WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter gives an overview of the various forms of hydropower: conventional hydropower, marine currents, tides, power from salinity gradients, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave power. (Author)

Fenhann, J. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kofoed, J.P. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

2010-11-15

2

Optimal sequencing site of hydro-power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the first stage of a hydro-power survey of a river, it is important to select the optimal hydro-power site. The most important condition to be satisfied is to determine the optimal site where the greatest and most economical amount of hydro-energy can be obtained. This paper proposes a new method in which the optimal arrangement of the hydro-power stations is determined by a computational operation using discrete data at points along the river such as the drainage area, altitude, and distance along the river channel as obtained from topographical maps instead of drawing on engineers` experiences and the intuitions of experts. The results by this method are then compared with data on existing hydro-power stations and the results planned by expert engineers to show that this new computational method is superior.

Hayashi, T.; Yoshino, F.; Waka, R. [Tottori Univ., Koyama (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-06-01

3

Comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are: (1) blockage of fish migration routes; (2) water level fluctuations; (3) instream flows, (4) water quality; (5) dredging and dredged material disposal; and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

Loar, J.M.; Hildebrand, S.G.

1980-01-01

4

Environmental issues and site selection criteria for small hydropower projects in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small Hydropower Projects (SHPP), i.e., those with capacities of 1000 kW or less, have great potential for elevating the standard of living and contributing to the economic growth of isolated rural communities in developing countries. However, construction and operation of a SHPP can result in adverse environmental impacts that should be considered in the initial stages of site selection and development. Environmental concerns can be factored into a site selection process both at the prefeasibility and feasibility stages. The prefeasibility study is the process by which a large number of potential sites is reduced to a much smaller number of candidate sites based on coarse-grained engineering, socioeconomic, and environmental criteria. Although many of the factors determining the suitability of a given site at the prefeasibility stage involve basic engineering or economic questions (e.g., availability of water and demonstrated need for power), four fundamental environmental issues that should be addressed are discussed in this report. The feasibility study is the final stage of site selection, where a relatively small number of candidate SHPP sites are examined in greater detail and the best are selected for development. Potential environmental impacts of SHPP's are discussed, and a checklist of environmental data that should be collected in order to judge the significance of the projected impacts is provided. Finally, recommendations are made as to the necessary training and capabilities of the personnel involved in the site selection studies and the general procedures by which the studies may be conducted.

Cada, G.F.; Zadroga, F.

1981-03-01

5

Site location analysis for small hydropower using geo-spatial information system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, the necessity for developing small hydropower (SHP) plants has emerged due to the increase in environmental concerns. Although there remains an abundant of potential sites for SHP plants in Korea, SHP development has scarcely been performed since the 1990s due to the absence of a suitable approach and economic feasibility. Such a situation encourages decision makers to develop a systematic approach for SHP development. The purpose of this study is to propose a new location analysis methodology to search for potential SHP sites using GSIS (Geo-Spatial Information System). The location analysis in this study focuses on establishing the criteria and methodology for searching for alternative locations rather than selecting the most suitable site among the alternatives. By applying the newly developed methodology, a large area can be precisely surveyed within a short period of time and we expect to be able to use the method in policy making for SHP development by improving the convenience for the user. The newly developed methodology was applied to the upper part of Geum River Basin, in Korea, and found six potential SHP sites. As a fundamental work, this study will be beneficial to the future activation of SHP development. (author)

Yi, Choong-Sung [Institute of Water Resources System, Inha University, Yonghyeon-dong 253, Nam-gu, Incheon (Korea); Lee, Jin-Hee [Division of Water and Environment, Korea Environment Institute, Jinheungno 290, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul (Korea); Shim, Myung-Pil [Department of Civil Engineering, Inha University, Yonghyeon-dong 253, Nam-gu, Incheon (Korea)

2010-04-15

6

Environmental governance in the Mekong. Hydropower site selection processes in the Se Son and Sre Pok basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report aims to highlight regional environmental governance in the Lower Mekong Basin. The emphasis on regional governance is not only motivated by the shared and interdependent natural resources and threat of transboundary impacts within the Basin, but also by growing economic interdependence, increasing population density and political interactions within and between the countries. The study has chosen hydropower as it represents a key sector in terms of environmental protection. Hydropower projects on the Mekong River and its tributaries have been viewed as one of the primary engines of economic growth for the countries of the Lower Mekong Basin: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam. Yet this is occurring against a backdrop of prevailing poverty, widespread dependence on natural resources and degenerating ecosystems. Recent experience shows a range of adverse social and environmental impacts from already completed hydropower projects, both directly (i.e. from the project activities) and indirectly (from economic activity or demographic change induced by the projects). This experience has led a variety of civil society groups to oppose the construction of infrastructure projects under current procedures. To address the issue of environmental governance, we conducted an empirical review using a 'process tracing method'. Through this approach we followed the process of hydropower planning in an international tributary to the Mekong River, the Se San/Sre Pok sub-basins, where major hydropower development plans are currently being developed. Our research approach combined secondary sources with primary data from interviewing the people involved in decision-making on Mekong issues. Our research questions were: What are the historical patterns of hydropower site selection in the Lower Mekong Basin? What institutions and actors attempt to exercise what kind of governance for environmental purposes, and with what mandate? What have been the decisive factors for the process of hydropower site selection in the Se San and Sre Pok Basins? How does the social and ecological situation in the concerned areas affect the governance process? Our theoretical approach takes as its point of departure the debate on 'environmental regimes' and discusses whether emerging cooperation on environmental issues in the Lower Mekong Basin represents such a regime. Indeed, reading policy statements, the work on Mekong governance seems to be evolving towards a higher level of cooperation, and towards a more solidly based institutional platform for securing this cooperation. Establishing regimes of this sort in an international basin is, however, an utterly complex undertaking that requires both time and trust. The study reaches a wide range of conclusions: it argues that the regional approach to environmental governance really is unavoidable, since many livelihood systems operate with small margins utilising resources faced with cross boundary concerns. MRC is the only institution with the Lower Mekong Basin governments as members and the only one with a regional mandate. The Agreement should be treated as a joint policy declaration, going beyond its obvious legal implications. MRC's new 'programme approach' is promising, if its value can be conveyed to, and convince, national decision-making fora. It should also be moving forward towards a proactive role in terms of conflict prevention. The study turns out to be fairly critical of hydropower interventions, given the standards the major actors claim to uphold, but rarely seem to respect in practice. If these standards were respected, it is questionable whether it would be possible to build more major hydropower stations. Currently, there seems, however, to be a break with former practices, and 'new' standards vis-a-vis environmental governance seem to be emerging. However, there are major interests vested in large-scale hydropower expansion, which may not be impressed by the new standards as pioneered by the World Commission on Dams (WCD) and subseq

Oejendal, J.; Mathur, V.; Sithirith, M.

2002-02-01

7

A comparison of environmental issues related to development of small hydropower resources at new versus existing sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many of the ecological issues associated with the development of small hydropower resources are similar at both new (undeveloped) sites and those with existing dams that will be retrofitted for hydroelectric generation. Issues that could occur with both types of development are (1) blockage of fish migration routes, (2) water level fluctuations, (3) instream flows, (4) water quality, (5) dredging and dredged material disposal, and (6) threatened or endangered species. However, new site development projects require the alteration of existing aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that will be, in most cases, significantly greater than the environmental changes associated with the retrofitting of existing dams. Although project design and operation are important factors controlling the nature and magnitude of the environmental impacts of small hydropower resource development, the mitigation of adverse impacts (and the optimization of beneficial effects) is dependent, in large measure, on our ability to accurately predict physical, chemical, and biological changes. Predicting the impacts of new impoundments may be considerably more difficult than predicting the impacts that might occur if an existing dam/impoundment system is developed. A comparative approach at the ecosystem level can provide valuable insights into the structure and function of reservoir systems and significantly increase our predictive capability.

Loar, J.M.; Hildebrand, S.G.

1980-12-01

8

Hydropower engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the largest renewable source of energy, hydropower plays a major role in the energy mix of 55 countries, particularly in Sweden where hydro and nuclear power account for nearly 90 per cent of the electricity production. As such, there is a great demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimize hydropower systems. For that reason, Hydro Power University (HPU) was created in 1997 in response to the Swedish need for young educated staff in its hydroelectric power industry. HPU offers a broad range of educational programmes in hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. It provides state of the art knowledge and experience in hydropower systems such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dam safety, dam maintenance, dam operation and environmental aspects. This paper provided background information on hydropower as a sustainable energy source that produces electricity with minimal emissions of greenhouse gases. Hydropower is also highly effective, with more than 90 per cent efficiency for large size turbines. As such, it responds rapidly to market demands which is an important feature for deregulated markets and grid stability. A brief description of each of the partners involved in HPU was presented. The partners include Lulea University of Technology, Uppsala University, Jokkmokk Vattenfall Training Centre, and Porjus Hydropower Centre. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Cervantes, M. [Hydro Power Univ., Lulea (Sweden)]|[Lulea Univ. of Technology, Lulea (Sweden)

2005-07-01

9

Hydropower engineering  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. Gulliver feels a text has been needed for 20 years to cover all engineering aspects of hydropower. He feels this book fills the void and provides a valuable service - despite some notable shortcomings, which he points out. He notes the book is organized in a logical manner and emphasizes water-flow aspects, with sections on hydraulics, hydrologic analysis, pressure surges, and turbine similarity, selection, and setting. Dr. Gulliver agrees that water-flow aspects are the most unique to hydropower development, but feels the wide range of subjects is covered too briefly. He feels that the primary value of the book is as a readable, complete introduction to hydropower engineering for engineers and planners unfamiliar with the field - and fully recommends the book for this purpose. However, for practicing hydropower engineers, he lists 15 references at the end of the review, which he feels should be used to supplement.

Warnick, C.C.

1984-01-01

10

US hydropower resource assessment for Hawaii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

US DOE is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model developed by INEL for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was tested using hydropower information and data provided by Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the PC user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes, and generate reports. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Hawaii.

Francfort, J.E.

1996-09-01

11

Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service's National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

Conner, Alison Marie; Francfort, James Edward

1999-07-01

12

Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission?s Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service?s National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

A. M. Conner; J. E. Francfort

1999-07-06

13

SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs

1996-01-01

14

SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.

Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

1996-02-01

15

An empirical analysis of the hydropower portfolio in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indus Basin of Pakistan with 800 hydropower project sites and a feasible hydropower potential of 60 GW, 89% of which is undeveloped, is a complex system poised for large-scale changes in the future. Motivated by the need to understand future impacts of hydropower alternatives, this study conducted a multi-dimensional, empirical analysis of the full hydropower portfolio. The results show that the full portfolio spans multiple scales of capacity from mega (>1000 MW) to micro (

2012-01-01

16

US hydropower resource assessment for Missouri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Missouri.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

17

US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-12-01

18

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - Georgia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Georgia.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

19

US hydropower resource assessment for Vermont  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Vermont.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-02-01

20

US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

Francfort, J.E.

1994-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

22

US hydropower resource assessment for Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Utah.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

23

US hydropower resource assessment for Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

24

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

25

US hydropower resource assessment for Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Texas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

26

US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

27

US hydropower resource assessment for New Hampshire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Hampshire.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-07-01

28

US hydropower resource assessment for North Dakota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of North Dakota.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

29

US hydropower resource assessment for Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Louisiana.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

30

US hydropower resource assessment for Arkansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Arkansas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

31

US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

32

US hydropower resource assessment for Indiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Indiana.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-12-01

33

US hydropower resource assessment for Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-07-01

34

US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-03-01

35

Uniform criteria for US Hydropower Resource Assessment. Hydropower evaluation software status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is estimating the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a DBASE, menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report details Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 12 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. One is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 12 states (Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) extracted into the software to date, and plans for future assessments.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moore, K.M. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1993-06-01

36

Uniform criteria for U.S. hydropower resource assessment: Hydropower Evaluation Software status report -- 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is estimating the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report describes Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 20 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. The reader is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 20 states (Arkansas, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming) assessed to date, and plans for future assessments.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1996-02-01

37

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

38

Hydropower potential in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turkey has a total hydropower potential of 433 GW that is equal to 1.2% of the total hydropower potential of the world and to 14% of European hydropower potential. Only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 34% of the economically usable potential of the country would be tapped. At the present, hydropower energy is an important energy source for Turkey due to its useful characteristics such as being renewable, clean, and less impactful on the environment, and a cheap and domestic energy source. (author)

Kaygusuz, K.

1999-08-01

39

Mini and micro hydropower systems in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower is one of the renewable sources of energy. In the field of hydropower, even though small/mini/micro hydropower systems make fractional increases in the overall energy production, their impact on the local areas in which they are sited can be significant in stimulating growth of rural industry and in meeting the basic energy needs of the local population for domestic and agricultural use. They also help in reducing demand on other non-renewable polluting resources like fossil fuels. Moreover as compared to big hydropower systems, small hydropower systems are cost competitive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They require less time for construction and reduce transmission losses. They can be designed to suit the limits of water resources available and can be tailored to the needs of the end-use market. Aspects of small hydropower projects which needs to be studied are listed. Modelling of turbines and generators for such projects, and factors to be considered in selection of suitable turbine and generator for a particular small hydropower system are discussed. The technology for small hydropower systems is well developed and available in India. The present estimated potential of such systems in India is 5000 MW out of which 207 MW is harnessed. These small hydropower plants are mostly located in the northern states like Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Construction works for 234 MW at 88 sites are going on. During the 8th plan period, 218.5 MW is planned to be developed with an outlay of Rs. 548.25 crores. It is suggested that special subsidies and liberal term loans should be made available for implementing such systems. (M.G.B.). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

1992-01-01

40

Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

1988-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

How Hydropower Plants Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source. In this article, we'll take a look at how falling water creates energy and learn about the hydrologic cycle that creates the water flow essential for hydropower. You will also get a glimpse at one unique application of hydropower that may affect your daily life

Bonsor, Kevin

2008-02-07

42

Hydropower in Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long life practice has proved that small hydropower is not a beaten track in the global energy field. Before the Second World War small hydropower was rather well developed in Estonia as well. Being neglected during the years of Soviet occupation, it is rather important to help it to regain its position in the Estonian energy system once again. Our hydropower potential is not big, but it has got a good established position as an energy saving measure. By now we have some good examples of restored hydropower stations on commercial basis to be optimistic about the future

1997-11-14

43

Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

Douglas G. Hall

2011-09-01

44

Developing international hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Through the rest of the decade, many of the available hydropower development opportunities will be in the international marketplace. Tapping into this market will be particularly difficult for US companies without a decisive support strategy. Non-US companies have several distinct advantages for developing hydropower projects overseas. With more government support and unified industry efforts, US developers might level the playing field.

Smith, W.B. (Benham-Holway Power Group, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-03-01

45

Hydropower development in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

2011-04-15

46

Sensitivity of Input Parameters in the PSHA for NPP Sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the most uncertain input parameter in the PSHA was identified for Korean NPP sites through sensitivity analysis. Shinuljin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 site was selected in this study. Expert panels developed input parameters for PSHA. Input data were analyzed, and used for sensitivity analysis to see the effects of each parameter on seismic hazard. Through sensitivity analysis, we identified the degree of uncertainty of each parameter. The CONPAS, EQHAZAS, and EQHAZAS Manager codes, which were developed by KAERI, were utilized to compute the seismic hazard. The Gutenberg-Richter parameter was identified as the most uncertain one in this study.

Choi, In Kil; Seo, Jeong Moon; Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu

2009-10-15

47

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment Final Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To provide a more accurate assessment of the domestic undeveloped hydropower capacity, the US Department of Energy's Hydropower Program developed a computer model, Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental, legal, and institutional attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the development of HES, its data requirements, and its application to each state assessment; in addition, it summarizes the data derivation process and data for the states. Modeling of the undeveloped hydropower resources in the US, based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints, has identified 5,677 sites that have a total undeveloped capacity of about 30,000 megawatts.

A. M. Conner; J. E. Francfort; B. N. Rinehart

1998-12-01

48

Hydropower research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

NONE

1997-03-01

49

Cost estimates for hydropower at existing dams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guidelines for quick and simple hydropower project cost estimates are developed for preliminary site assessments. The guidelines are based upon a concept which incorporates a single equation utilizing design power and head for total equipment cost and a ''site factor'' to determine total project cost. Total project cost is estimated by multiplying the equipment cost, obtained from the equation, and the site factor. Total project cost data from a number of hydropower projects are compiled to provide guidelines for choosing the site factor, which is shown to vary greatly, especially for micro (less than or equal to100 kW) and mini (less than or equal to1,000 kW) hydropower projects. Envelope curves for site factors are given, and a ''weighting factor,'' which is the fraction distance between upper and lower envelope curves, is chosen for each site. The choice of weighting factor for a given site is based upon comparison with recently completed projects, a knowledge of the components which can greatly increase civil works costs, and engineering judgement. The weighting factor is then used in calculations to determine optimum plant capacity. The methodology was used in a survey of the hydropower potential at exis

Gulliver, J.S.; Dotan, A.

1984-09-01

50

Technology Roadmap: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

NONE

2012-07-01

51

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

52

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

53

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

54

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Minnesota.

Francfort, J.E.

1996-07-01

55

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for North Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of North Carolina.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

56

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

57

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Michigan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Michigan.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

58

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

59

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Pennsylvania.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-12-01

60

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Kentucky.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-07-01

62

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-01-01

63

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-06-01

64

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Tennessee.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-07-01

65

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Mississippi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Mississippi.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

66

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Maryland.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

67

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nebraska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nebraska.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-04-01

68

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Florida  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Florida.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

69

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Arizona.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

70

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

71

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Ohio.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-12-01

72

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alabama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alabama.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

73

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Oregon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Oregon.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-03-01

74

Hydropower and its constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower, although an ancient technology, will emerge as a strategically critical source of new electricity in the decades ahead, especially for developing countries and the former Soviet Union, where most of the world`s undeveloped potential exists. Although the global potential for hydropower is enormous, numerous factors may limit its exploitation. Nonetheless, much uncertainty surrounds existing estimates of potential. A number of key technologies, including pumped storage, refurbishment of old plants, and compensatory steps (such as reservoir redesign) to reduce the variable nature of river flow, have contributed to the successful exploitation of both large- and small-scale hydrologic resources. Despite such technological advances, social and environmental impacts are argued to be the principal constraints and sources of uncertainty affecting hydropower`s development. Large storage reservoirs exacerbate many problems, particularly in tropical regions. The impacts of hydropower can be categorized either as direct: those that arise during construction of the plant, filling of the reservoir, and changing of the river flow; or as indirect: those that affect the health and well-being of the community. Many of these problems, however, can be mitigated by improved planning that includes public participation at an early stage. Taking such externalities into account may prolong the planning process and increase overall costs, which are already high owing to the capital intensity of hydropower. Indeed, finance has become a major constraint affecting the development of hydropower in regions of greatest potential. Nonetheless, because of its ubiquity and low impact on the environment (relative to fossil-fuel plants), hydropower will remain a critical supply of new electricity in the developing countries and the former Soviet Union and therefore needs to be better understood. 66 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

Moreira, J.R. [Office of Science and Technology, Brasilia (Brazil); Poole, A.D. [National Inst. of Energy Efficiency, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1993-12-31

75

Is hydropower an endangered species?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts to answer critical questions about hydropower in the context of federal and state struggles over jurisdiction, social values of fisheries, wildlife, and restoration vs development, and finally the burden of complex licensing/relicensing. What role has hydropower played in the development of the electric utility industry and has societies attitude toward costs and benefits of hydropower changed drastically? Can the requirements of the Endangered Species Act be balanced with the mandate of the Energy Policy Act to address energy efficiency and global warming? Are there other innovative uses of hydropower? Can hydropower be cost-effective? Can federal agencies work cooperatively with other entities to effectively use hydropower.

Johansen, J.A. [Dept. of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

1994-12-31

76

Hydropower in Hessen; Wasserkraftnutzung in Hessen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On behalf of the Hessian environmental administration a location-related analysis of the hydropower use was carried out in Hesse. This analysis contains information about the energetic efficiency in its actual state as well as taking into account different scenarios. In addition, information has been compiled concerning the influence of the Hessian hydropower plants on the respective hydromorphological situation, e.g. the barrier effects on fishes and other aquatic organisms. Furthermore, a decision support system was developed to account the energetic and economical impacts of measures on optimising the ecological or technical parameters. (orig.)

Theobald, Stephan; Roland, Frank [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

2011-07-01

77

Small Hydropower Technology Transfer Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its inception in 1977, the National Small Hydropower Program has supported investigations of 253 small scale hydropower projects and implementation of 20. The first draft of the summary document covering feasibility studies has been completed and th...

C. Cunningham J. Christensen A. R. Engebretsen G. Sommers

1983-01-01

78

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

1998-01-01

79

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

1998-06-01

80

Design of High Efficiency Cross-Flow Turbine for Hydro-Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cross-flow hydraulic turbine was gaining popularity in low head and small water flow rate, in establishment of small hydro-power plant, due to its simple structure and ease of manufacturing in the site of the power plant. To obtain a cross-flow turbine with maximum efficiency, the turbine parameters must be included in the design. In this paper all design parameters of cross-flow turbine were calculated at maximum efficiency. These parameters include runner diameter, runner length, runner speed, turbine power, water jet thickness, blade spacing, number of blades, radius of blade curvature, attack angle and the blade and exit angles.

Bilal Abdullah Nasir

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

DOE Small Hydropower Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of work and activities of the Department of Energy's National Small Hydropower Program are discussed. Each portion of the program is discussed to provide an overall view of the program's depth. The three major subprograms are the Demonstration P...

W. W. Hickman T. B. McLaughlin

1980-01-01

82

Developing hydropower overseas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines how the National Hydropower Association (NHA) has found ways to support its members who desire to expand their business programs to foreign markets through participation in a wide range of government programs. The topics of the article include the market in developing countries, the certificate of review, products and services, and domestic and international competition.

Smith, W.B. (Benham-Holway Power Group, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1991-10-01

83

Developing hydropower overseas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines how the National Hydropower Association (NHA) has found ways to support its members who desire to expand their business programs to foreign markets through participation in a wide range of government programs. The topics of the article include the market in developing countries, the certificate of review, products and services, and domestic and international competition

1991-01-01

84

Renewable Energy: Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson introduces students to the use of flowing or falling water (hydropower) to perform work, particularly electric power generation. Topics include the history of hydropower development, the invention of turbines and electric generators, and the history of hydroelectric power development in the United States. There is also discussion of the environmental issues associated with the construction of large dams and flooding large tracts of land, as well as some of the physics involved in the transfer of energy from moving water to a mechanical device such as a turbine. The lesson includes an activity in which students use a model turbine and generator and vary the height from which water flows into them to examine how energy output and efficiency varies.

Pratte, John

85

Small hydropower in rural Uganda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrification coverage in rural Uganda is very poor with less than 1% of the rural population having access to the national grid. Rural people are still an important majority in Uganda with about 88% of the population residing in rural areas (UIA, 2009). Small hydropower development is one solution to bridging this electricity supply gap. Some of the potential sites can be developed for isolated grids and others for electric energy sales to the grid. This paper describes the successful development and operation of such a plant at Kisiizi Hospital in western Uganda with an installed capacity of 294Kw and how the lessons learnt are being applied by CREEC to Design a 3kW Pico hydro scheme. (orig.)

Abbo, Mary Suzan [Makerere Univ., Kampala (UG). Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

2011-07-01

86

DOE Small Hydropower Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of work and activities of the Department of Energy's National Small Hydropower Program are discussed. Each portion of the program is discussed to provide an overall view of the program's depth. The three major subprograms are the Demonstration Projects subprogram, the Engineering Development subprogram, and the Loan subprogram. Program results are presented by graphic illustrations where applicable.

Hickman, W.W.; McLaughlin, T.B.

1980-01-01

87

Computers help control hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automation is not confined to the operation of nuclear and fossil generation facilities; it also has direct application to both run-of-the-river and pumped-storage hydropower plants. At the St Lawrence-FDR and Blenheim-Gilboa stations of the Power Authority of the State of New York, computers monitor and supervise power generation and water flow to optimize the overall efficiency of these major hydro projects.

Rosenthal, J.L. (Macro Corp., Fort Washington, PA); Lufker, L.J.

1982-08-01

88

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen; A. Y. Hoekstra

2011-01-01

89

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world';s electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2011-09-01

90

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existing solutions for small hydropower plants were consideredconvenient from the technical point of view over a long period, while general environmental concerns of society increased in all directions during the last decades.This paper refers to how to include environmental protection measures during the selection of the sites for a small hydropower plant and its water intake, during the preparation of the project, and then during operation. Investments for modernization of old small hydropower plants have to also include improvements regarding especially the protection of the river ecosystem. Specific environmental training for those who will be designers of small hydropower plants can be useful for environmental protection improvement in such projects.

Theodor Ghind?; Theodora Ardeleanu

2012-01-01

91

Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based.

Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

2002-01-01

92

Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based

2002-01-01

93

Small hydropower technology transfer project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since its inception in 1977, the National Small Hydropower Program has supported investigations of 253 small scale hydropower projects and implementation of 20. The first draft of the summary document covering feasibility studies has been completed and the results of the analysis are summarized within this paper.

Cunningham, C.; Christensen, J.; Engebretsen, A.R.; Sommers, G.

