WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

What part does hydropower play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to hydropower as an energy source. Here students read about the history, workings, and benefits of utilizing hydropower. Information is also provided about the limitations and geographical considerations of hydropower in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students opportunities to reflect on what they've read about the uses of hydropower. Articles and information about ladders for migrating fish at dams and the powerhouse of Grand Coulee Dam are available from a sidebar. A link is provided to a site that examines the inner workings of a hydroelectric plant.

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

2

Evaluation of economic rent of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing studies have mostly estimated the ex post economic rent of hydropower for the hydroelectric system of a province or a country as a whole and have ignored the site- or project-specific variations in the economic rent of hydropower plants. Further, most of the existing studies have used simplified methods to calculate the rent ex post. This paper presents a rigorous methodology for estimation of site-specific (i.e., project specific) economic rent of hydropower ex ante. It applies the methodology in the case of a hydropower project and analyzes the sensitivity of the rent to variations in some key parameters.

3

75 FR 71122 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7518-012--New York] Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review November 15, 2010. Commission staff will be...

2010-11-22

4

Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

1955-12-01

5

76 FR 51022 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Scoping Meeting and Site Visit and Soliciting Scoping Comments...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. P-13563-001] Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Scoping Meeting...13563-001. c. Applicant: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. d. Name of Project: Sweetheart...Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box 22775,...

2011-08-17

6

Hydropower economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The key question in hydropower production is the time pattern of the use of the water in the reservoir. The water used to produce electricity today can alternatively be used tomorrow. The analysis of the operation of hydropower is therefore essentially a dynamic one. The paper introduces some basic models for social allocation of stored water over discrete time periods using non-linear programming assuming capacities of generation and transmission as given. Implications of constraints such as...

Førsund, Finn R.

2005-01-01

7

The Climate Effect of Land Use Changes Related to Hydroelectric Development: Developing a method to discuss good site selection for hydropower dams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large dams vary considerably in their adverse climate impact. From a climate standpoint, there are good dams and bad dams. While some large dams are relatively benign, others ap- pear to release substantial amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. The pres- ence of hydropower dams in the exclusive club of green energy sources must hence be taken up to consideration. The severity of the climate impacts from a hydroelectric project seems to be largely determined by the dam site. Whi...

Pedersen, Lasse Jesper

2013-01-01

8

76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Environmental assessment (EA) on the project in accordance...Environmental Policy Act. The EA will consider both site-specific and cumulative...should be analyzed in the EA. The times and locations...meetings and the Environmental Site Review are as...

2011-02-11

9

Harnessing hydropower: a practical guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Macro and micro hydropower systems are described, along with a consideration of the technical and environmental problems involved. A case study, with Bargoed in the Rhymney Valley, South Wales as the proposed site is then presented, with some of the issues involved when choosing a specific hydropower-harnessing scheme discussed. In conclusion, a set of associated proposals, which would improve the Rhymney Valley in an environmentally- and socially-beneficial way, are described. (author)

10

Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages this program, which explores and develops technology to improve current hydropower resources. Although hydroelectric generation systems produce far fewer harmful emissions than other options, they can have a detrimental effect to downstream water quality. Fish are very susceptible to injury or death from turbine systems. Several reports from the Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program, addressing these issues and documenting research into possible solutions, are available from this site. One of the most interesting projects of the program is the Sensor Fish. This device is used "to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes."

2002-01-01

11

US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

12

US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-05-01

13

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - Georgia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Georgia.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

14

US hydropower resource assessment for Vermont  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Vermont.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-02-01

15

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

16

US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-03-01

17

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

18

Mini and micro hydropower systems in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower is one of the renewable sources of energy. In the field of hydropower, even though small/mini/micro hydropower systems make fractional increases in the overall energy production, their impact on the local areas in which they are sited can be significant in stimulating growth of rural industry and in meeting the basic energy needs of the local population for domestic and agricultural use. They also help in reducing demand on other non-renewable polluting resources like fossil fuels. Moreover as compared to big hydropower systems, small hydropower systems are cost competitive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They require less time for construction and reduce transmission losses. They can be designed to suit the limits of water resources available and can be tailored to the needs of the end-use market. Aspects of small hydropower projects which needs to be studied are listed. Modelling of turbines and generators for such projects, and factors to be considered in selection of suitable turbine and generator for a particular small hydropower system are discussed. The technology for small hydropower systems is well developed and available in India. The present estimated potential of such systems in India is 5000 MW out of which 207 MW is harnessed. These small hydropower plants are mostly located in the northern states like Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Rajasthan. Construction works for 234 MW at 88 sites are going on. During the 8th plan period, 218.5 MW is planned to be developed with an outlay of Rs. 548.25 crores. It is suggested that special subsidies and liberal term loans should be made available for implementing such systems. (M.G.B.). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

19

Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

1988-12-01

20

How Hydropower Plants Work  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source. In this article, we'll take a look at how falling water creates energy and learn about the hydrologic cycle that creates the water flow essential for hydropower. You will also get a glimpse at one unique application of hydropower that may affect your daily life

Bonsor, Kevin

2008-02-07

 
 
 
 
21

Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

Douglas G. Hall

2011-09-01

22

The role of hydropower in environment ally sustainable energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower has historically been the renewable energy leader, and from a technical-cost perspective, is very likely to remain the only viable renewable energy source for many countries. In recent years, hydropower has been much maligned, especially by NGOs, for not being a sustainable source of energy. Though hydropower is clearly a renewable source of energy, but the question arises whether it can also be sustainable. Hydropower can play an increasingly important role in enabling communities around the world to meet sustainability objectives. To become more accepted as a key contributor to sustainable energy systems, new and existing hydropower projects need to be built and operated in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. This paper highlights the sustain ability aspects of hydropower and discusses the criteria for selection of environmentally friendly hydropower project sites so that that hydropower can be developed in a sustainable manner and once again be considered favorably in the planning of generation mix for new energy development. Sustainability of hydropower projects involves treating both the social and environmental sustainability of the project at an early stage and including the interests of all stakeholders of the project. As a case study, the Ghazi- Barotha Hydropower Project (GBHP) in Pakistan has been selected, as it is the best example in managing the social issues and gaining public acceptance because of proper planning and addressing environmental and social issues at an early stage. (author)

23

Modeling California's high-elevation hydropower systems in energy units  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel approach for modeling high-elevation hydropower systems. Conservation of energy and energy flows (rather than water volume or mass flows) is used as the basis for modeling more than 135 high-elevation high-head hydropower sites throughout California. The unusual energy basis for reservoir modeling allows for development of hydropower operations models for a large number of plants to estimate large-scale system behavior without the expense and time needed to develop traditional streamflow and reservoir volume-based models in absence of storage and release capacity, penstock head, and efficiency information. Potential applications of the developed Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) include examination of the effects of climate change and energy prices on system-wide generation and hydropower revenues. An extensive comparison of the EBHOM with a traditional hydropower optimization model used in California produced similar results and indicated good reliability of EBHOM's predictions.

Madani, Kaveh; Lund, Jay R.

2009-09-01

24

Hydropower research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

NONE

1997-03-01

25

Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns. PMID:25114958

Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

2014-01-01

26

Technology Roadmap: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

NONE

2012-07-01

27

Hydropower's role in delivering sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Johannesburg's World Summit on Sustainable Development stipulated in its Implementation Plan that hydropower of all scales should be included in the drive to increase the contribution of renewable energy. This can be achieved through the plant-life extension and upgrading of existing schemes as well as by the sustainable development of new projects according to the needs, opportunities and resources available. Hydropower is the world's largest source of renewable energy used for power generation; it accounts for 19 percent of the world's supply (by 2010 wind power is expected to contribute 0.6 percent and solar power 0.12 percent. Hydropower is also a truly global resource, as more than 150 countries generate hydroelectric power. There is about 730 GW of hydro capacity in operation worldwide, generating 2650 TWh/year. A further 101 GW is under construction and 338 GW is at the planning stage. Hydropower plays an important role in reducing global GhG emissions by an estimated 10 percent per annum; in its current role, hydropower offsets 4.4 million barrels of oil-equivalent (thermal electric generation) each day. There is vast unexploited potential worldwide for new hydro plants, with only 33 percent of the economic potential having been developed so far. The majority of the remaining potential exists in lesser developed countries in Asia, South America and Africa. For example, Europe has developed 75 percent of its economic potential, whereas Africa has only developedtential, whereas Africa has only developed seven percent. Hydropower technologies are reliable, advanced and efficient. The energy conversion efficiency of 80 to 93 percent is far higher than that for other major types of power plant. The level of service from the various types of hydro scheme varies from base-load supply, typically from run-of-river schemes, to peak-load and system-back-up services from hydro storage schemes. In regions where there is long-developed hydro capacity, plant-life extension can be achieved by the replacement of equipment within existing infrastructure; this can extend the operating life by a further 30 to 50 years. Small-scale, decentralised development has been responsible for bringing light and power to remote communities. Such schemes have catalysed local commercial diversification and prosperity. The lower investment demand of smaller schemes has enabled private sector involvement through independent power production. Typically smaller schemes become grid connected if the power system is accessible, as this increases the security of supply. Furthermore, schemes at remote sites can assist transmission system stability. A further important role of smaller scale hydro is the recovery of energy at water infrastructure developed for other purposes. In many countries, large schemes play a significant role in national and regional supply security due to the flexibility of storage reservoirs and independence from fuel price fluctuations. Hydro also integrates well with other generation technologies, with its flexibility enabling thermal plants to operate steadily (saving fuel and reducing emissions). In addition, its responsiveness permits the back-up of the intermittent renewables. The question of storage is clearly a major issue in balancing supply and demand. Hydro reservoirs and pump-storage schemes offer security in the stability and reliability of power systems; they can absorb power when there is an excess and follow load demand instantaneously. A major challenge is that 'support' and 'storage' services are rarely understood and encouraged in the market-driven arena. The main arguments against hydropower concern its social impacts, such as land transformation, displacement of people, and environmental changes, i.e. fauna, flora, sedimentation and water quality. The social and environmental impacts can, however, be mitigated by taking appropriate steps according to established codes of good practice. As a tool for this purpose, the hydropower sector has recently developed and adopted Sustainability Guidelines. These Guidelines

28

Enterprise Hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brochure describes the Enterprise Hydropower plants of the joint stock company Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE-VE). This Enterprise consists of 34 hydroelectric power plants with total installed electric power 2.399 GW and with mean annual production 4.786 TWh of electric power. Technical data in detail of SE-VE and plans for construction of new hydropower plants as well as influence of use of hydro-energetic potential on the environment are presented

29

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

30

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Maryland.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

31

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Minnesota.

Francfort, J.E.

1996-07-01

32

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

33

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-08-01

34

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-01-01

35

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Alaska.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-11-01

36

Parameters and variables appearing in repository-siting models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Included in this report is a summary of data characterizing the parameters and variables appearing in repository siting models. These data cover the processes of saturates flow, unsaturated flow, surface water flow, geochemistry, heat transport, solute transport, and geomechanical response. Definitions and ranges of values are provided for equation parameters, source terms, dependent variables, boundary conditions, and initial conditions for the equations that are solved in the repository siting models. The data were compiled to help guide the selection of values of parameters and variables to be used in benchmark problems

37

The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an earlier paper (), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now.

38

Development potential for hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

39

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

40

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

1998-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Developing hydropower overseas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines how the National Hydropower Association (NHA) has found ways to support its members who desire to expand their business programs to foreign markets through participation in a wide range of government programs. The topics of the article include the market in developing countries, the certificate of review, products and services, and domestic and international competition

42

Clean Energy: Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower generation is introduced to students as a common purpose and benefit of constructing dams. Through an introduction to kinetic and potential energy, students come to understand how a dam creates electricity. They also learn the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

43

Hydropower development priority using MCDM method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin.

44

Renewable Energy: Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson introduces students to the use of flowing or falling water (hydropower) to perform work, particularly electric power generation. Topics include the history of hydropower development, the invention of turbines and electric generators, and the history of hydroelectric power development in the United States. There is also discussion of the environmental issues associated with the construction of large dams and flooding large tracts of land, as well as some of the physics involved in the transfer of energy from moving water to a mechanical device such as a turbine. The lesson includes an activity in which students use a model turbine and generator and vary the height from which water flows into them to examine how energy output and efficiency varies.

Pratte, John

45

Hydro-power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On average the hydro-power sector produces 12% of the electrical power in France. A quarter of this production might pass to another operator than EDF because the end of some grants is nearing (2012 for 12 installations). In France the power of rivers belongs to the state that gives operators grants to harness it. The allowance lasts 75 years usually but for installations below 4.5 MW a permanent and definitive grant is allowed. Most installations are ancient and their investment have been paid off since a long, so hydro-power is the most profitable renewable energy in France. A lot of bidders are expected. Each bid will be assessed on 3 criteria: -) the global energy efficiency of the waterfall, -) a balanced management of the water resource, and -) an economic and financial offer to the state. The balance between the different uses of water is getting more delicate to reach and this renewal of grants will be an opportunity for the state to impose a better preservation of the environment. In July 2008, the French government announced a program for the re launching of the hydro-power, this program has been reduced and now only 3000 GWh supplementary are expected by 2020. (A.C.)

46

Environmental impact of hydropower systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The installed hydropower potential of Romania is evaluated to 15,700 MW and 42 billion MWh/year power generation. Only 39% of this potential are currently being utilized. In this note, the impact of Somes-Tarnita and Mariselu-Cluj hydropower systems on the environment is presented. Also, the socio-economic effects on the local communities are considered. These two hydropower systems supply a total electric power of 470 GWh/year

47

Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

Gajic, A.

2013-12-01

48

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world';s electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2011-09-01

49

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2011-09-01

50

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT POSSIBILITIES FOR SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT PROJECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The existing solutions for small hydropower plants were consideredconvenient from the technical point of view over a long period, while general environmental concerns of society increased in all directions during the last decades.This paper refers to how to include environmental protection measures during the selection of the sites for a small hydropower plant and its water intake, during the preparation of the project, and then during operation. Investments for modernization of old small hydropower plants have to also include improvements regarding especially the protection of the river ecosystem. Specific environmental training for those who will be designers of small hydropower plants can be useful for environmental protection improvement in such projects.

Theodor Ghind?

2012-06-01

51

Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based.

Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

2002-01-01

52

Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

53

Module 10: Hydropower for Agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Eastern Iowa Community College provides this learning module to teach students the hydrologic cycle, current issues in hydropower, system components of hydropower, and a variety of related topics. Users can download a zip file in which they will find a syllabus, student handouts, a quiz, and 67 slide PowerPoint presentation.

2014-09-03

54

Hydropower from the Himalayas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world's largest rock debris dam - second only to the Great Wall of China as the largest structure created by man - was completed in 1976 at Tarbela on the Indus river. This not only achieved reliable water supplies for irrigation, but also markedly improved Pakistan's energy supply. Nowadays, Pakistan produces practically all the foodstuffs it requires within its own borders and has no need to import large quantities of petroleum. The performances of the Tarbela hydropower station is now being almost doubled. (orig.).

Flury, H.

1990-01-01

55

The Grossmatt hydro-power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented

56

Hydraulic air pumps for low-head hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower is a proven renewable energy resource and future expansion potential exists in smaller-scale, low-head sites. A novel approach to low-head hydropower at run-of-river and tidal estuary sites is to include an intermediate air transmission stage. Water is made to flow through a siphon, rather than a conventional water turbine, and at the top of the siphon the pressure is sub-atmospheric and air is entrained into the water. The siphon forms a novel, hydraulically powered vacuum pump or...

Howey, Da; Pullen, Kr

2009-01-01

57

Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO{sub 2} outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}, Fe(OH)3/Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4} 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of {+-}10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO{sub 2} outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS{sup -}/SO{sub 4} 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS{sup -}/SO{sub 4} 2-controls Eh at normal SO{sub 4} 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO{sub 4} 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe{sup 2+} are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe{sup 3+} values

Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hermansson, Hans-Peter [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

2006-12-15

58

Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO2 outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe3+/Fe2+, Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ and SO4 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of ±10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO2 outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS-/SO4 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS-/SO4 2-controls Eh at normal SO4 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO4 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe2+ are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe3+ values obtained by subtraction of Fe2+ from Fetotal. (iv) There are high uncertainties in EhSO4/HS for Forsmark samples because H

59

World Small Hydropower Development Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

2013-07-01

60

United States Department of Energy Hydropower Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This Department of Energy (DOE) page discusses the Hydropower Program, which is aimed at conducting and coordinating development to improve the numerous benefits of hydropower. It contains facts about hydropower such as its history and development, how it works, types of facilities, undeveloped hydropower potential, production expenses, electricity generation, and advanced programs to develop hydro technology while minimizing environmental effects. There are assessment reports for each state summarizing the current and potential outlook for hydropower use. A large annotated bibliography contains resources about hydropower from 1978 to the present.

Brookshier, Peggy; Sommers, Garold; Hunt, Robert

 
 
 
 
61

SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

Jannik, T.

2013-03-14

62

Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

63

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

1992-09-01

64

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

65

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-01-01

66

Site-specific reference person parameters and derived concentration standards for the Savannah River Site.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy Order 458.1 states that the compliance with the 1 mSv annual dose constraint to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, the MEI concept was used for dose compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS) using adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. For future compliance, SRS plans to use the representative person concept for dose estimates to members of the public. The representative person dose will be based on the reference person dose coefficients from the U.S. DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard and on usage parameters specific to SRS for the reference and typical person. Usage parameters and dose coefficients were determined for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure pathways. The reference intake for air, water, meat, dairy, freshwater fish, saltwater invertebrates, produce (fruits and vegetables), and grains for the 95th percentile are 17.4 m d, 2.19 L d, 220.6 g d, 674 cm d, 66.4 g d, 23.0 g d, 633.4 g d (448.5 g dand 631.7 g d) and 251.3 g d, respectively. For the 50th percentile: 13.4 m d, 0.809 L d, 86.4 g d, 187 cm d, 8.97 g d, 3.04 g d, 169.5 g d (45.9 g d and 145.6 g d), 101.3 g d, respectively. These parameters for the representative person were used to calculate and tabulate SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for the pathways not included in DOE-STD-1196-2011. PMID:24667386

Stone, Daniel K; Higley, Kathryn A; Jannik, G Timothy

2014-05-01

67

Refurbishment of hydropower generation plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the factors taken into consideration and the methods used for the management of refurbishment work in the hydropower installations of the TUWAG - a Tyrolean hydropower company in Austria. The technical and financial advantages to be gained from refurbishment are discussed and the requirements placed on the structuring of refurbishment projects are described. Various factors such as plant operation and maintenance, increased returns through better efficiency and cost reduction through lower wear and tear and reduced risk of failure are discussed. Annexes to the article cover monitoring and measurement techniques, the simulation of mechanical and hydraulic conditions, profitability calculations and turbine management

68

An empirical analysis of the hydropower portfolio in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indus Basin of Pakistan with 800 hydropower project sites and a feasible hydropower potential of 60 GW, 89% of which is undeveloped, is a complex system poised for large-scale changes in the future. Motivated by the need to understand future impacts of hydropower alternatives, this study conducted a multi-dimensional, empirical analysis of the full hydropower portfolio. The results show that the full portfolio spans multiple scales of capacity from mega (>1000 MW) to micro (<0.1 MW) projects with a skewed spatial distribution within the provinces, as well as among rivers and canals. Of the total feasible potential, 76% lies in two (out of six) administrative regions and 68% lies in two major rivers (out of more than 125 total channels). Once projects currently under implementation are commissioned, there would be a five-fold increase from a current installed capacity of 6720 MW to 36759 MW. It is recommended that the implementation and design decisions should carefully include spatial distribution and environmental considerations upfront. Furthermore, uncertainties in actual energy generation, and broader hydrological risks due to expected climate change effects should be included in the current planning of these systems that are to provide service over several decades into the future. - Highlights: ? Pakistan has a hydropower potential of 60 GW distributed across 800 projects. ? Under-development projects will realize 36.7 GW of this potential by 2030. ? Project locations are skewed towards some sub-basins and provinces. ? Project sizes are very diverse and have quite limited private sector ownership. ? Gaps in data prevent proper risk assessment for Pakistan's hydropower development.

