung und Wasserrahmenrichtlinien. Anhang 2 bis 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration contains the appendices 2 to 4 to the environmental research plan of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) on ''Hydropower and Water Framework Directive''. Appendix 2 reports on the fundamentals for the design of fish bypass facilities, fish protection and fish migration facilities, minimum outflow in discharge lines, water ecologic evaluation, determination of less generation of hydroelectric power plants. Appendix 3 contains illustrations. Appendix 4 presents an extract from the final report.

  11. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the forecasts against observed discharge. Analysis should be specifically oriented to the maximisation of hydroelectricity production. Thus, verification metrics should include economic measures like cost loss approaches. The final step will include the transfer of the HEPS system to several hydropower systems, the connection with the energy market prices and the development of probabilistic multi-reservoir production and management optimizations guidelines. The baseline model chain yielding three-days forecasts established for a hydropower system in southern-Switzerland will be presented alongside with the work-plan to achieve seasonal ensemble predictions.

  12. The Buchholz small hydro-power plant; Kleinwasserkraftanlage Buchholz. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherrer, I.; Schalkowski, S.

    2007-01-15

    This short, illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the commissioning of a small hydro-power installation on the Glatt river, Eastern Switzerland after more than 90 years of downtime. The authors state that the hydro-plant meets all requirements regarding nature conservancy, flood protection and ecology (river continuum for fish). The construction of the plant, which features a dam-integrated powerhouse, is described, as is a novel means of allowing fish to pass the dam. The work done in rebuilding the installation is documented in a series of photographs.

  13. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  14. Joint development of China's medium/small hydropower projects with international investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general profile of development of small and medium hydropower in China, is described at first. The socio-economic impacts as well as direct financial benefit will then be analyzed. A prospective view of medium/small hydro development for year 2,000 leads to a description of needs for foreign investment in this field. Following the adoption of open policy, a series of regulations for joint venture with foreign investment have been stipulated by the government, and are briefly illustrated. Future prospect is predicted on the basis of past experiences and planning for the next decade. 3 tabs

  15. The effect of hydropower on fish stocks: comparison between cascade and non-cascade reservoirs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Draštík, Vladislav; Kube?ka, Jan; Tušer, Michal; ?ech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Jarolím, Old?ich; Prchalová, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 609, ?. 1 (2008), s. 25-36. ISSN 0018-8158. [EIFAC Symposium on hydropower, flood control and water abstraction : implications for fish and fisheries. Mondsee, 14.06.2006-17.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/02/0520; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/07/1392; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : abundance * biomass * longitudinal gradient * vertical and horizontal distribution * cascade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  16. Sustainable hydropower - 10 years after WCD; Nachhaltige Wasserkraftnutzung. Wo stehen wir 10 Jahre nach Erscheinen der WCD-Empfehlungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Cathleen [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    After long discussion around and following the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams (WCD), large dams are back on the agenda of International Finance Institutions and developing countries with high hydropower potential. German Development Cooperation endorsed and implements the guidelines of the WCD. The objective of the article is to illustrate the role German Development Cooperation play within the dam debate 10 years after WCD. On the basis of two examples, the Ghana Dam Dialogue (GDD) and the contribution to the Hydropower Sustainable Assessment Forum (HSAF), the objectives and motivations are shown. (orig.)

  17. Cost base for hydropower plants : with a generating capacity of more than 10 000 kw : price level 1 January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapgaard, Jan

    2012-07-25

    This manual has been prepared as a tool for calculation of average foreseeable contractor costs (civil works) and supplier costs (mechanical and electrical equipment) for large hydroelectric power plants with an early phase generating capacity of more than 10 000 kw. These costs will depend on a number of conditions which may vary from plant to plant, and this requires that the user to have a sound technical knowledge. This applies in particular to the civil works associated with the hydropower plant. The manual is a supplement to our cost base for smaller hydropower projects (Manual No. 2/2010)(au)

  18. Kansas hydro-power: an assessment of low-head hydroelectric opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstetler, T.; Noon, R.

    1981-01-02

    The results of a recent survey of existing dams in Kansas to determine their respective development potentials for hydroelectricity generation are described. Of over 5000 dams in Kansas, 34 were found to have potential for commercial development based upon such parameters as head height, flow rate, seasonal flow variations, and present state of repair. These 34 sites together could potentially produce 394 million kilowatt-hours of renewable resource derived electricity, about 1.5% of the electricity generated in Kansas in 1979. While statewide this would be a modest contribution, it could play an important role in local energy management.

  19. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its flexibility and low-carbon emissions production. While many dams currently provide energy and environmental services in the US and globally, we find that multi-use hydropower facilities would face significant policy conflicts if asked to store and release water to accommodate wind integration. Specifically, we develop a model simulating hydroelectric operational decisions when the electric facility is able to provide wind integration services through a mechanism that we term ‘flex reserves’. We use Kerr Dam in North Carolina as a case study, simulating operations under two alternative reservoir policies, one reflecting current policies and the other regulating flow levels to promote downstream ecosystem conservation. Even under perfect information and significant pricing incentives, Kerr Dam faces operational conflicts when providing any substantial levels of flex reserves while also maintaining releases consistent with other river management requirements. These operational conflicts are severely exacerbated during periods of drought. Increase of payments for flex reserves does not resolve these operational and policy conflicts. (letter)

  20. Operational constraints and hydrologic variability limit hydropower in supporting wind integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.; Blumsack, Seth A.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change mitigation will require rapid adoption of low-carbon energy resources. The integration of large-scale wind energy in the United States (US) will require controllable assets to balance the variability of wind energy production. Previous work has identified hydropower as an advantageous asset, due to its f