1983-01-01

94

Hydropower engineering handbook: A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article is a review of a handbook developed out of a four-day course on hydropower development presented by the books editors. The book is designed to provide a short explanation of a particular phenomenon, some design and operational guidelines, and references to other more specific publications. The book also addresses environment impacts of hydropower facilities.

Burgoine, D.

1991-04-01

95

Techno-economical method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} A method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant was developed. {yields} The model was developed on the basis of the flow duration curve of the site. {yields} Seven techno-economical parameters were considered in the analysis. {yields} The influence of the design operating conditions on the parameters was analysed. {yields} The method allowed a proper choice of the optimal design operating conditions. -- Abstract: This paper presents a method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant on the basis of techno-economical analyses of the flow duration curve. Seven technical and economical parameters were considered: the turbine type, the turbine dimensions, the annual energy production, the maximum installation height to avoid cavitation inception, the machine cost, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). A proper model was proposed to study the effects of the design operating conditions on these parameters. The model, applied to the flow duration curve, allowed to analyse the feasibility, the profitability and the performance of the plant in the available flowing range of the site. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, three sites having different flow duration curves were analysed.

Santolin, A., E-mail: alberto.santolin@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cavazzini, G., E-mail: giovanna.cavazzini@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pavesi, G., E-mail: giorgio.pavesi@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Ardizzon, G., E-mail: guido.ardizzon@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Rossetti, A., E-mail: antonio.rossetti@unipd.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2011-07-15

96

Techno-economical method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research highlights: ? A method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant was developed. ? The model was developed on the basis of the flow duration curve of the site. ? Seven techno-economical parameters were considered in the analysis. ? The influence of the design operating conditions on the parameters was analysed. ? The method allowed a proper choice of the optimal design operating conditions. -- Abstract: This paper presents a method for the capacity sizing of a small hydropower plant on the basis of techno-economical analyses of the flow duration curve. Seven technical and economical parameters were considered: the turbine type, the turbine dimensions, the annual energy production, the maximum installation height to avoid cavitation inception, the machine cost, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). A proper model was proposed to study the effects of the design operating conditions on these parameters. The model, applied to the flow duration curve, allowed to analyse the feasibility, the profitability and the performance of the plant in the available flowing range of the site. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, three sites having different flow duration curves were analysed.

2011-01-01

97

Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

2000-01-01

98

Locks and Dam 1 (Ford Dam), Mississippi River, draft feasibility report and environmental assessment for hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a detailed evaluation of additional hydropower potential at Locks and Dam 1. An earlier evaluation in a reconnaissance level report (September 1981) indicated preliminary feasibility for added hydropower at this Federal navigation project site. The original Federal navigation locks and dam project included a foundation for a hydropower plant to be developed by non-Federal interests. The existing hydropower plant and equipment are owned and operated by the Ford Motor Company. The existing four turbines generate a combined nameplate capacity of 14.4 MW (megawatts).

1984-08-01

99

[Impacts of large hydropower station on benthic algal communities].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the impacts of large hydropower station in Gufu River on benthic algae, monthly samplings were conducted from September 2004 to June 2007 at the site GF04 which was impacted by the hydropower station, with the site GL03 in Gaolan River as reference. During sampling period, no significant differences were observed in the main physicochemical variables between GF04 and GL03, but the hydrodynamics differed significantly. GL03 was basically at a status of slow flow; while GF04, owing to the discharging from the reservoir, was at a riffle status during more than 60% of the sampling period. Such a difference in hydrodynamics induced significant differences in the community similarity of benthic algae and the relative abundance of unattached diatoms, erect diatoms, and stalked diatoms between GF04 and GL03, which could better reflect the impacts of irregular draw-off by large hydropower station on river eco-system.

Jia XH; Jiang WX; Li FQ; Tang T; Duan SG; Cai QH

2009-07-01

100

Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO2 outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe3+/Fe2+, Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ and SO4 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of ±10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO2 outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS-/SO4 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS-/SO4 2-controls Eh at normal SO4 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO4 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe3+ values obtained by subtraction of Fe2+ from Fetotal. (iv) There are high uncertainties in EhSO4/HS for Forsmark samples becau

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package, version 3. 0  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of two programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. An engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations. The economic program provides a study of economic feasibility. This report describes the models and methods used in the HCR package. It provides information on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

Broadus, C.R.

1985-06-01

102

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-01-01

103

Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

2008-01-01

104

Computer model for small-scale hydropower policy analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer simulation model of the obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydropower in New England is presented. It serves as an effective communication tool between analysts and policymakers, helping them understand the implication of policy recommendations to increase small-hydropower development. Only four of the factors affecting development are included in the model: economics, licensing, construction, and retirement. From a financial point of view, the most promising developers are municipalities and investor-owned utilities. In the year 2000, it may be feasible to develop sites costing approximately double the present costs. Small-scale hydropower will generally be developed now only if developers are willing to accept risks. The inflationary effects of licensing and the complexity of the process might be the major disincentives associated with licensing.

Kirshen, P.H. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg); Amlin, J.S.

1981-03-01

105

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

1992-01-01

106

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

1992-09-01

107

Identification of undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional attributes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is used to model the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. It was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in response to National Energy Strategy requirements. The HES models the environmental, legal, and institutional attributes present at potential hydropower sites, and calculates a regional or state total of the undeveloped hydropower potential. The site attributes and characteristics can be entered into the menu-driven model on a site-by-site basis, as well as downloaded from existing information sources such as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Hydroelectric Power Resources Assessment Inventory and the Department of Interior`s National Rivers Inventory.

Francfort, J.E.; Conner, A.M.

1997-08-01

108

Development of small hydropower in Turkiye  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydropower potential of Turkiye has been reviewed and indicates the importance of small-scale hydropower development. The following topics are discussed: data collection, planning, operation and maintenance, multi-purpose utilization, skilled manpower, integration into the national network, and management. Small hydropower plants are a key policy issue in the development of rural areas. (Author)

Tasdemiroglu, E. (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-06-01

109

US hydropower takes export initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As privatisation for power development opens up the world market, the near term opportunities for the US hydropower industry are exploding. But, as with every other aspiring player in the global market, putting finance in place can be the hardest part of the operation. Some of the measures being taken by US banks to support the hydro industry are reported. (author)

Dansie, Janet

1995-06-01

110

Small hydropower plants. Kleine Wasserkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Federal Republic of Germany approximately 6000 small hydropower plants up to an output of 1000 kW are to be built or renewed. The technical and economical usable potential, the costs, and questions of environmental policy and energy policy are described with examples. (DG).

Lottes, G. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.))

1988-11-01

111

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance. (author)

Zoby, Maria Regina Gomes; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEM/EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: mrgzoby@gmail.com, jiy@usp.br

2009-01-15

112

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes Zoby; Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara

2009-01-01

113

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Zoby, Maria Regina Gomes; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo

2009-03-01

114

Reconnaissance report for hydropower, Lock and Dam 8, Mississippi River. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 8. The study shows that installation of a hydroplant with 8,750 kW (kilowatt) nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and potential hydropower installations are given. Severe environmental impacts are not necessarily associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated despite the proximity of the lock and dam to an environmentally sensitive area. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 8.

1981-09-01

115

Parameter values for the Heysham site for use in the CODAR2 program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Details are given of parameter values relevant to the Heysham site for the calculation of individual and collective radiation exposure arising from routine discharges of liquid effluent to the sea. These parameters are to be used in the CODAR2 computer program, and the approach taken in their specification is the same as that employed previously for the Sizewell site. (author)

1985-01-01

116

Small hydropower development in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a total 378 GW of exploitable hydropower potential in China, corresponding to an annual power generation of 1923 TWh. Among this, the large, middle and small hydro power (SHP) potential are 2.3 GW, 0.73 GW and 0.75 GW respectively. The exploitable SHP potential is mainly distributed in 1100 counties among the 2300 counties of the whole nation. By the end of 1993, the hydropower installed capacity reached 44.6 MkW, among which small hydro took up 1.5 MkW. Although the generating capacity is less than 4% of the national power supply, the Small HydroPower covers half of the area and 1/3 of the population of the whole nation, and supplies power to 800 counties. China is a developing country, and the economic developing level is very different in different parts of the country. Although 13 network grids were built, which cover nearly most of the nation, there are still some counties without power supply, especially in some mountainous, remote, or minority inhabitant areas. In these areas, the power becomes a key issue of developing economy and improving their poor saturation. On the other hand, limited by the national financial ability, the national grid and power shortage could not be changed in a short time. 2 tabs.

Boting, Z. [Chinese Society for Hydroelectric Engineering, Beijing (China)

1996-12-31

117

A procedure for assessing climate change impacts on hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Ever since climate change was highlighted as an important issue in water related projects, various procedures have been used by different researchers to gain indications of likely impact of climate change on hydropower. Though all methods give results, comparisons of these results is not ideal and may be difficult due to large differences in methods used. This paper is an attempt to propose an ideal procedure or process of estimating the impact of climate change on hydropower production in a basin. The paper describes where to begin, what future climate change projections are necessary, and where to get such data. It also shows highlights various techniques that are available and could be applied to climate projections in order to down scale the large scale projections from global climate models to site or basin climate. Another technique that has been applied is the delta approach or perturbation methods that transfer changes in meteorological variables between the control and the scenario simulations from the regional climate model to a database of observed meteorological data. Further it highlights various ways of transforming basin climate variables that can be used in hydrological modeling to produce runoff series. The paper also discusses applicability of hydrological modeling strategies for climate predictions in relation to stationarity in models and how this will influence climate predictions. The runoff is the input into hydropower systems and hydropower simulations to get the desired hydropower production in the future. In all these steps, different approaches for processing are highlighted. The paper ends with a section on different sources of uncertainties in climate projections. Finally some concluding remarks are given on the reliability of the results from various methodologies. A case study on Zambezi River basin is given towards the end illustrating the differences resulting from different methodologies. (Author)

Hamududu, B.; Jjunju, E.; Killingtveit, Aa.; Alfredsen, K.

2010-07-01

118

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen; A. Y. Hoekstra

2012-01-01

119

Data-Based Performance Assessments for the DOE Hydropower Advancement Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U. S. Department of Energy s Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated to characterize and trend hydropower asset conditions across the U.S.A. s existing hydropower fleet and to identify and evaluate the upgrading opportunities. Although HAP includes both detailed performance assessments and condition assessments of existing hydropower plants, this paper focuses on the performance assessments. Plant performance assessments provide a set of statistics and indices that characterize the historical extent to which each plant has converted the potential energy at a site into electrical energy for the power system. The performance metrics enable benchmarking and trending of performance across many projects in a variety contexts (e.g., river systems, power systems, and water availability). During FY2011 and FY2012, assessments will be performed on ten plants, with an additional fifty plants scheduled for FY2013. This paper focuses on the performance assessments completed to date, details the performance assessment process, and describes results from the performance assessments.

March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Wolff, Dr. Paul [WolffWare Ltd.; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy

2012-01-01

120

Resource and utilization of Estonian hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An overview of the Estonian hydropower resources and their utilization at present as well as prospective for the future are presented in this paper. A short overview of advantages of small hydropower stations and related issues is given. Some technological aspects are treated briefly. (authors)

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

New Technology for Small Hydropower Installations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A general discussion is presented of new technologies, both hardware and methodologies, that may be used in developing small hydropower installations. The primary source of information is the results of the R/D projects funded under the DOE Small Hydropow...

J. R. Chappell

1984-01-01

122

DOE Small-Hydropower Demonstration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge gained from the Department of Energy's Small Hydropower Demonstration Program is presented. These 20 small hydroelectric developments across the country are at various stages of licensing, financing, construction, and operation. Their methods and experiences are detailed in order to show what can be done in the real world of small hydropower development.

Rinehart, B.N.; Felton, L.E.

1981-06-01

123

CLASSIFICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF MINI HYDROPOWER STATIONS ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classifications of mini hydropower stations, placement types of power stations, the methods of execution, the development prospects of the Russian Federation have been presented in the article. The basic problems of the technique of using mini hydropower stations have been revealed

Ponomarenko A. S.

2013-01-01

124

Hydropower generator and power system interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After decades of routine operation, the hydropower industry faces new challenges. Large-scale integration of other renewable sources of generation in the power system accentuates the role of hydropower as a regulating resource. At the same time, an extensive reinvestment programme has commenced wher...

Bladh, Johan

125

System dynamics in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

Stuksrud, Dag Birger

1998-12-31

126

21st Century advanced hydropower turbine system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

Brookshier, P.A. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Loose, R.R.; Flynn, J.V. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

127

21st century advanced hydropower turbine system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

1995-11-01

128

The Grossmatt hydro-power station; Wasserkraftwerk Grossmatt. Konzessionsprojekt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented.

Hintermann, M.

2006-07-01

129

Hydropower: Setting a Course for Our Energy Future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is an annual publication that provides an overview of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program. The mission of the program is to conduct research and development that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity.

2004-07-01

130

The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

2011-01-01

131

Environmental transportation of tritium and estimation of site-specific model parameters for Kaiga site, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tritium content in air moisture, soil water, rain water and plant water samples collected around the Kaiga site, India was estimated and the scavenging ratio, wet deposition velocity and ratio of specific activities of tritium between soil water and air moisture were calculated and the results are interpreted. Scavenging ratio was found to vary from 0.06 to 1.04 with a mean of 0.46. The wet deposition velocity of tritium observed in the present study was in the range of 3.3E-03 to 1.1E-02 m s(-1) with a mean of 6.6E-03 m s(-1). The ratio of specific activity of tritium in soil moisture to that in air moisture ranged from 0.17 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.49. The specific activity of tritium in plant water in this study varied from 73 to 310 Bq l(-1). The present study is very useful for understanding the process and modelling of transfer of tritium through air/soil/plant system at the Kaiga site.

Reji TK; Ravi PM; Ajith TL; Dileep BN; Hegde AG; Sarkar PK

2012-04-01

132

Hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses hydroelectric power and programs that are underway with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the US Corps of Engineers to try to make hydroelectric power more friendly to and less destructive of rivers. Point one is that dams deplete the river of oxygen. Point two, they change the temperature so that if species are used to a certain temperature downstream a slug of cold water or a slug of warm water can radically change their natural environment. Point three, they collect sediment and in the process often end up collecting heavy metals. Some of these can get through the system at various times. Hydroelectric power plants are particularly rough on rivers because the generators can often grind up fish.

1994-01-01

133

Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses hydroelectric power and programs that are underway with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the US Corps of Engineers to try to make hydroelectric power more friendly to and less destructive of rivers. Point one is that dams deplete the river of oxygen. Point two, they change the temperature so that if species are used to a certain temperature downstream a slug of cold water or a slug of warm water can radically change their natural environment. Point three, they collect sediment and in the process often end up collecting heavy metals. Some of these can get through the system at various times. Hydroelectric power plants are particularly rough on rivers because the generators can often grind up fish.

Coyle, K. [American Rivers, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

134

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition) and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM) to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne; D. Brunner; D. Folini; S. Solberg; J. Klausen; B. Buchmann

2010-01-01

135

Lock and Dam 1, Mississippi River, Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minnesota. Reconnaissance report for hydropower. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of additional hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 1. An existing hydropower plant at the site has a capacity of 14,400-kW. The study shows that installation of a new additional hydroplant with a 4,000-kW or 8,000-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and two optional installations are given. Severe environmental impacts do not appear to be associated with construction of a new plant of the sizes investigated. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 1.

1981-09-01

136

PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-07-01

137

Feasibility Analysis in Small Hydropower Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hydrologic Engineering Center, Corps of Engineers, has prepared a manual entitled 'Feasibility Studies for Small Scale Hydropower Additions'. The manual provides technical data and procedural guidance for the systematic appraisal of the viability of p...

D. W. Davis B. W. Smith

1979-01-01

138

Hydropower and biomass - a successful combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains numbers on the importance of biomass and hydropower in the energy balance of Austria. The importance of the CO2 taxes in the European Communities on the economics of different fuels is outlined. (Quittner)

1991-10-17

139

Attenuation, source parameters and site effects in the Irpinia–Basilicata region (southern Apennines, Italy)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We derive S-wave attenuation characteristics, earthquake source parameters and site amplification functions at seismic stations used for earthquake early warning in the Irpinia–Basilicata region, using non-parametric spectral inversion of seismograms from 49 local events with ML = 1...

140

New technology for small hydropower installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general discussion is presented of new technologies, both hardware and methodologies, that may be used in developing small hydropower installations. The primary source of information is the results of the R/D projects funded under the DOE Small Hydropower Program. The paper is divided into the following categories: turbine/generator, head augmentation, nonconventional concepts, structure and construction, system management, controls, and reconnaissance and feasibility studies. References are provided for obtaining detailed information on the individual projects.

Chappell, J.R.

1984-04-11

 
 
 
 
141

Ghazi Barotha hydropower project : a sustainable infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shortage of electric power in Pakistan has hindered the country's economic development. Energy demand has grown but energy conservation measures alone have not proven to be sufficient to deal with the crisis. New electric power production facilities are required. The Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project, located on the Indus River in the northwestern part of Pakistan downstream of the Tarbela Dam has proven to be a technically sound, environmentally and socially acceptable project which is also economically viable. A 5 km stretch of the Indus was studied to determine the optimum location of the barrage, the alignment of the power channel, and the siting of the power complex. The project was scheduled to use the hydraulic head available between the tailrace at Tarbela Dam and the confluence with the Haro River. The Indus River dropped approximately 76 m over a distance of 63 m. The project was designed to consist of a barrage 7 km downstream from the Tarbela Dam, a 52 km long concrete lined power channel with a capacity of 1600 cumecs and a power facility to generate power and discharging the water back into the river. The average output was calculated to reach 6,600 GWHr to provide for the peak capacity during the year and full power generation in May and June, when the Tarbela and Mangla Power Stations operate at reduced capacity due to low reservoir levels. 1 ref., 1 annex.

Khan, B. A.; Ahmad, W.

2000-07-01

142

Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar.

McNally A; Magee D; Wolf AT

2009-07-01

143

Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in LILW Repository site:II. Input parameters for Safety Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The numerical simulations for groundwater flow were carried out to support the input parameters for safety assessment in LILW repository site. As the input parameters for safety assessment, the groundwater flux into the underground facilities during construction, flow rate through the disposal silo after closure of disposal silo and flow pathway from the disposal silo to discharge area were analyzed using the 10 cases groundwater flow simulations. From the total 10 numerical simulation results, the statistics of estimated output were similar to among 10 cases. In some cases, the analyzed input parameters were strongly governed by locally existed high permeable fracture zone at radioactive waste disposed depth. Indeed, numerical simulation for well scenario as a human intrusion scenario was carried out using the hydraulically severe case model. Using the results of well scenario, the input parameters for safety assessment were also obtained through the numerical simulation.

2008-01-01

144

River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

2001-01-01

145

Comparisons of CAP88PC version 2.0 default parameters to site specific inputs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of varying the input for the CAP88PC Version 2.0 program on the total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) were determined for hypothetical releases from the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Argonne National Laboratory site on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Values for site specific meteorological conditions and agricultural production parameters were determined for the 80 km radius surrounding the HFEF. Four nuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs (with its short lived progeny, {sup 137m}Ba) were selected for this study; these are the radioactive materials most likely to be released from HFEF under normal or abnormal operating conditions. Use of site specific meteorological parameters of annual precipitation, average temperature, and the height of the inversion layer decreased the TEDE from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba up to 36%; reductions for other nuclides were less than 3%. Use of the site specific agricultural parameters reduced TEDE values between 7% and 49%, depending on the nuclide. Reductions are associated with decreased committed effective dose equivalents (CEDEs) from the ingestion pathway. This is not surprising since the HFEF is located well within the INEEL exclusion area, and the surrounding area closest to the release point is a high desert with limited agricultural diversity. Livestock and milk production are important in some counties at distances greater than 30 km from the HFEF.

Lehto, M. A.; Courtney, J. C.; Charter, N.; Egan, T.

2000-03-02

146

Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package. [PAPRECON and RECON III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary economic study package for small hydroelectric projects. The HCR package was developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It is designed to perform two levels of studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available, and an Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described. It provides information on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

Broadus, C.R.

1980-09-01

147

Multiple-parameter evaluation demonstrates low donor-site morbidity after submental flap harvesting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to implement a scoring system to analyze the authors' experience of donor-site morbidity after harvesting a submental flap for the reconstruction of surgical defects at the head and neck region after oncologic resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series study was conducted of patients who underwent reconstruction with a submental flap at the Tri-Service General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) from 2008 through 2012. Five parameters representing donor-site morbidity (whistling, smiling, neck extension, beard change, and esthetic outcome) were evaluated with a scoring system developed by a blinded panel of 2 clinicians and the patients. Scores were analyzed and compared between patient subgroups. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (20 men and 2 women; mean age, 56 yr) underwent reconstruction with a submental flap after head and neck tumor ablation. Primary lesion sites included the oral cavity (13 patients), pharynx (6 patients), larynx (1 patient), neck (1 patient), and sinus (1 patient). The means of all 5 parameters evaluated were higher than 8 on a scale of 0 to 9 (whistling, 8.7; smiling, 8.7; beard change, 8.9; neck extension, 8.2; esthetic outcome, 8.2), showing that submental flap harvesting led to low donor-site morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Donor-site morbidity after submental flap harvesting was evaluated with a scoring system measuring 5 parameters, namely whistling, smiling, beard change, neck extension, and esthetic outcome. In general, donor-site morbidity was very low. This implemented system and these findings will be helpful in future reconstructive surgical planning and management.

Lee JC; Lai WS; Kao CH; Hsu CH; Chu YH; Lin YS

2013-10-01

148

Multiple-Parameter Evaluation Demonstrates Low Donor-Site Morbidity After Submental Flap Harvesting.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to implement a scoring system to analyze the authors' experience of donor-site morbidity after harvesting a submental flap for the reconstruction of surgical defects at the head and neck region after oncologic resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case series study was conducted of patients who underwent reconstruction with a submental flap at the Tri-Service General Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) from 2008 through 2012. Five parameters representing donor-site morbidity (whistling, smiling, neck extension, beard change, and esthetic outcome) were evaluated with a scoring system developed by a blinded panel of 2 clinicians and the patients. Scores were analyzed and compared between patient subgroups. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (20 men and 2 women; mean age, 56 yr) underwent reconstruction with a submental flap after head and neck tumor ablation. Primary lesion sites included the oral cavity (13 patients), pharynx (6 patients), larynx (1 patient), neck (1 patient), and sinus (1 patient). The means of all 5 parameters evaluated were higher than 8 on a scale of 0 to 9 (whistling, 8.7; smiling, 8.7; beard change, 8.9; neck extension, 8.2; esthetic outcome, 8.2), showing that submental flap harvesting led to low donor-site morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Donor-site morbidity after submental flap harvesting was evaluated with a scoring system measuring 5 parameters, namely whistling, smiling, beard change, neck extension, and esthetic outcome. In general, donor-site morbidity was very low. This implemented system and these findings will be helpful in future reconstructive surgical planning and management. PMID:23647877

Lee, Jih-Chin; Lai, Wen-Sen; Kao, Chuan-Hsiang; Hsu, Chiang-Hung; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang

2013-05-01

149

Spiral turbine enables power generation by small hydropower plants; Wasserkraftschnecke ermoeglicht Stromerzeugung ueber Kleinkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydropower screw is used advantagely in small hydropower plants. At tests both inverse operations - screw as a generator (Hydromotor) and screw lifting water (pump) - are compared. In case of equal parameters the absorption capacity of the hydromotor is about a third higher than the flow rate of the pump. [Deutsch] Die Wasserkraftschnecke ist vorteilhaft in Kleinwasserkraftwerken anzuwenden. Bei Versuchen wurden die beiden inversen funktionen Wasserkraftschnecke (HYdromotor) und Wasserfoerderschnecke (Pumpe) gegenuebergestellt. Bei gleichen Parametern wird das Schluckvermoegen der Wasserkraftschnecke um etwa ein Drittel groesser als der Foerderstrom der Wasserfoerderschnecke. (orig.)

Brada, K. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Maschinenbaufakultaet

1999-11-01

150

Reconnaissance report for hydropower, Lock and Dam number 2, Mississippi River. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 2. The study shows that installation of a hydroplant with a 4,000-kW (kilowatt) or 5,000-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and two optional installations are given. Severe environmental impacts do not appear to be associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 2.

1981-09-01

151

Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

152

Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

153

Lock and Dam 5, Mississippi River near Minneiska, Minnesota, Reconnaissance report for hydropower. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 5. The study shows that installation of a hydroplant with a 6,000-kW (kilowatt), 8,400-kW, or 10,800-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and potential hydropower installations are given. Severe environmental impacts are not necessarily associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated despite the proxity of the lock and dam to an environmentally sensitive area. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at lock and dam 5.

1981-09-01

154

'Muehle' hydropower station; Wasserkraftwerk 'Muehle'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report, made by the Small-scale Energy Plant Association co-operative in Derendingen, Switzerland, for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the realisation of a 'pico'-hydropower plant at the site of an earlier water mill. The design and construction of the 13 kW plant are described and many details of solutions found to the various problems encountered are given. Also, unresolved problems with this miniature hydropower plant are discussed and figures on electricity production and effective power costs are presented. The financing of the hydropower installation and its operating costs are discussed. Operational aspects, including turbine efficiency, manual regulation and automatic control are discussed and experience gained concerning soiling of the turbine and the debris-removing screen are looked at.