69

Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

2010-09-15

70

A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2013-05-01

71

Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local response surface are comparatively assessed. Preliminary results show that a range of potentially interesting trade-off policies exist able to better control river bed incision downstream without significantly decreasing hydropower production.

Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

2013-04-01

72

Health implications of hydropower development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health t is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

73

Some characteristic parameters experimental research for irradiation sites of miniature neutron source reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some characteristic parameters for irradiation sites of Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) such as the neutron flux densities (absolute and relative), the energy spectrum parameters (RCd sub-thermal index and neutron temperature), the effects of some samples on the reactor and the comparison among irradiation sites are given. Experiments are performed on the zero power experiment device of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor

74

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system [...] is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes, Zoby; Jurandir Itizo, Yanagihara.

75

Relationships between bacterial and environmental parameters in Italian coastal sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of a wider study carried out by ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) to assess the ecological impact of thermal power plants on coastal areas, the possible use of microbial populations as biological indicators of environmental perturbation was investigated. Some general trends between the main physical and chemical parameters, heterotrophic activity (Cl{sub 4}-glucose assimilation or AET) and bacterial biomass (epifluorescence counts or AODC) could be discerned. AET was found to be significantly (p 0.01%) though negatively related to transparency and positively to primary productivity, chlorophyll and nutrients; AODC showed a significant negative correlation with temperature and a negative one with nutrients. These relationships show the importance of dissolved organic material to bacterial populations. Temperature, however, showed no relation to AET. This could mean either that winter population are less active or that a large percentage of bacteria is quiescent due to a lower supply of available substrates to different bacterial taxa. AET could thus be indicative of changes in the organic load, unlike AODC which is affected by seasonal temperature variations.

Cironi, R. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Piacenza (Italy); Peroni, C. [ENEA, La Spezia (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia Ambiente Santa Teresa - Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

1993-12-31

76

Site-specific parameter values for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's food pathway dose model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Western South Carolina result in radionuclide releases to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiation doses to the off-site maximum individual and the off-site population within 80 km of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are currently generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose-model parameters for facilities without resources to develop site-specific values. A survey of land- and water-use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine site-specific values for water recreation, consumption, and agricultural parameters used in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 (1977) dosimetric models. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; recreational and commercial activities on the Savannah River; and meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates. This paper describes how parameter data were obtained at the Savannah River Site and the impacts of such data on off-site dose. Dose estimates using site-specific parameter values are compared to estimates using the NRC default values

77

Hydropower development in the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present policy on energy development is geared towards harnessing renewable and indigenous energy resource which can offer clean, abundant and efficient power supply for the country. a review of the current generation mix of the power system, especially the Luzon grid will establish a high dependency in imported fuel - oil and coal to power our generating plants. Thus, the policy of reducing dependence on imported fuel will depend largely on the success of tapping the alternative renewable and indigenous sources. The sustainable development era of the 90's brought fresh interest on the performance and commercial viability of indigenous and/or renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, natural gas and water power or hydropower. Among these alternative renewable sources, water or hydropower is the most readily available, and will produce clean domestic source of electricity - no carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide or any other air emissions. The potential is available in most parts of the country that are mountainous and have high rainfall. In terms of production, hydropower leads as the most developed and more proven in terms of commercial viability. It is also more reliable, efficient and less expensive than geothermal, biomass, wind and solar energy, as will be shown later. (author)

78

A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL

2014-01-01

79

75 FR 16456 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 12783-003] Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments...July 22, 2009. d. Applicant: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed...

2010-04-01

80

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory...will host a Small/ Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar on June 22, 2011,...

2011-05-27

82

75 FR 65012 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar October 13, 2010. The...will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on November 10,...

2010-10-21

83

78 FR 14528 - Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 11169-029] Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...Motions To Intervene On November 20, 2012, Mayo Hydropower, LLC (transferor) and Avalon...

2013-03-06

84

76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory...will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on January 25, 2012,...

2011-12-29

85

CLASSIFICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF MINI HYDROPOWER STATIONS ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classifications of mini hydropower stations, placement types of power stations, the methods of execution, the development prospects of the Russian Federation have been presented in the article. The basic problems of the technique of using mini hydropower stations have been revealed

Ponomarenko A. S.

2013-05-01

86

System dynamics in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

Stuksrud, Dag Birger

1998-12-31

87

The importance of hydropower in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

88

Available water for hydropower generation in Swaziland  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of available water for hydropower generation was carried out in Swaziland as part of the national water study commissioned by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The study was carried out in 2004/05 and it involved field assessment of major hydropower stations, hydrological assessment of the major water courses where hydropower generation plants are located, climatic changes over the last 10 years and an assessment of the demand for electricity in Swaziland. The study showed that more than 90% of the electricity which Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) provides to its customers is produced by hydropower while a small proportion is produced by diesel power. The study also showed that the capacity of SEB to generate hydropower is limited mainly by low water flows. It was found out that due to limited capacity to generate hydropower, SEB imports most of the electricity from ESKOM in South Africa and that in 2004 the imported power was more that 84% of the total electricity consumed in Swaziland. It was found out that the causes of low water flows were upstream abstractions and long-term drought conditions. This indicated that hydropower generation is now less favourable in Swaziland than it was in the 1970s, when the existing schemes were built or studied. The other cause for reduced availability of water for hydropower generation is deforestation and increasing land use pressure in the catchment leading to high sedimentation levels in reservoirs. It was concluded that, while the future of locally generated hydropower is limited by dwindling water flows, the capacity to generate more power can be increased by constructing additional dams. It was also recommended that deforestation and intensive cultivation of the catchment areas need to be controlled to reduce the sedimentation of hydropower reservoirs and that more dams should be constructed to counteract the effects of droughts on river flows.

Mwendera, E. J.

89

On-Line Monitoring of Hydropower Plants in Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we present a comparison of traditional and modern techniques for monitoring hydropower plants. Traditionally, in Pakistan, the maintenance of hydropower plants is based on periodic-based corrective techniques, which involves shutdowns of plants over specified periods. The method not only restricts the operator to wait for the periodic shutdown for routine maintenance, but also proves to be more costly in case of major defects occurring in the plant. We propose on-line monitoring of the equipment, which involves continuous observation of the system parameters without system or equipment being stopped. The outcome is the early detection of any abnormality/fault and limiting of the severity of any potential damage to the system.

Iftikhar Ahmad

2007-01-01

90

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR STAGE –IV KOYNA HYDROPOWER PLANT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroelectric power contributes around 12.45 percent of the electricity supply in India. It is considered to be the most vital, unpolluted, emission-free and an inexpensive renewable source of energy. Hydroelectric power-plants operating all over the world aims to have high electric output with minimum maintenance cost. It’s very different with Koyna Hydropower Plant (KHPP stage IV which generates lower electric output than the installed capacity with higher maintenance. This project aims to build a simulation model which can simulate the regular operation of Koyna Hydropower Plant with Arena®. The study involves to evaluate dynamic response of the system and plant performance under various operating conditions such as head height, quantity of water flow penstock and operating gates. Also to determine and identify the optimum parameters required for maximum power generation. The outcomes of the model helped to analyse the power generation capacity against the required quantity of water flow and head height. The developed simulation model was validated and used as an apparatus to determine the optimal operating parameters that maximise power generation of stage –IV at Koyna Hydropower plant.

Mohd. Imran Ahmed

2014-01-01

91

Environmental transportation of tritium and estimation of site-specific model parameters for Kaiga site (India)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium content in air moisture, soil water, rain water and plant water samples collected around the Kaiga site (India) was estimated and the scavenging ratio, wet deposition velocity and ratio of specific activities of tritium between soil water and air moisture were calculated and the results are interpreted. Scavenging ratio was found to vary from 0.06 to 1.04 with a mean of 0.46. The wet deposition velocity of tritium observed in the present study was in the range of 3.3 E-03 to 1.1 E-02 m s.-1 with a mean of 6.6 E-03 m s.-1. The ratio of specific activity of tritium in soil moisture to that in air moisture ranged from 0.17 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.49. The specific activity of tritium in plant water in this study varied from 73 to 310 Bq l.-1. The present study is very useful for understanding the process and modelling of transfer of tritium through air/soil/plant system at the Kaiga site. (authors)

92

Assessment of small hydropower potential using remote sensing data for sustainable development in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India being a developing country has witnessed a rapidly growing energy needs owing to fast industrialization. Sustainable and qualitative growth for developing economics and habitat requires increased energy input from various resources while maintaining balance in the ecosystem during exploitation. Paper discusses state of the resource potentials, achievements and various issues related to the power generation in India. The growing concern over environmental degradation caused by fossil fuel based systems, opposition to large hydropower projects on grounds of displacement of land and population, environmental problems with nuclear fuel based systems and the ever-rising shortage of power highlights the need for tapping alternate energy sources for power generation. Amongst the alternate sources utilization of hydropower on a smaller scale (small, mini and micro hydropower) has become the thrust area for sustainable growth in the power sector. Hydropower is an economical and environmentally clean source of renewable energy abundantly available in hilly regions of India. Hydropower stations have an inherent ability for instantaneous starting, stopping, load variations, etc., and help in improving the reliability of power system. Huge hydropower potential in India, yet to be explored is located at inaccessible mountainous region. However, development of this potential is challenging due to difficult and inaccessible terrain profile. Paper presents application of remote sensing data for identification and selection of probable site for hydropower projects. The algorithm for identification and assessment of water resources and its perennial is developed in Visual Basic (VB) platform and it is successfully applied for IRS-1D, LISS III Geo-coded False Color Composite (FCC) satellite image for plain as well as hilly and mountainous regions. Classification of satellite image in to different objects is modeled as the task of clustering based on the intensity of R-G-B values of pixels. Results obtained are presented and compared with the Survey of India Toposheets (53K/2, 53K/3 and 53J/16). Use of Remote sensing data provides a scientific method of hydropower identification and assessment

93

The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

94

The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

Kosa, Preeyaphorn; Chinkulkijniwat, Avirut; Horpibulsuk, Suksun [School of Civil Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Kulworawanichpong, Thanatchai [School of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srivoramas, Rerkchai [Department of Civil Engineering, Ubon Ratchathani University, P.O. Box 3, Warin Chamrap, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Teaumroong, Neung [Research Department, Institute of Agricultural Technology, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

2011-03-15

95

Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)

96

Hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses hydroelectric power and programs that are underway with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the US Corps of Engineers to try to make hydroelectric power more friendly to and less destructive of rivers. Point one is that dams deplete the river of oxygen. Point two, they change the temperature so that if species are used to a certain temperature downstream a slug of cold water or a slug of warm water can radically change their natural environment. Point three, they collect sediment and in the process often end up collecting heavy metals. Some of these can get through the system at various times. Hydroelectric power plants are particularly rough on rivers because the generators can often grind up fish

97

Hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns over climate change and the Climate Change Levy are said to have created an upsurge in interest in hydroelectric power. The advantages of hydro are extolled and the lesser known factor of yield is explained. UK hydro companies have formed an exporters' network with the aim of increasing their contribution to the global demand for renewable energy. Ian Pope Associates have been busy in eastern Europe, especially on rehabilitation of hydro stations and training of local personnel. Similarly, EPD Consultants (part of the Pell Frischmann Group) have been busy in India, Albania and Kenya. Gilbert Gilkes and Gordon has recently supplied turbines in Guatemala and Thailand

98

Preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for basic transport parameters at the Horonobe Site, Hokkaido, Japan.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incorporating results from a previously developed finite element model, an uncertainty and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted using preliminary site-specific data from Horonobe, Japan (data available from five boreholes as of 2003). Latin Hypercube Sampling was used to draw random parameter values from the site-specific measured, or approximated, physicochemical uncertainty distributions. Using pathlengths and groundwater velocities extracted from the three-dimensional, finite element flow and particle tracking model, breakthrough curves for multiple realizations were calculated with the semi-analytical, one-dimensional, multirate transport code, STAMMT-L. A stepwise linear regression analysis using the 5, 50, and 95% breakthrough times as the dependent variables and LHS sampled site physicochemical parameters as the independent variables was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the distribution coefficients and hydraulic conductivities are the parameters responsible for most of the variation among simulated breakthrough times. This suggests that researchers and data collectors at the Horonobe site should focus on accurately assessing these parameters and quantifying their uncertainty. Because the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is in an early phase of its development, this work should be considered as a first step toward an integration of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with decision analysis.

James, Scott Carlton; Zimmerman, Dean Anthony (Gram Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM)

2003-10-01

99

Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for the 2004 Composite Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for the 2004 Composite Analysis. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future).

Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

2004-07-01

100

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition) and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM) to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Folini, D.; Solberg, S.; Klausen, J.; Buchmann, B.

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2010-04-01

102

Longtan hydropower project and the financial constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has large untapped resources of hydropower, including such schemes as the Longtan project on the Hongshui river. Despite the attractiveness of the resource and China's need for power, development of these projects is constrained by financial problems. (Author)

103

PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-07-01

104

River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

105

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world’s electricity supply. Although dams often have big environmental and social impacts, proponents of hydropower regard it as a comparatively clean, low-cost and renewable form of energy. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water, in the sense of effectively taking away water from the river. In this report we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelec...

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2011-01-01

106

River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem.

Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

2001-05-01

107

Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water resource control at the local and international scales. Some measures that improved economic development through the market economy and a combination of dam construction and institutional reform may indeed improve hydro-political resilience at a single scale. However, if China does address large-scale hydropower construction's potential to create multi-scale geopolitical tensions, they may be vulnerable to conflict - though not necessarily violent - in domestic and international political arenas. We conclude with a look toward a resilient basin institution for the Nu/Salween River, the site of a proposed large-scale hydropower development effort in China and Myanmar. PMID:19013007

McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

2009-07-01

108

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

None

1979-07-01

109

Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. PMID:24726970

Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

2014-07-01

110

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem.

Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

2000-09-01

111

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

112

Evaluation of water quality parameters and associated environmental impact at nuclear power plant sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Power Plants use a large quantity of water for the purpose of cooling the turbine condenser. The heated effluents are discharged to aquatic environment by means of once through cooling wherever large water bodies like seacoast or fresh water reservoir are available. The quality of water bodies are important for the growth and biodiversity of aquatic organisms. Several environmental factors like Temperature pH, Dissolved Oxygen have a bearing on the life cycle of aquatic organisms. The paper describes the evaluation of water quality parameters at the two typical sites one on the sea coast (Tarapur) and other at inland site Kaiga and discusses the environmental impact due to discharge to aquatic environment. It is found that the environmental impacts due to both heated effluents and radioactivity are insignificant. The water quality parameters are found to be well within the prescribed standards. (author)

113

European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters  

CERN Document Server

This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Mac\\'on range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A Multiple Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) and a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to e...

Ramió, Héctor Vázquez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

2012-01-01

114

Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

115

Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

116

Evaluation of the Overall Costs for the Croatian Repository: Varying Site, Design and Financial Parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)

117

Joint irrigation districts hydropower assessment study. Final feasibility assessment report. Volume I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In August 1978, the United States Department of Energy and the Turlock Irrigation District entered into a cooperative agreement for a Joint District's Low-Head Hydropower Assessment Study. The purpose of the agreement was to carry out a study of the hydropower potential at sites within the borders of the Turlock, Merced, South San Joaquin, and Oakdale Irrigation Districts in California. The required data were gathered and analyzed. The results of this study indicate the total potential small hydropower capacity with the Joint Districts is 19,560 kW installed with an annual energy generation of 68,561,800 kWh. This is equivalent to oil-savings of 118,616 barrels per y.

None

1979-02-01

118

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (Kd) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and Kd values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

119

77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday...Meeting: Commission staff will meet with Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving the powerhouse...

2012-01-17

120

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Héctor Zegarra Martínez

2006-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

The evolving context for hydropower development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the historic development of hydropower, showing a gradual transition from a techno-economic to a more holistic approach with participatory decision making. Concentrating on the past two decades, the trends in hydropower development are discussed and the complexity of the planning is shown. Finally, the competitiveness of hydro with other options to cover the electricity needs is discussed. Based on the analysis done, it appears that the switch from public to private sector funding is the major factor for the decline of hydropower construction. Credits for reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with thermal plants, and ancillary services, can partly compensate for it, especially for base and mid load plant. (Author)

Oud, Engelbertus [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Water, Power and Land Development, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

2002-11-01

122

Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.