Messerli, M.

2000-07-01

155

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

2000-01-01

156

Small hydropower for electricity generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Generation of electricity in hydropower plants is non-polluting and represents a hundred years of well proven technology based on indigenous renewable resources. Small hydroelectric plants are particularly well suited for rural electrification in both isolated and integrated girds. Although initial development costs are higher than for most other types of generation plants, operation and maintenance costs are low, and there are no fuel costs. Fluctuations in fuel prices and foreign exchange rates will therefore not affect future generation costs. Economic life time for hydro plants are longer than for other type of generation plants. Civil works amounts on average to half of the development costs, and in some developing countries parts of the mechanical equipment can be fabricated locally. Foreign exchange requirements are therefore generally not higher than for other types of generation plants. Construction of civil works offers job opportunities for local labour. Small hydros are typically of the run-of-river type with negligible environmental impacts. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

1991-01-01

157

Waste heat from hydropower stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat loss from hydropower stations, of which there are 42 with at least 100 MW instal led effect, amount to approx. 0.5 - 2 percent arising from generators or transformers. Of the total installed effect of ca 16 000 MW a considerable amount of energy is wasted. Only 9 stations have a larger consumer of heat energy at 1 km distance. A number of operational and environmental factors limit, however, the chance to utilize waste heat. Where smaller stations, under 100 MW, are concerned only 2 of 10 have potential for waste heat recuperation, but other heating methods for neighbouring buildings were chosen. Some waste utilizing stations and their operational experience are described. Finally, two proposals for recuperation of waste heat in principle for a topical case are discussed for heating a nearby suitable consumer. A pay-off time of approx. 6 years is likely for using waste heat from the transformer only. Another 20 objects are suggested for similar studies as well as alerting owners and country councils to possible savings in the future.

Grafstroem, H.; Hedlund, P.; Rydberg, S.

1984-01-01

158

Parameter studies of radionuclide sorption in site-specific sediment/groundwater systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of parametric studies gained by batch experiments with site-specific waters and sedimentary rocks from strata overlying the Gorleben salt dome are given. The tracer nuclides used were U-233, Ra-226, Th-228. Pd-210, Ni-63, Ac-227, Sr-90. The parameters investigated were mainly volume/mass ratio, pH, Eh, temperature, ionic strength, complexing agents and concentrations of nuclides. Relationships generated from these studies with regard to safety assessment prediction are discussed. (orig.)

1994-01-01

159

Parameter studies of radionuclide sorption in site-specific sediment/groundwater systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of parametric studies gained by batch experiments with site-specific waters and sedimentary rocks from strata overlying the Gorleben salt dome are given. The tracer nuclides used were U-233, Ra-226, Th-228. Pd-210, Ni-63, Ac-227, Sr-90. The parameters investigated were mainly volume/mass ratio, pH, Eh, temperature, ionic strength, complexing agents and concentrations of nuclides. Relationships generated from these studies with regard to safety assessment prediction are discussed. (orig.)

Meier, H. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany); Zimmerhackl, E. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany); Zeitler, G. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany); Menge, P. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany)

1994-12-31

160

Selection of biosphere transfer parameter values for radioactive waste disposal impact assessments, a site specific approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to perform radiological impact assessments of radioactive waste disposals, a compartmental model taking into account generic data for biosphere transfer parameters values is usually used. To improve its performance assessments calculations, ANDRA (French national radioactive waste management agency) decided to adapt this type of biosphere model to its sites conditions. On one hand, specific models have been developed such as model for {sup 36}Cl based on isotopic dilution and on local stable chlorine contents. On the other hand, biosphere transfer factors values are issued from experimental studies adapted to ANDRA context: soil characteristics, climate, agricultural habits and species. Local maps of radionuclides mobility have thus been able to be established in terms of soils characteristics. These specific data are useful only if main factors controlling mobility have been determined previously for each radionuclide, which implicates good knowledge of environmental radionuclides behaviour. This site-specific approach allows to reduce uncertainty and range of variation of impact calculations and ensure a consistent model. It helps also to achieve scientific community approval by showing mastery of radionuclides environmental processes and public understanding by focusing demonstration on real local conditions. A methodology in two times is presented. The first time is the definition of priority parameters, using a sensibility analysis. The second time is the giving of a value to these priority parameter, using all available knowledge about the behaviour of elements and about site conditions. A few examples for chlorine, uranium, caesium and technetium and limits of this approach are given. (author)

Leclerc-Cessac, E.; Jaubert, N. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Dir. Scientifique/Service transferts, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Small Hydropower Technology Transfer Project. Task A: Feasibility Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes an investigation of 240 feasibility studies of small hydropower projects conducted under the National Small Hydropower Program beginning in 1977. It provides a detailed analysis of these studies, both to better understand the signif...

C. B. Cunningham J. P. Christensen A. R. Engebretsen

1984-01-01

162

European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters  

CERN Document Server

This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Mac\\'on range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to e...

Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

2012-01-01

163

Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

1996-01-01

164

Sustainable development of small hydropower plants (SHPs)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this article is to investigate the small hydropower plants (SHPs) in Turkey. Total hydropower potential of Turkey is annually 433,000 GWh. Almost 50% of the total potential is technically exploitable and 29% (122,322 GWh/year) is economically exploitable. The country is planning to make use of the exploitable hydropower potentials (HPPs) of 122,322 GWh/year by 2023. Since the 1960s, more than 700 dams in various sizes have been constructed and 519 dams have already been in operation by 2002. Of these 519 dams, 202 facilities have been constructed as large dams and 317 as small dams. There are now a total of 134 hydroelectric power plants (HEPPs), total installed hydropower capacity of Turkey has reached 12,177 MW, and production has reached 44,034 GWh/year in 2002. About 38% of the total electricity is produced by HEPPs, approximately 98.5% of total hydropower potential is exploited from dams and HEPPs, whose installed capacity is more than 10 MW, and the rest (1.5%) is from run off river and channel HPPs. At the end of 2002, of these 317 small dams, 70 SHPs projects (installed capacity less than 10 MW) have put in operation and 203 SHP projects (installed capacity less than 10 MW) have been developed at various stages in Turkey. (Author)

Bakis, Recep [Anadolu Univ., Civil Engineering Dept., Eskisehir (Turkey); Demirbas, Ayhan [Selcuk Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Konya (Turkey)

2004-10-15

165

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and K{sub d} values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; De la Cruz, Idalmis; Stenberg, Kristofer; Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

2010-12-15

166

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (Kd) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and Kd values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

2010-01-01

167

76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy...

2011-12-29

168

75 FR 65012 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small...the opportunity for participants to learn about the small hydropower licensing process, find out how to get more...

2010-10-21

169

76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy...

2011-05-27

170

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI) survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Vladimir Shevnin; Omar Delgado Rodríguez; Aleksandr Mousatov; David Flores Hernández; Héctor Zegarra Martínez; Albert Ryjov

2006-01-01

171

Small hydropower systems for everybody. Pt. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term 'hydropower plants' today usually refers to the big alpine storage systems with their enormous stone dams, massive concrete dams, and a power of several hundred MW. Of course, technicians are fascinated by the possibility of ever-increasing capacities of these power generation plants. Large-scale systems have constantly been improved since the Twenties, and their present degree of sophistication will be difficult to improve, while small water turbines were hardly given a chance until a few years ago. Public utilities, too had little interest in electric power supplied by small hydropower system.

Grabert, H.

1981-09-01

172

Hydropower: Making its mark in North America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydro Review recently surveyed leaders in the hydro generation industry in Canada and the U.S. to discover what plans they have for their hydropower resources in the 1990s. They identified several activities and trends that point toward continued growth of hydro in North America. These trends are: producers are continuing major upgrade and rehabilitation work with schedules extending well into the next century; costs for continual, routine hydro operations and maintenance are stable; the overall cost of generating hydropower is low; plans for new hydro development in both the U.S. and Canada are ongoing.

Barnes, M.J.; Eden, L.; Vansant, C.

1991-07-01

173

The utilization of hydropower in China. Die Wasserkraftnutzung in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The total theoretical hydropower potential in China was found to be 680 GW, of that the total exploitable hydropower potential amounts to 378 GW, corresponding to an annual generation of 1.92 billion MWh. The potential hydropower resources in China ranks first in the world. But its distribution is uneven and the rate of exploitation is low. By the end of 1988, the hydropower capacity exploited is only 8.6% and the anual generation 5.5% of the total exploitable hydropower potential. (orig.).

Bo Shuhe (Water Resources and Hydropower Planning and Design General Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

1989-11-01

174

The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

1993-01-01

175

A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

1997-12-31

176

A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

1997-01-01

177

Tools for Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning and Development: A Review of Technology and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews and compares software tools for the planning and design of small hydropower (SHP) plants. The main emphasis is on small scale hydropower resource assessment computer tools and methodologies for the development of SHP plants corresponding to a preliminary or prefeasibility study level. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the historic software tools and the current tools used in the small hydro industry. The reviewed tools vary from simple initial estimates to quite sophisticated software. The integration of assessment tools into Geographic Information System (GIS) environments has led to a leap forward in the strengthening of the evaluation of the power potential of water streams in the case of the spatial variability of different factors affecting stream power. A number of countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Norway, Scotland and the US) have re-assessed their hydropower capacities based on spatial information of their water stream catchments, developing tools for automated hydro-site identification and deploying GIS-based tools, so-called Atlases, of small-scale hydropower resources on the Internet. However, a reliable assessment of real SHP site feasibility implies some “on the ground” surveying, but this traditional assessment can be greatly facilitated using GIS techniques that involve the spatial variability of catchment characteristics.

Petras Punys; Antanas Dumbrauskas; Algis Kvaraciejus; Gitana Vyciene

2011-01-01

178

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In June 1989, the US Department of Energy initiated the development of a National Energy Strategy to identify the energy resources available to support the expanding demand for energy in the US. Public hearings conducted as part of the strategy development process indicated that undeveloped hydropower resources were not well defined. As a result, the Department of Energy established an interagency Hydropower Resource Assessment Team to ascertain the undeveloped hydropower potential. In connection with these efforts by the Department of Energy, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory designed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES), which has been used to perform a resource assessment of the undeveloped conventional hydropower potential in over 30 states. This report presents the results of the hydropower resource assessment for the State of Virginia. Undeveloped pumped storage hydropower potential is not included.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-12-01

179

Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

2000-01-01

180

Longtan hydropower project and the financial constraints  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China has large untapped resources of hydropower, including such schemes as the Longtan project on the Hongshui river. Despite the attractiveness of the resource and China`s need for power, development of these projects is constrained by financial problems. (Author)

Ding Zhao

1995-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hydropower potential in Nile Basin countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the current situation regarding the structure of the energy sub-sector, electricity production, and future perspectives on hydropower potential for the Nile Basin countries. It also covers the energy sub-sector and explains the assistance required for each Nilotic country. (author)

Ezzat, M.N.

1994-01-01

182

Submarine link could transmit Sarawak hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief description is given of a proposal to transmit electricity generated by hydropower in Sarawak to Peninsular, Malaysia. A high voltage DC submarine cable would be used for transmission capable of carrying 1500 MW. Analogue simulator studies of the 650 km link were carried out. The specifications and design of the submarine cable are also outlined.

Brauer, G.; Neag, Z.; Popescu, V.; Roemer, W.

1987-04-01

183

Evaluation of flexibility in hydropower stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report seeks to evaluate the flexibility in a number of Fortum’s hydropower stations. The deregulation of the Nordic electricity market has put an emphasis on revenue maximizing rather than cost minimizing and there are good indications that flexible assets will be even more valuable in the fut...

Crona, Mats

184

Large dams - small hydropower stations; Talsprerren - Kleine Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the water volumes impounded by large dams are beyond the capacity of small-scale hydroelectric plants, there are individual situations where the use of small hydropower plants is well worth considering. The paper presents examples of sites in Europe, Asia and South America in order to demonstrate how units with low nominal outputs (less than 1,000 kW) may conveniently be used for various tasks, such as assuring the basic supply, and, above all, for discharge flow regulation. As a power engine, the Ossberger turbine is outstanding here. The simple control system, well adapted to the requirements of small hydropower stations, represents another advantage. (orig.) [German] Ungeachtet der Tatsache, dass grossvolumige Talsperren a priori weniger fuer Wasserkraftnutzung in Kleinanlagen in Frage kommen, koennen Kleinwasserkraftwerke durchaus in Sonderfaellen auch hier ein Thema sein, beispielsweise in Verbindung mit regulaeren Wasserabgaben an Unterlieger, mit Mindestwasserbereitstellung im Unterlauf oder mit Trink-, Brauch- bzw. Bewaesserungswasserversorgung benachbarter Gebiete. Derartige Anlagen mit unter 1000 kW installierter Leistung aus Europa, Asien und Suedamerika werden hier vorgestellt. Hierbei haben sich Ossberger-Turbinen aufgrund ihres einfachen konstruktiven Aufbaus, ihrer glaenzenden Anpassungsfaehigkeit an unterschiedliche Beaufschlagungen und leichter Regelung bestens bewaehrt. (orig.)

Erdmannsdoerfer, H. [Ossberger-Turbinenfabrik GmbH und Co., Weissenburg (Germany)

2002-07-01

185

Cloud physical parameters for an improved solar power plant site selection and characterisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar energy users nowadays use METEOSAT-based surface solar irradiance retrievals to assess the long-term irradiance conditions at a potential power plant site while cloud climatologies are typically not used. Within the planning of a solar power plant and the local electricity grid integration a number of technical parameters as e.g. tilt angle and battery storage for photovoltaics, storage size for concentrating thermal power plants, power inverter response curves, or thin film characteristics have to be chosen. Meteosat Second Generation satellites provide the opportunity to calculate cloud physical parameters like cloud type, cloud height, cloud optical depth and scattered cloud indices like fractal box dimensions. It is an upcoming research question how cloud climatologies and knowledge on cloud physical parameters can be used in the solar power plant planning phase. This paper discusses approaches as quantifying e.g. the typical duration of low production phases as a result of cloudiness, the direct to diffuse ratio at a location, the discrimination of bright and dark overcast situations, or the discrimination of scattered, broken and isolated cloud situations.

Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Gesell, G.

2010-09-01

186

One-Loop Corrections to the T-Parameter in a Three Site Higgsless Model  

CERN Document Server

In this note, building on results previously reported on the S-parameter, we compute the one-loop chiral logarithmic corrections to the T-parameter in a highly deconstructed Higgsless model with only three sites. In addition to the electroweak gauge bosons, this model contains a single extra triplet of vector states (which we denote \\rho^\\pm and rho^0), rather than an infinite tower of "KK" modes. We compute the corrections to T in 't Hooft-Feynman gauge, including the ghost, unphysical Goldstone-boson, and standard model "pinch" contributions required to obtain gauge-invariant results for the one-loop self-energy functions. We demonstrate that the chiral-logarithmic corrections naturally separate into two parts: a universal part arising from scaling below the \\rho mass, which has the same form as the large Higgs-mass dependence of the T-parameter in the standard model, and a second non-universal contribution arising from scaling between the \\rho mass and the cutoff of the model. Higgsless models may be viewe...

Matsuzaki, S; Simmons, E H; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

2006-01-01

187

Preliminary study: small hydropower installation on the Steintalerbach stream in Ebnat-Kappel - Reactivation of the 'Muehle' hydropower plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the reactivation of an existing but disused hydropower plant. The report describes the current situation at the site, where originally three water-wheels were in use. The new project is described, which foresees a new 231 kW turbine integrated into a new building on the site as well as new weir, a fish ladder and a new water conduit. The local topographical and hydrological situation is discussed. Three project variants for different water volumes are discussed and compared. The variant chosen for possible realisation is described. Figures are given on investment and operating costs, the price of the power produced and the installation's economic viability. Further topics relating to environmental protection issues are also discussed.

2002-01-01

188

Dome C site testing: long term statistics of integrated optical turbulence parameters at ground level  

Science.gov (United States)

We present long term site testing statistics based on DIMM and GSM data obtained at Dome C, Antarctica. These data have been collected on the bright star Canopus since the end of 2003. We give values of the integrated turbulence parameters in the visible (wavelength 500 nm). The median value we obtained for the seeing are 1.2 arcsec, 2.0 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec at respective elevations of 8m, 3m and 20m above the ground. The isoplanatic angle median value is 4.0 arcsec and the median outer scale is 7.5m. We found that both the seeing and the isoplanatic angle exhibit a strong dependence with the season (the seeing is larger in winter while the isoplanatic angle is smaller).

Aristidi, E.; Agabi, A.; Fossat, E.; Ziad, A.; Abe, L.; Bondoux, E.; Bouchez, G.; Challita, Z.; Jeanneaux, F.; Mékarnia, D.; Petermann, D.; Pouzenc, C.

2013-01-01

189

Attenuation, source parameters and site effects in the Irpinia-Basilicata region (southern Apennines, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

We derive S-wave attenuation characteristics, earthquake source parameters and site amplification functions at seismic stations used for earthquake early warning in the Irpinia-Basilicata region, using non-parametric spectral inversion of seismograms from 49 local events with M L = 1.5-3.1. We obtain relatively low Q values ( Q 0 = 28 at a frequency of 1 Hz) in conjunction with a strong frequency-dependence (close to linear). The source spectra can be satisfactorily modeled using the omega-square model, with stress drops ranging between 0.01-2 MPa, and in the narrow magnitude range available for analysis, the source spectra seem to scale self-similarly. The local magnitude M L shows a linear correlation with moment magnitude M W, however with a systematic underestimation by about 0.5-magnitude units. The results obtained in this work provide important insights into the ground-motion characteristics that are required for appropriate seismic hazard assessment and are of practical relevance for a suite of applications, such as the calibration of ground-motion prediction equations or the correction for site amplification in earthquake early warning and rapid calculation of shake-maps for seismic emergency management.

Cantore, Luciana; Oth, Adrien; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino

2011-04-01

190

Hydropower-to-environment water transfers in hydropower-dominated river basins  

Science.gov (United States)

Allocating water between different users and uses, including the environment, is one of the most challenging tasks facing water resources managers and has been at the heart of the development of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). In large hydropower-dominated river basins, reservoirs are mainly operated so as to maximize revenues from energy generation regardless of the consequences of reduced flow fluctuation on downstream ecosystems. There is growing consensus worldwide that in hydropower dominated river basins, the allocation of water can no longer be only driven by energy demand; rather a balance must be found between hydropower and the environment. To address this issue, we propose a new analytical framework which incorporates the results of environmental valuation studies into a multipurpose multireservoir operation model to determine the trade-off relationship between hydropower generation and ecological preservation. Instead of imposing minimum flow requirements, the approach rather builds simple demand curves for environmental goods and services, which are then imposed to the system at particular locations. Since the environmental, especially wetland, valuation studies are inherently imprecise, a sensitivity analysis is carried out whereby reservoir release policies are determined for a set of discrete values put on environmental flows. The trade-off relationship provides a concise way of exploring the extent to which hydropower generation must be sacrificed in order to restore flow fluctuation throughout the basin. The proposed framework is illustrated with the multireservoir system in the Zambezi basin.

Tilmant, Amaury; Beevers, Lindsay; Muyunda, Bonje

2010-05-01

191

Hydropower resources at risk: The status of hydropower regulation and development - 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents today`s hydropower licensing and development status based on published data as follows: (a) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) databases, maintained by FERC`s Office of Hydropower Licensing, of: (1) operating FERC-regulated projects, federal projects, and known unlicensed projects; (2) surrendered licenses; and, (3) recent licensing and relicensing actions; (b) Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on installed capacity and generation from 1949 through 1995 for the various resources used to produce electricity in the U.S.; and, (c) FERC licensing orders, and environmental assessments or environmental impact statements for each individual project relicensed since 1980. The analysis conducted to prepare this paper includes the effects of all FERC hydropower licensing actions since 1980, and applies those findings to estimate the costs of hydropower licensing and development activity for the next 15 years. It also quantifies the national cost of hydropower regulation. The future estimates are quite conservative. The are presented in 1996 dollars without speculating on the effects of future inflation, license surrenders, conditions imposed through open-ended license articles, license terms greater than 30 years, or low water years. Instead, they show the most directly predictable influences on licensing outcomes using actual experiences since ECPA (after 1986).

Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.A. [Richard Hunt Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1997-09-01

192

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km  

CERN Multimedia

We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The final outcome of the study is to investigate the opportunity to implement an automatic system for the forecast of these parameters at these sites. In this paper we present results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the vertical stratification of the atmospherical parameters along the 20 km above the ground. The very satisfactory performances shown by the model in reconstructing most of these parameters (and in particular the wind speed) put this tool of investigation as the most suitable to be used in as...

Masciadri, E; Fini, L

2013-01-01

193

Modeling complex equilibria in isothermal titration calorimetry experiments: thermodynamic parameters estimation for a three-binding-site model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful technique that can be used to estimate a complete set of thermodynamic parameters (e.g., K(eq) (or ?G), ?H, ?S, and n) for a ligand-binding interaction described by a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamic models are constructed by combining equilibrium constant, mass balance, and charge balance equations for the system under study. Commercial ITC instruments are supplied with software that includes a number of simple interaction models, for example, one binding site, two binding sites, sequential sites, and n-independent binding sites. More complex models, for example, three or more binding sites, one site with multiple binding mechanisms, linked equilibria, or equilibria involving macromolecular conformational selection through ligand binding, need to be developed on a case-by-case basis by the ITC user. In this paper we provide an algorithm (and a link to our MATLAB program) for the nonlinear regression analysis of a multiple-binding-site model with up to four overlapping binding equilibria. Error analysis demonstrates that fitting ITC data for multiple parameters (e.g., up to nine parameters in the three-binding-site model) yields thermodynamic parameters with acceptable accuracy.

Le VH; Buscaglia R; Chaires JB; Lewis EA

2013-03-01

194

Modeling complex equilibria in isothermal titration calorimetry experiments: thermodynamic parameters estimation for a three-binding-site model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a powerful technique that can be used to estimate a complete set of thermodynamic parameters (e.g., K(eq) (or ?G), ?H, ?S, and n) for a ligand-binding interaction described by a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamic models are constructed by combining equilibrium constant, mass balance, and charge balance equations for the system under study. Commercial ITC instruments are supplied with software that includes a number of simple interaction models, for example, one binding site, two binding sites, sequential sites, and n-independent binding sites. More complex models, for example, three or more binding sites, one site with multiple binding mechanisms, linked equilibria, or equilibria involving macromolecular conformational selection through ligand binding, need to be developed on a case-by-case basis by the ITC user. In this paper we provide an algorithm (and a link to our MATLAB program) for the nonlinear regression analysis of a multiple-binding-site model with up to four overlapping binding equilibria. Error analysis demonstrates that fitting ITC data for multiple parameters (e.g., up to nine parameters in the three-binding-site model) yields thermodynamic parameters with acceptable accuracy. PMID:23262283

Le, Vu H; Buscaglia, Robert; Chaires, Jonathan B; Lewis, Edwin A

2012-12-19

195

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

2001-01-01

196

Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

2008-01-01

197

76 FR 11446 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions to...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2047-049] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP. e. Name of Project: Stewarts Bridge...Specialist, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP, Hudson River Operations, 399 Big...

2011-03-02

198

Reliability validation of hydropower units of high-head developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout the development of the hydropower special attention was paid to the formation of a theoretical framework and methods of parameters and operating modes of powerhouses study. Under current design standards mathematical modeling of powerhouse is performed in two-dimensional for the axisymmetric problem. Up to now this method of simulation in Russia is the determining, although it has long lagged behind the capabilities of modern universal software of finite element analysis.The article presents analysis of the mathematical modeling methods for powerhouses of high-head hydroelectric power plants. Statement of the problem of three-dimensional modeling of the object – powerhouse is given. The procedure for multilayer three-dimensional modeling of water-conveyance conduits is presented. Outlined are the advantages of detailed numerical models of powerhouses in the context of their reliability verification.

G.L. Kozinets

2012-01-01

199

Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

2010-10-15

200

Partnering up: Indian/Nepalese hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Arun III hydropower project in Nepal has been revived thanks to cooperation with an Indian Conglomerate and investment from a US company. Despite the power generation potential, and irrigation projects which could accrue from this scheme, there is widespread concern about the environmental impacts of the project. The resource potential of the scheme is noted and contractual details effecting the two neighbouring countries are discussed. (UK)

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The potential of hydropower in Hessen; Das Wasserkraftpotenzial in Hessen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A location-related inquiry of hydropower potential in Hesse was performed on the basis of current data on the structures and hydropower plants stationed along the Hessian rivers. The inquiry considers besides technical also important hydromorphological requirements as well as economical aspects. Taking these into account the total potential varies between 490 and 540 GWh/a. The hydropower potential which is used amounts to 426 GWh/a. So the percentage which is not used is close to 20%. (orig.)