2004-11-15

123

Hydropower for sustainable water and energy development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GWh/year, but only 125 GWh/year of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country would be tapped. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. (author)

Yueksel, Ibrahim [Technical Education Faculty, Department of Construction, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

2010-01-15

124

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1994-2001 at Kaiga generating station site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of extreme weather conditions at the site of interest is essentially required to design engineering structures that can withstand adverse extreme conditions during its lifetime. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters at Kaiga site have been carried out. This information will be useful in the design of more heavy and tall structures proposed to be constructed in future at this site. The meteorological parameters subjected to statistical analysis in this report are maximum yearly wind speed for the period 1994-2001, rainfall data for the period 1987-2001, maximum and minimum air temperature for the period 1995-2001 and minimum humidity for the period 1994-2001. Rainfall data consists of annual rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall and daily maximum rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that in the 50 years, maximum possible wind speed at 50 m and 100 m are 29.1 m/s and 34.6 m/s respectively. Maximum possible temperature is 44.1 degC. Minimum possible temperature is 9.4 degC. Minimum possible humidity is 4.6%. Maximum possible annual rainfall is 5383.7 mm, maximum monthly rainfall is 2617.0 mm and maximum possible daily rainfall is 377.3 mm. Similarly the minimum possible annual rainfall in the next 50 years is 2504.3 mm and that in next 100 years is 2308.2 mm. (author)

125

The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

2010-09-15

126

Hydropower in Switzerland - yesterday, today and tomorrow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article takes a look at electricity generation using hydropower in Switzerland. This source of power helps meet 56% of Swiss electricity demand and is the mainstay of Swiss power generation. The findings of a study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) are presented and discussed. The development of hydropower in the past and the factors influencing it are discussed. The current situation is also examined. Periods of development, stagnation and reduction of capacity are commented on and the prospects for future development are looked at. Growth estimation methods are examined and strategies discussed

127

The determination of engineering parameters for the sanitary landfill, Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site is a 315 square mile, Department of Energy production facility located in western South Carolina. This facility has multiple operational areas which generate a variety of waste materials. Over the nearly 40 years of operation, sanitary wastes were deposited in a 60-acre, permitted solid waste disposal facility located on the site. Refuse and other clean wastes were deposited in shallow, slit trenches, ranging in size from 20 to 50 feet-wide and approximately 400 feet long. The historical depth of deposition appears to range between 12 and 15 feet below the ground surface. Recent changes in regulations has classified some wastes contained within the landfill as hazardous wastes, necessitating the closure of this facility as a RCRA hazardous waste management facility. The focus of this paper is to present the innovative techniques used to fully determine the engineering parameters necessary to reasonably predict future settlements, for input into the closure system design

128

A study of the main atmospheric electric parameters at a little polluted seashore site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the electric elements of the air near the ground, we realized a set of apparatus for the measurement of several parameters: electric field, space charge, conductivities, air-earth current, as well as an automatic condensation nuclei counter. The characteristics of a very important photolytic process of nuclei production closely related to air exposure of living algae, at daytime low-tide periods were first determined. Then a systematic study of the electrical behaviour of the air at the seashore, was also carried out in relation with meteorological parameters. The results observed by sea winds, and especially the data on electric field and space charge showed out a very strong electrode effect above the sea surface, and were very different from those recorded at another site, 20 km inland. Finally, the atmospheric electric fog effect at the coastline and the possibility of using our results for forecasting the phenomenon were studied. (author)

129

A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions

130

A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

1997-12-31

131

Earth rotation parameters from an on-site study of laser ranging data  

Science.gov (United States)

A multi-faceted effort was maintained to achieve the following goals: (1) provide for state-of-the-art, on-site, near-real-time Earth orientation parameter determinations at levels of precision and accuracy commensurate with a 'quick-look' type of an analysis, using the lunar laser ranging (LLR) data type from the McDonald Laser Ranging Station (MLRS) and other LLR facilities around the world; (2) create a state-of-the-art, highly transportable, LLR-based Earth orientation solution package, which could be easily implemented at LLR facilities other than the MLRS; (3) accommodate, within the routine MLRS lunar range prediction and Earth orientation data analysis software packages, the standard set of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Solar System ephemerides, lunar librations, and Solar System partial derivatives; and (4) examine, wherever possible, opportunities for the performance of state-of-the-art, on-site, joint, simultaneous, quick-look analysis for Earth orientation parameters, using both MLRS lunar and LAGEOS (and, perhaps, Etalon) ranging observations, as well as from multiple LLR station observations. Excellent results were obtained at all levels of effort and it can be said that all of these goals were attained. The reader is referred to the complete series of our semi-annual reports for a full description of our efforts.

Shelus, Peter J.

1992-01-01

132

Tools for Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning and Development: A Review of Technology and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews and compares software tools for the planning and design of small hydropower (SHP plants. The main emphasis is on small scale hydropower resource assessment computer tools and methodologies for the development of SHP plants corresponding to a preliminary or prefeasibility study level. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the historic software tools and the current tools used in the small hydro industry. The reviewed tools vary from simple initial estimates to quite sophisticated software. The integration of assessment tools into Geographic Information System (GIS environments has led to a leap forward in the strengthening of the evaluation of the power potential of water streams in the case of the spatial variability of different factors affecting stream power. A number of countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Norway, Scotland and the US have re-assessed their hydropower capacities based on spatial information of their water stream catchments, developing tools for automated hydro-site identification and deploying GIS-based tools, so-called Atlases, of small-scale hydropower resources on the Internet. However, a reliable assessment of real SHP site feasibility implies some “on the ground” surveying, but this traditional assessment can be greatly facilitated using GIS techniques that involve the spatial variability of catchment characteristics.

Gitana Vyciene

2011-08-01

133

External effects of hydropower in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of hydropower has implications on the environment and the socio-economic system. All these effects have a certain value, either in a positive sense as benefits or in a negative sense as damages. Many of these effects are known, quantified and even internalised, that is, the beneficiary pays for his or her benefits and the sufferer gets a compensation. Yet, this is not the case with all implications. In this case, the effects are so-called externalities, costs or benefits which are not included in the price of the product. Prices for products are a good measure to promote the sustainable development of markets, as long as they contain all externalities, that is, as long as they are 'true' prices. Therefore, the inclusion of externalities in the evaluation of product costs became an important issue during the last years. The study 'External Effects of Hydropower in Switzerland' is an attempt to identify and quantify externalities of hydropower and to attribute a monetary value to all these effects. In a first part, the study gives a list of possible externalities and analyses different methods to quantify and value these effects. The evaluation is then based on a number of specific plants and projects, mainly with available environmental impact studies and project data including the construction phase. In order to extend the result on the total number of Swiss hydropower plants, an extrapolation is done based on selected plant criteria for each effect. (author)

134

Proven but new. Innovation of hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower has been utilised traditionally and its technology is being further developed and advanced. Current developments are addressed by outlining the challenges for operators and manufacturers. The case examples show a wide range of possible innovations. This refers to single components up to novel overall concepts like hybrid plants and compact turbine plants as well as run-of-river power plants. (orig.)

Harreiter, Herfried [Verbund Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria); Godde, Dominik [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Zickermann, Richard [ALSTOM (Schweiz) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

135

Hydropower and the world's energy future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential role of hydropower in the context of world-wide demographic growth and increasing demand for energy, and the benefits inherent in hydroelectric power in comparison with other energy options are discussed. Environmental and social impacts, and examples of mitigation measures are reviewed. Recommendations regarding best practices in the future development of hydroelectric power projects proposed

136

Harmonization of hydropower plant with the environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of a hydropower plant on the environment is analyzed. The frequent starting and stopping of hydropower plant turbines are considered to cause the erosion of river-bed and damage to river flora, fauna and the environment generally. The harm may be reduced by passing the entire runoff of the river through turbines without changing the flow of runoff and the accumulation of water in a reservoir [Klimpt J-E, Riveiro C, Puranen H, Koch F. Recommendations for sustainable hydroelectric development. Energy Policy 2002; 30(14): 1305-1312]. This idea cannot be realized in a traditional hydropower plant. The range of runoff changes of Lithuanian rivers is much broader than the capacity of one or more turbines of the same power. The characteristics of several turbine types are analyzed. The carrying capacity of a cross flow turbine is regarded to have the widest range. In addition, the width of the range may be expanded with special auxiliary equipment. This type of turbine is equivalent to two or even three turbines of varying capacities, and it can handle the discharges from any season. The possibilities for expanding the range of turbine capacity by means of working with varying speeds of rotation are discussed. Special mechatronic systems for controlling mechanical and electrical equipment of a hydropower plant, working with varying speed of turbines revolution, are presented. The investigation of mathematical models of the systems under both autonomous and systematic regimes shows their efficient operation and sufficient quality of electrical power. (author)

Balciunas, Povilas [Centre of Renewable Sources of Energy, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 48, LT-51367 Kaunas (Lithuania); Idankus, Arimantas [Geoengineering Department, Kaunas University of Technology, Studentu 48, LT-51367 Kaunas (Lithuania)

2007-08-15

137

Influence of meteorological parameters on particulates and atmospheric pollutants at Taichung harbor sampling site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosol particles and metallic concentrations, ionic species were monitored at the Experimental harbor of Taichung sampling site in this study. This work attempted to characterize metallic elements and ionic species associated with meteorological conditions variation on atmospheric particulate matter in TSP, PM2.5, PM2.5-10. The concentration distribution trend between TSP, PM2.5, PM2.5-10 particle concentration at the TH (Taichung harbor) sampling site were also displayed in this study. Besides, the meteorological conditions variation of metallic elements (Fe, Mg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Pb) and ions species (Cl(-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+) concentrations attached with those particulate were also analyzed in this study. On non-parametric (Spearman) correlation analysis, the results indicated that the meteorological conditions have high correlation at largest particulate concentrations for TSP at TH sampling site in this study. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity of meteorological conditions that played a key role to affect particulate matter (PM) and have higher correlations then other meteorological conditions such as wind speed and atmospheric pressure. The parameter temperature and relative humidity also have high correlations with atmospheric pollutants compared with those of the other meteorological variables (wind speed, atmospheric pressure and prevalent wind direction). In addition, relative statistical equations between pollutants and meteorological variables were also characterized in this study. PMID:17057996

Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Wen, Chih-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang, Shih-Yu

2007-05-01

138

Emerging hydropower technologies R and D : a strategy for Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the increasing interest in hydrokinetic potential in Canada for power production using instream flow turbines that do not require dams or barrages. Run-of-river hydropower plants include small and low-head hydro and represent valuable opportunities for new energy development. Although conventional small hydro is competitive with other energy sources, there are several emerging technologies that need further development, such as economical and efficient low-head turbines, mitigation technologies, eco-engineering and protection of aquatic resources. For the past 25 years, the Canadian government has been supporting emerging hydropower technologies. The federal Hydraulic Energy Group (HEG) at Natural Resources Canada is actively involved with provinces, utilities, private industry, academia and other organizations on key projects to reduce equipment and construction costs and increase turbine and site efficiencies. HEG also supports technology demonstrations both nationally and internationally. This paper also summarized the state of the small hydro industry with particular reference to research and development in electromechanical equipment, control and monitoring, power plant rehabilitation and modernization. 14 refs.

Huang, J.; Ranjitkar, G.; Handler, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy, Hydraulic Energy Program

2009-07-01

139

Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

140

High-Resolution Free-GIS operations to assist hydropower potential assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for renewable energy suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, according to EU and national environmental regulations. High resolution hydrological analysis is then needed to comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants and of other water withdrawals. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. For this study, developed within the RENERFOR-ALCOTRA Project, a regional "spatially smooth" model has been developed for FDC estimation: the procedure adopted relates the L-moments of the FDC to several geomorphoclimatic parameters (more than 100), with the purpose to directly reconstruct a "naturalized" FDC. The proposed procedure is systematically extended to all the gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy, which is an area characterized by the presence of a large number of dams. For each basin, the annual average FDC is computed, its L-moments are calculated and corrected using a simplified model that takes into account the effect of upstream reservoirs and power plants. Then, each corrected L-moment is regionalized using multiple regressions techniques, allowing one to reconstruct the L-moments at any ungauged basin. Finally, the "naturalized" FDC is reconstructed at the ungauged site on the basis of the predicted L-moments. Due to necessity of obtaining high-resolution estimates, the method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences. This feature is obtained considering only raster-summable explanatory variables, which are only a subset of the available descriptors. The residual hydropower potential is evaluated by mapping the mean naturalized flow estimated for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model in two mountain basins used as case studies. Applying extensively the proposed methodology, the mean annual flow is reconstructed not only in some significant sections, but in all the about 25000 sections defined by each network pixel. We used a 50 m DEM to compute, for each network pixel, the upstream watershed and all the morpho-climatic characteristics needed in the regional model. Maps obtained can return flow-altitude relations for each pixel along a drainage path assuming different possible headrace length (1, 2.5 and 5 km). Spatial algorithms and data management are developed by the use of the Free&OpenSource software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL as database manager, integrated with PostGIS elaboration to create the outputs. The large number of data and the complexity of the information derived required some thinking about the best way to access and represent the data, that has to be easy-to-use also for no-expert GIS users.

Ganora, Daniele; Gallo, Enrico; Masoero, Alessandro; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Preliminary study: small hydropower installation on the Steintalerbach stream in Ebnat-Kappel - Reactivation of the 'Muehle' hydropower plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the reactivation of an existing but disused hydropower plant. The report describes the current situation at the site, where originally three water-wheels were in use. The new project is described, which foresees a new 231 kW turbine integrated into a new building on the site as well as new weir, a fish ladder and a new water conduit. The local topographical and hydrological situation is discussed. Three project variants for different water volumes are discussed and compared. The variant chosen for possible realisation is described. Figures are given on investment and operating costs, the price of the power produced and the installation's economic viability. Further topics relating to environmental protection issues are also discussed

142

The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several orders of magnitude. Correlations between parameters also make it difficult to separate the contribution from each parameter on the output. Finally, it is concluded that even in cases where correlations between parameters can be disregarded for the sake of the uncertainty analysis, they cannot be disregarded in the sensitivity analysis of the results. A new approach for global sensitivity analysis based on neural networks has been developed and tested on results for the peak releases of caesium. Promising results have been obtained by this method, which is robust and can tackle results from non-linear models even when there are correlations between parameters. This represents a considerable improvement over the capabilities of the commonly used traditional statistical methods

143

Florida solar DHW performance monitoring: correlation with site-specific parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since early 1978, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), in cooperation with Florida Power and Light Company, has monitored the performance of 20 solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems in central Florida. This program utilized an inexpensive monitoring method involving the use of totalizing water meters, kilowatt-hour meters, hot water tempering valves, and homeowner-taken water temperature readings. Annual performance data was derived from monthly measurements collected until April 1980. The results of this monitoring program and the theoretical methodology of its low-cost design are summarized. Correlations of the annual data with site-specific parameters are presented and the actual performance of the systems is compared with the f-chart 2.0 prediction of system performance.

McCluney, R.; Merrigan, T.

1981-01-01

144

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El método Sondeo Eléctrico Vertical (SEV), conocido desde 1912, ha cambiado sustancialmente durante los últimos 10 años, apareciendo una nueva tecnología llamada Imagen de Resistividad (IR) con interpretación 2D de los datos de resistividad. Otra vía posible de desarrollo del método SEV es, partiend [...] o de las relaciones existentes entre la resistividad eléctrica y los parámetros petrofísicos (PP), estimar estos últimos a partir de datos de IR. Para la realización práctica de este concepto fue desarrollada la teoría del problema directo e inverso que relaciona la resistividad eléctrica con los PP. Cada trabajo de campo deberá incluir un levantamiento de SEV (IR), mediciones de resistividad eléctrica del agua subterránea con el objetivo de determinar su salinidad y la recolección de algunas muestras representativas de suelo del sitio con mediciones hechas en laboratorio de la resistividad eléctrica como función de la salinidad del agua de poro, creando el modelo petrofísico del suelo de este sitio. Esta tecnología puede ser utilizada tanto para la caracterización de sitios limpios como contaminados por hidrocarburos. Para el caso de sitios contaminados, los valores de los PP determinados en laboratorio, salinidad de agua y los datos de IR, permiten establecer la frontera petrofísica entre suelo limpio y contaminado, y por consiguiente, configurar la pluma contaminante. En este trabajo se incluyen, como ejemplos prácticos, los resultados de la aplicación de esta tecnología en algunos sitios contaminados por hidrocarburos en México. Abstract in english Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the [...] relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI) survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Vladimir, Shevnin; Omar, Delgado Rodríguez; Aleksandr, Mousatov; David, Flores Hernández; Héctor, Zegarra Martínez; Albert, Ryjov.

145

MCDA or MCDM Based Selection of Transmission Line Conductor: Small Hydropower Project Planning and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small hydropower projects are emerging as a solution for sustainable, green, environment friendly, long term and cost-effective source of renewable energy in India for the future. Selecting the appropriate small hydropower project and its parameters in which to invest is a critical task involving different factors and policies. Hence such decision-making can be viewed as a multiple criteria analysis problem with correlating criteria and alternatives. This task should take into consideration several conflicting aspects because of the increasing complexity of the social, technological, environmental, and economic factors. Traditional single criteria decision-making approaches cannot handle the complexity of such systems. Multi criteria methods provide a better and flexible tools. This paper aims to evaluate applicability of multi criteria decision aid to decision makers during the small hydropower project planning and development. To the best of the author’s knowledge this novel approach for application of MCDA or MCDM to small hydropower project planning and development scenario is absent in renewable energy literatures due to its assessment complexity.

Priyabrata Adhikary

2014-02-01

146

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km  

CERN Document Server

We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The final outcome of the study is to investigate the opportunity to implement an automatic system for the forecast of these parameters at these sites. In this paper we present results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the vertical stratification of the atmospherical parameters along the 20 km above the ground. The very satisfactory performances shown by the model in reconstructing most of these parameters (and in particular the wind speed) put this tool of investigation as the most suitable to be used in as...

Masciadri, E; Fini, L

2013-01-01

147

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

148

Assessment of Investment in Small Hydropower Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study an assessment of investments in a hydropower plants is considered. The objective of this work is to maximize the net present value from selling energy. Because of the stochastic nature of river flows, flow duration curve is constructed to take into account hydropower plant capacity factor, important for the assessment of investment. Proposed mixed-integer linear programming model is flexible and accounts for nonlinear three-dimensional (3-D relationship between the produced power, the discharged water, and the head of the associated reservoir. Continuous chain of imaginary run-of-river plants is considered on the Sava river stretch (Croatia from border with Slovenia to city of Sisak.

Perica Ilak

2013-12-01

149

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily ...

Arganis, M. L.; Domi?nguez, R.

2008-01-01

150

Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

2010-10-15

151

Sustainable Hydropower Bulletin - Highlights for 31 May 2007  

... In the late afternoon, Dogan Altinbilek, IHA President, chaired a closing session. Reports on the discussions of each day were presented. Richard Taylor, IHA Executive Director, presented a report of activities for the 2005-2007 biennium, then briefly reviewed the activities of the last five days. President Altinbilek thanked participants for visiting Turkey, expressed hope they would return in 2009 for the 5th ... Dogan Altinbilek, IHA President, chaired the closing session and general meeting. Around the Congress Your IISD Reporting Team: Melanie Ashton, Team Leader/Writer, Australia; Robynne Boyd, Writer, United States; Dan Birchall, Digital Editor, United States. Related Links Congress Web Site International Hydropower Association UNESCO Water World Water Council Related IISD-RS Coverage 6th Ordinary Session of the African Ministers ...