Roland, Frank; Theobald, Stephan [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

2011-07-01

202

Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

1991-01-01

203

[Influence of cascaded exploitation of small hydropower on phytoplankton in Xiangxi River].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the five small hydropowers (SHPs) from up- to downstream of Xiangxi River as test objects, this paper studied the influence of SHPs cascaded exploitation on the phytoplankton in the river. The results showed that phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by diatoms, occupying 95.54% of the total number of species. Achnanthes linearis, A. lanceolata var. elliptica and Cocconeis placentula were the most abundant species, with the relative abundance being 23.96%, 18.62% and 12.48%, respectively. The average algal density at 25 sampling sites was 6.29 x 10(5) ind x L(-1), with the maximum of 1.81 x 10(6) ind x L(-1) and the minimum of 2.35 x 10(5) ind x L(-1). Two-way ANOVA indicated that water flow velocity was the main factor affecting the phytoplankton. The establishment of the cascaded SHPs on the river made the habitat of lower reach has a significant difference with the others, resulting in a dramatic change of many parameters including Margalef diversity index, species richness, generic richness, taxonomic composition, and the percentage of diatoms.

Wu NC; Tang T; Zhou SC; Fu XC; Jiang WX; Li FQ; Cai QH

2007-05-01

204

Optimal sizing of a run-of-river small hydropower plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sizing of a small hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is very critical for the cost effectiveness of the investment. In the present work, a numerical method is used for the optimal sizing of such a plant that comprises two hydraulic turbines operating in parallel, which can be of different type and size in order to improve its efficiency. The study and analysis of the plant performance is conducted using a newly developed evaluation algorithm that simulates in detail the plant operation during the year and computes its production results and economic indices. A parametric study is performed first in order to quantify the impact of some important construction and operation factors. Next, a stochastic evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the optimization process. The examined optimization problem uses data of a specific site and is solved in the single and two-objective modes, considering, together with economic, some additional objectives, as maximization of the produced energy and the best exploitation of the water stream potential. Analyzing the results of various optimizations runs, it becomes possible to identify the most advantageous design alternatives to realize the project. It was found that the use of two turbines of different size can enhance sufficiently both the energy production of the plant and the economic results of the investment. Finally, the sensitivity of the plant performance to other external parameters can be easily studied with the present method, and some indicative results are given for different financial or hydrologic conditions. (author)

Anagnostopoulos, John S.; Papantonis, Dimitris E. [School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens 15780 (Greece)

2007-10-15

205

Optimal sizing of a run-of-river small hydropower plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sizing of a small hydropower plant of the run-of-river type is very critical for the cost effectiveness of the investment. In the present work, a numerical method is used for the optimal sizing of such a plant that comprises two hydraulic turbines operating in parallel, which can be of different type and size in order to improve its efficiency. The study and analysis of the plant performance is conducted using a newly developed evaluation algorithm that simulates in detail the plant operation during the year and computes its production results and economic indices. A parametric study is performed first in order to quantify the impact of some important construction and operation factors. Next, a stochastic evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the optimization process. The examined optimization problem uses data of a specific site and is solved in the single and two-objective modes, considering, together with economic, some additional objectives, as maximization of the produced energy and the best exploitation of the water stream potential. Analyzing the results of various optimizations runs, it becomes possible to identify the most advantageous design alternatives to realize the project. It was found that the use of two turbines of different size can enhance sufficiently both the energy production of the plant and the economic results of the investment. Finally, the sensitivity of the plant performance to other external parameters can be easily studied with the present method, and some indicative results are given for different financial or hydrologic conditions.

2007-01-01

206

Water: resources management under conflicting objectives: hydropower versus national park  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower plays an essential role in the Austrian energy supply. About two thirds of the electric consumption are covered by hydropower generation. The objective of this paper is to analyse a pending conflict between hydropower utilisation and environmental concerns along the Austrian section of the Danube downstream of Vienna. In the first step the utilizable hydropower potential of the respective section and the environmental impacts are assessed. In a subsequent step a framework is elaborated to compare and to trade off economic and environmental objectives. Such a procedure requires preference values and is thus subjected to subjectivity, introduced either by decision makers or by involved parties. (author).

1994-01-01

207

Next Generation Hydropower Technology: Available, Economical, Quickly Deployed, While Minimizing The Impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kinetic Energy Recovery Turbine TREK technology is an innovative technology that will convert a fraction of the kinetic energy contained in rivers currents. The TREK technology targets sites that cannot be economically, technically or environmentally developed using conventional hydropower technologies (i.e. hydroelectric dams). The TREK is expected to deliver renewable base load electricity at a competitive cost compared to other renewable energy options. The technology can also be used to provide dispatchable and remote electricity.

Hamad, Imad

2010-09-15

208

Hydro-power in a competitive market; Hydro-Power im Wettbewerbsumfeld  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While energy demand continues to rise, European hydro-power is faced with ever more stringent legal provisions and environmental targets. At the same time, the transition from a monopoly situation to a liberalised electricity market has resulted in a shift in emphasis from macro-economic considerations to a business-mangement approach to hydro-power as the classic renewable energy source. Hence, for market operators hoping to position themselves favourable through the offer of new products, such as control and balancing energy, it is essential to recognise emerging technology and energy trends at an early point in time. However, fair competition requires a stable legal framework. (orig.)

Schroefelbauer, H. [VERBUND-Austrian Hydro Power AG, Wien (Austria)

2005-07-01

209

Influence of meteorological parameters on seasonal pan evaporation at KKNPP site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moisture in the atmosphere plays a significant role in weather and climate that is commonly treated separately from the other constituents of air. Evaporation of water from free water surface is influenced by a number of meteorological variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation. It also depends upon other variables such as, geographical location, season, time of day, etc. These variables have been known for a long time, but their evaluation is rather complex, due to their interdependent effects. In this paper, meteorological variables influencing seasonal evaporation in tropical region were examined for 6 years (2004-2009) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Site. The results of correlation and regression analysis revealed that in winter season, relative humidity is the most influencing parameter on pan evaporation rate, which affected negatively. Ambient air temperature, solar radiation and wind velocity are the main variables which show positive correlation in summer season. In south west monsoon, ambient air temperature and wind velocity are the most influential variables. In addition to that, all the four seasons, solar radiation plays significant role and positively correlated with pan evaporation. During north east monsoon, only solar radiation showed its influence on evaporation

2012-01-01

210

Hydropower - a Green energy? tropical reservoirs and Greenhouse gas emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reservoirs are man-made lakes that severely impact on river ecosystems, and in addition, the new lake ecosystem can be damaged by several processes. Thus, the benefits of a reservoir, including energy production and flood control, must be measured against their impact on nature. New investigations point out that shallow and tropical reservoirs have high emission rates of the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. The methane emissions contribute strongly to climate change because CH{sub 4} has a 25 times higher global warming potential than CO{sub 2}. The pathways for its production include ebullition, diffuse emission via the water-air interface, and degassing in turbines and downstream of the reservoir in the spillway and the initial river stretch. Greenhouse gas emissions are promoted by a eutrophic state of the reservoir, and, with higher trophic levels, anaerobic conditions occur with the emission of CH{sub 4}. This means that a qualitative and quantitative jump in greenhouse gas emissions takes place. Available data from Petit Saut, French Guinea, provides a first quantification of these pathways. A simple evaluation of the global warming potential of a reservoir can be undertaken using the energy density, the ratio of the reservoir surface and the hydropower capacity; this parameter is mainly determined by the reservoir's morphometry but not by the hydropower capacity. Energy densities of some reservoirs are given and it is clearly seen that some reservoirs have a global warming potential higher than that of coal use for energy production. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Gunkel, Guenter [Department of Water Quality Control, Berlin University of Technology (Germany)

2009-09-15

211

Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

212

Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower''s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

1997-01-01

213

User's Guide Virtual Hydropower Prospector Version 1.1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) application for displaying U.S. water energy resource sites on hydrologic region maps. The application assists the user in locating sites of interest and performing preliminary, development feasibility assessments. These assessments are facilitated by displaying contextual features in addition to the water energy resource sites such as hydrograpy, roads, power infrastructure, populated places, and land use and control. This guide provides instructions for operating the application to select what features are displayed and the extent of the map view. It also provides tools for selecting features of particular interest and displaying their attribute information.

Douglas G. Hall; Sera E. White; Julie A. Brizzee; Randy D. Lee

2005-11-01

214

Status of DOE small hydropower research and development projects  

Science.gov (United States)

The results and the status of small hydropower R and D projects are presented. Also included is an updated bibliography of completed reports. In most cases, reports are published to make available the research, engineering, operating, regulatory or cost information from the projects that are pertinent to hydropower development by private and nonfederal government sectors.

Magleby, E. H.; Rinehart, B. N.; Chappell, J. R.

1982-10-01

215

Editorial: Time for green certification for all hydropower?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While accrediting a large hydropower facility is intrinsically more complex and potentially controversial, it is time to review the progress made in understanding the environmental impacts of large hydropower and the development of environmentally friendly hydropower systems. Over the last two decades, many in-field, laboratory, and modeling technologies have been developed or improved to better understand the mechanisms of fish injury and mortality and to identify turbine design and operation alternatives to reduce such impacts. In 2010, representatives of DOE and the US Department of Interior, and USACE signed a memorandum of understanding to work more closely to develop sustainable hydropower. One of their major objectives is to increase hydropower generation using low-impact and environmentally sustainable approaches. Given the recent scientific and technological advances that have decreased the environmental impact of hydropower and the need to aggressively facilitate development of low impact hydropower, we think it is indeed time to initiate a science-based green certification program that includes rigorous criteria for environmental protection but does not exclude hydropower based on size only.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-04-10

216

Geothermal and hydropower production in Iceland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the impact of current and future development of geothermal and hydropower production on the economy of Iceland. Natural conditions in Iceland favor the increased utilization and development of both of these abundant power sources. The mean surface run-off in Iceland is about 50 l/s/km2 (liters per second per square kilometer), with a large part of the country consisting of a plateau more than 400 meters above sea level. More than half of the country is above 500 meters above sea level. ne technically harnessable hydropower potential is estimated at 64 TWh/year (terawatthours per year), of which 30 TWh/year is considered economically and environmentally harnessable. In addition, Iceland has abundant geothermal energy sources. A quarter of the entire country is a volcanic area. Keeping in mind that geothermal resources are not strictly renewable, it is estimated that the potential power production from this source is 20 TWh/year. Present utilization of these two resources totals only 4.2 TWh/year, or only about 8% of Iceland's aggregate potential. There are many issues facing Iceland today as it considers development opportunities utilizing both of these abundant power supplies. This paper will first consider the technical aspects of both hydropower and geothermal power production in Iceland. Then, the economic consequences of alternative utilization of these energy sources will be evaluated. The first alternative to be considered will be the direct export of power by HVDC submarine cable to other countries, such as Scotland or the United Kingdom. Iceland could, as a second alterative, concentrate its efforts on bringing in energy intensive industries into the country.

1993-01-01

217

Low-head hydropower impacts on steam dissolved oxygen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method to evaluate the effect of hydropower development on downstream dissolved oxygen (DO) is presented for a low head dam. Water, previously aerated during release over spillways and under gates, is diverted through the hydropower facility without further aeration. The oxygen transfer that occurs as a result of air entrainment at the various release points of a dam is measured. Oxygen transfer efficiencies are calculated and incorporated into an oxygen transfer model to predict average release DO concentrations. This model is used to systematically determine the effect of hydropower operation on downstream DO. Operational alternatives are investigated and a simple operational guide is developed to mitigate the effects of hydropower operation. Combinations of reduced generation and optimal releases from the dam allow the hydropower facility to operate within DO standards

1989-01-01

218

Report of the hydropower and climate change workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This workshop was held in response to a survey conducted to determine the hydropower industry's interest in adapting to climate change. The impacts of climate change and unusual weather events on the hydropower industry were reviewed. The workshop examined current levels of awareness about the potential impacts of climate change as well as hydropower sector vulnerability to climate change and its impact on the operation and planning of hydropower systems. Past and future changes in hydrologic regimes were examined, and regional climate model results were analyzed. Representatives shared experiences related to unusual weather events. A total of 20 papers were presented at the workshop. Presentations were followed by breakout sessions held to discuss vulnerabilities within the hydropower sector. 4 tabs.

2006-01-01

219

Lock and Dam 7 Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. Reconnaissance report for hydropower. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 7. The study shows that installation of a hydro plant with a 4,800-kW (kilowatt) or 7,200-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and two optional installations are given. Severe environmental impacts do not appear to be associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated despite the proximity of the lock and dam to an environmentally sensitive area. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 7.

1980-12-01

220

Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is currently being studied. Typically these studies consider the inherent flexibility of hydropower technologies, but tend to fall short on details regarding grid operations, institutional arrangements, and hydropower environmental regulations. This presentation will focus on an analysis that Argonne National Laboratory is conducting in collaboration with the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The analysis evaluates the extent to which Western's hydropower resources may help with grid integration challenges via a proposed Energy Imbalance Market. This market encompasses most of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council footprint. It changes grid operations such that the real-time dispatch would be, in part, based on a 5-minute electricity market. The analysis includes many factors such as site-specific environmental considerations at each of its hydropower facilities, long-term firm purchase agreements, and hydropower operating objectives and goals. Results of the analysis indicate that site-specific details significantly affect the ability of hydropower plant to respond to grid needs in a future which will have a high penetration of variable resources.

Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

2011-12-01

222

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

Science.gov (United States)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

2012-11-01

223

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

2012-11-26

224

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily demands peak and consider the existing autocorrelation between biweekly volume data.

M. L. Arganis; R. Domínguez

2008-01-01

225

Hydrologic evaluation methods for hydropower studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techniques are presented for making hydrologic analyses in both unregulated and regulated streams. The problem of estimating flow duration curves at ungaged ponts in unregulated stream is addressed. Three analyses techniques, which were developed in a hydropower survey of the Pacific Northwest Region, are presented. All three of these methods rely on the use of normal annual precipitation data in the development of the analyses techniques. A computer program has been developed and is presented for applying the method. A complex users manual for this program including flow diagrams, program listing, and example programs is given.

Heitz, L.F.

1981-01-01

226

A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

1992-01-01

227

Hydroelectric power in Hawaii. A report on the statewide survey of potential hydroelectric sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment was made of the hydropower potential in Hawaii. The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 MW of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 MW of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kWh of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands, Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%, on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. A summary of existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities and estimated annual outputs for each island is presented. How much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time is indicated. The economics of hydropower at specific sites were analyzed. The major conclusion of this analysis is that hydropower development costs vary widely among the different sites, but that generally the cost of hydroelectric power is either less than or comparable to the cost of oil-fired power.

Beck, C.A.

1981-02-01

228

New water turbines for existing hydropower plants; Neue Wasserturbinen fuer vorhandene Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, 10% of the electrical energy stems from hydropower, while it is as much as 20% in Bavaria. Consequently, hydropower makes an important contribution to our energy sector. At present there are some 15,000 hydropower plants operating in Germany, with some of the turbines dating back to the period 1900 to 1930. Many of these plants have not yet been modernized. Uprating is most effectively achieved by replacing the old Francis turbines with new Kaplan turbines, since the efficiency of the latter is about 10% higher. By installing new precision gearing and asynchronous generators in the powerhouse, the capacity can be increased by 10 to 30%. The modernization of a hydropower plant in Hausen near Waldshut resulted in a 60% capacity increase. The Kaplan turbine at this plant has a power of 340 kW. However, each hydropower plant is quite unique, so that it is necessary to observe a variety of individual conditions and parameters. For this reason, the modernization should be entrusted to experienced specialists. The costs for a new Kaplan turbine start at around DM 150,000.-. The three modernization examples described here involve small hydropower plants with a capacity of 49 kW (Kaplan turbine/Villforth), 59 kW (Francis turbine/Rosenheim) and 150 kW (Kaplan turbine/Bobzin). This scale is typical for many other plants. (orig.) [German] Will man den Anlagenwirkungsgrad einer Wasserkraftanlage steigern, erreicht man den groessten Effekt durch den Austausch einer alten Francis-gegen eine neue Kaplanturbine. Die Kaplanturbine hat gegenueber der Francis einen ca. 10% hoeheren Wirkungsgrad. Durch den Austausch der veralteten Einrichtung im Maschinenraum, gegen neue Praezisionsgetriebe und Asynchron-Generatoren kann eine Leistungssteigerung von 10 bis 30% erreicht werden. Zur besseren Beurteilung der Vielfaeltigkeit und Entscheidungskriterien werden drei Beispiele von Wasserkraftanlagen beschrieben, in die die neue Francis- bzw. Kaplanmaschinen eingebaut wurden. Es sind typische kleine Wasserkraftanlagen, wie sie an vielen Standorten laufen. Die Leistungen sind 49 kW (Villforth/Kaplanturbine), 59 kW (Rosenheim/Francisturbine) und 150 kW (Bobzin/Kaplanturbine). (orig.)

Nowotny, G. [WKA Anlagenbau GmbH, Heidenheim (Germany)

2000-04-01

229

A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m?2 d?1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

2013-01-01

230

Tailoring seasonal climate forecasts for hydropower operations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integration of seasonal precipitation forecasts into water resources operations and planning is practically nonexistent, even in regions of scarcity. This is often attributable to water manager's tendency to act in a risk averse manner, preferring to avoid consequences of poor forecasts, at the expense of unrealized benefits. Convincing demonstrations of forecast value are therefore desirable to support assimilation into practice. A dynamically linked system, including forecast, rainfall-runoff, and hydropower models, is applied to the upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia to compare benefits and reliability generated by actual forecasts against a climatology-based approach, commonly practiced in most water resources systems. Processing one hundred decadal sequences demonstrates superior forecast-based benefits in 68 cases, a respectable advancement, however benefits in a few forecast-based sequences are noticeably low, likely to dissuade manager's adoption. A hydropower sensitivity test reveals a propensity toward poor-decision making when forecasts over-predict wet conditions. Tailoring the precipitation forecast to highlight critical dry forecasts minimizes this inclination, resulting in 97% of the sequences favoring the forecast-based approach. Considering managerial risk preferences for the system, even risk-averse actions, if coupled with forecasts, exhibit superior benefits and reliability compared with risk-taking tendencies conditioned on climatology.

P. Block

2011-01-01

231

Sustainable developments of hydropower energy in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with policies to meet increasing energy demand for electricity from domestic energy sources in Turkey. A major dilemma now faced by Turkey is how to invest in new electric power capacity while at the same time adhering to foreign debt ceilings under lending rules set by the IMF. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country would be tapped. Sustainable development requires a balance between nature and mankind; through this balance, it programs for the life and development of both present and future generations without depleting natural resources. It is a concept that has social, ecological, economic, spatial, and cultural dimensions. In this meaning, as touched earlier, the Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish initials 'GAP') had originally started as a land and water resources development effort and was later transformed into a multisectoral and integrated development project by the GAP Administration. (author)

Demirbas, A.

2002-01-15

232

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. II: atmospherical parameters in the surface layer [0-30] m  

CERN Document Server

This article is the second of a series of articles aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence (Cn2 and the derived astro-climatic parameters like seeing, isoplanatic angle, wavefront coherence time...). This study is done in the framework of the MOSE project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In this paper we present the results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the surface layer atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity, wind direction and absolute temperature, [0-30] m a.g.l.). The model reconstruction of all the atmospherical parameters in the surface layer is very satisfactory. For the temperature, at all levels, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is inferior to 1{\\deg}C. For the wind speed, it is ~2 m/s, and for the wind direction, it is in the ran...

Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

2013-01-01

233

Site specificity of biosphere parameter values in performance assessments of near-surface repositories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution is dealing with the performance assessment model for near surface repositories in Belgium. It consists of four submodels called: site, aquifer, biosphere and dose. For some characteristic radionuclides, results of the study are shown for a typical site, and differences in doses assessed with the generic approach discussed. Shortcomings are indicated.

1993-01-01

234

DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

2003-07-01

235

Groundwater numerical modelling of the Fjaellveden study site - evaluation of parameter variations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity/uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity distribution in crystalline rocks is considered at the Fjaellveden study site - a site included in the Swedish site selection programme for final storage of spent nuclear fuel. A three-dimensional FEM-model assuming steady-state flow with constant fluid properties under saturated conditions is used. The bedrock of the site is divided into three hydraulic units; rock mass, local and regional fracture zones. The data set of hydraulic conductivity of each unit has been treated statistically in various ways, reflecting different aspects of the physical conditions of the site. A total of nine cases have been prepared, all based on 214 data points. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

236

Protein interactions with small molecules. Relationships between stoichiometric binding constants, site binding constants, and empirical binding parameters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The multiple equilibria for the binding of a ligand A by a macromolecule P with n binding sites may be formulated in terms of a stoichiometric analysis or on the basis of a site-oriented scrutiny. The dependence of binding on ligand concentration can always be correlated in terms of n stoichiometric binding constants,Ki, even if there are interactions between sites that accentuate or attenuate binding affinities. A corresponding correlation in terms of site binding constants, kj, under the most general circumstances depends on the definition of n2n-1 different constants of which 2n-1 are independent. If experimental data are correlated in terms of n parameters kalpha, kbeta ... klambda in an equation of the site-binding form, (see article for formular) then there is no guarantee that the values of ka, kb, etc., have any unique relationships to site binging constants. Examples are given to illustrate this point. Equation are derived for relating stoichiometric binding constants to site binding constants, for the general case and for various special circumstances. These equations make it possible to define and analyze binding insystems with interactions and conformational accommodations. Accordingly, a graphical procedure is described (in which iKi is plotted against i, the stoichiometric binding step) that provides an affinity profile for concise representation of magnitudes of binding constants and for detecting interactions that accentuate or attenuate site binding affinities.

Klotz IM; Hunston DL

1975-04-01

237

Hydraulic model tests and hydraulic measurement on site accompanying modification works of spillway of hydropower plant; Suiryoku hatsudenshoyo suiro kaizo koji ni tomonau suiri mokei jikken to genchi suiri keisoku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hokkaido Electric Power Company has been executing gradually the modification works to unify discharge channels of the sp8illway and the main channel of any existing power plant. This is based on the result of reexamination on safety in and on the rivers in order to cope with environmental changes around the rivers. The route of spillway is to be altered for the above unification and in many cases, horizontal curves are provided. Also in case when a shaft type is adopted for an energy killing work, a longitudinal curve is required. The general institute of the company has grasped through various model tests the hydraulic characteristics in case when a high speed jet stream runs through the above curved part. In this article, the stream conditions have been predicted by hydraulic model tests taking into consideration the longitudinal alignment of the spillway of Iwachishi Plant and validity of the model tests has been evaluated by conducting measurement on site at the time of tests with water. While good energy killing effects have been observed during the hydraulic tests, the actual energy killing has shown the condition different somewhat from this, however. This is resulted from that the flow velocity in the spillway is bigger than the tests and inter alia, a big amount of air runs into the water in the energy killing work

Yokotsuji, S.; Hirai, Y.; Abe, H. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., Sapporo (Japan)] Aoyama, N. [Hokuden Kogyo Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan)

1997-09-01

238

A review of the Se San 3 hydropower project feasibility study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Probe International is a leading energy and environmental organization which examines the economic effects of Canada's aid and trade abroad. In that context, the organization assessed the performance of the Se San 3 Hydropower Project in Vietnam. The Swedish hydropower consultants SWECO and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) recommended the location of the Se San 3 hydropower project after a feasibility study indicated it was the best technical, economic and environmental option. The ADB planned to provide an $80 million start-up loan for the 260 MW dam with the hope of attracting an additional $240 million from international investors such as Hydro-Quebec in Canada and Statkraft in Norway. This decision was deferred following reports that the Ya Li dam, located 20 km upstream of the Se San site had caused flash floods endangering 20,000 people living along the Cambodian stretch of the river. The ADB offered $1.8 million to conduct downstream impact studies, but withdrew its loan for the Se San 3. Vietnam is now expected to pursue other sources of financing. Probe International commissioned a review of the original SWECO feasibility study and found that the dam's international proponents exaggerated the output and economic benefits of the project and ignored potential costs that would probably be imposed on downstream communities beyond Vietnam's borders. A sensitivity analysis by Probe International found that the project is not economically viable. refs., tabs.

White, W.C.

2000-10-16

239

???????????????? Discussion on Nianpanshan Hydropower Station Investment Benefit Allocation Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? As a comprehensive pivotal project, the hydropower station has multiple project benefits. In the process of the calculation of economic evaluation, due to the influence of actual situation, it is impossible to quantify some benefits properly. It is the same case with investment because some buildings have a variety of functions at the same time. With a case study of the Nianpanshan Hydropower Station, this paper proposed a method to allocate the investment based on their benefits in economic evaluation, which was also suitable for hydropower stations with multiple benefits. It was indicated that the proposed method worked very well and could provide helpful experiments for the similar projects.

???

2013-01-01

240

Economies of scale in the Swiss hydropower sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper considers the estimation of a tran slog cost function employing panel data for a sample of 43 Swiss hydropower companies, over the period of 1995-2002. The results of this analysis indicate the existence of economies of scale and density for most output levels. The basic novelty in this paper is the estimation of a cost function for a sample of hydropower companies. In the economic literature no study on the cost structure of the hydropower plants using an econometric approach has been published so far. (Author)

Filippini, Massimo; Luchsinger, Cornelia

2005-12-15

 
 
 
 
241

Climate change effects on hydropower potential of the Alcantara river basin in Sicily (Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years an increasing attention has been paid to hydropower generation, since it is a renewable, efficient, and reliable source of energy, as well as an effective tool to reduce the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities. At the same time, however, hydropower is high vulnerable to global warming, because water resources are closely linked to climate changes. Indeed, the effects of climate change on water availability are expected to affect hydropower generation with special reference to Southern countries which are supposed to face dryer conditions in the next decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of future climate change on the hydrological regime of the Alcantara river basin, Eastern Sicily (Italy), based on Monte Carlo simulations. Synthetic series of daily rainfall and temperature are generated, based on observed data, through a first order Markov chain and an ARMA model respectively, for the current scenario and two future scenarios at 2025. In particular, the mean and standard deviation values of daily rainfall and temperature at 2025, calculated using simulations of the Hadley Centre Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (HadCM3), are adopted to generate future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Synthetic series for the two climatic scenarios are, then, introduced as input into the IHACRES model to simulate the hydrological response of the basin. The effects of climate change are, then, investigated by analysing potential modification of the resulting flow duration curves and utilisation curves, which allow to estimate a site's energy potential for the design of run-of-river hydropower plants.

Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Brunella

2013-04-01

242

Analysis of site parameters affecting natural attenuation in saturated soil. Master's thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigated the natural attenuation mechanisms and some of the parameters affecting those mechanisms in the saturated zone. A literature search revealed numerous studies of various attenuation and the associated parameters. Much of the literature emphasized biodegradation as the most promising attenuation mechanism. BIOPLUME II(TM), a fate and transport model, was used to simulate the fate and transport of contaminant plume. The effects of the model parameters were investigated by observing the distance a contaminant plume was expected to migrate over a fifty year period. The investigation was limited by the model which excludes chemical reactions and some physical and physiochemical reactions. The model simulations indicated that parameters which exhibited significant influence on natural attenuation include hydraulic conductivity, reaeration, and coefficient of anaerobic biodegradation.

Potts, W.H.

1993-09-01

243

Better estimation of protein-DNA interaction parameters improve prediction of functional sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterizing transcription factor binding motifs is a common bioinformatics task. For transcription factors with variable binding sites, we need to get many suboptimal binding sites in our training dataset to get accurate estimates of free energy penalties for deviating from the consensus DNA sequence. One procedure to do that involves a modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) method designed to produce many such sequences. Results We analyzed low stringency SELEX data for E. coli Catabolic Activator Protein (CAP), and we show here that appropriate quantitative analysis improves our ability to predict in vitro affinity. To obtain large number of sequences required for this analysis we used a SELEX SAGE protocol developed by Roulet et al. The sequences obtained from here were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The resulting bioinformatic model characterizes the sequence specificity of the protein more accurately than those sequence specificities predicted from previous analysis just by using a few known binding sites available in the literature. The consequences of this increase in accuracy for prediction of in vivo binding sites (and especially functional ones) in the E. coli genome are also discussed. We measured the dissociation constants of several putative CAP binding sites by EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) and compared the affinities to the bioinformatics scores provided by methods like the weight matrix method and QPMEME (Quadratic Programming Method of Energy Matrix Estimation) trained on known binding sites as well as on the new sites from SELEX SAGE data. We also checked predicted genome sites for conservation in the related species S. typhimurium. We found that bioinformatics scores based on SELEX SAGE data does better in terms of prediction of physical binding energies as well as in detecting functional sites. Conclusion We think that training binding site detection algorithms on datasets from binding assays lead to better prediction. The improvements in accuracy came from the unbiased nature of the SELEX dataset rather than from the number of sites available. We believe that with progress in short-read sequencing technology, one could use SELEX methods to characterize binding affinities of many low specificity transcription factors.

Nagaraj Vijayalakshmi H; O'Flanagan Ruadhan A; Sengupta Anirvan M

2008-01-01

244

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

A. Tilmant; Q. Goor; D. Pinte

2009-01-01

245

Preliminary assessment of several parameters to measure and compare usefulness of the CEOS reference pseudo-invariant calibration sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Test sites are central to any future quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) strategy. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group for Calibration and Validation (WGCV) Infrared Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) worked with collaborators around the world to establish a core set of CEOS-endorsed, globally distributed, reference standard test sites (both instrumented and pseudo-invariant) for the post-launch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) have high reflectance and are usually made up of sand dunes with low aerosol loading and practically no vegetation. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary assessment of "several parameters" than can be used on an operational basis to compare and measure usefulness of reference sites all over the world. The data from Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion sensors over the CEOS PICS were used to perform a preliminary assessment of several parameters, such as usable area, data availability, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, at-sensor brightness temperature, spatial uniformity, temporal stability, spectral stability, and typical spectrum observed over the sites.

Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (.; Helder, Dennis L.; Mishra, Nischal; Choi, Taeyoung (.; Wu, Aisheng

2010-10-01

246

Small hydropower plants; Petites centrales hydrauliques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The small hydroelectric power plants are significantly different from the big facilities managed by Electricite de France (EdF) with respect to: their small power, their localization along rivers, their decentralized operation, and their connection to the low or medium voltage grid. In many cases, they are installed at the place of an old water mill or factory and their multiplicity raises the problem of management of dispersed energy sources. This article presents the characteristics of small hydropower plants: 1 - hydraulic dimensioning; 2 - turbines (Pelton, Banki-Mitchell, Francis, Kaplan); 3 - civil engineering facilities; 4 - dams; 5 - water catchment; 6 - power generators (synchronous, asynchronous, variable speed); 7 - operation (autonomous plants, plants connected to the grid, protection systems). (J.S.)

Perrin, S. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Dept. Genie Electrique et Informatique Industrielle, 54 - Saint Die des Vosges (France)

2003-11-01

247

Private hydropower projects: exporting the american experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses different aspects of exporting the American knowledge and experience in the private development of small-scale hydropower projects. It details the 'export' and 'adaptation/translation' of American PURPA philosophy to other countries. The major stumbling blocks on the road to exportation are listed. The subject countries'market evaluation is explained, as well as methods for researching and gathering the necessary information on a specific country. Methods of choosing a target country are discussed, and the criteria necessary for making a choice are detailed. The subject of legal framework and privatization of power generation issues overseas and the ways and means to help the 'export of U.S. expertise' through U.S. Government programs are described. The subjects of financing and joint ventures with local entities are also included in this paper. Various scenarios for private development overseas are presented.

1991-01-01

248

The impact of drought on hydropower generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper explores the effects of extended drought on power generation at Shasta hydropower plant, a Bureau of Reclamation facility in Northern California. Statistical measures of water availability and power generation for the drought period 1988-90 are examined and compared with comparable statistics for both a normal water year, and a period of above normal water availability. The key role of hydraulic head in power generation is examined. A brief examination is made of functions served by the reservoir waters and the potential for tradeoff water allocations between power and other project functions during emergency water periods. The opportunity for revised emergency water allocations to power is minimal, due to the fact that practically all water used for other project functions goes first through the generators. Potential impacts of reduced generation on power revenues and rates are examined. Annual revenue losses during the drought are estimated at about $24 million

1991-01-01

249

Hydro-power and its ecological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydro-power is not only one of the oldest energy sources of man but played also a significant role for his cultural development. During the Antique Age water-puma, watermills and other water driven engines and instruments such as the water-organ and water clocks reached a high level of sophistication. Along with the fast expansion of watermills ecological impacts started during the Middle Ages, when the construction of millstreams and even the damming of lakes became significant activities. The critical change from local towards regional environmental impact, however, started only in connection with hydroelectric power engineering and comprises mainly the period since 1940. Its ecological, socioeconomic and even seismic consequences are underlined and described in this paper: It will be, however, demonstrated that the most unexpected positive ecological outcome from certain constructions of hydroelectric power-plants did also occur. (author).

1994-01-01

250

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute`s nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S&M and D&D activities. Battelle`s King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed.

NONE

1995-06-30

251

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Battelle Memorial Institute's nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S ampersand M and D ampersand D activities. Battelle's King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed

1995-01-01

252

Measurements of stress parameter and site attenuation from recordings of moderate to large earthquakes in Europe and the Middle East  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyse the raw, unfiltered acceleration time-series strong-motion data used for the European Strong Motion Database. After selecting high-quality recordings, suitable for Fourier analysis, we estimate crustal and site attenuation properties, Q0 and ?0, respectively, using two methods: a broad-band spectral modelling approach and a high-frequency linear fit. We find ?0 varies strongly, from negligible to ?0 = 0.09 s, with an average of ?0 = 0.032 s or ?0 = 0.033 s depending on the method employed. This is consistent with the wide variety of recording-site conditions from hard-rock to very-soft soil. Using the attenuation model, we then proceed to determine site-class amplification, seismic moments and ?2 stress parameters for several events with Mw values between 5 and 7.6. Site amplification is shown to vary strongly within a single site-class, although average amplification is consistent with resonance expected at soft-soil sites and theoretical crustal amplification at hard-rock sites. We show that seismic moments determined from Fourier spectra are consistent with database Mw values from moment tensor analysis, and that the resulting stress parameters are independent of magnitude or depth. Finally, we show that using the results of our analyses, along with the Reff distance metric to account for the geometry of the finite fault, we can predict pseudospectral acceleration (peak ground acceleration to 10 s) of the Izmit 1999 (Mw 7.5-7.6) event using a point-source stochastic simulation.

Edwards, Ben; Fäh, Donat

2013-08-01

253

Dynamic parameters of seismic waves and the seismic threat to a nuclear power plant site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hypothetical maximum effects of the so-called operating basis earthquake and of the safe shutdown earthquake should be defined for expressing the seismic threat to dimensionally and structurally complex structures which include nuclear power plants. Next to the said variables it will be necessary to take into account accelerograms corresponding to the said two types of earthquake. The objective selection of analogous accelerograms for the two types of earthquake necessitates the comprehensive knowledge of seismic wave parameters in the vicinity of the earthquake and their dependence on the earthquake magnitude and the distance from the epicentre. Relations are given of these parameters and macroseismic intensity and briefly described are other parameters obtained by statistical processing of digitalized seismic wave records. (Z.M.).

1985-01-01

254

Cross-sectional evaluation of clinical parameters to select high prevalence populations for periodontal disease: the site comparative severity methodology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudos epidemiológicos mostraram fortes evidências de que a doença periodontal não afeta todos os indivíduos da mesma maneira. Existem indivíduos e sítios com maior risco de ocorrer progressão da doença. Este estudo testou parâmetros para a seleção "a priori" de sítios e indivíduos potencialmente de risco. Foram utilizados para tal os dados dos exames clínicos periodontais de 2273 pacientes. A perda de inserção clínica foi medida em 6 sítios por dente. (more) Usando um programa de computador, os pacientes foram distribuídos em 14 grupos etários, com intervalos de 5 anos, a partir dos 11 anos de idade e até acima de 75 anos. A medida de cada sítio foi comparada com a média e a mediana da faixa etária do indivíduo, com o resultado da comparação com a mediana indicando a comparação da severidade do sítio (CSS). Foram calculados três parâmetros globais do indivíduo: parâmetro 1 (P1) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 4 mm; parâmetro 2 (P2) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica > 7 mm; parâmetro 3 (P3) - porcentagem de sítios com perda de inserção clínica superando a mediana do grupo etário em 100% ou mais. A amostra tinha 1466 (65%) mulheres e 807 (35%) homens. A maioria dos indivíduos apresentou valores de P1, P2 e P3 menores que 30%. O parâmetro 3 permitiu uma divisão da amostra de forma similar àquela realizada por P1 e P2, com a vantagem de analisar o indivíduo em relação a seu grupo etário. Com base nos resultados, sugere-se que a metodologia da CSS possa ser útil na seleção de uma população de alta prevalência de doença, e que linhas de corte entre 10% e 20% seriam as mais apropriadas para o uso do parâmetro 3. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies have shown strong evidence that periodontal disease does not affect all subjects in the same manner. There are subjects and sites with higher risk for disease progression. This study tested parameters to select "a priori" sites and subjects potentially at risk. The data from periodontal clinical examinations of 2273 subjects was used. The clinical loss of attachment was measured in 6 sites per tooth. Using computer software, the patients were distr (more) ibuted into 14 age groups, with intervals of 5 years, from 11 years to greater than 75 years of age. The measure of each site was compared with the average and the median values of the subject age group, with the results indicating site comparative severity (SCS). Three global parameters were calculated: parameter 1 (P1) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 4 mm; parameter 2 (P2) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss > 7 mm; parameter 3 (P3) - percentage of sites with clinical attachment loss surpassing the median value for the age group by 100% or more. There were 1466 (65%) females and 807 (35%) males. Most subjects had P1, P2 and P3 values less than 30%. Parameter 3 allowed a division of the sample similar to that of Parameters 1 and 2, with the advantage of analyzing the subject in relation to his/her age group. It was suggested that the methodology of SCS is useful for selecting a population with a high disease prevalence, and that cut-off lines between 10% and 20% would be appropriate for using Parameter 3.

Souza, Sérgio Luís Scombatti de; Taba Jr., Mario

2004-01-01

255

Hydropower systems planning in distribution networks based on GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Planning models for hydraulic energy systems developed with a new computational geographic information system (GIS) tool were presented. The GIS tool was used to identify sections of rivers that are suitable for small-scale run-of-river hydropower generation in the La Rioja region of Spain. The tool was also used to evaluate economic data related to financing grants, technological costs, installation costs, and forecast demands for various consumption scenarios. Case studies of 2 hydropower systems were used to test the tool. The planning models were based on levelized electric costs (LEC) of run-of-river hydropower systems, and enabled the systems to be analyzed in isolation as well as when connected to an existing electricity network. Results of the modelling studies showed that the tool is capable of analyzing the LEC of potential hydropower systems in a range of different scenarios while maintaining the geographic characteristics and requirements of individual regions. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Zorzano-Santamaria, P.; Fernandez-Jiminez, L.A.; Garcia-Garrido, E.; Zorzano-Alba, E.; Lara-Santillan, P.M.; Mendoza-Villena, M. [La Rioja Univ., La Rioja (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

2005-07-01

256

Mobility of hydrogen around nitrogen and oxygen trapping sites: phonon assisted tunneling parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mobility of H around O and N interstitial trapping sites has been studied in Nb using anelastic techniques. Hydrogen jump frequencies were measured in the temperature range 250 to 35/sup 0/K and significant deviations from an Arrhenius temperature dependence were observed. The data were fitted to the Flynn-Stoneham phonon assisted tunneling theory and the Debye temperatures, self trapping energies, and tunneling transition frequencies were determined for the O and N traps. These values are discussed in terms of a delocalized ring model for hydrogen diffusion and are related to the distortion fields around the trapping sites.

Zapp, P.E.; Birnbaum, H.K.

1980-11-01

257

Northeast-Midwest States Federal Hydropower Financing Authority Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Water and Power of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on S. 1918, July 29, 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine witnesses from DOE, the electric power industry, and interested parties presented their views on S. 1918, a bill that establishes the Northeast-Midwest States Federal Hydropower Financing Authority to develop potential sites from the 3673 identified by the Corps of Engineers. The financing authority would help to develop an untapped resource in an area plagued by high energy costs. At issue was the extent of the federal role and the need for further incentives to develop cost-effective hydropower. (DCK)

1982-01-01

258

Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

2012-01-10

259

NMR order parameters calculated in an expanding reference frame: identifying sites of short- and long-range motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] NMR order parameters are calculated from molecular dynamics computer simulations of ubiquitin and the apo (Ca2+-free) state of calbindin D9k. Calculations are performed in an expanding reference frame so as to discriminate between the effects of short- and long-range motions. This approach reveals that the dominant contributions to the order parameters are short-range. Longer-range contributions are limited to specific sites, many of which have been recognized in previous studies of correlated motions. These sites are identified on the basis of an effective reorientational number, neff. Not only does this parameter identify sites of short- and long-range motion, it also provides a way of evaluating the separability condition that is key to the Lipari-Szabo model-free method. When analyzed in conjunction with the Prompers-Brüschweiler separability index, the neff values indicate that longer-range motions play a more prominent role in apo calbindin than they do in ubiquitin.

2011-01-01

260

An investigation of wash-off controlling parameters at urban and commercial monitoring sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between the parameters of the wash-off function and the controlling hydrologic variables are investigated in this paper, assuming that the pollutant generation process basically depends on the watershed rainfall-runoff response characteristics. Data collected during an intense monitoring program carried out by the Department of Environmental Engineering of the University of Genova (Italy) within a residential area, an auto dismantler facility, a tourism terminal and a urban waste truck depot are used to this aim. The observed runoff events are classified into different TSS mass delivery processes and the occurrence of the first flush phenomenon is also investigated. The correlation between the mathematical parameters describing the exponential process and the hydrological parameters of the corresponding rainfall-runoff event is analysed: runoff parameters and in particular the maximum flow discharge over the time of concentration of the drainage network are proposed as the controlling factor for the total mass of pollutant that is made available for wash-off during each runoff event.

Berretta C; Gnecco I; Lanza LG; La Barbera P

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Status of DOE small hydropower research and development projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The results and the status of DOE small hydropower R and D projects are presented. Also included is an updated bibliography of completed reports. In most cases, reports are published to make available the research, engineering, operating, regulatory or cost information from the projects that are pertinent to hydropower development by private and nonfederal government sectors. The bibliography also presents information for ordering the reports listed.

Magleby, E.H.; Rinehart, B.N.; Chappell, J.R. (eds.)

1982-10-01

262

The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

2006-01-01

263

Electricity market liberalisation endangers hydropower; Strommarktliberalisierung gefaehrdet einheimische Wasserkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article describes the argumentation of the Governmental Conference of the Swiss Mountain Cantons concerning the effects of future electricity market liberalisation on the inland hydropower business. Possible effects such as the postponement of investments in the maintenance and renewal of hydropower plant or merciless predatory competition are listed. Also, problems for the owners that may result from the liberalisation such as being burdened with investments that can no longer be amortised are discussed and possible solutions are mentioned.

Rey, A. Dr

2000-07-01

264

Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

T.R. Neelakantan; K. Sasireka

2013-01-01

265

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle's King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels

1998-01-01

266

Assessment of potential orthodontic mini-implant insertion sites based on anatomical hard tissue parameters: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To estimate the applicability of potential sites for insertion of orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) by a systematic review of studies that used computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT to evaluate anatomical bone quality and quantity parameters, such as bone thickness, available space, and bone density. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to identify all relevant papers. Several key words were used, such as computerized/computed tomography, mini-implants, and OMIs. The anatomical variables that were assigned in each article to a specific site suggesting it as the ideal or best alternative were assessed separately and evaluated with a scoring system. RESULTS: Twenty-two articles were included in the study. The most favorable areas for OMI insertion in the maxilla are proposed between the first and second molars buccally and palatally. The best area in the mandible is also between the first and second molars, both buccally and lingually. In the palate, the paramedian area 3 to 6 mm posterior to and 2 to 9 mm lateral to the incisive foramen was identified as the best site for OMI placement. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was considerable agreement regarding the optimal site for OMI insertion among most studies that investigated anatomical hard tissue parameters based on CT or CBCT data. In this respect, the posterior area from the second premolar to the second molar is the best option for OMI placement in alveolar bone.

AlSamak S; Gkantidis N; Bitsanis E; Christou P

2012-07-01

267

Temperature dependence of the electric field gradient parameters at sup 19 F lattice sites in semiconducting and insulating diamonds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electric field gradient parameters in insulating and semiconducting diamond, types IIa and IIb respectively, were measured as a function of temperature at residence sites of recoil implanted {sup 19}F by using the time-dependent perturbed angular distribution nuclear solid state technique. An improved experimental arrangement enables three distinct residence sites to be resolved, where only two had been resolved before. These correspond to quadrupole coupling constants of 62(1), 56(2) and 31(3) MHz. A strong temperature dependence in the fractional population of the second site was observed and is different for each of the two types of diamond. These measurements provide additional evidence for the explanation of this temperature dependence, i.e. a charge transfer from the lattice to the {sup 19}F occurs, which leads to the formation of the negative fluorine ion. (orig.).

Sideras-Haddad, E.; Connell, S.H.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Stemmet, M.C. (Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Naicker, V.V.; Bharuth-Ram, K. (Univ. of Durban-Westville (South Africa)); Appel, H. (Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany))

1992-01-15

268

Addressing Biogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydropower in LCA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

Hertwich EG

2013-09-01

269

Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

2010-07-01

270

Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: ? A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. ? The relative importance of the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. ? The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. ? The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. ? The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

2011-01-01

271

Comprehensive investigation of parameter choice in viral integration site analysis and its effects on the gene annotations produced.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introducing therapeutic genes into hematopoietic stem cells using retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer is an effective treatment for monogenic diseases. The risks of therapeutic gene integration include aberrant expression of a neighboring gene, resulting in oncogenesis at low frequencies (10(-7)-10(-6)/transduced cell). Mechanisms governing insertional mutagenesis are the subject of intensive ongoing studies that produce large amounts of sequencing data representing genomic regions flanking viral integration sites (IS). Validating and analyzing these data require automated bioinformatics applications. The exact methods used vary between applications, based on the requirements and preferences of the designer. The parameters used to analyze sequence data are capable of shaping the resulting integration site annotations, but a comprehensive examination of these effects is lacking. Here we present a web-based tool for integration site analysis, called Methods for Analyzing ViRal Integration Collections (MAVRIC), and use its highly customizable interface to look at how IS annotations can vary based on the analysis parameters. We used the integration data of the previously published adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) gene therapy trials for evaluation of MAVRIC. The output illustrates how MAVRIC allows for direct multiparameter comparison of integration patterns. Careful analysis of the SCID data and reanalyses using different parameters for trimming, alignment, and repeat masking revealed the degree of variation that can be expected to arise due to changes in these parameters. We observed mainly small differences in annotation, with the largest effects caused by masking repeat sequences and by changing the size of the window around the IS.

Huston MW; Brugman MH; Horsman S; Stubbs A; van der Spek P; Wagemaker G

2012-11-01

272

Comprehensive investigation of parameter choice in viral integration site analysis and its effects on the gene annotations produced.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introducing therapeutic genes into hematopoietic stem cells using retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer is an effective treatment for monogenic diseases. The risks of therapeutic gene integration include aberrant expression of a neighboring gene, resulting in oncogenesis at low frequencies (10(-7)-10(-6)/transduced cell). Mechanisms governing insertional mutagenesis are the subject of intensive ongoing studies that produce large amounts of sequencing data representing genomic regions flanking viral integration sites (IS). Validating and analyzing these data require automated bioinformatics applications. The exact methods used vary between applications, based on the requirements and preferences of the designer. The parameters used to analyze sequence data are capable of shaping the resulting integration site annotations, but a comprehensive examination of these effects is lacking. Here we present a web-based tool for integration site analysis, called Methods for Analyzing ViRal Integration Collections (MAVRIC), and use its highly customizable interface to look at how IS annotations can vary based on the analysis parameters. We used the integration data of the previously published adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) gene therapy trials for evaluation of MAVRIC. The output illustrates how MAVRIC allows for direct multiparameter comparison of integration patterns. Careful analysis of the SCID data and reanalyses using different parameters for trimming, alignment, and repeat masking revealed the degree of variation that can be expected to arise due to changes in these parameters. We observed mainly small differences in annotation, with the largest effects caused by masking repeat sequences and by changing the size of the window around the IS. PMID:22909036

Huston, Marshall W; Brugman, Martijn H; Horsman, Sebastiaan; Stubbs, Andrew; van der Spek, Peter; Wagemaker, Gerard

2012-09-27

273

Development of standardized tests of greaseless bearings for use in hydropower applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of greaseless bearings to hydropower and waterways projects requires accurate knowledge of the physical, chemical, absorptive, frictional, and wear characteristics of the available greaseless bearing materials. To intelligently compare bearings, all the bearings must have been tested under the same conditions, and those conditions should, as nearly as possible, replicate the in-service conditions. This work focuses first on defining the parameters to be used in a standardized test procedure, and then presents some general trends and conclusions from results of our first tests.

Jones, J.A.; Palylyk, R.A. [Hydroelectric Design Center, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-12-31

274

Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus

1976-01-01

275

Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

2010-07-01

276

Modernisation and automation of small hydropower plants; Modernisierung und Automatisierung von Kleinwasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small hydropower plants with a power typically under 1 MW per unit are technically mature and have high operational availabilities. Due to the pressure of costs from increasing environmental requirements, increasing steel cost and exploitation of economically challenging sites especially those with low heads, innovations are required for the economic operation of new plants as well as for modernising existing ones. This paper provides a short overview of typical measures, introduces new technologies and trends for small turbines and concludes with the state of the art of variable speed concepts. (orig.)