152

India's hydropower vision to 2030 - environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic advantages of hydropower has been enhanced in the recent years with the steep increases in the energy costs from fossil fuel and the rapid approaching limits to the exploitable resources of such fuels. It is a matter of concern that the share of hydropower in the total installed capacity in India has been declining in successive plans. In the 1962-63, hydro projects had a 50% share in the total installed capacity which has declined to 24%. Such a dismal share of hydro thermal mix is adversely affecting the optimal utilisation of natural and financial resources besides resulting in failure of power grids. Even a layman can appreciate that in the situation of monsoonic weather the storage of river flows during floods is unavoidable not only to meet the basic needs of bulging population for diverse uses but also to moderate the floods, droughts and poverty. This article focuses on the environmental issues related to hydropower and river valley projects, while pinpointing the vital need of large storage projects in India. The water is becoming scarcer in India due to bulging population; but the environmental activism and biased media reporting are creating large scale obstructions in the execution of hydro projects

153

78 FR 61985 - City of Astoria, Oregon; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-10-09

154

78 FR 53752 - City of Sandpoint, Idaho; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-08-30

155

76 FR 19765 - Toutant Hydropower Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 5679-031] Toutant Hydropower Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted...12, 2010. d. Applicant: Toutant Hydropower Inc. e. Name of Project: M.S...Applicant Contact: Roland Toutant, Toutant Hydropower, Inc., 80 Bungay Hill Road,...

2011-04-08

156

78 FR 64493 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Subsequent Draft License Application (DLA) and Draft...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13563-001] Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Subsequent Draft...October 15, 2013. d. Applicant: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. e. Name of Project: Sweetheart...Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box 22775,...

2013-10-29

157

75 FR 7469 - Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AD04-4-001] Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution...Applications for Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution February...third panel member in the Commission's hydropower integrated licensing process...

2010-02-19

158

77 FR 41396 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13953-002] Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...22, 2011. d. Applicant: Mahoning Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Lake Milton...h. Applicant Contact: Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, c/o Anthony J. Marra...

2012-07-13

159

77 FR 31349 - Coastal Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 14385-000] Coastal Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...Applications On April 12, 2012, Coastal Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...Applicant Contact: Neil Anderson, Coastal Hydropower, LLC, Key Centre, 601 108th...

2012-05-25

160

78 FR 61987 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-10-09

 
 
 
 
161

78 FR 38027 - Wilkesboro Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer...LLC (transferor) and Wilkesboro Hydropower, LLC (transferee) filed an application...transfer of license for the W. Kerr Scott Hydropower Project, FERC No. 12642,...

2013-06-25

162

75 FR 62518 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready...d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Brandon...Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

2010-10-12

163

78 FR 56872 - City of Barre, Vermont; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-09-16

164

78 FR 62351 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-10-18

165

75 FR 10230 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 12783-003] Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...July 22, 2009. d. Applicant: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed...

2010-03-05

166

75 FR 18193 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 12626-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Dresden...Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

2010-04-09

167

75 FR 81643 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation...of comment period for review of the Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation...environmentally sustainable, affordable hydropower for our national electricity...

2010-12-28

168

18 CFR 141.14 - Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report...141.14 Form No. 80, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation Report. The form of the report, Licensed Hydropower Development Recreation...

2010-04-01

169

77 FR 63301 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Draft License Application and Preliminary Draft Environmental...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13563-001] Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Draft License Application...August 31, 2012. d. Applicant: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. e. Name of Project: Sweetheart...Mitchell, Business Manager, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box 22775,...

2012-10-16

170

78 FR 69847 - North Side Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-11-21

171

18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts...23 Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts...licensee and all interested parties. Hydropower licenses also contain...

2010-04-01

172

78 FR 69080 - Houtama Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 14546-000] Houtama Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...Applications On August 14, 2013, Houtama Hydropower LLC filed an application for a preliminary...William C. Hampton, CEO, Houtama Hydropower [[Page 69081

2013-11-18

173

78 FR 63176 - Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and...intent to construct a qualifying conduit hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of...Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of...

2013-10-23

174

75 FR 24937 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Brandon...Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

2010-05-06

175

75 FR 62516 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 12626-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready...d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Dresden...Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue,...

2010-10-12

176

75 FR 67993 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation...for public review and comment the ``Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation...economic and technical potential for hydropower development at existing Bureau of...

2010-11-04

177

Site-Dependent Differences in Clinical, Pathohistological, and Molecular Parameters in Metastatic Colon Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose was to develop a metastatic score specific to the hepatic and peritoneal site in colorectal cancer patients from clinical, pathohistological and molecular markers potentially reflecting oncogenic activation (OA or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, where OA may reflect an activation and EMT the functional loss of certain genes. The primary tumour stage (OA, EMT, lymphonodal stage (OA, the presence of a lymphangiosis carcinomatosa (OA, histological grade (OA, EMT, and immunoblot extraction of E-cadherin (OA, EMT were differentially rated with zero to one or two points due to their potential contribution to each process and the resulting scores were validated in 27 colorectal cancer patients (three patients with pre-malignant adenomas, 16 with primaries and two with local recurrencies, three of which were metastatic to the peritoneum, six metastatic to the liver and two metastatic to both, the liver and the peritoneum, and five with hepatic secondaries, one of which at histology was metastatic to the peritoneum too. As a single parameter only the N-stage significantly contributed to OA (p<0.05. Median OA and EMT scores, however, were 3.5 and 2 in the case of primaries without further spread, 5 and 4 in those nodal positive, 5 and 4 in the case of peritoneal implants, 6 and 2 in the case of liver metastases, and 6.5 and 3 in the case of a simultaneous hepatic and peritoneal spread, respectively. These differences were significant when scores from patients with and without liver metastases (OA, p<0.002 or with peritoneal implants and isolated hepatic spread (EMT, p<0.01 were compared. The results suggest a site-specific contribution of OA and EMT to tumour progression in human colon cancer.

Christoph Wilmanns, Sandra Steinhauer, Joachim Grossmann, Günther Ruf

2009-01-01

178

Hydropower: An Essential Partner of Renewable Energy Source  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2006, the 17 percent of the world’s electricity that was generated from hydropower represented nearly 90 percent of renewable electricity generation worldwide; Hydropower is an important source of renewable energy and produces extremely small quantities of carbon dioxide. Between 1998 and 2008, renewable electricity production in the world rose from 2,794.9 to 3,762.6 TWh, i.e. an additional 967.6 TWh. As a final conclusion, despite hydropower’s high initial costs, its long-term overal...

Lejeune, Andre?; Hui, Samuel; Pirotton, Michel; Erpicum, Se?bastien; Dewals, Benjamin

2010-01-01

179

Hydro-power in a competitive market; Hydro-Power im Wettbewerbsumfeld  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While energy demand continues to rise, European hydro-power is faced with ever more stringent legal provisions and environmental targets. At the same time, the transition from a monopoly situation to a liberalised electricity market has resulted in a shift in emphasis from macro-economic considerations to a business-mangement approach to hydro-power as the classic renewable energy source. Hence, for market operators hoping to position themselves favourable through the offer of new products, such as control and balancing energy, it is essential to recognise emerging technology and energy trends at an early point in time. However, fair competition requires a stable legal framework. (orig.)

Schroefelbauer, H. [VERBUND-Austrian Hydro Power AG, Wien (Austria)

2005-07-01

180

Along-the-net reconstruction of hydropower potential with consideration of anthropic alterations  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, requirements for stable renewable power sources suggest revision of plans of exploitation of water resources, while taking care of the environmental regulations. Mean Annual Flow (MAF) is a key parameter when trying to represent water availability for hydropower purposes. MAF is usually determined in ungauged basins by means of regional statistical analysis. For this study a regional estimation method consistent along-the-river network has been developed for MAF estimation; the method uses a multi-regressive approach based on geomorphoclimatic descriptors, and it is applied on 100 gauged basins located in NW Italy. The method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual flow congruent at the confluences, by considering only raster-summable explanatory variables. Also, the influence of human alterations in the regional analysis of MAF has been studied: impact due to the presence of existing hydropower plants has been taken into account, restoring the "natural" value of runoff through analytical corrections. To exemplify the representation of the assessment of residual hydropower potential, the model has been applied extensively to two specific mountain watersheds by mapping the estimated mean flow for the basins draining into each pixel of a the DEM-derived river network. Spatial algorithms were developed using the OpenSource Software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL/PostGIS. Spatial representation of the hydropower potential was obtained using different mean flow vs hydraulic-head relations for each pixel. Final potential indices have been represented and mapped through the Google Earth platform, providing a complete and interactive picture of the available potential, useful for planning and regulation purposes.

Masoero, A.; Claps, P.; Gallo, E.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Multiwavelength observations of cirrus clouds in the North Celestial Loop: physical parameters of molecular sites  

Science.gov (United States)

In this third paper of the series, we continue to investigate the transition between atomic and molecular gas in two potential sites of molecule formation at high Galactic latitude, which we call the Spider and Ursa Major. Using Five College Radio Astronomical Observatory 12CO (J= 1-0) observations and four clump identification algorithms, the clump properties are first determined in both regions, showing similar properties compared to the clumps found in translucent clouds. New higher resolution 12CO (J= 1-0) and 13CO (J= 1-0) observations from the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique and new 12CO (J= 2-1) observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (resolution ?20 arcsec) are also presented in five fields for the Spider (560 spectra) and in two fields for Ursa Major (288 spectra). Using a large velocity gradient model, physical parameters (density and column density) are determined in each field. The densities are smaller at the location of the infrared excess peaks (computed 12CO column densities (?1015 cm-2).

Barriault, L.; Joncas, G.; Plume, R.

2011-09-01

182

21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt. Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

183

Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

184

Hydro-power development in remote locations of developing countries  

Science.gov (United States)

In many developing countries hydropower can be used to replace the consumption of imported oil. The economic advantage of using hydropower increases if a low cost, locally manufactured turbine, called the cross flow turbine, can be used. This paper discusses the technical design and use of the cross flow turbine in the context of a hydroelectric development project in Africa.

Smith, Granville J.

1985-11-01

185

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily demands peak and consider the existing autocorrelation between biweekly volume data.

M. L. Arganis

2008-01-01

186

Temporary bottlenecks, hydropower and acquisitions in networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to study the effects of an acquisition in an energy system dominated by hydropower and with temporary bottlenecks. We apply a model with four markets: Two regions and two time periods. It is shown that an acquisition has an ambiguous effect on welfare. In some instances it would lead to larger differences in prices between different markets, which would lead to a reduction in price differences between different markets. This may happen if the dominant firm acquires a firm that is active in the market where the dominant firm used to dump its energy capacity before the acquisition took place. (Author)

187

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

Science.gov (United States)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

2012-11-01

188

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

189

Report of the hydropower and climate change workshop  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This workshop was held in response to a survey conducted to determine the hydropower industry's interest in adapting to climate change. The impacts of climate change and unusual weather events on the hydropower industry were reviewed. The workshop examined current levels of awareness about the potential impacts of climate change as well as hydropower sector vulnerability to climate change and its impact on the operation and planning of hydropower systems. Past and future changes in hydrologic regimes were examined, and regional climate model results were analyzed. Representatives shared experiences related to unusual weather events. A total of 20 papers were presented at the workshop. Presentations were followed by breakout sessions held to discuss vulnerabilities within the hydropower sector. 4 tabs

190

Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-01-01

191

Project SHARE Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

SHARE - Sustainable Hydropower in Alpine Rivers Ecosystems is a running project early approved and co funded by the European regional development fund in the context of the European Territorial Cooperation Alpine Space programme 2007 - 2013: the project is formally ongoing from August 2009 and it will end July 2012. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for electricity production in alpine areas: it has advantages for the global CO2 balance but creates serious environmental impacts. RES-e Directives require renewable electricity enhance but, at the same time, the Water Framework Directive obliges member States to reach or maintain a water bodies "good" ecological status, intrinsically limiting the hydropower exploitation. Administrators daily face an increasing demand of water abstraction but lack reliable tools to rigorously evaluate their effects on mountain rivers and the social and economical outputs on longer time scale. The project intends to develop, test and promote a decision support system to merge on an unprejudiced base, river ecosystems and hydropower requirements. This approach will be led using existing scientific tools, adjustable to transnational, national and local normative and carried on by permanent panel of administrators and stakeholders. Scientific knowledge related to HP & river management will be "translated" by the communication tools and spent as a concrete added value to build a decision support system. In particular, the Multicriteria Analysis (MCA) will be applied to assess different management alternatives where a single-criterion approach (such as cost-benefit analysis) falls short, especially where environmental, technical, economic and social criteria can't be quantified by monetary values. All the existing monitoring databases will be used and harmonized with new information collected during the Pilot case studies. At the same time, all information collected will be available to end users and actors of related projects. The project openly pursues integrated river management aims (environmental and economic): - define, share and test a decision making framework based on validated methodologies in order to allow public decision makers to take transparent decisions about planning and management of HP concessions, taking account resulting effects on river ecosystems and on all different stakeholders - creation of a technical panel including public decision makers, stakeholders and PPs to promote & transfer the SHARE approach to local, national & transnational level to concretely upgrade the actual standard of problem solving attitude; - classify scenarios of water use optimization, taking into account the different actor needs; - establish a set of generally applicable and comparable indicators & monitoring standards based on transferable guidelines and metrics considering the specific disparities among power stations, diversity of technical approaches and different river ecosystems; - designation and mapping of alpine hydro systems more vulnerable typologies; - designation and mapping of the most convenient sites and typologies of "low impact" new plants; - contribute to the concrete local integration implementation of WFD and RES-e directives. The project partnership embodies different alpine countries & hydrosystems, profiles, status, end users, networks and previous experiences. At the same time the project official observers represent the links with outside the project networks, end users & stakeholders.

Mammoliti Mochet, Andrea

2010-05-01

192

A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

193

Critical evaluation of the hydropower applications in Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is a proven technology for electricity generation, contributing with almost 20% to the fulfilment of the planet electricity demand. Hydropower is also renewable because it draws its essential energy from the sun and particularly from the hydrological cycle. Greece and more precisely the west and north part of the mainland possesses significant hydropower potential that is up to now partially exploited. In the present survey, one investigates the existing situation concerning the applications of hydropower plants in Greece, while the results obtained are compared with the corresponding international and European situation. Subsequently, emphasis is laid on estimating the electricity-generation utilization degree of the existing large hydropower stations, using 25-year long official data. The results obtained underline the fact that the electricity generation is not a priority for the national water management policy and most Greek hydropower stations are used mainly to meet the corresponding peak load demand. On the other hand, increased interest to create numerous new small hydropower plants throughout Greece has been expressed during the last 5 years. According to the information gathered and analyzed, one may state that the available local hydropower potential is quite promising and can substantially contribute to the accomplishment of the national-EU target to cover the 21% of the corresponding electricity consumption from renewable resources. For this purpose one should first define an approved and rational water resources management plan and secondly support the increased utilization of large and small hydropower plants for electricity generation. In this case, properly designed hydropower plants should lead to considerable profits, contributing also in the country's independency from imported oil and accomplishing the Kyoto protocol obligations. (author)

Kaldellis, J.K. [Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection, TEI Piraeus, P.O. Box 41046, Athens 12201 (Greece)

2008-01-15

194

Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is currently being studied. Typically these studies consider the inherent flexibility of hydropower technologies, but tend to fall short on details regarding grid operations, institutional arrangements, and hydropower environmental regulations. This presentation will focus on an analysis that Argonne National Laboratory is conducting in collaboration with the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The analysis evaluates the extent to which Western's hydropower resources may help with grid integration challenges via a proposed Energy Imbalance Market. This market encompasses most of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council footprint. It changes grid operations such that the real-time dispatch would be, in part, based on a 5-minute electricity market. The analysis includes many factors such as site-specific environmental considerations at each of its hydropower facilities, long-term firm purchase agreements, and hydropower operating objectives and goals. Results of the analysis indicate that site-specific details significantly affect the ability of hydropower plant to respond to grid needs in a future which will have a high penetration of variable resources.

Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

2011-12-01

195

A general model for estimation of daily global solar radiation using air temperatures and site geographic parameters in Southwest China  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of daily global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured temperature data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating daily Rs using temperature variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate daily Rs using routinely measured temperature data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) temperatures) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent daily Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.

Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei

2013-01-01

196

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during the period (1961-2010) for Tarapur Maharashtra Site, Tarapur, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The design of engineering structures requires an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest, which is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand weather stresses. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Tarapur site for the period 1961-2010 is described. The parameters considered are extreme air temperatures, estimated wind gusts at 10 m height, and rainfall data. Extreme value statistical analysis of various meteorological parameters using best fit least square graphical method and order statistics Lieblein technique are compared and results are found to be in good agreement. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in Tarapur area with respect to stresses due to weather conditions

197

Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Statkraft produces close to 40 TWH in an average year and is one of the largest hydropower producers in Europe. For hydropower producers the scheduling of electricity generation is the key to success and this depend on optimal use of the water resources. The hydrologist and his forecasts both on short and on long terms are crucial to this success. The hydrological forecasts in Statkraft and most hydropower companies in Scandinavia are based on lumped models and the HBV concept. But before the hydrological model there is a complex system for collecting, controlling and correcting data applied in the models and the production scheduling and, equally important, routines for surveillance of the processes and manual intervention. Prior to the forecasting the states in the hydrological models are updated based on observations. When snow is present in the catchments snow surveys are an important source for model updating. The meteorological forecast is another premise provider to the hydrological forecast and to get as precise meteorological forecast as possible Statkraft hires resources from the governmental forecasting center. Their task is to interpret the meteorological situation, describe the uncertainties and if necessary use their knowledge and experience to manually correct the forecast in the hydropower production regions. This is one of several forecast applied further in the scheduling process. Both to be able to compare and evaluate different forecast providers and to ensure that we get the best available forecast, forecasts from different sources are applied. Some of these forecasts have undergone statistical corrections to reduce biases. The uncertainties related to the meteorological forecast have for a long time been approached and described by ensemble forecasts. But also the observations used for updating the model have a related uncertainty. Both to the observations itself and to how well they represent the catchment. Though well known, these uncertainties have thus far been handled superficially. Statkraft has initiated a program called ENKI to approach these issues. A part of this program is to apply distributed models for hydrological forecasting. Developing methodologies to handle uncertainties in the observations, the meteorological forecasts, the model itself and how to update the model with this information are other parts of the program. Together with energy price expectations and information about the state of the energy production system the hydrological forecast is input to the next step in the production scheduling both on short and long term. The long term schedule for reservoir filling is premise provider to the short term optimizing of water. The long term schedule is based on the actual reservoir levels, snow storages and a long history of meteorological observations and gives an overall schedule at a regional level. Within the regions a more detailed tool is used for short term optimizing of the hydropower production Each reservoir is scheduled taking into account restrictions in the water courses and cost of start and stop of aggregates. The value of the water is calculated for each reservoir and reflects the risk of water spillage. This compared to the energy price determines whether an aggregate will run or not. In a gradually more complex energy system with relatively lower regulated capacity this is an increasingly more challenging task.