Bard, J. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

2008-07-01

277

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

A. Tilmant; Q. Goor; D. Pinte

2009-01-01

278

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1964-2000 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological parameters at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is presented. The parameters examined for extreme value analysis are maximum wind speed at 120 m and gust, maximum and minimum surface air temperature, maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum and minimum rainfall in a year, and maximum rainfall in a month and a day along with intensity of rainfall averaged over 5 minutes. The period of observation for rainfall is 1964 -2000, while for other variables, it is 1980 -2000. From the extreme value analysis, it is observed that the variables for annual maximum rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, maximum temperature, maximum pressure and maximum hourly wind speed obey Fisher -Tippette type I distribution, whereas annual minimum rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, minimum temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure and gust (5 min. averaged maximum wind speed at 120m height) follow Fisher -Tippette type II distribution. Parameters of the distribution functions for each variable are established and occurrence of the extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are also derived. These derived extreme values are very useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure safety of any civil structure in the vicinity of RAPS site with respect to expected stresses due to climatic conditions. (author)

2003-01-01

279

Geological and geophysical techniques for development of siting and design parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It appears that the USNRC has made much of lessons learned from nuclear power plant licensing. These lessons, together with the concerned participation of the Earth Science community at large, have given NRC a basis for what is perceived by this commentator as being as much as we in the waste management community could ask for. Much is granted to us in freedom to apply good judgement without the bounds of prescription; much is asked of us toward delivering the most diligent of work product. The licenseability and functionality of each low-level radioactive waste disposal facility will be determined by the geologic environment in which it is to be placed, and by the expertise and goodwill of the scientists and engineers involved in its design and licensing. Geologic site characterization is the first and most basic step in that process. The geological and geophysical means by which this characterization is accomplished must be chosen and employed in the full mutuality of the fact that geology governs geophysical response and that geophysical interpretation is absolutely essential in characterizing the length, breadth, and depth of each site. Each step in the employment of geological and geophysical techniques must be made with total incorporation of related data and findings. Severe introspection and questioning must be accomplished immediately on the development of each line of evidence, and the results must be applied directly and immediately to each remaining activity.

1982-06-17

280

Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy is of importance for everyone but the growing environmental destruction and disparity between the rich and poor demands adoption of cleaner and better path so as to secure the future resources and achieve sustainable development with better social inclusion. On this regard, the term “green economy” came into light. The Asian Center for Environment Management and Sustainable Development (AEMS) then explored the “green economy” concept in Nepal through a regional workshop on May 2012 with participants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Canada, UK and Nepal. Consequently, the hydropower sector of Nepal was recognized as one of the most feasible and potential sector for green economy. Therefore, various case studies of hydropower projects, interaction programs and interviews with relevant personnel were carried out for this study to analyze the scope of hydropower in achieving the three important attributes of green economy, namely—resource efficiency, low carbon and social inclusion. Nepal is rich in water resources; it is therefore possible to use our abundant water resource in an efficient manner. Likewise, the end product of hydropower is clean energy though carbon emission is involved during the construction. It shows the potential to replace considerable amount of carbon emission from biomass based energy resources. Similarly, hydropower project exhibits positive implication on the local society besides making electricity available to the whole nation. The locals also get floating shares and royalty benefits to develop the project affected area. However, the affected areas now have minimal share in royalty. Besides, this study also addresses the issues of policy implication and challenges. All the relevant issues of hydropower as studied reveal that there are required provisions at place in Nepal for hydropower sector to fit perfectly in green economy concept, if only, the prevalent issues are handled efficiently and effectively by the relevant sectors.

Ajay B. Mathema; Shailendra Guragain; Nawang C. Sherpa; Binay B. Adhikari

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

2006-01-01

282

Hydropower as a restoration opportunity for obstructed river reaches?; Wasserkraft als Sanierungsmotor fuer hydromorphologische Belastungen?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The demand for hydropower has shifted from the basic aim to meet increasing demands for electricity, to delivering renewable energy solutions that are sustainable, productive and effective for both society and the environment. The present paper describes an exploratory study of both, the hydroelectric and ecological potential of existing lateral structures currently obstructing the river network throughout Austria. By matching these potentials for each site, a number of benefits accrue for decision-making. The Hypo-Last project identified 148 sites that can be considered as possible project sites to fund the on-site restoration or mitigation measures as required by the Water Framework Directive and implemented in the Austrian Water Act. (orig.)

Lashofer, Alois; Hawle, Werner; Cassidy, Tim; Pucher, Michael; Fuerst, Josef; Pelikan, Bernhard [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Hydrologie und konstr. Wasserbau

2011-07-01

283

Dose assessment around nuclear sites: a review of population habit data, time spent and other parameters (without dietary)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose assessment around nuclear facilities require the knowledge of local population way of life. In France, the sample surveys of life habits near nuclear sites are scarce. This paper reviews the existing data that can be used as parameters of life habits to calculate the exposure pathways of nuclear facilities located near a river or a sea. The time spent at different activities, the protection factors of the building, the inhalation rates, the accidental ingestion of river water or sea water, sand or soil have been studied. Data listed can be used for as default values when there are no site specific data and are issued from two origins: some have already been used in dose assessments published, British works have been specially studied, the others are usual practice values which are largely employed by experts and are put in the dose calculation softwares of the French Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety. (author)

1999-01-01

284

Hidroenergia 2010: International congress on small hydropower. Conference report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference, held in 2010 in Lausanne, Switzerland, gathered together the main stakeholders of the small hydropower community to debate about topics affecting the development of the sector, to exchange experience and to present new advances in the technological area. The two-day conference was held in a total of nine sessions, a poster session and a workshop. The first session was dedicated to water management in the Alps and covered new regulations, administrative procedures and finance issues. Contributions included a review of the present situation and the development of common guidelines to meet the challenge of conflicting technical and environmental objectives, the facilitation of small hydropower in Switzerland and the institutional frameworks involved, recent trends in small hydro project financing and the growing roles of venture capital, private equity and changing market dynamics. Finally the prospects for small hydropower in Serbia were discussed. In two parallel sessions the following topics were looked at: The promotion of small hydropower in Switzerland using various sources of water and remuneration for the power produced, small hydro in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, the use of karst groundwater for the underground production of power were looked at as well as the analysis of hydraulic facilities for combining pumped storage hydropower systems and wind power in Austria. The final presentation took a look at the new 'La Tzintre' hydropower project. The parallel session dealt with technical innovations and engineering solutions with presentations on the development of small diagonal turbines, the adaptation of propeller turbines to higher specific needs and the problems encountered in doing so. The use of centrifugal pumps as turbines, including a review of technology and applications were also dealt with. Two further parallel sessions looked at EU-funded projects and sustainability issues. The Sustainable Energy Europe project was introduced and its target of improving water resource management was discussed. An assessment of the potential for small hydropower in Switzerland was presented. Further topics discussed included challenges faced in environmental management in Norway, the use of telemetric data for flood management in Thailand, the refurbishment of a small hydro scheme in western Switzerland, the realisation of the Alpbach small hydropower plant station in Kandersteg, Switzerland, the refurbishment of the Rivaz Mill small hydro installation in the vineyards along the Lake of Geneva, Switzerland and the development of a new turbine for very low heads and with low environmental impact. On the second day of the congress, four sessions and a workshop were held. The first set of parallel sessions covered multi-purpose hydro schemes such as the Chievo project on the Adige river in Italy, experience gained at the Boshava scheme in Macedonia and the development of a new tubular propeller. In the second, parallel set of presentations, technical innovations and engineering solutions were looked at. The use of computational fluid design (CFD) in the design of a diagonal turbine, the Ashlu Creek energy dissipation system in British Columbia, the planning of the two Asiganga tandem installations in the Himalayas and performance tests of hydraulic units in low-head small hydropower installations in Poland were discussed. In the second set of parallel sessions the following topics were discussed: The dynamic effects of small hydropower plants and experience gained with the design of small power plants. Finally, the ASEAN Hycom competence centre in Indonesia was presented. In the parallel session, the following topics were discussed: The Hydrobot remote survey of national hydropower resources, the 'Swissrivers' tool for the prediction of mini-hydropower production in Switzerland, increasing energy-efficiency by the use of artificial intelligence, the optimisation of a hydropower project using a real-time forecasting tool and, finally, a method to evaluate the effective potential hydrop

NONE

2010-07-01

285

Small-Hydropower Development: The Process, Pitfalls, and Experience. Volume 1. Feasibility Studies Summary and Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes an investigation of 240 feasibility studies of small hydropower projects conducted under the National Small Hydropower Program beginning in 1977. It provides a detailed analysis of these studies, both to better understand the signif...

C. H. Cunningham J. P. Christensen A. R. Engebretsen

1985-01-01

286

75 FR 51258 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice of Application for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice of Application...2010. Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the...Hydropower, Inc. and Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust. e. Name of...

2010-08-19

287

Geospatial Technology for Mapping Suitable Sites for Hydro Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, large amount of data is required, consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries. Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT) hydrological model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. The study using the above methodology to identifies suitable site in Bennihalla catchment, for small scale hydropower development. The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 and outlet of the catchment are more suitable for small scale hydropower plant.

Dr. Nagraj S. Patil; Prof. I. T. Shirkol; Prof. S. G. Joshi

2013-01-01

288

Best Practices Implementation for Hydropower Efficiency and Utilization Improvement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By using best practices to manage unit and plant efficiency, hydro owner/operators can achieve significant improvements in overall plant performance, resulting in increased generation and profitability and, frequently, reduced maintenance costs. The Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated by the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with standard methodology, based on the best practices of operations, maintenance and upgrades; to identify the improvement opportunities at existing hydropower facilities; and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The HAP facility assessment includes both quantitative condition ratings and data-based performance analyses. However, this paper, as an overview document for the HAP, addresses the general concepts, project scope and objectives, best practices for unit and plant efficiency, and process and methodology for best practices implementation for hydropower efficiency and utilization improvement.

Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

289

Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020.

2008-01-01

290

Important influent-water quality parameters at freshwater production sites in two salmon producing countries  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Further growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture production is expected, and as a response to limited freshwater resources, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are increasingly applied in smolt production. Knowledge of the general composition and quality of inlet-water is important for designing water-treatment to obtain optimal water quality in both flow-through and RAS systems. Based on water quality surveys in Norway (96 water sources, 1999-2006) and Chile (120 water sources, 2006-2008) inlet-water quality was evaluated. Norwegian smolt production is characterized by almost exclusively utilizing surface waters as inlet-water sources, with lake inlets constituting 88% and river inlets 12%. This results in large seasonal variations in both temperature, and inlet-water quality. In Chile, production is based on inlet-water from groundwater wells (32%), natural springs (40%) and rivers (28%). Norwegian inlet-water quality shows significantly lower pH and buffering capacity. The content of total organic carbon and total nitrogen is generally higher in Norway, while the levels the main metals of concern, aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe), show large between-site variability in both countries. In low pH waters in Norway, the concentration of inorganic (labile) aluminium exceeds recommended level (10?g/L) in 15% of the samples. The Norwegian database documents highly variable production intensity in smolt production. The measured levels of carbon dioxide (CO?, 11.6±6.2mg/L) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, 499±485?gN/L) (mean±SD), exceed current legislative recommendations in 30% and 10.5% of the cases, respectively. RAS technology has the potential to improve a variable water quality if it proves reliable for the time intervals and production volumes needed. Thus, if necessary adjustments in water treatment to the local water quality are implemented, RAS production may well constitute a substantial part of smolt production in the future.

Kristensen T; Åtland Å; Rosten T; Urke HA; Rosseland BO

2009-09-01

291

Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed-load transport rate by Meyer-Petter and Muller bed-load equation. As the results are small, the top set slope is fixed as half of the bed slope. The movement of delta pivot point was 6 and 9 Km for the years 1973 and 1994, respectively. (author)

2007-01-01

292

Two new hydro-power plants on the river Lahn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Power Utility (MKW) operates six hydro-power plants on the lower stretches of the Lahn, the total output is ca. 10 mw and the average annual generation amounts to 55 mill kwh. One of these plants, the Cramberg Power Plant, is owned by the lahn Power Utility which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the MKW. Under the stipulations of the 'Lahn Power Plants Agreement', drawn up in 1926, which forsees the installation of hydro-power plants during the canalisation of the Lahn, the Lahn Power Utility is constructing two identical plants for hydro-power at the existing Nassau and Dausenau dams. The operating rights of the plants are in the hands of the MKW. Due to their location in the Nassau natural park and the obligation not to change the flow characteristics of the Lahn or the existing sluices and locks, the design of these power plants was governed by extraordinary considerations. (orig.).

Friesenecker, F.; Brauer, G.

1986-03-03

293

EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

2010-08-01

294

Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

Zhiqun Deng; Thomas J. Carlson; Dennis D. Dauble; Gene R. Ploskey

2011-01-01

295

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.

Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

1996-02-01

296

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.

1996-01-01

297

Diesel plant backs up Sri Lanka's hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sri Lanka's main source of electricity is hydropower. When this is not available, for example during periods of drought, some standby source is necessary, The Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) decided to build a diesel power plant for this purpose. A new 80 MW diesel power plant in Sri Lanka will supply power to the country's 220 kV grid in the event of the shortage of hydropower. The plant is located near the capital Colombo. The four diesel engines all ran at full power for the first time in November 1985. The operation of the plant is discussed.

Breeze, P.

1986-02-01

298

Impact of Sediment to Hydropower Plants in Bhutan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although, Bhutan has high potential for hydropower development, the effect of sediment for operation and maintenance of hydropower plants is equally challenging. The sediment problems of Himalayan Rivers are unique in the world. The reservoirs are filled with sediment over a period of time. The high sediment concentration passing through the turbines especially during the monsoon season (June to September) erodes the turbine parts. The erosion of hydro turbine components is a major problem for the efficient operation of hydropower plants. These problems are more prominent in power plants which are of run-of-river schemes. The problem is aggravated if the silt contains is of higher percentage of quartz, which is extremely hard. This paper presents the sediment studies on three rivers in Bhutan namely Wangchhu, Basochhu and Kurichhu River. 336 MW Chhukha Hydropower Plant (CHP) and 1020 MW Tala Hydropower Plant (THP) are located on river Wangchhu, 64 MW Basochhu Hydropower Plant (BHP) on river Basochhu and 60 MW Kurichhu Hydropower Plant (KHP) on river Kurichhu. All these hydropower plants are run-of-river schemes. The sediment load, particle size distribution and the mineralogical composition in these rivers vary significantly. The maximum sediment load was observed in Wangchhu river followed by Kurichhu and Basochhu river. The maximum suspended sediment recorded in Wangchhu river is 2553 ppm (parts per million) in 2010, 1346 ppm in 2011 and 1913 ppm in 2012. The Kurichhu river has recorded 1120 ppm in 2010, 2500 ppm in 2011 and 1271 ppm in 2012. Basochhu river has recorded maximum of 84 ppm in 2012. The average quartz particles in KHP, BHP, CHP and THP are 59.7%, 54.3%, 44.7% and 35.6% respectively. The average volume percentage of sand is 86.15%, 71.4%, 48.5% and 43 % at BHP, KHP, CHP and THP respectively as compared to silt and clay content. Wangchhu river shows the less content of hard minerals (quartz & feldspar) and sand as compared to Kurichhu and Basochhu rivers.

Ugyen Rinzin

2013-01-01

299

Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

Kataria, Mitesh [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7013, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-01-15

300

Bayesian ranking of sites for engineering safety improvements: decision parameter, treatability concept, statistical criterion, and spatial dependence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in applying statistical ranking criteria to identify sites on a road network, which potentially present high traffic crash risks or are over-represented in certain type of crashes, for further engineering evaluation and safety improvement. This requires that good estimates of ranks of crash risks be obtained at individual intersections or road segments, or some analysis zones. The nature of this site ranking problem in roadway safety is related to two well-established statistical problems known as the small area (or domain) estimation problem and the disease mapping problem. The former arises in the context of providing estimates using sample survey data for a small geographical area or a small socio-demographic group in a large area, while the latter stems from estimating rare disease incidences for typically small geographical areas. The statistical problem is such that direct estimates of certain parameters associated with a site (or a group of sites) with adequate precision cannot be produced, due to a small available sample size, the rareness of the event of interest, and/or a small exposed population or sub-population in question. Model based approaches have offered several advantages to these estimation problems, including increased precision by "borrowing strengths" across the various sites based on available auxiliary variables, including their relative locations in space. Within the model based approach, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) have played key roles in addressing these problems for many years. The objective of the study, on which this paper is based, was to explore some of the issues raised in recent roadway safety studies regarding ranking methodologies in light of the recent statistical development in space-time GLMM. First, general ranking approaches are reviewed, which include naïve or raw crash-risk ranking, scan based ranking, and model based ranking. Through simulations, the limitation of using the naïve approach in ranking is illustrated. Second, following the model based approach, the choice of decision parameters and consideration of treatability are discussed. Third, several statistical ranking criteria that have been used in biomedical, health, and other scientific studies are presented from a Bayesian perspective. Their applications in roadway safety are then demonstrated using two data sets: one for individual urban intersections and one for rural two-lane roads at the county level. As part of the demonstration, it is shown how multivariate spatial GLMM can be used to model traffic crashes of several injury severity types simultaneously and how the model can be used within a Bayesian framework to rank sites by crash cost per vehicle-mile traveled (instead of by crash frequency rate). Finally, the significant impact of spatial effects on the overall model goodness-of-fit and site ranking performances are discussed for the two data sets examined. The paper is concluded with a discussion on possible directions in which the study can be extended.

Miaou SP; Song JJ

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Bayesian ranking of sites for engineering safety improvements: decision parameter, treatability concept, statistical criterion, and spatial dependence.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in applying statistical ranking criteria to identify sites on a road network, which potentially present high traffic crash risks or are over-represented in certain type of crashes, for further engineering evaluation and safety improvement. This requires that good estimates of ranks of crash risks be obtained at individual intersections or road segments, or some analysis zones. The nature of this site ranking problem in roadway safety is related to two well-established statistical problems known as the small area (or domain) estimation problem and the disease mapping problem. The former arises in the context of providing estimates using sample survey data for a small geographical area or a small socio-demographic group in a large area, while the latter stems from estimating rare disease incidences for typically small geographical areas. The statistical problem is such that direct estimates of certain parameters associated with a site (or a group of sites) with adequate precision cannot be produced, due to a small available sample size, the rareness of the event of interest, and/or a small exposed population or sub-population in question. Model based approaches have offered several advantages to these estimation problems, including increased precision by "borrowing strengths" across the various sites based on available auxiliary variables, including their relative locations in space. Within the model based approach, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) have played key roles in addressing these problems for many years. The objective of the study, on which this paper is based, was to explore some of the issues raised in recent roadway safety studies regarding ranking methodologies in light of the recent statistical development in space-time GLMM. First, general ranking approaches are reviewed, which include naïve or raw crash-risk ranking, scan based ranking, and model based ranking. Through simulations, the limitation of using the naïve approach in ranking is illustrated. Second, following the model based approach, the choice of decision parameters and consideration of treatability are discussed. Third, several statistical ranking criteria that have been used in biomedical, health, and other scientific studies are presented from a Bayesian perspective. Their applications in roadway safety are then demonstrated using two data sets: one for individual urban intersections and one for rural two-lane roads at the county level. As part of the demonstration, it is shown how multivariate spatial GLMM can be used to model traffic crashes of several injury severity types simultaneously and how the model can be used within a Bayesian framework to rank sites by crash cost per vehicle-mile traveled (instead of by crash frequency rate). Finally, the significant impact of spatial effects on the overall model goodness-of-fit and site ranking performances are discussed for the two data sets examined. The paper is concluded with a discussion on possible directions in which the study can be extended. PMID:15949462

Miaou, Shaw-Pin; Song, Joon Jin

2005-04-12

302

DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed a state-of-the-science review of hydropower optimization methods and published reports on alternative operating strategies and opportunities for spill reduction. Carried out feasibility studies of new environmental performance measurements of the new MGR turbine at Wanapum Dam, including measurement of behavioral responses, biomarkers, bioindex testing, and the use of dyes to assess external injuries. Evaluated the benefits of mitigation measures for instream flow releases and the value of surface flow outlets for downstream fish passage. Refined turbulence flow measurement techniques, the computational modeling of unsteady flows, and models of blade strike of fish. Published numerous technical reports, proceedings papers, and peer-reviewed literature, most of which are available on the DOE Hydropower website. Further developed and tested the sensor fish measuring device at hydropower plants in the Columbia River. Data from the sensor fish are coupled with a computational model to yield a more detailed assessment of hydraulic environments in and around dams. Published reports related to the Virtual Hydropower Prospector and the assessment of water energy resources in the U.S. for low head/low power hydroelectric plants. Convened a workshop to consider the environmental and technical issues associated with new hydrokinetic and wave energy technologies. Laboratory and DOE staff participated in numerous workshops, conferences, coordination meetings, planning meetings, implementation meetings, and reviews to transfer the results of DOE-sponsored research to end-users.

Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2006-07-01

303

Small hydropower in southern Africa - an overview of five countries in the region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small hydropower has played an important role in the history of providing electricity in the region. After a period with limited interest in applications of small hydropower, in all five (more) countries, a range of stakeholders from policy makers to developers are showing a renewed interest in small hydropower. Although different models were followed, all five countries covered in the paper do currently see activities around grid connected small scale hydropower. Particular frameworks that facilitate IPPs and Power Purchase Agreements with the national utility do provide a basis for (local) commercial banks to provide finance. Off-grid hydropower for rural electrification purposes sees activities in the countries with an active (support) role of government in this respect only. Small hydropower, renewable energy technology has large potential across the southern Africa region, both for grid connected and off-grid applications. Historically, small hydropower played an important role in the development of the region. Since the mid-1960s, however, the main emphasis has been on centralised fossil fuel-based electricity generation. Developers and policy makers have only recently begun looking at small hydropower again.

Klunne, Wim Jonker

2013-01-01

304

Cumulative biophysical impact of small and large hydropower development in Nu River, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Support for low-carbon energy and opposition to new large dams encourages global development of small hydropower facilities. This support is manifested in national and international energy and development policies designed to incentivize growth in the small hydropower sector while curtailing large dam construction. However, the preference of small to large dams assumes, without justification, that small hydropower dams entail fewer and less severe environmental and social externalities than large hydropower dams. With the objective to evaluate the validity of this assumption, we investigate cumulative biophysical effects of small (small hydropower may exceed those of large hydropower, particularly with regard to habitat and hydrologic change. These results indicate that more comprehensive standards for impact assessment and governance of small hydropower projects may be necessary to encourage low-impact energy development.

Kibler, Kelly M.; Tullos, Desiree D.

2013-06-01

305

Chronology and parameters of atmosphere nuclear testings carrying out on Semipalatinsk site (Version of Military Department). Chapter 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During period from 1949 by 1962 118 nuclear tests (25 - surface nuclear explosions, 88 - atmosphere nuclear explosions, 5 - prepared surface nuclear explosions but not realized because of not operation of nuclear devices) were carried out on the Semipalatinsk test site. Total power release under atmosphere nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk site has been amounted to 6.6 MW (for all surface nuclear explosions - 550 k t, at that 72 % (400 k t) fall only on nuclear test conducted in 12.08.1953). Most strong radioactive contaminations of district on local radioactive traces have place under surface explosions of middle and large caliber of nuclear charges. There are main biological dangerous radionuclides on contaminated territories - strontium-90, cesium-137, plutonium. Surface and atmosphere explosions are divided into four groups by its rate of place contamination on local traces formatted out site boundaries: very strong, strong, weak, very weak. To nuclear explosions caused most strong contamination of territory were belonged four ones, which were carried out 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Comparison data about contamination of adjoining territories and population irradiation represented by the Military Department of USSR and reconstructed parameters of radiation and sanitary situation carried out by the Inst. of Radiation Medicine and Ecology are made in the chapter. Analysis of data by the Military Department evidences that its have understated results of calculated population irradiation doses from adjoining territories. It is shown that population in four districts of the region (Abaj, Beskargaj, Zhanasemej, Borodulinskij) have been exposed to radiation effect in doses enough for rise of somatic consequences among population

1998-01-01

306

The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as `clean continental` during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs.

Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Colbeck, I. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

1997-09-01

307

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is concerned instead of generated energy. Based on the analysis of time-varying electricity price policy, an optimal operation model of hydropower station reservoir with ecology consideration is established. The model takes the maximum annual power generation benefit, the maximum output of the minimal output stage in the year and the minimum shortage of eco-environment demand as the objectives, and reservoir water quantity balance, reservoir storage capacity, reservoir discharge flow and hydropower station output and nonnegative variable as the constraints. To solve the optimal model, a chaotic optimization genetic algorithm which combines the ergodicity of chaos and the inversion property of genetic algorithm is exploited. An example is given, which shows that the proposed model and algorithm are scientific and feasible to deal with the optimal operation of hydropower station.

Xianfeng Huang; Guohua Fang; Yuqin Gao; Qianjin Dong

2010-01-01

308

Small Hydropower Technology Transfer Project. Task A: feasibility studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes an investigation of 240 feasibility studies of small hydropower projects conducted under the National Small Hydropower Program beginning in 1977. It provides a detailed analysis of these studies, both to better understand the significance of the information contained therein, and to present this information in a clear, consistent, and comprehensive manner, for the benefit of future developers of small hydropower projects. With the assistance of a commercially available computer program, the analysis extracted significant data contained in the feasibility studies, and sorted this information into separate categories. These data were then analyzed, and summarized both for each individual project and for the overall program. Findings in the report identify significant relationships among several of the major information categories pertaining to the feasibility of certain types of projects. Categories considered included geographic region, gross head, capacity, and capital costs. In addition, the analysis identifies the essential ingredients of a satisfactory feasibility study and highlights the need for uniformity and thoroughness in the conduct of feasibility studies for small hydropower projects.

Cunningham, C.B.; Christensen, J.P.; Engebretsen, A.R.

1984-06-01

309

Introduction to small hydropower; the technology and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review is given of small hydropower generation i.e. schemes rated at less than 50MW. The topics covered include run-of-the-river plants, the efficiencies of various types of water wheels and turbines (reaction, impulse and crossflow), the economics and the constraints. The size of the resource in world terms and its current deployment are also given. (UK).