Bruland, O.

2012-12-01

198

Prediction of public dose using site specific soil to plant transfer parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the results of estimation of ingestion dose to the member of public from 90Sr consequent to hypothetical accidental conditions through soil?grass?cow?milk route using the site-specific translocation coefficients generated at Kaiga site

199

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. II: atmospherical parameters in the surface layer [0-30] m  

CERN Document Server

This article is the second of a series of articles aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence (Cn2 and the derived astro-climatic parameters like seeing, isoplanatic angle, wavefront coherence time...). This study is done in the framework of the MOSE project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In this paper we present the results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the surface layer atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity, wind direction and absolute temperature, [0-30] m a.g.l.). The model reconstruction of all the atmospherical parameters in the surface layer is very satisfactory. For the temperature, at all levels, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is inferior to 1{\\deg}C. For the wind speed, it is ~2 m/s, and for the wind direction, it is in the ran...

Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

2013-01-01

200

Hydro-power potential of Slovakia and its environmental constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak energy production sector has been utilising renewable energy sources for decades in a hydro-power form. The hydro-power plants produce approximately one sixth of electric energy (16 percent). According to the original conception of utilisation of the Danube River 7.361 GWh/year of usable primary hydro-power potential could be used. The current conception considers utilisation of 6,608 GWh/year. At present time approximately 3, 799 GWh are produced in existing hydro-power plants, what means that hydro-power potential of the country is used only on 57.5 percent. Existing development programmes included in the energy policy consider a growth of production by 671.3 GWh/year by 2001, i.e. by 0.2 percent. It means that use of hydro-power will reach a level of 67.7 percent. This number is approaching to level of hydro-power use in developed countries of Europe

 
 
 
 
201

DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

2003-07-01

202

Parameter optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of an ecosystem model at a forest flux tower site in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

models are useful tools for understanding ecological processes and for sustainable management of resources. In biogeochemical field, numerical models have been widely used for investigating carbon dynamics under global changes from site to regional and global scales. However, it is still challenging to optimize parameters and estimate parameterization uncertainty for complex process-based models such as the Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), a modified version of CENTURY, that consider carbon, water, and nutrient cycles of ecosystems. This study was designed to conduct the parameter identifiability, optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of EDCM using our developed EDCM-Auto, which incorporated a comprehensive R package—Flexible Modeling Framework (FME) and the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm. Using a forest flux tower site as a case study, we implemented a comprehensive modeling analysis involving nine parameters and four target variables (carbon and water fluxes) with their corresponding measurements based on the eddy covariance technique. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the plant production-related parameters (e.g., PPDF1 and PRDX) are most sensitive to the model cost function. Both SCE and FME are comparable and performed well in deriving the optimal parameter set with satisfactory simulations of target variables. Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis indicate that the parameter uncertainty and the resulting output uncertainty can be quantified, and that the magnitude of parameter-uncertainty effects depends on variables and seasons. This study also demonstrates that using the cutting-edge R functions such as FME can be feasible and attractive for conducting comprehensive parameter analysis for ecosystem modeling.

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Huang, Zhihong; Yan, Wende

2014-06-01

203

Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases.

Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

2000-02-28

204

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

A. Tilmant

2009-03-01

205

Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

206

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute's nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S ampersand M and D ampersand D activities. Battelle's King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed

207

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute`s nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S&M and D&D activities. Battelle`s King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed.

NONE

1995-06-30

208

Glen Canyon Hydropower vs. the Grand Canyon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many resource allocation problems currently face the hydropower industry. The current Environmental Impact Statement effort on the operation of Glen Canyon Dam is the focus of this discussion. This paper relates the process of approaching the conflict, the differing views and conflicting strategies of the parties, the emotional and logical investment of the participants, and the concerns for fairness and openness derived from the historic distrust between those with differing views. The paper is prepared from the perspective of the Bureau of Reclamation, the lead Federal agency in the effort, and the perspectives of the author who has been in a lead role in the agency's approach to the challenge. The paper describes the formulation of positions by the interested parties and the surrounding values and depth of concern exhibited in the process

209

Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations  

Science.gov (United States)

The operations of hydropower systems were analyzed with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept outlined.

Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W. W. G.

1976-01-01

210

Dynamic parameters of seismic waves and the seismic threat to a nuclear power plant site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hypothetical maximum effects of the so-called operating basis earthquake and of the safe shutdown earthquake should be defined for expressing the seismic threat to dimensionally and structurally complex structures which include nuclear power plants. Next to the said variables it will be necessary to take into account accelerograms corresponding to the said two types of earthquake. The objective selection of analogous accelerograms for the two types of earthquake necessitates the comprehensive knowledge of seismic wave parameters in the vicinity of the earthquake and their dependence on the earthquake magnitude and the distance from the epicentre. Relations are given of these parameters and macroseismic intensity and briefly described are other parameters obtained by statistical processing of digitalized seismic wave records. (Z.M.)

211

Simultaneous inversion of source spectra, attenuation parameters and site responses. Application to the data of the French Accelerometric Network.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Displacement spectra of earthquakes recorded by the French accelerometric network at regional scale are modeled as the product of source, propagation (including geometric and anelastic attenuation), and site effects. We use an iterative Gauss–Newton inversion to solve the nonlinear problem and retrieve these different terms. This method is easy to implement because the partial derivatives of the amplitude spectrum with respect to the different parameters have simple analytic forms. After co...

Drouet, Ste?phane; Chevrot, S.; Cotton, F.; Souriau, A.

2008-01-01

212

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle's King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels

213

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle`s King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels.

Fry, J.

1998-09-30

214

Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

2012-01-10

215

NMR order parameters calculated in an expanding reference frame: identifying sites of short- and long-range motion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NMR order parameters are calculated from molecular dynamics computer simulations of ubiquitin and the apo (Ca2+-free) state of calbindin D9k. Calculations are performed in an expanding reference frame so as to discriminate between the effects of short- and long-range motions. This approach reveals that the dominant contributions to the order parameters are short-range. Longer-range contributions are limited to specific sites, many of which have been recognized in previous studies of correlated motions. These sites are identified on the basis of an effective reorientational number, neff. Not only does this parameter identify sites of short- and long-range motion, it also provides a way of evaluating the separability condition that is key to the Lipari-Szabo model-free method. When analyzed in conjunction with the Prompers-Brüschweiler separability index, the neff values indicate that longer-range motions play a more prominent role in apo calbindin than they do in ubiquitin.

216

Future development of soil chemical parameters on formerly emission affected forest sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt Prognosen zur Entwicklung verschiedener bodenchemischer Parameter (pH-Wert, Nährelementvorräte und Schwermetallgehalte) für flugaschebeeinflusste Waldböden der Dübener Heide vor. Untersucht wurden dazu zwölf Waldstandorte mit unterschiedlicher Entfernung vom Hauptemittenten und damit entlang eines Depositionsgradienten basischer, schwermetallhaltiger Flugasche. Aus der Kombination von vorhandenen Altdaten, dem gemessenen Ist-Zustand und den Ergebnissen von ...

Fritz, Heiko; Abiy, Mengistu; Klinger, Thomas; Makeschin, Franz

2010-01-01

217

BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

2007-01-31

218

BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision

219

Hydropower is not plain sailing all the way  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given of the conference Hidroenergia 1991, which was held in Nice, France, from 12 to 15 June. The author highlights the subjects on the problems of implementing hydro-power, and the environmental effects of the use of hydro-power. Special attention is paid to the activities of the European Community to limit the constraints, which form hindrances to the development of hydroelectric power. 2 ills., 3 refs

220

Hydropower's Contribution to Energy Security  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role of hydropower within mixed power systems is analysed from the point of view of both quantitative and qualitative performance. Interrelationships with all other generation technologies are discussed and synergies identified. Resources, sustainability criteria and investment challenges are reviewed in the context of development. The objective of the paper is to define hydropower's contribution within the clean, clever and competitive markets of the future.

Altinbilek, D.; Abdel-Malek, R.; Devernay, J.M.; Gill, R.; Leney, S.; Moss, Terry; Schiffer, H.P.; Taylor, R.M.

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

The electricity system, energy storage and hydropower: an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses the electricity system, energy storage and hydropower. Typically, electricity is consumed as it is needed and generated to match consumption. Interest and development work in energy storage are increasingly driven by its contributions in several areas of concern: reliability and the rise of renewables. A full range of energy storage technologies is needed and with its many advantages hydropower will continue to fill a need for large scale bulk storage

222

Hydropower Reservoir Operation using Standard Operating and Standard Hedging Policies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Standard operating policy and hedging policies are commonly used for reservoir operation for municipal or irrigation water supply. Application of these policies to hydropower reservoir operation is complex. In this paper, new standard operating policies and standard hedging policy are proposed for hydropower reservoir operation. The newly proposed policies were applied to the operation of Indira Sagar reservoir in India and demonstrated.

T.R. Neelakantan

2013-04-01

223

Hydropower engineering. Paper no. IGEC-1-005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power Univ programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower. (author)

224

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition) and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied within different a...

Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Folini, D.; Solberg, S.; Klausen, J.; Buchmann, B.

2009-01-01

225

Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

2010-07-01

226

Extreme value analysis of some of the meteorological parameters for BARC Trombay site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters and rainfall have been presented in this paper. The variables examined for extreme value analysis are maximum and minimum air temperature, maximum one-day rainfall, maximum monthly rainfall and annual rainfall. For rainfall statistics, the data for rainfall, collected during 1959 to 2007 were used whereas for other meteorological parameters, the data collected during 1985-2007 were used. The extreme value analysis reveal that the variable such as maximum temperature and annual rainfall obey Fisher-Tippett Type-I extreme value distribution where as minimum air temperature, one-day maximum rainfall and monthly rainfall obey Fisher-Tippett Type-II extreme value distribution function. Various distribution function parameters for each variable are determined. Extreme values corresponding to return periods of 100 years are worked out. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design value to ensure the safety of civil structure in and around Trombay with respect to stress due to weather condition. (author)

227

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

Kaygusuz, K.

2001-10-15

228

Hydropower harvesting from a small scale reciprocating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional hydropower systems that can take advantage of low head movement of water require substantial flow rates. However, these systems cannot harvest hydro energy from small sources of water with low head and low discharge, such as streams and creeks. The reciprocating hydropower system discussed in this paper can harvest power from such low flow discharge and low head sources. This paper presents a detailed proof-of-concept study of the hydropower model, including the underlining theoretical principles. Laboratory test results demonstrating the dependence of the lift force in the reciprocating small scale hydropower model as a function of flow velocity, size and rotational speed of the cylinder and comparison of the results with a previous study are also included. Two methods of power harvesting from the output displacement obtained from the hydropower system are discussed. The first employs electromagnetic induction principles and the other is based on a linear inertial generator using a conventional second order spring mass damper system. Finally, results from a finite element analysis of the hydropower system are presented and facilitate future design of the structural aspects of the housing for the reciprocating cylinder. (author)

Malla, Ramesh B.; Shrestha, Binu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Drasdis, Jonathon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Connecticut, 261 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269-2037 (United States); Johnson, Paul [eGen LLC, 1084 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

2011-05-15

229

Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated. PMID:23909506

Hertwich, Edgar G

2013-09-01

230

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

231

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

None

1979-07-01

232

Forsmark Site: M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the hydrochemical parameters in Forsmark groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

l the models are good and can be used, but the best is to use the one that fits the conceptual model best and the hydrogeochemical understanding. - The use of Littorina, Glacial, Deep Saline and Altered Meteoric end-members makes possible the comparison of different sites such as Laxemar and Forsmark. - All the data used in the M3 modelling and the results of the modelling and visualisation along the boreholes are presented in SKB database SIMON. - The extended data do not affect the results of the modelling of the Forsmark 2.3 dataset (the difference between the mixing proportions calculated with both models is less than 1%)

233

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

234

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

235

Geological and geophysical techniques for development of siting and design parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It appears that the USNRC has made much of lessons learned from nuclear power plant licensing. These lessons, together with the concerned participation of the Earth Science community at large, have given NRC a basis for what is perceived by this commentator as being as much as we in the waste management community could ask for. Much is granted to us in freedom to apply good judgement without the bounds of prescription; much is asked of us toward delivering the most diligent of work product. The licenseability and functionality of each low-level radioactive waste disposal facility will be determined by the geologic environment in which it is to be placed, and by the expertise and goodwill of the scientists and engineers involved in its design and licensing. Geologic site characterization is the first and most basic step in that process. The geological and geophysical means by which this characterization is accomplished must be chosen and employed in the full mutuality of the fact that geology governs geophysical response and that geophysical interpretation is absolutely essential in characterizing the length, breadth, and depth of each site. Each step in the employment of geological and geophysical techniques must be made with total incorporation of related data and findings. Severe introspection and questioning must be accomplished immediately on the development of each line of evidence, and the results must be applied directly and immediately to each remaining activiy and immediately to each remaining activity

236

Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

2010-07-01

237

Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: ? A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. ? The relative importance of the risk factors was determined fromf the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. ? The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. ? The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. ? The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

238

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.

2009-07-01

239

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

D. Pinte

2009-07-01

240

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1964-2000 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological parameters at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is presented. The parameters examined for extreme value analysis are maximum wind speed at 120 m and gust, maximum and minimum surface air temperature, maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum and minimum rainfall in a year, and maximum rainfall in a month and a day along with intensity of rainfall averaged over 5 minutes. The period of observation for rainfall is 1964 -2000, while for other variables, it is 1980 -2000. From the extreme value analysis, it is observed that the variables for annual maximum rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, maximum temperature, maximum pressure and maximum hourly wind speed obey Fisher -Tippette type I distribution, whereas annual minimum rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, minimum temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure and gust (5 min. averaged maximum wind speed at 120m height) follow Fisher -Tippette type II distribution. Parameters of the distribution functions for each variable are established and occurrence of the extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are also derived. These derived extreme values are very useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure safety of any civil structure in the vicinity of RAPS site with respect to expected stresses due to climatic conditions. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No.: P-13637-001] Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered...2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper...the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower structure, located about 100 feet...

2010-08-02

242

77 FR 6552 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13954-001] Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License...2011. d. Submitted By: Mahoning Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Berlin...Applicant Contact: Anthony Marra, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, 11365 Normandy Lane,...

2012-02-08

243

75 FR 5071 - Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock + TM  

Science.gov (United States)

...Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXII...December 2, 2009, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company (Hydropower Company) filed an application for a...

2010-02-01

244

75 FR 61474 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13563-001] Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License...28, 2010. d. Submitted By: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. e. Name of Project: Sweetheart...Contact: Duff W. Mitchell, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box 22775,...

2010-10-05

245

Substantial increment in critical parameters of MgB2 superconductor by boron site nano-carbon substitution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the determination of critical properties of MgB2 along with the impact of carbon substitution on critical parameters. The change in lattice parameters and decrease of transition temperature, Tc confirms the successful substitution by carbon at boron site. The magneto transport measurements up to 140 kOe are carried out to determine upper critical field (Hc2). The upper critical field values, Hc2 are obtained from ?-T(H) data based upon the criterion of 90% of normal resistivity. The Ginzburg Landau theory (GL equation) is applied to the ?-T(H) data which accounts for the temperature dependence behavior of Hc2 in the low temperature high field region along with the determination of Hc(0) value. The Hc(0) value of about 300 kOe is obtained for the carbon doped sample while the same is just near to 160 kOe for the pure MgB2 sample.

246

a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied as well as identifying the main players and milestones to this subject.

Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

2013-05-01

247

Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed.ficial environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

248

Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy is of importance for everyone but the growing environmental destruction and disparity between the rich and poor demands adoption of cleaner and better path so as to secure the future resources and achieve sustainable development with better social inclusion. On this regard, the term “green economy” came into light. The Asian Center for Environment Management and Sustainable Development (AEMS then explored the “green economy” concept in Nepal through a regional workshop on May 2012 with participants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Canada, UK and Nepal. Consequently, the hydropower sector of Nepal was recognized as one of the most feasible and potential sector for green economy. Therefore, various case studies of hydropower projects, interaction programs and interviews with relevant personnel were carried out for this study to analyze the scope of hydropower in achieving the three important attributes of green economy, namely—resource efficiency, low carbon and social inclusion. Nepal is rich in water resources; it is therefore possible to use our abundant water resource in an efficient manner. Likewise, the end product of hydropower is clean energy though carbon emission is involved during the construction. It shows the potential to replace considerable amount of carbon emission from biomass based energy resources. Similarly, hydropower project exhibits positive implication on the local society besides making electricity available to the whole nation. The locals also get floating shares and royalty benefits to develop the project affected area. However, the affected areas now have minimal share in royalty. Besides, this study also addresses the issues of policy implication and challenges. All the relevant issues of hydropower as studied reveal that there are required provisions at place in Nepal for hydropower sector to fit perfectly in green economy concept, if only, the prevalent issues are handled efficiently and effectively by the relevant sectors.

Ajay B. Mathema

2013-07-01

249

An inverse modeling approach to estimate groundwater flow and transport model parameters at a research site at Vandenberg AFB, CA  

Science.gov (United States)

A numerical groundwater fate and transport model was developed for analyses of data from field experiments evaluating the impacts of ethanol on the natural attenuation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Site 60. We used the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) groundwater flow (MODFLOW2000) and transport (MT3DMS) models in conjunction with the USGS universal inverse modeling code (UCODE) to jointly determine flow and transport parameters using bromide tracer data from multiple experiments in the same location. The key flow and transport parameters include hydraulic conductivity of aquifer and aquitard layers, porosity, and transverse and longitudinal dispersivity. Aquifer and aquitard layers were assumed homogenous in this study. Therefore, the calibration parameters were not spatially variable within each layer. A total of 162 monitoring wells in seven transects perpendicular to the mean flow direction were monitored over the course of ten months, resulting in 1,766 bromide concentration data points and 149 head values used as observations for the inverse modeling. The results showed the significance of the concentration observation data in predicting the flow model parameters and indicated the sensitivity of the hydraulic conductivity of different zones in the aquifer including the excavated former contaminant zone. The model has already been used to evaluate alternative designs for further experiments on in situ bioremediation of the tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) plume remaining at the site. We describe the recent applications of the model and future work, including adding reaction submodels to the calibrated flow model.

Rasa, E.; Foglia, L.; Mackay, D. M.; Ginn, T. R.; Scow, K. M.

2009-12-01

250

Seasonal variability of the aerosol parameters over Kanpur, an urban site in Indo-Gangetic basin  

Science.gov (United States)

With the growing antropogenic activities and urbanization, pollution level is found to be increasing in the Indo-Gangetic (IG) basin. This trend of increasing pollution has direct impact on the climatic conditions, especially the increase of haze, fog and cloudy conditions in the region. A ground-based CIMEL radiometer has been deployed on the campus of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur, India, as a part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program with an objective to characterize the aerosols in the IG basin. The optical properties of the aerosols over Kanpur, which is one of the largest industrial cities in the IG basin, show strong seasonal and inter-annual variations. The fine mode urban/industrial aerosols contribute more than 75% to the observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the post-monsoon and winter seasons, whereas the natural dusts contribute ˜60% to the AOD during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Effective radius ( Reff) and volume weighted mean radius ( RV), the two best representative parameter of the coarse and fine modes of aerosol size distribution show maximum values during winter season. The increase in the RV is attributed to the hygroscopic growth of fine mode particles in presence of high relative humidity and favorable temperature condition; but the increase in r eff is due to the association of the fine mode absorbing particles to the coarser dusts. This is also reflected in low values (Kanpur.

Dey, S.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Holben, B. N.

251

Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

NONE

2001-07-01

252

Hidroenergia 2010: International congress on small hydropower. Conference report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference, held in 2010 in Lausanne, Switzerland, gathered together the main stakeholders of the small hydropower community to debate about topics affecting the development of the sector, to exchange experience and to present new advances in the technological area. The two-day conference was held in a total of nine sessions, a poster session and a workshop. The first session was dedicated to water management in the Alps and covered new regulations, administrative procedures and finance issues. Contributions included a review of the present situation and the development of common guidelines to meet the challenge of conflicting technical and environmental objectives, the facilitation of small hydropower in Switzerland and the institutional frameworks involved, recent trends in small hydro project financing and the growing roles of venture capital, private equity and changing market dynamics. Finally the prospects for small hydropower in Serbia were discussed. In two parallel sessions the following topics were looked at: The promotion of small hydropower in Switzerland using various sources of water and remuneration for the power produced, small hydro in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, the use of karst groundwater for the underground production of power were looked at as well as the analysis of hydraulic facilities for combining pumped storage hydropower systems and wind power in Austria. The final presentation took a look at the new 'La Tzintre' hydropower project. The parallel session dealt with technical innovations and engineering solutions with presentations on the development of small diagonal turbines, the adaptation of propeller turbines to higher specific needs and the problems encountered in doing so. The use of centrifugal pumps as turbines, including a review of technology and applications were also dealt with. Two further parallel sessions looked at EU-funded projects and sustainability issues. The Sustainable Energy Europe project was introduced and its target of improving water resource management was discussed. An assessment of the potential for small hydropower in Switzerland was presented. Further topics discussed included challenges faced in environmental management in Norway, the use of telemetric data for flood management in Thailand, the refurbishment of a small hydro scheme in western Switzerland, the realisation of the Alpbach small hydropower plant station in Kandersteg, Switzerland, the refurbishment of the Rivaz Mill small hydro installation in the vineyards along the Lake of Geneva, Switzerland and the development of a new turbine for very low heads and with low environmental impact. On the second day of the congress, four sessions and a workshop were held. The first set of parallel sessions covered multi-purpose hydro schemes such as the Chievo project on the Adige river in Italy, experience gained at the Boshava scheme in Macedonia and the development of a new tubular propeller. In the second, parallel set of presentations, technical innovations and engineering solutions were looked at. The use of computational fluid design (CFD) in the design of a diagonal turbine, the Ashlu Creek energy dissipation system in British Columbia, the planning of the two Asiganga tandem installations in the Himalayas and performance tests of hydraulic units in low-head small hydropower installations in Poland were discussed. In the second set of parallel sessions the following topics were discussed: The dynamic effects of small hydropower plants and experience gained with the design of small power plants. Finally, the ASEAN Hycom competence centre in Indonesia was presented. In the parallel session, the following topics were discussed: The Hydrobot remote survey of national hydropower resources, the 'Swissrivers' tool for the prediction of mini-hydropower production in Switzerland, increasing energy-efficiency by the use of artificial intelligence, the optimisation of a hydropower project using a real-time forecasting tool and, finally, a method to evaluate the effective potential hydrop

NONE

2010-07-01

253

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31

254

Studies of wind profile and estimation of surface layer scaling parameters for the coastal site of Tarapur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the directional dependence of surface scaling parameters namely roughness length and corresponding friction velocity, for neutral category of Tarapur coastal site. The average roughness length of lowest value of 0.07 m (SW) and the highest value of 0.32 m (E) and average friction velocity of lowest value 1.6 m/sec(SSE) and a highest value 2.8 m/sec (SW) for the year 2006 were observed. Wind profile studies for the coastal site Tarapur with the wind data measured from meteorological tower of 30m which is at 1500m downwind fetch distance from the coastal line in the east direction gave the wind profile index parameter 'p' as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.75 for Unstable, Neutral and Stable weather conditions respectively. Sector Average Turbulent kinetic energy estimated as 17.7m2/s2 and its dissipation rate is 3.1 m2/s3 for the 10m elevation from the surface. A surface drag coefficient CD for the 10m height is 0.0076 for the smooth ocean surface and 0.0107 for the land surface. (author)

255

Hydrological parameter estimations from a conservative tracer test with variable-density effects at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

Science.gov (United States)

Reliable predictions of groundwater flow and solute transport require an estimation of the detailed distribution of the parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity) controlling these processes. However, such parameters are difficult to estimate because of the inaccessibility and complexity of the subsurface. In this regard, developments in parameter estimation techniques and investigations of field experiments are still challenging and necessary to improve our understanding and the prediction of hydrological processes. Here we analyze a conservative tracer test conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site in 2001 in a heterogeneous unconfined fluvial aquifer. Some relevant characteristics of this test include: variable-density (sinking) effects because of the injection concentration of the bromide tracer, the relatively small size of the experiment, and the availability of various sources of geophysical and hydrological information. The information contained in this experiment is evaluated through several parameter estimation approaches, including a grid-search-based strategy, stochastic simulation of hydrological property distributions, and deterministic inversion using regularization and pilot-point techniques. Doing this allows us to investigate hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity distributions and to compare the effects of assumptions from several methods and parameterizations. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of variable-density transport processes and the hydrological relevance of incorporating various sources of information in parameter estimation approaches. Among others, the variable-density effect and the effective porosity distribution, as well as their coupling with the hydraulic conductivity structure, are seen to be significant in the transport process. The results also show that assumed prior information can strongly influence the estimated distributions of hydrological properties.

Dafflon, B.; Barrash, W.; Cardiff, M.; Johnson, T. C.

2011-12-01

256

Hydrological parameter estimations from a conservative tracer test with variable-density effects at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reliable predictions of groundwater flow and solute transport require an estimation of the detailed distribution of the parameters (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity) controlling these processes. However, such parameters are difficult to estimate because of the inaccessibility and complexity of the subsurface. In this regard, developments in parameter estimation techniques and investigations of field experiments are still challenging and necessary to improve our understanding and the prediction of hydrological processes. Here we analyze a conservative tracer test conducted at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site in 2001 in a heterogeneous unconfined fluvial aquifer. Some relevant characteristics of this test include: variable-density (sinking) effects because of the injection concentration of the bromide tracer, the relatively small size of the experiment, and the availability of various sources of geophysical and hydrological information. The information contained in this experiment is evaluated through several parameter estimation approaches, including a grid-search-based strategy, stochastic simulation of hydrological property distributions, and deterministic inversion using regularization and pilot-point techniques. Doing this allows us to investigate hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity distributions and to compare the effects of assumptions from several methods and parameterizations. Our results provide new insights into the understanding of variabledensity transport processes and the hydrological relevance of incorporating various sources of information in parameter estimation approaches. Among others, the variable-density effect and the effective porosity distribution, as well as their coupling with the hydraulic conductivity structure, are seen to be significant in the transport process. The results also show that assumed prior information can strongly influence the estimated distributions of hydrological properties.

Dafflon, Baptisite; Barrash, Warren; Cardiff, Michael A.; Johnson, Timothy C.

2011-12-15

257

Fuzzy rule-based model for hydropower reservoirs operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Real-time hydropower reservoir operation is a continuous decision-making process of determining the water level of a reservoir or the volume of water released from it. The hydropower operation is usually based on operating policies and rules defined and decided upon in strategic planning. This paper presents a fuzzy rule-based model for the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The proposed fuzzy rule-based model presents a set of suitable operating rules for release from the reservoir based on ideal or target storage levels. The model operates on an 'if-then' principle, in which the 'if' is a vector of fuzzy premises and the 'then' is a vector of fuzzy consequences. In this paper, reservoir storage, inflow, and period are used as premises and the release as the consequence. The steps involved in the development of the model include, construction of membership functions for the inflow, storage and the release, formulation of fuzzy rules, implication, aggregation and defuzzification. The required knowledge bases for the formulation of the fuzzy rules is obtained form a stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) model with a steady state policy. The proposed model is applied to the hydropower operation of ''Dez'' reservoir in Iran and the results are presented and compared with those of the SDP model. The results indicate the ability of the method to solve hydropower reservoir operation problems. (author)

Moeini, R.; Afshar, A.; Afshar, M.H. [School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-02-15

258

Reevaluation of Turkey's hydropower potential and electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with Turkey's hydropower potential and its long-term electric energy demand predictions. In the paper, at first, Turkey's energy sources are briefly reviewed. Then, hydropower potential is analyzed and it has been concluded that Turkey's annual economically feasible hydropower potential is about 188 TWh, nearly 47% greater than the previous estimation figures of 128 TWh. A review on previous prediction models for Turkey's long-term electric energy demand is presented. In order to predict the future demand, new increment ratio scenarios, which depend on both observed data and future predictions of population, energy consumption per capita and total energy consumption, are developed. The results of 11 prediction models are compared and analyzed. It is concluded that Turkey's annual electric energy demand predictions in 2010, 2015 and 2020 vary between 222 and 242 (average 233) TWh; 302 and 356 (average 334) TWh; and 440 and 514 (average 476) TWh, respectively. A discussion on the role of hydropower in meeting long-term demand is also included in the paper and it has been predicted that hydropower can meet 25-35% of Turkey's electric energy demand in 2020

259

Refinement of parameters of weak nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site on the basis of historical seismograms study  

Science.gov (United States)

Many researchers working in the field of monitoring and discriminating of nuclear tests encounter the problem of lacking in seismic catalogues the information about source parameters for weak nuclear explosions. As usual, the information about origin time, coordinates and magnitude is absent, there is information about date, approximate coordinates and information about explosion yield. Huge work conducted on recovery of parameters of small underground nuclear explosions conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site using records of analogue seismic stations of the USSR located at regional distances was conducted by V. Khalturin, T. Rayutian, P. Richards (Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2001). However, if underground nuclear explosions are studied and described in literature quite well, then air and contact explosions were small and were not recorded by standard permanent seismic stations. In 1961-1962 maximum number of air and contact explosions was conducted at Opytnoye polye site of the STS. We managed to find and analyze additional seismic data from some temporary and permanent stations. That time IPE AS USSR installed a network of high-sensitive stations along Pamir-Baykal profile to study earth crust structure and upper mantle, the profile length was 3500 km. Epicentral distance from some stations of the profile to Opytnoye polye was 300-400 km. In addition, a permanent seismic station Semipalatinsk (SEM) located 175 km away from the site started its operation. The seismograms from this station became available recently. The digitized historical seismograms allowed to recover and add parameters for more than 36 air and surface explosions. Origin time, coordinates, magnitudes mpv, MLV and energy class K were determined for explosions. A regional travel-time curve for Central Kazakhstan constructed using records of calibration chemical explosions conducted at the STS in 1997-2000 and ground-truth underground nuclear explosions was used to determine kinematic parameters of explosions. MLV, mpv, and energy class K were determined for all underground nuclear explosions conducted at the STS using historical seismograms from Central Asia stations. Dependencies of regional magnitudes on yield were received for air and underground nuclear explosions. Thus, application of historical seismograms at regional distances allows to recover and replenish the seismic catalogues of past nuclear explosions for further use in scientific investigations and monitoring tasks.

Sokolova, Inna

2014-05-01

260

Geospatial Technology for Mapping Suitable Sites for Hydro Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, large amount of data is required, consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries. Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT hydrological model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. The study using the above methodology to identifies suitable site in Bennihalla catchment, for small scale hydropower development. The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 and outlet of the catchment are more suitable for small scale hydropower plant.

Dr. Nagraj S. Patil

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

78 FR 2990 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13563-002] Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...2012, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

2013-01-15

262

78 FR 12050 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13563-002] Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Successive Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...2012, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., filed an application for a successive preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

2013-02-21

263

75 FR 51258 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice of Application for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hydropower, Inc.; Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust; Notice of Application...2010. Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the...Hydropower, Inc. and Eldred L Field Hydroelectric Facility Trust. e. Name of...

2010-08-19

264

77 FR 27451 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Section 106 Consultation Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2790-055] Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Section 106 Consultation Meeting On May...Officer, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Boott Hydropower, Inc., and any other consulting parties for the...

2012-05-10

265

75 FR 8320 - Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13618-000] Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...Applications February 18, 2010. On November 5, 2009, Coastal Hydropower LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

2010-02-24

266

77 FR 4290 - Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13089-002] Conway Ranch Hydropower Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...proposing to study the feasibility of the Conway Ranch Hydropower Project to be located on Virginia Creek, near the city...

2012-01-27

267

76 FR 6459 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13954-000] Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...Applications January 31, 2011. On December 30, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

2011-02-04

268

76 FR 7838 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13953-000] Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...Applications January 31, 2011. On December 30, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

2011-02-11

269

78 FR 79433 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13953-002] Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment...47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Mahoning Hydropower, LLC's application for a license to construct,...

2013-12-30

270

77 FR 52016 - Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. ER12-2447-001] Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...above-referenced proceeding, of Brookfield Smoky Mountain Hydropower LLC's application for market- based rate authority,...

2012-08-28

271

75 FR 8321 - Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 13619-000 Coastal Hydropower LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...Applications February 18, 2010. On November 5, 2009, Coastal Hydropower LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit,...

2010-02-24

272

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

273

Modelling and Simulation of Temperature Variations of Bearings in a Hydropower Generation Unit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower contributes around 20% to the world electricity supply and is considered as the most important, clean, emissions free and economical renewable energy source.  Total installed capacity of Hydropower generation is approximately 777GW in the world (2998TWh/year). Furthermore, estimated technically feasible hydropower potential in the world is 14000TWh/year. The hydropower is the major renewable energy source in many countries and running at a higher plant-factor. Bearing overheating ...

Gunasekara, Cotte Gamage Sarathchandra

2011-01-01

274

Hydropower, an integral part of Canada's climate change strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and implementation of a climate change policy could be among the most far-reaching environmental initiatives ever embarked upon in Canada and abroad. If Canada is to stabilize or reduce its Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over the long term, a significant adjustment to Canadian industry will be required as we move away from fossil fuel-intensive and GHG producing activities. Future hydroelectric projects provide Canada with a unique opportunity to significantly reduce the costs associated with stabilizing its GHG emissions. In addition, the energy storage and dispatchability associated with hydropower can support development of other low emitting renewable resources such as wind and solar. This document discusses the potential role of hydropower as a tool to reduce emissions, recommends action to reduce barriers facing hydropower and comments on some of the policy tools available to manage Canada's GHG emissions. (author)

275

Preliminary study for the 'Stroppel' residual-water hydropower installation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the replacement of an old weir that controls the flow of residual water with a small hydropower turbine. The present situation and installations on the river Limmat near Untersiggenthal in northern Switzerland is described. The local geology, hydro-geology and topography are discussed. Six different variants for the use of the hydropower potential are discussed. The variant chosen for recommendation is described in detail. Apart from the normal technical details, the study provides details on flood-water protection and describes a fish by-pass that has already been built. Environmental aspects are discussed that are to be considered when the hydropower installation is built. The calculations for investment and operating costs are presented and the economic viability of the power station is discussed

276

Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed-load transport rate by Meyer-Petter and Muller bed-load equation. As the results are small, the top set slope is fixed as half of the bed slope. The movement of delta pivot point was 6 and 9 Km for the years 1973 and 1994, respectively. (author)

277

Ecological qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a literature review about the state-of-the-art of ecological aspects of hydropower. Hydropower is compared with further energy sources: fossil-fuel power plants, wind power plants, photovoltaic power plants, nuclear power plants. In the overall assessment, hydropower obtains the best result. (author)

278

76 FR 12103 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 2713-082] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement...2011. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Location: The existing...Contact: Daniel Daoust, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, 33 West 1st Street, South,...

2011-03-04

279

77 FR 58375 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 14413-000] Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...Applications On May 18, 2012, Inglis Hydropower, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...proposing to study the feasibility of a hydropower project located at the Inglis...