Albertson, M.L.

1985-11-01

310

Delta-Hedging a Hydropower Plant Using Stochastic Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important challenge for hydropower producers is to optimize reservoir discharges, which is subject to uncertainty in in?ow and electricity prices. Furthermore, the producers want to hedge the risk in the operating pro?t. This article demonstrates how stochastic programming can be used to solve a...

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Wallace, Stein W.

311

Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Cones, Marvin [Mesa Associates, Inc.; March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy; Spray, Michael [New West Technologies, LLC.

2012-01-01

312

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is conc...

Xianfeng Huang; Guohua Fang; Yuqin Gao; Qianjin Dong

313

The impact of environmental constraints on hydro-power projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Environmental side-effects which might occur in connection with hydropower generation are sediment deposition upstream of dams, degradation downstream of dams, interruption of fish migration, change of habitat characteristics for fauna and flora through reduction of flow velocity upstream of dams, change of habitat characteristics for fauna and flora through reduction of flow rate downstream of diversions, raise of groundwater level upstream of dams, drop of groundwater level downstream of dams. The side-effects listed above must not necessarily be seen as negative impact on riverine environment, in certain circumstances some of them might even be desirable. This is the case in river portions where the original morphological process progresses towards conditions that must be considered as environmental hazards. Apart from the effect of hydropower generation on riverine environment it must not be ignored that, on global scale the impact of hydropower generation on environment is basically positive as it lacks the negative effects of all other power generating methods (fossil fuel, nuclear reaction, photovoltaic processes). Hydropower is clean energy, self-regenerating and without any waste. The required equipment has the longest lifetime of all competing techniques (i.e. 100 years and more) and does not create hazards even when dismantling and recycling should become necessary one day. (author)

1994-01-01

314

Simulation Modeling for Electrical Switching System of Hydropower Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a simulation modeling method for the electrical switching system of hydropower station, which is a sub-topic for Hydropower Station Simulation Training System. The graphics model of commonly used electrical switch equipment is developed with a certain software. As vast and different types of Hydropower station circuit breakers and associated grounding switches, and each specific action of the switch process is not same, so the modular modeling method is described to solve the problem. According to the role and status in power plant, electrical switch system is divided into several sub modules, among which a number of small modules are sorted in. In each sub module, a common model is developed. Besides, the application method that the network topology analysis algorithm used in electrical switching system simulation logic judgment is introduced. With the ‘connecting line fusion’ technique, logic function expression member information table is automatically generated, thereby enhancing the suitability for the electrical switch simulation model. The methods mentioned above assure the real-time, typicality and flexibility in simulation, and have been successfully used in the development of a large hydropower station simulator.

Ran HU; Xianshan LI

2013-01-01

315

The role of hydropower in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inherent technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power, make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. These countries, such as Turkey, have a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. From the viewpoint of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, Turkey is not a rich country; but it has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing electricity demand for Turkey. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. The results of two case studies, whose results were not taken into consideration in calculating Turkey's hydro electric potential, are presented. Turkey's small hydro power potential is found to be an important energy source, especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The results of a study in which Turkey's long-term demand has been predicted are also presented. According to the results of this paper, Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed.

2006-01-01

316

Electric Energy Conversion Systems: Wave Energy and Hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electric energy conversion is an important issue in today's society as our daily lives largely depend on the supplies of energy. Two energy sources are studied for conversion in the present thesis, ocean waves and hydropower. The work focuses on the generator and the transmission of its output to...

Thorburn, Karin

317

Design organization for hydropower station and generating equipment in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the design organization for hydropower station and generating equipment in China, following the orientation of the Qualification Administration of Project Survey and Design Unit, issued by the Construction Ministry or China, and the Standard to Grade the Qualification of Hydro and Power Survey and Design, issued by the Ministry of Water Conservancy of China.

Li Dao Gao [HuNan Hydropower Economic Technical Cooperation Company (China)

1995-07-01

318

Developing a module for estimating climate warming effects on hydropower pricing in California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate warming is expected to alter hydropower generation in California through affecting the annual stream-flow regimes and reducing snowpack. On the other hand, increased temperatures are expected to increase hydropower demand for cooling in warm periods while decreasing demand for heating in winter, subsequently altering the annual hydropower pricing patterns. The resulting variations in hydropower supply and pricing regimes necessitate changes in reservoir operations to minimize the revenue losses from climate warming. Previous studies in California have only explored the effects of hydrological changes on hydropower generation and revenues. This study builds a long-term hydropower pricing estimation tool, based on artificial neural network (ANN), to develop pricing scenarios under different climate warming scenarios. Results suggest higher average hydropower prices under climate warming scenarios than under historical climate. The developed tool is integrated with California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) to facilitate simultaneous consideration of climate warming on hydropower supply, demand and pricing. EBHOM estimates an additional 5% drop in annual revenues under a dry warming scenario when climate change impacts on pricing are considered, with respect to when such effects are ignored, underlining the importance of considering changes in hydropower demand and pricing in future studies and policy making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the major gap in previous climate change and hydropower studies in California. ? Developing an ANN-based long-term hydropower price estimation tool. ? Estimating climate change effects on hydropower demand and pricing in California. ? Investigating the sensitivity of hydropower operations to future price changes. ? Underlining the importance of consideration of climate change impacts on electricity pricing.

2012-01-01

319

Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

Broadus, C.R.

1981-04-01

320

VIRTUAL HYDROPOWER PROSPECTING: A FOUNDATION FOR WATER ENERGY RESOURCE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive assessment of the gross power potential of the natural stream water energy resources of the United States was performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information system (GIS) tools. Water energy resource sites (stream segments) assessed in the basic resource assessment were further evaluated to identify which can be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of each site was refined to determine its developable hydropower potential using a set of development criteria corresponding to a damless low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) project. The methodologies for performing the basic resource assessment and subsequent feasibility assessment are described and the summary results for the nation are presented.

Randy Lee; Sera White; Julie Brizzee; Shane Cherry; Douglas Hall

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

1995-01-01

322

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-05-01

323

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

2000-01-26

324

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999

2000-01-01

325

Examination of methane ebullition in a Swiss hydropower reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

Ebullition is one of the most important methane emission pathways from inland water bodies, yet the stochastic nature of ebullition complicates its monitoring. Therefore, a bubble-calibrated 120 kHz split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60, Kongsberg Maritime) was utilized to survey the active ebullition area of a small temperate hydropower reservoir (Lake Wohlen, Switzerland), which is known for intense methane bubble release in summer. The performed bubble size calibration agreed well with the literature and the presented hydroacoustic technique to estimate methane bubble flux in the presence of non-bubble targets was determined to be the most appropriate post-processing method for this reservoir. The acoustically-determined average methane ebullition flux from the sediment to the water column from seven campaigns was 580 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (range, 130 to 1450). Bubble size distribution, which mostly included 1 to 20 mm diameter bubbles, was strongly related to the magnitude of sediment ebullition flux. The bubble size distribution is an important consideration when calculating the resulting surface efflux using a bubble dissolution model. Using the Sauter mean diameter to represent the volume to surface area to volume ratio of the bubble size distribution in the bubble model resulted in an average atmospheric emission of 490 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatially-averaged data and the standard deviation from seven sampling campaigns revealed areas of 'high' and 'low' ebullition fluxes that seemed to correlate to geomorphology of the reservoir, which still contains the former river channel. The hydroacoustic flux estimates were compared with other methods of methane flux assessments used simultaneously: the traditional chamber method and the eddy covariance technique combined with spectrometer methane measurements (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos Research). Chamber measurements on all but one day were higher than the hydroacoustic survey results (but within the same order of magnitude), which is likely due to the extended coverage of echosounder surveys identifying more areas of low fluxes. However, hydroacoustic assessments and eddy covariance measurements of methane flux were similar and both revealed a flux dependence on the time of day, which was further related to scheduled water level changes in the reservoir. While the eddy covariance technique can provide continuous data useful for correlating with external forcing factors related to emissions, echosounder surveys provide spatial-specific information and thus resolve the locations of methane ebullition. Ideally, combining these methods would allow for the best coverage of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ebullition over a given study site.

DelSontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; Eugster, W.; McGinnis, D. F.; Wehrli, B.

2012-04-01

326

Cost Reduction Considerations in Small Hydropower Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report covers: (1) general concepts: physical components of MHG facilities; site assessments, hydrology, maps, feasibility studys, engineering design, social aspects, economic aspects, detailed civil engineering, tendering, construction, etc.; (2) som...

D. A. Minott R. A. Delisser

1983-01-01

327

Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

Merz, F.

2008-05-15

328

The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered.

2007-01-01

329

Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be allocated among the reservoirs in order to strike a balance between current profits and expected future profits. A demonstration is presented with data from a Norwegian hydropower producer and the Nordic power market at Nord Pool.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh

2008-01-01

330

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2001-07-01

331

Hydro-power: traditional and innovative; Wasserkraft: Traditionell und innovativ  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long before the beginning of the industrial age, mankind knew about and made use of hydro-power as a sustainable, renewable and environmentally friendly primary source of energy. This development is shown in a historical retrospect, and the traditional applications of hydro-power for electricity generation are summarised. The considerations are also extended beyond hydro turbines to the surrounding infrastructure, necessary for the proper operation of hydro plants. (orig.) [German] Lange vor Beginn des Industriezeitalters nutzte die Menschheit schon die Wasserkraft als nachhaltige erneuerbare und umweltfreundliche Primaerenergiequelle. Diese Entwicklung wird in einer historischen Rueckbetrachtung nachvollzogen. Die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten der Wasserkraft werden zusammenfassend dargestellt. Die Betrachtungen gehen ueber die Wasserturbinen hinaus zur peripheren Infrastruktur, die fuer den reibungslosen Betrieb der Wasserkraftwerke erforderlich ist. (orig.)

Wedam, G.; Dorfmeister, K. [VERBUND-Austrian Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria)

2003-07-01

332

The trend of small hydropower development in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper makes an analysis of the status quo and existing issues of small hydropower (SHP) in China and based on the logistic growth curve model forecasts the installed capacity of SHP and cost of newly built SHP in the future. It also explores the opportunity of the clean development mechanism (CDM) in SHP projects and puts forward suggestions and recommendations on enhancing the SHP market competitiveness. (author)

Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Xiliang [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jinghe [Bureau of Rural Hydropower and Electrification, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100761 (China)

2009-04-15

333

The trend of small hydropower development in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper makes an analysis of the status quo and existing issues of small hydropower (SHP) in China and based on the logistic growth curve model forecasts the installed capacity of SHP and cost of newly built SHP in the future. It also explores the opportunity of the clean development mechanism (CDM) in SHP projects and puts forward suggestions and recommendations on enhancing the SHP market competitiveness. (author)

2009-01-01

334

RCC: Filling a larger role in hydropower construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) technology and its implications for planning and evaluation of hydropower projects are described. The experience of several project owners with RCC structures that have entered service or are in the construction and planning stage are presented. Lower costs, shortened construction times, and improved project quality are being realized with the use of RCC. Mixture specifications, concrete placement approaches, and dam specifications are outlined.

Cordova, J.Y.; Toniatti, N.B.; Maozhen, Y.

1996-08-01

335

Small hydropower plants in the region of Mariovo (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper the results of an initial Pre-feasibility study within the framework of the PHARE Programme for Cross Border Cooperation between Republic of Macedonia and Republic of Greece. In this study we have looked at the existing research originating from three sources. The Strategies for Economic Development of Republic of Macedonia, the Development Plans of the Electric Power Company of Macedonia as well as the existing technical documentation and studies on a level of idea projects for specific location for small hydropower plants in Mariovo region. Furthermore, analysis and evaluation of this documentation is included. Research done in this region has produced evidence of numerous potential locations for small hydropower plants (total of 46) generating power between 58 kW and 4900 kW, discharging between 0,082 m3/s and 30 m3/s with a head between 6 m and 208 m for which we have detailed data. Furthermore, in the paper we pay attention to the enormous and so far unrealised hydro energetic power which could be utilised by constructing small hydropower plants in Republic of Macedonia. specifically in the Mariovo region. (Original)

2003-01-01

336

Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

Fall, Latsoucabe

2010-09-15

337

Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that economic policy measures could help improve the competitiveness of hydropower. All measures that aim to internalise external costs of power generation are considered as being particularly promising in this respect. Targeted aid for particular enterprises could be provided as a supporting measure

2001-01-01

338

Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ?0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ?0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO.

Fay JP; Richards GP; Ozbay G

2012-05-01

339

Analysis Of ? And f Parameters And ko Factor In Irradiation Sites of RSG G.A. Siwabessy Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Determination of neutron flux thermal to epithermal ratio f and parameter a and ko factor has been done in irradiation facility of RSG G.A. Siwabessy reactor. Those parameters are needed to determine the concentration of an element in a sample using ko NAA method. While parameters f were measured using foil activation method. ? parameter was obtained from power function fitting at epithermal neutron spectrum. Based on the fitting method, the ? parameter (non 1/E epithermal spectrum) was determined of 0.0267, 0.0255 and -0.0346 at system rabbit, IP2 and CIP irradiation position, respectively. The ko factor is dependent on absolute gamma fraction, thermal cross section and resonance integral. The neutron flux thermal to epithermal ratio f at all rabbit system is about 40, which is met for neutron activation analysis

2003-01-01

340

Satellite-derived snow coverage related to hydropower production in Norway: present and future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower derived from snow-melt runoff is a major source of electricity in Norway. Therefore, amount of snow-melt runoff is key to the prediction of available water. The prediction of water quantity may be accomplished through the use of hydrological models. These models, which may be run for individual basins, use satellite-derived snow-covered area in combination with snow-cover depiction curves. While it is known that snow albedo information would increase the accuracy of the models, large-scale albedo measurements have not yet been obtained from satellites on a regular basis. This paper presents Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) reflectances recorded in May 1989 from a mountainous catchment at Kvikne, Norway. Satellite-derived albedo values are analysed, and compared with simultaneously measured in situ albedo. The satellite-derived shortwave snow albedo is comparable with bare ground albedo and values as low as 0.19 were found in areas where the snow was highly metamorphosed and heavily blackened by organic material. To map snow-covered areas, the contrast between snow and snow-free areas can be improved by using a normalized TM Band 2-5 difference image. While TM Band 2 alone shows varying degrees of snow surface contamination within the study area, the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) is not affected by impurities. This paper also discusses the use of NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, which is planned to be launched in the summer of 1999 for mapping of large-scale geophysical parameters including snow-cover. MODIS will enable snow cover and albedo to be mapped in Norway on a daily basis, and should enhance our ability to estimate snow coverage and thus manage hydropower production. (author)

Winther, J.-G. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso (Norway); Hall, D.K. [NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goodard Space Flight Center

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

McDonald K; Bosshard P; Brewer N

2009-07-01

342

Hydropower reservoir level control: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Control of upstream reservoir level is difficult, if the sensor is not located near the power house. A state feedback controller is designed using a model of the reservoir sloshing modes and tested on-site. Today, most hydroturbine governors are implemented on microprocessor-based control platforms. Thus more complex control functions become feasible. This paper presents an extension to the general control project management framework, which has proven itself on many industrial control projects, and illustrates it with a case where the current ''rule of thumb'' PI-control methods failed, and where modelling and advanced control methods successfully supported the design, implementation and commissioning of such additional control functions to the turbine governor. (author)

Glatterfelder, A.H. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)); Huser, L. (Escher Wyss GmbH, Zurich (Switzerland))

1993-01-01

343

Optimal Operation of Multi-Objective Hydropower Reservoir with Ecology Consideration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aiming at the problem that traditional optimal operation of hydropower reservoir pays little attention to ecology, an optimal operation model of multi-objective hydropower reservoir with ecology consideration is established which combines the ecology and power generation. The model takes the maximum...

Xuewen Wu; Xianfeng Huang; Guohua Fang; Fei Kong

344

Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

I. Popescu; L. Brandimarte; M. S. U. Perera; M. Peviani

2012-01-01

345

Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which are having fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB) and makes an analysis of the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historic available data while future energy production is deduced from the maximum available water in the catchment, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin, were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called Vapidro-Aste released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering that first the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served and than hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

I. Popescu; L. Brandimarte; M. S. U. Perera; M. Peviani

2012-01-01

346

Experimental determination of site-specific transfer parameter Fm and Ff values for 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural ecosystem environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] After nuclear power plant accidents radionuclides often spread into the environment. For human exposure dose evaluation it is necessary to examine migration of the radionuclides in agricultural environment: soil-grass-cow-food-human. The migration describes site-specific values of transfer parameters soil-to-grass (Bv), grass-cow-milk (Fm) and grass-meat (Ff). Site-specific migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in Lithuania was examined. These transfer parameter values were defined according to experimentally measured data of specific activity levels in soil, fodder and food obtained by the Lithuanian National Veterinary Laboratory from 1975 to 1994. Fm and Ff values were determined for summer and winter time separately in connection with different type of fodder. The parameter values were evaluated for the four largest Lithuanian regions: Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda and Shiauliai. The transfer parameter site-specific values for these regions were similar. Recommended transfer parameter values for all the Lithuanian territory are as follows: Bv=0.9±(1.2), Fmv=0.007±(0.005) d/L, Fmz=0.005±(0.003) d/ L, Ffv=0.03±(0.03) d/kg, Ffz=0.02±(0.02) d /kg - for 137Cs and Bv=2.0±(2.2), Fmv=0.0025±(0.002) d/L, Fmz=0.0014±(0.0007) d/L, Ffv=0.0028±(0.0036) d/kg, Ffz=0.0014±(0.0009) d/kg - for 90Sr (in brackets standard deviation values are given). Probability density distribution was lognormal for all the foregoing parameters. (author)

1997-01-01

347

Municipal water supply dams as a source of small hydropower in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Turkey the laws published in recent years succeeded in promoting the utilization of renewable energy for electricity generation. After the publication of Renewable Energy Law on 18 May 2005 in Turkey there occurred a boost in renewable energy projects along with hydropower development. Thus, the economically feasible hydropower potential of Turkey increased 15% and the construction of hydropower plants also increased by a factor of four in 2007 as compared to 2006. From this perspective, this paper was aimed to evaluate the small hydropower potential of municipal water supply dams of Turkey and discussed the current situation of SHP plants in terms of the government policy. It is estimated that the installing small hydropower plants to exiting 45 municipal water supply dams in Turkey will generate 173 GWh/year electric energy without effecting the natural environment. For a case study, Zonguldak Ulutan Dam and its water treatment plant has been investigated in detail. (author)

Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2010-09-15

348

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on downstream flow, stage, and sediment transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in Utah, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage. These changes can in turn affect sediment transport and ecologic resources below the dam. To evaluate these effects, four hydropower operational scenarios with varying degrees of hydropower-release fluctuations were examined. This study demonstrates that the combined use of river-flow routing, water-surface profile, and sediment-transport models can provide useful information for evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower-operations on ecological and other resources downstream of the dam. Study results show that flow fluctuations may or may not persist for a long distance, depending on the initial magnitude of fluctuation and the duration of hydropower peaking. Stage fluctuations depend not only on flow fluctuations but also on river channel characteristics, such as channel width and longitudinal slope.

Yin, S.C.L.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Williams, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McCoy, J.; Palmer, C. [USDOE Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-11-01

349

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-06-01

350

Influence of the site of arterial occlusion on multiple baseline hemodynamic MRI parameters and post-thrombolytic recanalization in acute stroke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this prospective MRI study, we evaluated the impact of the site of occlusion on multiple baseline perfusion parameters and subsequent recanalization in 49 stroke patients who were given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Pretreatment magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed an arterial occlusion in 47 patients: (1) internal carotid artery (ICA) + M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (n=12); (2) M1 MCA occlusion (n=19); (3) M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion (n=16). Patients with ICA occlusion had significantly larger DWI, PWI and mismatch lesion volume on pretreatment MRI compared to patients with other sites of occlusion. The differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and peak height were significantly higher in patients with ICA occlusion compared to patients with other sites of occlusion (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). Day 1 MRA showed recanalization in 28 patients (60%). The rate of recanalization was significantly different depending on the site of occlusion: 33% in ICA + M1 MCA occlusion, 63% in M1 MCA occlusion and 81% in either M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA or ACA occlusion (P=0.002). Our data suggest that CBF and peak height are the most relevant MRI parameters to assess the severity of hemodynamic impairment in regard to the site of occlusion. (orig.)

Derex, L.; Nighoghossian, N. [Hopital Neurologique, Service d' Urgences NeuroVasculaires, Lyon (France); UMR CNRS 5515, U 630 INSERM, CREATIS, Lyon (France); Hermier, M.; Froment, J.C. [Hopital Neurologique, Service de Neuroradiologie, Lyon (France); Adeleine, P. [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Lyon (France); Pialat, J.B.; Wiart, M.; Berthezene, Y. [UMR CNRS 5515, U 630 INSERM, CREATIS, Lyon (France); Trouillas, P. [Hopital Neurologique, Service d' Urgences NeuroVasculaires, Lyon (France)

2004-11-01

351

Sluice gates open up for hydro-power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forgotten during a decade, but first source of renewable energy, hydroelectricity comes back to the front of the scene with the construction of big dams in high economic growth countries and renovation of existing dams in other countries. This article makes a brief survey of the development of hydro-power which ensures 16% of the power generation in the world. Today, 1200 hydraulic dams are under construction (467 in India, 120 in China and 70 in Brazil) but only a third of the world potentialities are exploited (70% in North America, 30% in South America, 22% in Asia and 7% in Africa). Therefore, the possibilities of development remain important

2009-01-01

352

Lesotho Highlands water project - design of the Muela hydropower station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 72 MW hydropower station is included in phase 1A of the Lesotho Highlands water project to allow Lesotho to become self-sufficient in energy production. This paper describes the design of the `Muela underground power station and regulating reservoir formed by a 55 m high dam. Features include the accommodation of hydraulic transients arising in the 45 km long upstream tunnel, the changes made in the dam to take account of a thin clay layer in one abutment and the special consideration given to the provision of a bypass to allow water transfer to take place when the station is out of commission. (Author)

Arthur, L.J.; Wagner, C.M. [Mott MacDonald, Croydon (United Kingdom)] [Lahmeyer MacDonald Consortium (Country unknown/Code not available); Hein, B. [Lahmeyer MacDonald Consortium (Country unknown/Code not available)

1997-10-01

353

Portfolio management of hydropower producer via stochastic programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a stochastic linear programming framework for the hydropower portfolio management problem with uncertainty in market prices and inflows on medium term. The uncertainty is modeled as a scenario tree using the Monte Carlo simulation method, and the objective is to maximize the expected revenue over the entire scenario tree. The portfolio decisions of the stochastic model are formulated as a tradeoff involving different scenarios. Numerical results illustrate the impact of uncertainty on the portfolio management decisions, and indicate the significant value of stochastic solution. (author)

2009-01-01

354

Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location  

CERN Multimedia

The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

Majumder, Mrinmoy

2013-01-01

355

Optimal Selling into Elspot for a Norwegian Hydropower Generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a multistage stochastic MIP-model developed for day-ahead market bidding and short term scheduling of a Norwegian hydropower producer. In order to capture the water value, the model uses an hourly resolution the first day, and a gradually coarser resolution toward the end of the planning horizon, which stretches about six months ahead. Electricity prices are stochastic, whereas inflow is deterministic as the model is intended for use in the winter season. The model is extensively tested and is found to give reasonable results and to be able to replicate the real world bidding strategy of a producer fairly well.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Steinsbo, Jens Arne [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) (Norway)

2009-07-01

356

Deriving small hydropower from the major Kalinadi scheme. [In India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stage I of the Kalinadi hydropower scheme in India, a major project in the Western Ghats undertaken by the Karnataka Power Corporation centres on a cascade of dams consisting of the Supa, Tattihalla, and the Bommanahalli. There is a diversion scheme in the upper reaches for diversion of 283 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] of water to Supa reservoir every year to augment the power generation at Supa dam power house. This also forms part of Stage I. The article describes how a small hydro plant could be installed in the existing scheme without any adverse impact on ecological, environmental and submersion issues. (author).

Aswathanarayana, G.; Subrahmanyam, K.V.S. (Karnataka Power Corp., New Delhi (India))

1992-11-01

357

Quantifying eco-sustainable water releases from small hydropower plants by means of the Principle of Marginal Utility  

Science.gov (United States)

Water use for hydropower production is increasing in mountain regions, as is an awareness of the importance of generating sustainable water releases for riparian ecosystems. Traditionally, hydropower releases have been regulated by minimum flow release policies, but these can have a number of shortcomings. Perona and Dürrenmatt propose a method of determining releases that is based on the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU), which considers the environment as a (non-traditional) water user that is in full competition with other uses. Although simple, this model suggests a way of generating quasi-natural flow releases at diversion nodes while maximizing the aggregate economic benefit of all uses, including environmental. In this paper we demonstrate the implementation of the method of Perona and Dürrenmatt for several real-cases in Switzerland, evaluating the long term performances of various release policies from both an ecological and economic point of view. The model is implemented by proposing some simple environmental utility functions, followed by an examination of: i) the statistics of the flow releases predicted by the model using the "Range of Variability Approach" originally proposed by Richter et al. (1997); ii) the meaning of environmental benefits, through use of a parametric analysis which evaluates the best allocation strategy; iii) the implicit economic valuation of ecosystem health underlying each simulated alternative. This last point is evaluated assuming that allocating a unit of water to the environment and not to hydropower means assigning a higher economic value to the environment. The long term mean of the ratio between the allocated flows may be used as a suitable engineering parameter, which allows for a comparison of the environmental value of water with other uses over the system lifetime. Results are used to explore the idea that the balance between cumulative financial value, loss of biodiversity and the future costs of ecosystem restoration can be used as a means of improving water resource management.