2012-09-20

280

Willingness to pay for environmental improvements in hydropower regulated rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper uses a choice experiment to estimate how Swedish households value different environmental improvements for the hydropower regulated rivers. We obtained clear evidence that Swedish households have preferences for environmental improvement in hydropower regulated waters, at least when the cost is relatively low. Remedial measures that improve the conditions for all of the included environmental attributes i.e. fish, benthic invertebrates, river-margin vegetation and birds were found to have a significant welfare increasing impact. The results can be of value for the implementation of the Water Framework Directives in Sweden, which aims to reform the use of all surface water and ground water in the member states. (author)

 
 
 
 
281

The environmental impacts of peaking at hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent energy act in Norway allows hydropower plants to be operated so that hydro peaking is permitted. However, it is uncertain how fish react to the variations in discharge and depth that follow hydro peaking. SINTEF Energy Research is cooperating with other research institutions to investigate the consequences of these variations on the biota. Among the research tools is an aqua channel which is an indoor laboratory flume where fish behaviour can be studied in detail. It has been constructed to provide the hydropower industry and public authorities with means of better determining the effects of hydro peaking. (author)

282

Socio environmental policy and populational resettlement in hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims to discuss the resettlement process caused by hydropower plants considering the Brazilian Power Sector ongoing context It is based on the analysis of the hydropower plants that started operation phase in the last tem years There are 17 projects provoking the displacement of 21000 families The paper presents the resettlement modalities used in these projects Finally, the main aspects of the resettlement process in the last decade are focused in order to contribute to the Brazilian Power Sector Resettlement Guidelines improvement and actualization

283

Model for 3D-visualization of streams and techno-economic estimate of locations for construction of small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main researches of this dissertation are focused to a development of a model for preliminary assesment of the hydro power potentials for small hydropower plants construction using Geographic Information System - GIS. For this purpose, in the first part of dissertation is developed a contemporary methodological approach for 3D- visualization of the land surface and river streams in a GIS platform. In the methodology approach, as input graphical data are used digitized maps in scale 1:25000, where each map covers an area of 10x14 km and consists of many layers with graphic data in shape (vector) format. Using GIS tools, from the input point and isohyetal contour data layers with different interpolation techniques have been obtained digital elevation model - DEM, which further is used for determination of additional graphic maps with useful land surface parameters such as: slope raster maps, hill shade models of the surface, different maps with hydrologic parameters and many others. The main focus of researches is directed toward the developing of contemporary methodological approaches based on GIS systems, for assessment of the hydropower potentials and selection of suitable location for small hydropower plant construction - SHPs, and especially in the mountainous hilly area that are rich with water resources. For this purpose it is done a practical analysis at a study area which encompasses the watershed area of the Brajchanska River at the east part of Prespa Lake. The main accent considering the analysis of suitable locations for SHP construction is set to the techno-engineering criteria, and in this context is made a topographic analysis regarding the slope (gradient) either of all as well of particular river streams. It is also made a hydrological analysis regarding the flow rates (discharges). The slope analysis is executed at a pixel (cell) level a swell as at a segment (line) level along a given stream. The slope value at segment level gives in GIS platform practical and efficient information regarding the elevation drops along river streams from the potential points of intake locations to the location of objects of the small hydropower plants. In the hydrology analysis are used historic measured data in table format regarding the flow rates and precipitation for the period 1961-2000 from two pluviometric station that are close each other. At the calculation of precipitations at annual level in GIS platform is used a stochastic quadratic equation for correlation between the rainfall (precipitation) and elevation which is valid for the climatic zone of the south-west region of Republic of Macedonia. using more hydrological methods: Rational method, Area-proportion method, Regression analysis and others, are obtained graphic raster maps for numerical values of flow rates at pixel level, and also is executed a comparative analysis of obtained results. Having available data for slope (elevation drops) and values of flows, is made analysis of the hydro power potential and locations for SHP construction along Brajchanska river and its main tributaries. The analysis showed that at the higher elevation of 1000 m.a.s.l. are found more than 10 potential locations for SHP construction. From the executed analysis was also determined, that the combination of more intakes that are directed to one SHP plant gives significantly more power output and energy. Together with the techno-engineering analysis, is also given a short review considering the economic justification for SHP construction and the impact at the environment. The developed model at the study area can also serve as a practical model at the analysis regarding the assessment and the site selection of SHP in all other areas reach with water resources. The methodological approach developed in this research, can contribute to a great extent for quick and efficient decision making regarding the preliminary screening of locations and assessment of the hydro power potentials for SHP construction at small and medium watershed areas. (Author)

284

Reducing potential damages by freshet abatement in hydropower lakes. An argument for financing hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dam reservoirs with significant water volumes (storage coefficients exceeding 8-10%) cause diminishing of the maximum flow downstream, especially due to the aleatory variation of the initial water level in the reservoir. Depending on the flow reduction in the dam, a methodology for determining the flow for the whole water course downstream is proposed, taking into account various potential combinations for flood generation in the catchment area. Differences between potential damages caused by floods in case of natural conditions versus those occurring in case of engineered zones result in important public financial benefits, amounting up to around 30% of the investments required for dam construction. For instance, in the case of hydropower lake Dragan on the Crisul Repede River the damages diminished down to about 50% for downstream watercourse. (authors)

285

Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact. PMID:25189078

Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

2014-04-01

286

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

287

Fish passage assessment of an advanced hydropower turbine and conventional turbine using blade-strike modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected. (authors)

Deng, Z.; Carlson, T. J.; Dauble, D. D.; Ploskey, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2011-07-01

288

Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-Strike Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is the largest renewable energy source in the world. However, in the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon and steelhead have been listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making hydroelectric facilities more fish friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for relicensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to compare fish passage performance of the newly installed advanced turbine to an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live-fish survival study and a Sensor Fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury, while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experimental results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, no statistical evidence suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines, thus the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal to or higher than that for fish passing through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

Zhiqun Deng

2011-01-01

289

Validation of cosmogenic nuclide production rate scaling factors through direct measurement. Part 3, Field data and site parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is part three of a series of comprehensive reports detailing the results of the IPR Marsden-funded research project 'Cosmogenic nuclides in earth science: validation of production systematics', which set out to validate scaling factors used in determining production rates of cosmogenic nuclides used for surface exposure dating. The research was carried out in Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica, and had two aspects to it: (i) direct measurement of cosmic-ray flux using portable monitors, and (ii) measurement of 7Be and 10Be in sealed water targets. This report presents details of field experiments and measurements carried out between 1997 and 2001, during and after sun-spot cycle 23 solar minimum. Included are measurement times, weather conditions and relevant site parameters. A brief discussion of shielding and neutron scattering effects is also included. (author). 20 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

290

Relationship among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index of Pinus radiata D. Don in Asturias, NW Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relationships among soil parameters, tree nutrition and site index were examined in Pinus radiata D. Don stands in a climatically homogeneous area of NW Spain. Thirty-eight even-aged stands, ranging from 10 to 54 years, were sampled. In each stand, a representative plot of 0.1 ha was selected and different stand variables and parent material were considered. The soils in the study area are strongly acidic, with high proportions of organic matter, high C/N ratios, and low exchangeable base cation and available P concentration extracted by Mehlich 3 method (PM3). Although foliar N was sufficient in every stand studied, widespread deficiencies of K, P and, to a lesser extent, Mg and Ca were diagnosed. The foliar concentrations of P were positively correlated with PM3 and effective cation exchange capacity. The SI values ranged between 9.5 and 28.8 m and were positively correlated with foliar P and extractable K in soil. In the stands developed on quartzite and sandstone lithologies, the SI was negatively correlated with slope and foliar N respectively. The results suggest the importance of site selection and fertilizer treatment in reforestation programmes. (Author) 63 refs.

Afif-Khouri, E.; Camara Obregon, M. A.; Oliveira-Prendes, J. A.; Gorgoso-Varela, J. J.; Canga-Libano, E.

2010-07-01

291

Utilizing the Niwot Rige longterm ecological research site surface data to verify remotely sensed snow parameters over complex terrain  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability and extent of seasonal snow cover are important parameters in climate and hydrologic systems due to their effects on energy and moisture budgets. During its maximum extent, seasonal snow can cover more than 50% (50 million km2) of the Northern Hemisphere's land surface. Snow covered area (SCA) represents the largest single component of the cryosphere that fluctuates seasonally. Satellite remote sensing allows us the ability to monitor snow parameters such as snow covered area (SCA) but lacks the resolution required for adequate coverage in mountainous terrain in three main areas: subalpine forests, patchy snow coverage, and steep terrain (slope>30o). This proposed research would address these issues by comparing surface data collected in the Niwot Ridge LTER (Long-term Ecological Research Site) during the snow season of 2009-2010 to that of satellite remote sensing data on the subpixel scale. Statistical sampling techniques based on the Cold-land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX, 2001-2004) will be utilized to determine the percentage of snow covered area on the ground and then compare these values with those of the MODSCAG (MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size) model. This comparison will provide valuable testing of the MODSCAG model and future algorithm development. The results of this study will also provide more accurate remotely sensed snow covered area for input into land-surface, regional scale, and global climate models.

McIntyre, H. M.

2009-12-01

292

The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerosol physical parameter measurements are reported here for the first full annual set of data from the Jungfraujoch site. Comparison to NOAA background and regional stations indicate that the site may be designated as `clean continental` during the free tropospheric influenced period 03:00 -09:00. (author) figs., tab., refs.

Nyeki, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Jost, D.T.; Weingartner, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Colbeck, I. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom)

1997-09-01

293

77 FR 75628 - STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City of Danville, VA; Notice of Application for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 2411-025] STS Hydropower, Ltd., Dan River, Inc., and City...Trustee for Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd (co-licensees) transferors...Project from Dan River, Inc. and STS Hydropower, Ltd. to STS Hydropower, Ltd....

2012-12-21

294

False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

James Randall Kahn

2014-09-01

295

Simulation Modeling for Electrical Switching System of Hydropower Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a simulation modeling method for the electrical switching system of hydropower station, which is a sub-topic for Hydropower Station Simulation Training System. The graphics model of commonly used electrical switch equipment is developed with a certain software. As vast and different types of Hydropower station circuit breakers and associated grounding switches, and each specific action of the switch process is not same, so the modular modeling method is described to solve the problem. According to the role and status in power plant, electrical switch system is divided into several sub modules, among which a number of small modules are sorted in. In each sub module, a common model is developed. Besides, the application method that the network topology analysis algorithm used in electrical switching system simulation logic judgment is introduced. With the ‘connecting line fusion’ technique, logic function expression member information table is automatically generated, thereby enhancing the suitability for the electrical switch simulation model. The methods mentioned above assure the real-time, typicality and flexibility in simulation, and have been successfully used in the development of a large hydropower station simulator.

Ran HU

2013-08-01

296

ALTERNATIVE HYDRO-POWER EXPLOITATION WITH LOW-KINETIC TURBINES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The graduation thesis present hydro-power exploitation with low-kinetic turbines, we made calculations of power turbines and determine their efficiency. Presented are the possible types of turbines for installation in the riverbed. We determined the economic analysis of the project.

Rovc?anin, Jovana

2012-01-01

297

The role of hydropower in meeting Turkey's electric energy demand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inherent technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power, make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. These countries, such as Turkey, have a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. From the viewpoint of energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas, Turkey is not a rich country; but it has an abundant hydropower potential to be used for generation of electricity and must increase hydropower production in the near future. This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing electricity demand for Turkey. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. The results of two case studies, whose results were not taken into consideration in calculating Turkey's hydro electric potential, are presented. Turkey's small hydro power potential is found to be an important energy source, especially in the Eastern Black Sea Region. The results of a study in which Turkey's long-term demand has been predicted are also presented. According to the results of this paper, Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed

298

Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

Broadus, C.R.

1981-04-01

299

Developing a module for estimating climate warming effects on hydropower pricing in California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate warming is expected to alter hydropower generation in California through affecting the annual stream-flow regimes and reducing snowpack. On the other hand, increased temperatures are expected to increase hydropower demand for cooling in warm periods while decreasing demand for heating in winter, subsequently altering the annual hydropower pricing patterns. The resulting variations in hydropower supply and pricing regimes necessitate changes in reservoir operations to minimize the revenue losses from climate warming. Previous studies in California have only explored the effects of hydrological changes on hydropower generation and revenues. This study builds a long-term hydropower pricing estimation tool, based on artificial neural network (ANN), to develop pricing scenarios under different climate warming scenarios. Results suggest higher average hydropower prices under climate warming scenarios than under historical climate. The developed tool is integrated with California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) to facilitate simultaneous consideration of climate warming on hydropower supply, demand and pricing. EBHOM estimates an additional 5% drop in annual revenues under a dry warming scenario when climate change impacts on pricing are considered, with respect to when such effects are ignored, underlining the importance of considering changes in hydropower demand and pricing in future studies and policy making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the major gap in previous climate change and hydropower studies in California. ? Developing an ANN-based long-term hydropower price estimation tool. ? Estimating climate change effects on hydropower demand and pricing in California. ? Investigating the sensitivity of hydropower operations to future price changes. ? Underlining the importance of consideration of climate change impacts on electricity pricing.

300

Implications of the sedimentation phenomenon in the design of hydropower reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of sedimentation phenomena on the operational parameters of the hydropower reservoirs built on several Romanian rivers was assessed. A cascade of eight reservoirs on the Olt river, with initial volumes of 20-50 M m3, lost about 30% of the conservation capacity and about 3-7% of head as well. Smaller reservoirs, with volumes of 2-10 M m3, lost 60-85% of their capacity. Dredging operations had to be done, thus, increasing the initial costs by 20%. The acquired experience revealed that the evolution in time of the reservoir capacity over the operation period should be as accurately as possible taken into account in the designing stage. The operation conditions and designing criterions for small and medium hydropower reservoir have to be reassessed also from the environmental and efficiency points of view. The content of the paper is the following: 1. Sedimentation knowledge and planning concepts for inland rivers; 2. Implications of the sedimentation phenomenon; 3. Forecast of the sedimentation phenomenon; 4. Retrospective and perspective; 5. Conclusions. (authors)

 
 
 
 
301

Estimation of binding parameters for the protein-protein interaction using a site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sensitivity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (CW EPR) to molecular tumbling provides potential means for studying processes of molecular association. It uses spin-labeled macromolecules, whose CW EPR spectra may change upon binding to other macromolecules. When a spin-labeled molecule is mixed with its liganding partner, the EPR spectrum constitutes a linear combination of spectra of the bound and unbound ligand (as seen in our example of spin-labeled cytochrome c(2) interacting with cytochrome bc(1) complex). In principle, the fraction of each state can be extracted by the numerical decomposition of the spectrum; however, the accuracy of such decomposition may often be compromised by the lack of the spectrum of the fully bound ligand, imposed by the equilibrium nature of molecular association. To understand how this may affect the final estimation of the binding parameters, such as stoichiometry and affinity of the binding, a series of virtual titration experiments was conducted. Our non-linear regression analysis considered a case in which only a single class of binding sites exists, and a case in which classes of both specific and non-specific binding sites co-exist. The results indicate that in both models, the error due to the unknown admixture of the unbound ligand component in the EPR spectrum causes an overestimation of the bound fraction leading to the bias in the dissociation constant. At the same time, the stoichiometry of the binding remains relatively unaffected, which overall makes the decomposition of the EPR spectrum an attractive method for studying protein-protein interactions in equilibrium. Our theoretical treatment appears to be valid for any spectroscopic techniques dealing with overlapping spectra of free and bound component. PMID:18049817

Sarewicz, Marcin; Szytu?a, Sebastian; Dutka, Ma?gorzata; Osyczka, Artur; Froncisz, Wojciech

2008-04-01

302

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999.

Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

2000-01-26

303

Small hydropower in southern Africa - an overview of five countries in the region  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small hydr [...] opower has played an important role in the history of providing electricity in the region. After a period with limited interest in applications of small hydropower, in all five countries, a range of stakeholders from policy makers to developers are showing a renewed interest in small hydropower. Although different models were followed, all five countries covered in the paper do currently see activities around grid connected small scale hydropower. Particular frameworks that facilitate IPPs and Power Purchase Agreements with the national utility do provide a basis for (local) commercial banks to provide finance. Off-grid hydropower for rural electrification purposes sees activities in the countries with an active (support) role of government in this respect only. Small hydropower, renewable energy technology has large potential across the southern Africa region, both for grid connected and off-grid applications. Historically, small hydropower played an important role in the development of the region. Since the mid-1960s, however, the main emphasis has been on centralised fossil fuel-based electricity generation. Developers and policy makers have only recently begun looking at small hydropower again.

Wim Jonker, Klunne.

304

Examination of methane ebullition in a Swiss hydropower reservoir  

Science.gov (United States)

Ebullition is one of the most important methane emission pathways from inland water bodies, yet the stochastic nature of ebullition complicates its monitoring. Therefore, a bubble-calibrated 120 kHz split-beam echosounder (Simrad EK60, Kongsberg Maritime) was utilized to survey the active ebullition area of a small temperate hydropower reservoir (Lake Wohlen, Switzerland), which is known for intense methane bubble release in summer. The performed bubble size calibration agreed well with the literature and the presented hydroacoustic technique to estimate methane bubble flux in the presence of non-bubble targets was determined to be the most appropriate post-processing method for this reservoir. The acoustically-determined average methane ebullition flux from the sediment to the water column from seven campaigns was 580 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 (range, 130 to 1450). Bubble size distribution, which mostly included 1 to 20 mm diameter bubbles, was strongly related to the magnitude of sediment ebullition flux. The bubble size distribution is an important consideration when calculating the resulting surface efflux using a bubble dissolution model. Using the Sauter mean diameter to represent the volume to surface area to volume ratio of the bubble size distribution in the bubble model resulted in an average atmospheric emission of 490 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. The spatially-averaged data and the standard deviation from seven sampling campaigns revealed areas of 'high' and 'low' ebullition fluxes that seemed to correlate to geomorphology of the reservoir, which still contains the former river channel. The hydroacoustic flux estimates were compared with other methods of methane flux assessments used simultaneously: the traditional chamber method and the eddy covariance technique combined with spectrometer methane measurements (Fast Methane Analyzer, Los Gatos Research). Chamber measurements on all but one day were higher than the hydroacoustic survey results (but within the same order of magnitude), which is likely due to the extended coverage of echosounder surveys identifying more areas of low fluxes. However, hydroacoustic assessments and eddy covariance measurements of methane flux were similar and both revealed a flux dependence on the time of day, which was further related to scheduled water level changes in the reservoir. While the eddy covariance technique can provide continuous data useful for correlating with external forcing factors related to emissions, echosounder surveys provide spatial-specific information and thus resolve the locations of methane ebullition. Ideally, combining these methods would allow for the best coverage of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ebullition over a given study site.

DelSontro, T.; Ostrovsky, I.; Eugster, W.; McGinnis, D. F.; Wehrli, B.

2012-04-01

305

Application of Geochemical Parameters for the Early Detection of CO2 Leakage from Sequestration Sites into Groundwater  

Science.gov (United States)

Geologically sequestered CO2 is buoyant, has a low viscosity and, when dissolved in brine, becomes reactive to minerals and well pipes. These properties of CO2 may cause it to leak upward, possibly contaminating underground sources of drinking water. We have participated in several multi-laboratory field experiments to investigate the chemical and isotopic parameters that are applicable to monitoring the flow of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifers and into potable shallow groundwater. Geochemical results from the deep SECARB Phase III tests at Cranfield oil field, Mississippi, and from the Frio Brine I and II pilots located in the S. Liberty oil field, Dayton, Texas, proved powerful tools in: 1- Tracking the successful injection and flow of CO2 into the injection sandstones; 2- showing major changes in the chemical (pH, alkalinity, and major divalent cations) and isotopic (?13C values of CO2, and ?18O values of CO2 and brine) compositions of formation water; 3-. showing mobilization of metals, including Fe Mn and Pb, and organic compounds , including DOC, BTEX, PAHs, and phenols following CO2 injection; and 4- showing that some of the CO2 injected into the Frio "C" sandstone was detected in the overlying "B" sandstone that is separated from it by 15 m of shale and siltstone. Rapid, significant and systematic changes were also observed in the isotopic and chemical compositions of shallow groundwater at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site located in Bozeman, Montana, in response to four yearly injections of variable amounts of CO2 gas through a slotted pipe placed horizontally at a depth of ~2 m below ground level. The observed changes, included the lowering of groundwater pH from ~7.0 to values as low as 5.6, increases in the alkalinity from about 400 mg/L as HCO3 to values of up to 1330 mg/L, increases in the electrical conductance from ~600 ?S/cm to up to 1800 ?S/cm, as well as increases in the concentrations of cations and metals following CO2 injection. Geochemical modeling, sequential extractions of cations from the ZERT-aquifer sediments, and controlled laboratory CO2-groundwater-sediment interactions demonstrated that calcite dissolution and ion exchange on organic material and inorganic mineral surfaces are responsible for the observed chemical changes. Results from both the deep and shallow field tests show that geochemical methods have highly sensitive chemical and isotopic tracers that are needed at CO2 injection sites to monitor injection performance and for early detection of any CO2 and brine leakages.