Gorla, L.; Characklis, G.; Perona, P.

2012-04-01

358

Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

Payne, Suzette

2008-08-01

359

Investigation of Site-Specific Wind Field Parameters and Their Effect on Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main contributing factors to unsteady loading of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT) are wind shear, turbulence, and waves. In the present paper, the turbulence intensity and the wind shear exponent are investigated. Using data from the FINO 1 research platform, these parameters are analyzed and compar...

Benedikt Ernst; Jörg R. Seume

360

Stormwater Storage Pond Configuration for Hydropower Solutions: Adaptation and Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze different storage pond configurations used to manage the water inflow from storm events and to establish a methodology to optimize the energy production using this water. The case study area is a catchment based on the Alcântara zone, in Lisbon, Portugal. This is an urban area, which faces severe occurrences of storm events. These events are caused by a non-efficient drainage system, and the proximity of the river and the sea, which cannot handle large storm event inflows. Due to climate change effects, the storm rainfall hyetographs are modified and runoff in this urban area has increased for the last decades causing major inundations.The Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) MIKE BASIN (MB) and Bentley PondPack software are used to define solutions for this case study by embodying some of the Alcântara’s catchment characteristics. Different relevant components used to create the models are presented. In order to model completely the studied area, several physical elements such as reservoirs or hydropower plants are included. The Nedbør-Afstrømnings-Model (NAM model) is also presented. It is a rainfall-runoff simulator, included in DHI MB, which can create runoff time series from rainfall time series. The methodologies used to optimize energy production in each of case studies developed are detailed. Results are presented showing that some ponds configurations permit to produce more energy than others and the production of energy can be maximized by optimizing the hydropower production target demand.

Helena M Ramos; Kaloyan N. Kenov; Baptiste Pillet

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Loss of European silver eel passing a hydropower station  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to assess escapement success of silver eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in a lowland river while passing a reservoir and a hydropower station. It was hypothesized that passage success would be lowest at the hydropower station and that survival and migration speed would be highest in the free-flowing river section upstream the reservoir. Forty-five female silver eels 56–86 cm in length were tagged with acoustic transmitters and released in November 2006. Their migration was monitored via automatic listening stations (ALS) in various sections of the river, covering a total migration distance of 64 km. Survival and progression rate of downstream migration was highest in the upstream river section and significantly lower in the reservoir. The eels apparently had trouble finding their way past the turbines and spent between 1.5 and 35 h in the forebay. The results show that within the study period, only 23% of the tagged eels reached the tidal limit, mainly due to difficulties in passing thehydropower dam. With such high loss-rates, the escapement goals set in the management plan cannot be achieved

Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels

2012-01-01

362

Application procedures for hydropower licenses, exemptions, and preliminary permits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides essential information regarding the FERC's regulations and procedures for filing an application with the Commission for hydropower licenses, exemptions and preliminary permits. Each section is page numbered with a roman numeral followed by consecutive arabic numbering. The appendices are page numbered with an alphabetical prefix and consecutve page numbering within each section. The first section of this book contains background descriptions of the Commission's authority and regulations and serves as an introduction to the Commission's hydropower licensing program. Two general tables follow this introductory text and provide a quick reference to the types of applications and the relationship between the Commission's orders and regulations. Following the introduction are sections which include the Commission's regulations by application type: preliminary permits; licenses; and exemptions. Each section contains an introduction describing application procedures by type of action requested. There are two appendices provided contain information on the consultation process and lists of agencies to be consulted and a section by section analyses of the Commission's orders.

1982-04-01

363

Ergonomics program management in Tucurui Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant.

Santos RM; Sassi AC; Sá BM; Miguez SA; Pardauil AA

2012-01-01

364

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland rural (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hg0, RGM, and HgP from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hg0, RGM, and HgP) and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation) were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hg0 and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hg0 at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hg0. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and HgP was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and HgP increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and HgP through deposition. RGM and HgP levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. At the coastal site relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from P at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of HgP in all seasons in the marine environment.

H. Mao; R. Talbot; J. Hegarty; J. Koermer

2012-01-01

365

Climate change impact on the discharge in meso-scale catchments and consequences for the hydropower-production in Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential effect of climate change on hydrology is the acceleration of the hydrological cycle that in turn will likely cause changes in the discharge regime. As a result, socio-economic systems (e.g., tourism, hydropower industry) may be drastically affected. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of climate change on different hydrological components like mean and low-flow levels, and drought stress in mesoscale catchments of Switzerland. In terms of mean flows approx. 200 catchments in Switzerland were simulated for the reference period 1984-2005 using the hydrological model PREVAH and projection for near (2025-2046) and far future (2074-2095) are based on delta-change values of 10 ENSEMBLES regional climate models assuming A1B emission scenario (CH2011 climate scenario data sets). We found seven distinct response types of catchments, each exhibiting a characteristic annual cycle of hydrologic change. A general pattern observed for all catchments, is the clearly decreasing summer runoff. Hence, within a second analysis of future discharge a special focus was set on summer low flow in a selection of 29 catchments in the Swiss Midlands. Low flows are critical as they have great implications on water usage and biodiversity. We re-calibrated the hydrological model PREVAH with a focus on base-flow and gauged discharge and used the aforementioned climate data sets and simulation time periods. We found low flow situations to be very likely to increase in both, magnitude and duration, especially in central and western Switzerland plateau. At third, the drought stress potential was analyzed by simulating the soil moisture level under climate change conditions in a high mountain catchment. We used the distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH for this aspect as soil characteristics are much better represented in this model. Soil moisture in forests below 2000 m a.s.l. were found to be affected at most, which might have implication to their function as avalanche protection forests. However, we found high uncertainties related to the downscaling method applied. Finally, we analyzed the effect of changed discharge characteristics on the hydropower production by coupling the hydrological model BERNHYDRO with a hydropower management model. For the near future (until 2050), the results indicate that losses in the hydropower production during the summer can be compensated by benefit during winter. These different aspects of climate change impacts on the hydrosphere reveal a differentiated picture involving potentially threatened and widely unaffected catchments, hydrologic parameters and hydrologic constraints to the society.

Rössler, Ole; Hänggi, Pascal; Köplin, Nina; Meyer, Rapahel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

2013-04-01

366

Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

2006-07-01

367

Application of GSO for Load Allocation between Hydropower Units and Its Model Analysis based on Multi-objective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimum load distribution between the hydropower units is an effective measure for reducing the total water rate and increasing the energy output of a hydropower station, and it is becoming a more interesting studying topic. In order to increase the economic benefit of the station, a multi-objective optimization model of load allocation between hydropower units is established in accordance with the characteristics and particularity of the hydropower station, and the minimum water rate of the station is used as the optimal objective, the Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO) algorithm is applied to optimization of the model, The simulation shows the method could easily get the best solutions of load allocation between hydropower units and reflect the actual operation situation of the hydropower station much better. So the proposed scheme has an important reference value for other hydropower stations.

Liying Wang; Linming Zhao; Hongyan Yan

2012-01-01

368

Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-06-01

369

Investigation of Site-Specific Wind Field Parameters and Their Effect on Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main contributing factors to unsteady loading of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT) are wind shear, turbulence, and waves. In the present paper, the turbulence intensity and the wind shear exponent are investigated. Using data from the FINO 1 research platform, these parameters are analyzed and compared with the proposed wind field parameters in the IEC standard 61400-3. Based on this analysis, aeroelastic simulations are performed to determine the effect of wind field parameters on the fatigue and the extreme loads on the rotor blades. For the investigations, the aeroelastic model of a 5 MW OWT is used with a focus on design load cases in an operating state (power production). The fatigue loads are examined by means of the damage-equivalent load-range approach. In order to determine the extreme loads with a recurrence period of 50 years, a peak over threshold extrapolation method and a novel method based on average conditional exceedance rates are used. The results show that the requirements of the IEC standard are very conservative for the design of the rotor blades. Therefore, there could be a large optimization potential for the reduction of weight and cost of the rotor blades.

Benedikt Ernst; Jörg R. Seume

2012-01-01

370

Changing currents in Norwegian hydropower governance? The challenge of reconciling conflicting interests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report focuses on the potential for reconciling energy and environmental policy concerns when phasing in new renewable electricity production. In order to identify the potential for a better reconciliation for Norwegian hydropower, the report assesses the governance of the sector, focusing on the licensing of hydropower production along two dimensions: (1) horizontally, looking at the level of governance related to the degree of coordination between relevant policy domains and sectors - with related objectives, plans and regulations, as well as interests, actors and institutions; and (2) vertically, focusing on the interaction between different levels of governance (international/national/regional/local). In addition, perspectives from research and documentation of assumed effects and impacts of hydropower will also be viewed as a crucial part of the licensing processes. In sum, main political and regulatory drivers and barriers impacting upon the current and future hydropower development in Norway are quite complex and fragmentary, and there is currently no overall target providing a general direction for hydropower development. Given the lack of an overall, coherent approach, the interaction between the different levels of governance does not demonstrate a specific, coherent pattern. At the same time the interest for further expansion of hydropower production is growing. Knowledge and documentation stand out as crucial in two major ways: (1) A need to reinforce the accessibility and transparency of the licensing process; and (2) complementary and updated research and documentation on how to meet the challenges raised by the renewed interest in, and further demand for, hydropower. (Author)

Knudsen, Joergen Kjetil; Ruud, Audun

2011-06-15

371

EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

None

2011-12-01

372

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (Hgp) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hgo, RGM, and Hgp) and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation) were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hgo and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hgo at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hgo. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and Hgp was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and Hgp increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and Hgp through deposition. RGM and Hgp levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. In the coastal region relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from p at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of Hgp in all seasons in the marine environment.

H. Mao; R. Talbot; J. Hegarty; J. Koermer

2011-01-01

373

DOE Hydropower Program Engineering Research and Development 1977-- 1991 summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Engineering Research and Development Program was a part of the DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program. The Small-Scale Hydropower Program was established in 1977 (a) to provide appropriate assistance to private and public sectors, and (b) to accelerate the development of hydroelectric power at existing dams amenable to the retrofitting or adding of hydroelectric equipment. The purpose of the Engineering Research and Development program was to promote, encourage, and support the development of hydropower. DOE provided funds to develop new technologies and adapt novel applications of existing related technologies to the hydropower field. The general goal of the program was to support the research of technology that would improve small hydropower. However, since much of the small hydropower potential was either marginally economical or uneconomical to develop, the primary emphasis was on the lowering of equipment costs or the costs of implementing the equipment. During the 15 year duration of the program about $5 million was spent on 34 projects with a wide variety of objectives. As with many research and development (R&D) programs the results of the small hydropower R&D program did not meet all of the initial goals. However, lessons were learned and some successes were achieved. This report summarizes the lessons learned as well as some of the successess and failures of the individual projects. The purpose of this report is to document not only the successful projects that were explored but also to delineate the deficiencies of the projects that were not found to be viable for the intended application to hydropower. Some of the concepts explored were found to be more suitable to other applications that the proposed use for hydropower at the time the project was investigated. As a result, the few concepts explored were found to be commercially viable and were continued in the private sector.

Chappell, J.R.

1992-05-01

374

DOE Hydropower Program Engineering Research and Development 1977-- 1991 summary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Engineering Research and Development Program was a part of the DOE Small-Scale Hydropower Program. The Small-Scale Hydropower Program was established in 1977 (a) to provide appropriate assistance to private and public sectors, and (b) to accelerate the development of hydroelectric power at existing dams amenable to the retrofitting or adding of hydroelectric equipment. The purpose of the Engineering Research and Development program was to promote, encourage, and support the development of hydropower. DOE provided funds to develop new technologies and adapt novel applications of existing related technologies to the hydropower field. The general goal of the program was to support the research of technology that would improve small hydropower. However, since much of the small hydropower potential was either marginally economical or uneconomical to develop, the primary emphasis was on the lowering of equipment costs or the costs of implementing the equipment. During the 15 year duration of the program about $5 million was spent on 34 projects with a wide variety of objectives. As with many research and development (R D) programs the results of the small hydropower R D program did not meet all of the initial goals. However, lessons were learned and some successes were achieved. This report summarizes the lessons learned as well as some of the successess and failures of the individual projects. The purpose of this report is to document not only the successful projects that were explored but also to delineate the deficiencies of the projects that were not found to be viable for the intended application to hydropower. Some of the concepts explored were found to be more suitable to other applications that the proposed use for hydropower at the time the project was investigated. As a result, the few concepts explored were found to be commercially viable and were continued in the private sector.

Chappell, J.R.

1992-05-01

375

Numerical simulation of catastrophic flood: the case study of hypothetical failure of the Bielkowo hydro-power plant reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

The numerical modeling of flood wave propagation following the hypothetical breaks of the embankments of the Bielkowo hydro-power plant storage reservoir (Kolbudy II Reservoir) on the Radunia River in Poland has been presented. The results of computations were used to estimate the parameters of the flood waves, which are indispensable for the flood zone determination and mapping and then for the flood risk analysis. When estimating the reach and area of the inundation, related to the embankments failures, digital terrain model, and mathematical model of flood wave propagation are necessary. For the numerical simulations of flood, the mathematical model of free surface, two-dimensional unsteady water flow was applied. Four locations of potential breaks of the reservoir embankments were considered. The computed flood zones were presented on the flood hazard maps. The maps have been used by the local authorities and the dam owner to manage the flood risk related to hydro-power plants operations on the Radunia River. This type of research has been done for the first time for the water plant managed by the ENERGA Elektrownie Straszyn.

Szyd?owski, Micha?; Szpakowski, Wojciech; Zima, Piotr

2013-10-01

376

Development and practical testing of an action plan for the environmentally compatible use of hydropower; Erarbeitung und Praxiserprobung eines Massnahmenplanes zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Wasserkraftnutzung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of rivers for generating electric power and the efforts to conserve important ecological habitats mark a classic conflict between two different aims of society. While passing hydropower plants migrating fish risk injuries and death. This affects the development of fish populations, particularly of diadromous fish populations in river basins. The aim of this study was to find conditions for serving a self sustaining fish population in the Weser basin. The influence of the river continuity and the quality of spawning and nursery habitats were varied. The survival rates of the diadromous species salmon and eel were modeled on the basis of literature data and additional data from own investigations. A self-reproducing salmon population would require the upstream and downstream passibility at each obstacle. Especially the protection at hydropower plants in the tributaries is of major importance. In addition, the hydro-morphological conditions of the spawning habitats have to be improved and further losses (such as predation or fishing) must be decreased. The survival rate of 40%, required by the EC Regulation on European eel can be achieved by the establishment of upstream continuity at all sites and by protective measures at the hydropower plants in the tributaries of the Weser. (orig.)

Keuneke, Rita; Dumont, Ulrich [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle, Aachen (Germany)

2011-05-15

377

Safety requirements to the operation of hydropower plants; Sicherheit beim Betrieb von Wasserkraftwerken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employers have to take into account various safety and health requirements relating to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. Especially the diversity of the hydropower plant components requires the consideration of different safety and health aspects. In 2011 the ''Fachausschuss Elektrotechnik'' (expert committee electro-technics) of the institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention presented a new ''BG-Information'' dealing with ''Safe methods operating hydropower plants''. The following article gives an introduction into the conception and the essential requirements of this new BG-Information. (orig.)

Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany)

2011-07-01

378

Small Hydropower Projects for Rural Electrification in Nigeria: A Developer’s Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Power generation in developing nations is a vital index for the socio-economic development of these countries. Renewable and sustainable options for electric power generation have become attractive to many nations. This paper addresses power generation for rural applications by means of small hydropower plants. A flowchart is developed for use by Power utilities and Independent Power Producers that are interested in small hydropower generation. Recommendations and possible cost reductions for small hydropower projects for interested developers are also highlighted.

Anyaka Boniface Onyemaechi,; Imeaka I. Charles,

2013-01-01

379

Hydrologic estimation for sizing of small hydropower generation facilities. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small hydropower design decisions are usually made in the absence of extensive hydrometeorological records. A method is proposed for the sizing of small hydropower facilities which is based on the estimated flow duration curve, and its uncertainty. The flow duration curve is derived using an estimate of the mean annual runoff based on a climatalogical water balance with occasional instantaneous low flow measurements. This initial estimate can subsequently be augmented using stream gauge observations, and information transfer from a long-term stream gauge record. The hydropower generation facility sizing is based on the estimated flow duration curve, and its estimated uncertainty.

Kurika, M.; Burges, S.J.; Lettenmaier, D.P.

1984-08-01

380

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-07-01

382

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Sale, M.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-07-01

383

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-05-01

384

A specific and correlative study of natural atmospheric radioactivity, condensation nuclei and some electrical parameters in marine or urban sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In order to determine the correlations between the following atmospheric parameters: radon and condensation nuclei concentrations, total conductivity and space charge, we analysed their behavior over a long period, in connection with meteorological data. We simulaneously studied the equilibrium state between 222Rn and its short-lived daughters pointing out a radioactive desequilibrium as a function of the meteorological conditions. Simultaneously, we established average experimental curves of cumulated particle size distributions of natural radioactivity in the air, differentiating urban and marine influences. Finally, a comparison between the various parameters showed that the total conductivity greatly depends on condensation nuclei and radon concentrations in the air[fr] Afin de determiner des correlations entre les parametres atmospheriques suivants: concentration en radon de l'air, concentration en noyaux de condensation, conductivite totale et charge spatiale, nous analysons leurs comportements sur une longue periode, en fonction de differentes donnees meteorologiques. Simultanement, nous etudions le degre d'equilibre entre le radon et ses descendants a vie courte, mettant en evidence un desequilibre radioactif variant en fonction des conditions meteorologiques. En meme temps, nous etablissons des repartitions granulometriques experimentales moyennes de la radioactivite naturelle dans l'air en distinguant l'influence urbaine de l'influence maritime. Enfin, la comparaison entre les differents parametres montre que la conductivite totale depend fortement de la concentration de l'air en noyaux et en radon

1980-01-01

385

Development of a Speckle Interferometer and the Measurement of Fried's Parameter $(r_{o})$ at the Telescope Site  

CERN Multimedia

A new optical speckle interferometer for use at the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope (VBT), at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India, has been designed and developed. Provisions have been made for observation both at the prime focus (f/3.25), as well as at the Cassegrain focus (f/13) of the said telescope. The technical details of this sensitive instrument and the design features are described. An interface between the telescope and the afore-mentioned interferometer is made based on a concept of eliminating the formation of eddies due to the hot air entrapment. The performances of this instrument has been tested both at the laboratory, as well as at the Cassegrain end of the telescope. It is being used routinely to observe the speckle-grams of close-binary (separation $<$1 arc second) stars. The size of the Fried's parameter, r$_{o}$, is also measured.

Saha, S K; Chandra, A U; Chinnappan, V

1999-01-01

386

Innovative technology in small hydropower practice. [In China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small hydropower construction can provide a good opportunity for pioneering, testing and experimenting with innovative technology, which can often lead to significant cost savings. This article describes two cases of innovative approaches in recent small hydroelectric practice in China, both pertaining to upgrading existing plants. The first is the case of the heightening of the Lashi thin arch dam, where the concept of the cylindrical shelled arch dam first proposed in 1977 was introduced to reduce initial costs and accelerate the construction time. In the second case, an inter-basin water diversion and pumped-storage component was added to an existing stepped three-plant development scheme on the Linxi river which provided a significant increase of power production. (author)

Xiong Sizheng (Information Research Inst., MOE and MWR, Liupukan, Beijing (China))

1993-05-01

387

Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the smoke spreading in the transport passage under different mechanical exhaust rates, and the same smoke spreading processes are simulated using FDS. By comparing the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and FDS simulations, it is showed that the mechanical exhaust rate prescribed in the regulation of China is adequate for the transport passage of main transformer under a main transformer hall fire.

Angui Li; Yeqiu Wu; Jiangyan Ma; Ran Gao; Jiang Hu

2012-01-01

388

The role of university research in improved hydropower generation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of the significant advances made by the hydropower industry over the years, much remains to be done. This paper describes the role of applied and fundamental university research in fluid mechanics, hydraulics, aeration technology, and water quality dynamics as a supplement to industry efforts. Examples are drawn from a variety of topics, including physical modelling of hydraulic structures, fundamental studies of vortex dynamics, numerical analysis of complex viscous flow phenomena, cavitation research, and environmental studies. Also included in the discussion is a description of the only independent hydroturbine test facility in the USA and its potential for improving the state of the art. Special emphasis is given to the interrelationship between fundamental and applied research and how various feedback loops result in both improved technology and a strengthen academic program.

Arndt, R.E.A.; Gulliver, J.S. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Lab.)

1990-01-01

389

A remark on the existence of breather solutions for the Discrete Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation in infinite lattices: The case of site dependent anharmonic parameter  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss the existence of breather solutions for a Discrete Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation in an infinite $N$-dimensional lattice, involving site dependent anharmonic parameter. We give a simple proof on the existence of (nontrivial) breather solutions based on variational approach, assuming that the sequence of anharmonic parmeters is in an appropriate sequence space (decays with an appropriate rate). We also give a proof on the non-existence of (non-trivial) breather solutions, and discuss a possible physical interpretation of the restrictions, both in the existence and nonexistence case.

Karachalios, N I

2005-01-01

390

The impact of the site meteorological conditions, model and parameters of atmospheric dispersion on the assessment results of public radiation exposure under normal operation of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The real meteorological condition of the nuclear facilities located in different regions in China was used to do the comparative evaluation of the public radiation exposure from airborne effluent of a hypothetical 1000 MWe pressure water reactor (PWR) under the routine operation. The public radiation exposure is far less than the State Radiation Exposure Limit, because the airborne emission from the 1000 MWe PWR under the routine operation is very low. The site-meteorological condition, the dispersion model and its parameters have little influence on the public radiation exposure. Therefore it can simplify the assessment of the impact on environment of nuclear power station. (4 tabs., 4 figs.)

1993-01-01

391

Analysis of the cost for the refurbishment of small hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of all the concerns associated with fossil fuels and energy demand it is appropriate to investigate the large number of abandoned small hydropower plants. In order to solve the difficulty implied, by a viability study on the refurbishment of a small hydropower plant, a series of simple equations has been developed based on the economic optimization of the different elements. These equations can also be used for completely new hydropower plants. The result of this study will allow us to obtain quite approximate costs for the refurbishment of old hydropower plants, or the construction of new ones. These data on costs will act as a reference to examine real possibilities of refurbishment through different tools of financial and economic analysis. Although the equations developed have used unitary prices referring to Spain, they will be applicable to other countries just changing those prices for those of the country, required. (author)

Ogayar, B.; Vidal, P.G.; Hernandez, J.C. [Grupo de Investigacion IDEA, Escuela Politecnica Superior, University of Jaen, Campus de Las Lagunillas, s/n., 23071 Jaen (Spain)

2009-11-15

392

Finding Multiple Optimal Solutions to Optimal Load Distribution Problem in Hydropower Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimal load distribution (OLD) among generator units of a hydropower plant is a vital task for hydropower generation scheduling and management. Traditional optimization methods for solving this problem focus on finding a single optimal solution. However, many practical constraints on hydropower plant operation are very difficult, if not impossible, to be modeled, and the optimal solution found by those models might be of limited practical uses. This motivates us to find multiple optimal solutions to the OLD problem, which can provide more flexible choices for decision-making. Based on a special dynamic programming model, we use a modified shortest path algorithm to produce multiple solutions to the problem. It is shown that multiple optimal solutions exist for the case study of China’s Geheyan hydropower plant, and they are valuable for assessing the stability of generator units, showing the potential of reducing occurrence times of units across vibration areas.

Pan Liu; Tri-Dung Nguyen; Ximing Cai; Xinhao Jiang

2012-01-01

393

Small hydropower stations in Greece: The local people's attitudes in a mountainous prefecture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last years, it has become evident that operation of hydropower stations creates discussions and different views on the local communities. Especially, although the issue of operation of small hydropower (SHP) stations or plants is of considerable interest in Greece, almost no study has been conducted to investigate the current status of Greek citizens' attitudes towards utilization of the available hydropower potential through SHP. The present study, therefore, aims to examine in the prefecture of Ioannina, Greece, the local people's attitudes on operation of SHP stations in connection with the increased public interest for environmental and social dimensions of small hydropower stations, and to determine how these attitudes change with respect to various factors. (author)

Malesios, Chrisovalantis [Department of Agricultural Development, Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, 68200 Orestiada (Greece); Arabatzis, Garyfallos [Department of Forestry and Management of the Environment and Natural Resources, Democritus University of Thrace, Pantazidou 193, Orestiada (Greece)

2010-12-15

394

Putting pumps to work for generation at small hydro sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pumps can be used as turbines to provide a low-cost and easily adapted equipment alternative for power generation at small hydropower sites. This article, Part 1 of a two-part series, provides guidelines for evaluating use of a pump at a specific site.

Heninger, L. [Technical Univ., Vienna (Austria)