Kharaka, Y. K.; Beers, S.; Thordsen, J.; Thomas, B.; Campbell, P.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Abedini, A. A.

2011-12-01

306

Effect of sampling site and collection method on variations in baseline clinical pathology parameters in Fischer-344 rats. 1. Clinical chemistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the influence of blood sampling site and collection method on clinical chemistry parameters was conducted in male Fischer-344 rats. Sampling sites compared included the right ventricle, aorta, vena cava, retroorbital sinus, and tail. Methods of collection included Vacutainer (3 ml sample), syringe (exsanguination), and capillary tube. Nineteen frequently measured clinical chemistry procedures were determined, including serum enzymes, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Significant differences were noted for almost every parameter as a function of sampling site. Samples collected from the right ventricle with a Vacutainer produced the most representative results for most but not all procedures when compared to the overall mean (for all methods). The largest differences were encountered in samples obtained from tail and retroorbital plexus. Exanguination also resulted in significant differences for some parameters when compared to smaller sample volumes obtained from the same site. It was concluded that sampling site and collection method can be a major source of variation in clinical chemistry measurements, and in selection of an appropriate method, one should consider which parameters are likely to be of major interest. PMID:4092880

Neptun, D A; Smith, C N; Irons, R D

1985-12-01

307

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2001-07-01

308

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters

309

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

310

Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

311

Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short-term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be allocated among the reservoirs in order to strike a balance between current profits and expected future profits. A demonstration is presented with data from a Norwegian hydropower producer and the Nordic power market at Nord Pool.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh

2008-01-01

312

X-ray determination of site occupation parameters in ordered ternaries Cu(AuxM1-x)M = Ni,Pd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray scattering data obtained for multiple wavelengths with synchrotron radiation were analyzed by the Rietveld method to determine Ni and Pd distributions on the Cu(000) and Au(1/2 1/2 1/2) sites in the CuAuI tetragonal P4/mmm structure. Alloys of CuAuxM1-x containing 6 at. % Ni or 10 and 25 at. % Pd were processed to obtain maximum ordering. Nickel is predominantly found on the Cu size and most all the Pd is found on the Au site. The uncertainty in site occupation parameters is discussed for various contributions which affect powder intensity measurements. For highly absorbing materials, an observed powder roughness effect decreases the low angle (2?) intensities relative to the high 2? intensities. This effect reduces the reliability of the thermal parameters and obscure a proper description of the thermal motion of the two sublattices. Corrections to the X-ray intensity data for surface roughness/porosity effects reduce uncertainties to about ±1 at. % on the refined value of the site occupations. This use of variable wavelength X-rays with simultaneous refinement of the corresponding data is capable of distinguishing site occupations even between two elements of almost equal scattering factor as, for example, Cu and Ni atoms in this investigation. Chemical phase stability is related to the site occupation parameters. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

313

Guide for assessing relicensing risk for hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

a hydropower project is strongly related to the time spent in the process. Processing time for relicenses has more than doubled in the past four years, greatly increasing the administrative and refinancing costs of relicensing. (4) What is the relicensing risk for your project? This section provides very specific guidance to allow self-assessment of risk by those who are considering whether or not to relicense their projects

314

Buksefjorden: Greenland's first hydropower station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nukissiorfiit (Greenland Power Company), an independent enterprise wholly owned by the Greenland Home Rule Authority, is responsible for the supply of electricity, water and heating to Greenland's towns. A 30MW power station is now being built at Buksefjorden for Nukissiorfiit. It will be the first hydropower station in Greenland, supplying electricity to the capital, Nuuk, where 13,000 of Greenland's 55,000 inhabitants live. (author).

Anon.

1992-06-01

315

Hydraulic transient events in hydropower plants with installed Francis turbines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydraulic transient events are the result of time related changes of hydrodinamical quantities in a hydraulic passage system. Treatise of transient events is essential to ensure safe operation of the hydropower plant, and for suitable design of turbine components and related hydromechanical equipment. Causes of transient events and their characteristics in different hydraulic passage systems are presented in this work. Basic system of water hammer equation was derived, consisting of the momen...

Mazij, Jernej

2009-01-01

316

The trend of small hydropower development in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper makes an analysis of the status quo and existing issues of small hydropower (SHP) in China and based on the logistic growth curve model forecasts the installed capacity of SHP and cost of newly built SHP in the future. It also explores the opportunity of the clean development mechanism (CDM) in SHP projects and puts forward suggestions and recommendations on enhancing the SHP market competitiveness. (author)

317

Mekong erosion, hydropower development and sediment trapping by the reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erosion occurs from soil surface due to the kinetic energy of raindrop and surface flowing water. The energy of flowing water causes down cutting of the land, which results from soil migration and forest cutting. Bare land shows easy erosion behavior, and loose soil has greater potential for erosion than the vegetated land. In the twenty-first century, the demand of energy for consumption is increasing. Hydropower is one of the cheaper sources for energy. These dams threaten the risk of ...

Sah, Rajeev

2013-01-01

318

Hydropower generation and storage, transmission constraints and market power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study hydropower generation and storage in the presence of uncertainty about future inflows, market power and limited transmission capacity to neighboring regions. Within our simple two-period model, market power leads to too little storage. The monopolist finds it profitable to produce more than the competitive amount in the first period and thereby stores little water in the first of two periods in order to become import constrained in the second period. In addition, little storage reduces the probability of becoming export constrained in the second period, even if the second period exhibits large inflow. Empirical findings for an area in the western part of Norway with only hydropower and high ownership concentration at the supply side, fit well to our theoretical model. We apply a numerical model to examine various policies to reduce the inefficiencies created by the local monopoly. Transmission investments have two effects. First, the export possibilities in the first period increase. More export leads to lower storage in the first period. Second, larger import capacity reduces the market power problem in the second period. The two opposite effects of transmission investments in a case with market power may be unique to hydropower systems. Introducing financial transmission rights enhance the market power of the monopolist in our model. Price caps in both or in the second period only, reduce the strategic value of water storage. (Author)r storage. (Author)

319

Small hydropower plants in the region of Mariovo (Macedonia)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the results of an initial Pre-feasibility study within the framework of the PHARE Programme for Cross Border Cooperation between Republic of Macedonia and Republic of Greece. In this study we have looked at the existing research originating from three sources. The Strategies for Economic Development of Republic of Macedonia, the Development Plans of the Electric Power Company of Macedonia as well as the existing technical documentation and studies on a level of idea projects for specific location for small hydropower plants in Mariovo region. Furthermore, analysis and evaluation of this documentation is included. Research done in this region has produced evidence of numerous potential locations for small hydropower plants (total of 46) generating power between 58 kW and 4900 kW, discharging between 0,082 m3/s and 30 m3/s with a head between 6 m and 208 m for which we have detailed data. Furthermore, in the paper we pay attention to the enormous and so far unrealised hydro energetic power which could be utilised by constructing small hydropower plants in Republic of Macedonia. specifically in the Mariovo region. (Original)

320

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

2013-06-01

322

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.enges of sustainability.

323

Effect of sampling site and collection method on variations in baseline clinical pathology parameters in Fischer-344 rats. II. Clinical hematology.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the influence of blood-sampling site and collection method on peripheral hematology parameters was conducted in age-matched male Fischer-344 rats. Sites examined for blood collection were the right ventricle, abdominal aorta, abdominal vena cava, retroorbital plexus, and tail. Collection methods used included syringe (10 ml), Vacutainer(s) (3 ml or 3 ml X 2), and capillary tube. Blood collected from the tail exhibited leukocyte counts approximately twice those of samples samples from other sites. Blood collected from the retroorbital plexus and tail exhibited significant variations in white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and differences in leukocyte differential counts of lymphocytes and neutrophils when compared with other sites. Blood collected from the abdominal aorta and in a second Vacutainer from the right ventricle exhibited lower erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts than that collected from other sites with the exception of the platelet count from tail blood which was lower than that from all other sites. Although parameter values vary with sample site selection, those obtained from right ventricle blood were the least variable and the most consistent when compared with all other methods. PMID:3803760

Smith, C N; Neptun, D A; Irons, R D

1986-11-01

324

Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

Fall, Latsoucabe

2010-09-15

325

Development of methodological support of the automated hydropower potential calculation using geographic information systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The latest large-scale researches of hydropower potential of large and medium size rivers in Russia were conducted in 1940–1980 years. Nowadays updating of hydropower potential data (including not only large, but also minor and medium rivers is carried out. This paper is dedicated to the development and approbation of methodology and GIS-based tools for calculating hydropower potential of rivers, located in Russian Federation. The list of initial data and information sources used in research were described. The approaches and GIS-tools described in present paper allow executing an assessment of hydropower potential of the rivers in a short time on large areas.

N.V. Badenko

2013-10-01

326

Perspectives for hydropower stations in Switzerland: long-term competitiveness and possibilities for improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This first general study - which has the character of a preliminary study - examines the questions if the liberalisation of the electricity market will have a negative effect on the competitiveness of hydropower in the long-term and what measures can be taken against such effects. Long-term competitiveness is defined as the ability of a business in this sector to make investments in renewal in the long-term, i.e. after its concessions have expired. The three main aims of the study are: 1. Assessment of the long-term competitiveness of the sector and identification of the factors which could either have a negative effect on it or improve it, 2. Analysis of cost structures and presentation of measures through which the long-term competitiveness of the sector can be reinforced, 3. Presentation of possible political measures to be taken in this business area in order to improve the long-term competitiveness of hydropower stations. The study identifies the most important factors that determine future competitiveness as being the market prices for electricity and capital costs (depreciation and interest on own and borrowed capital). Further, water fees, taxes and regulations concerning residual water flow can be of great importance for investment decisions, in particular for those enterprises that operate close to their profitability limits. The results of the analysis indicate that, in the future, a considerable number of enterprises must be reckoned with that will refrain from renewing their plant. Such outcomes depend, of course, on developments in electricity market prices, specific investment costs, rates of interest and other economic, political, and legal conditions. Making a prognosis about the development of such parameters is linked with a high degree of uncertainty. By means of sensitivity calculations and the definition of various scenarios, attempts are made to take these uncertainties into account . Finally, the study makes reference to the fact that economic policy measures could help improve the competitiveness of hydropower. All measures that aim to internalise external costs of power generation are considered as being particularly promising in this respect. Targeted aid for particular enterprises could be provided as a supporting measure

327

Parameter-induced uncertainty quantification of crop yields, soil N2O and CO2 emission for 8 arable sites across Europe using the LandscapeDNDC model  

Science.gov (United States)

When using biogeochemical models to estimate greenhouse gas emissions at site to regional/national levels, the assessment and quantification of the uncertainties of simulation results are of significant importance. The uncertainties in simulation results of process-based ecosystem models may result from uncertainties of the process parameters that describe the processes of the model, model structure inadequacy as well as uncertainties in the observations. Data for development and testing of uncertainty analisys were corp yield observations, measurements of soil fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from 8 arable sites across Europe. Using the process-based biogeochemical model LandscapeDNDC for simulating crop yields, N2O and CO2 emissions, our aim is to assess the simulation uncertainty by setting up a Bayesian framework based on Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Using Gelman statistics convergence criteria and parallel computing techniques, enable multi Markov Chains to run independently in parallel and create a random walk to estimate the joint model parameter distribution. Through means distribution we limit the parameter space, get probabilities of parameter values and find the complex dependencies among them. With this parameter distribution that determines soil-atmosphere C and N exchange, we are able to obtain the parameter-induced uncertainty of simulation results and compare them with the measurements data.

Santabarbara, Ignacio; Haas, Edwin; Kraus, David; Herrera, Saul; Klatt, Steffen; Kiese, Ralf

2014-05-01

328

Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.  

Science.gov (United States)

In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

2009-07-01

329

76 FR 66710 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Commission [Project No. 5984-063] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...Date Filed: May 10, 2011. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. (dba Brookfield Renewable Power). e. Name...

2011-10-27

330

Experimental study of a model and parameters calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author tries to develop a new model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site based on field experiments. This model considers not only the difference between shore ward and off-shore but also the comprehensive effect of following factors: mixed layer and thermal internal boundary layer, mixing release and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast and so on. The various parameters needed in the model are obtained from the field atmospheric experiments done on the NPP site during 1995?1996. There dimension joint frequency is got from wind and temperature measurements at 4 heights of a tower of 100 m; diffusion parameters shore ward and off-shore from turbulent measurement and wind tunnel simulation test; the parameters relative to sea and land breeze and thermal internal boundary layer are obtained from tests with low altitude radiosonde and lost balloon at 3 sites during two periods of Summer and Winter. Finally a comparison of the results given by this model and commonly used model provided by relative guides is done. The comparison shows that about 1 times under estimation is found for the maximum of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor in common model because the effect from thermal internal boundary layer and other factors are neglected

331

Numerical study of low concentration nanofluids pool boiling, investigating of boiling parameters introducing nucleation site density ratio  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study consists of a pool boiling model modified for nanofluids. The effect of particle size, surface roughness were considered in this work. Nucleation site density ratio was introduced and a correlation was derived based on literature experimental data. Moreover, heat flux partitioning model was employed to evaluate proposed model for boiling heat transfer. The validity was assessed by comparing the results with experimental data. Nucleation site density ratio can predict heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids.

Niknam, Pouriya H.; Haghighi, M.; Kasiri, N.; Khanof, M. H.

2014-09-01

332

Improving inflow forecasting into hydropower reservoirs through a complementary modelling framework  

Science.gov (United States)

Accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasts is instrumental for maximizing the value of water resources and benefits gained through hydropower generation. Improving hourly reservoir inflow forecasts over a 24 h lead-time is considered within the day-ahead (Elspot) market of the Nordic exchange market. We present here a new approach for issuing hourly reservoir inflow forecasts that aims to improve on existing forecasting models that are in place operationally, without needing to modify the pre-existing approach, but instead formulating an additive or complementary model that is independent and captures the structure the existing model may be missing. Besides improving forecast skills of operational models, the approach estimates the uncertainty in the complementary model structure and produces probabilistic inflow forecasts that entrain suitable information for reducing uncertainty in the decision-making processes in hydropower systems operation. The procedure presented comprises an error model added on top of an un-alterable constant parameter conceptual model, the models being demonstrated with reference to the 207 km2 Krinsvatn catchment in central Norway. The structure of the error model is established based on attributes of the residual time series from the conceptual model. Deterministic and probabilistic evaluations revealed an overall significant improvement in forecast accuracy for lead-times up to 17 h. Season based evaluations indicated that the improvement in inflow forecasts varies across seasons and inflow forecasts in autumn and spring are less successful with the 95% prediction interval bracketing less than 95% of the observations for lead-times beyond 17 h.

Gragne, A. S.; Sharma, A.; Mehrotra, R.; Alfredsen, K.

2014-10-01

333

Fish Passage Assessment of an Advanced Hydropower Turbine and Conventional Turbine Using Blade-strike Modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Columbia and Snake River basins, several species of Pacific salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 due to significant declines of fish population. Dam operators and design engineers are thus faced with the task of making those hydroelectric facilities more ecologically friendly through changes in hydro-turbine design and operation. Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, Washington, applied for re-licensing from the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to replace the 10 turbines at Wanapum Dam with advanced hydropower turbines that were designed to increase power generation and improve fish passage conditions. We applied both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models to the newly installed turbine and an existing turbine. Modeled probabilities were compared to the results of a large-scale live fish survival study and a sensor fish study under the same operational parameters. Overall, injury rates predicted by the deterministic model were higher than experimental rates of injury while those predicted by the stochastic model were in close agreement with experiment results. Fish orientation at the time of entry into the plane of the leading edges of the turbine runner blades was an important factor contributing to uncertainty in modeled results. The advanced design turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the existing turbine design; however, there was no statistical evidence that suggested significant differences in blade-strike injuries between the two turbines and the hypothesis that direct fish survival rate through the advanced hydropower turbine is equal or better than that through the conventional turbine could not be rejected.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2011-01-04

334

Influence of the site of arterial occlusion on multiple baseline hemodynamic MRI parameters and post-thrombolytic recanalization in acute stroke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this prospective MRI study, we evaluated the impact of the site of occlusion on multiple baseline perfusion parameters and subsequent recanalization in 49 stroke patients who were given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Pretreatment magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed an arterial occlusion in 47 patients: (1) internal carotid artery (ICA) + M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (n=12); (2) M1 MCA occlusion (n=19); (3) M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion (n=16). Patients with ICA occlusion had significantly larger DWI, PWI and mismatch lesion volume on pretreatment MRI compared to patients with other sites of occlusion. The differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and peak height were significantly higher in patients with ICA occlusion compared to patients with other sites of occlusion (P=0.03 and P=0.04, respectively). Day 1 MRA showed recanalization in 28 patients (60%). The rate of recanalization was significantly different depending on the site of occlusion: 33% in ICA + M1 MCA occlusion, 63% in M1 MCA occlusion and 81% in either M2 MCA, distal branches of the MCA or ACA occlusion (P=0.002). Our data suggest that CBF and peak height are the most relevant MRI parameters to assess the severity of hemodynamic impairment in regard to the site of occlusion. (orig.)

Derex, L.; Nighoghossian, N. [Hopital Neurologique, Service d' Urgences NeuroVasculaires, Lyon (France); UMR CNRS 5515, U 630 INSERM, CREATIS, Lyon (France); Hermier, M.; Froment, J.C. [Hopital Neurologique, Service de Neuroradiologie, Lyon (France); Adeleine, P. [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service de Biostatistique, Lyon (France); Pialat, J.B.; Wiart, M.; Berthezene, Y. [UMR CNRS 5515, U 630 INSERM, CREATIS, Lyon (France); Trouillas, P. [Hopital Neurologique, Service d' Urgences NeuroVasculaires, Lyon (France)

2004-11-01

335

Modeling sugarcane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

Science.gov (United States)

Agro-land surface models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugarcane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management) or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass) through distinct Monte Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of partial ranked correlation coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugarcane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. The ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI) and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold) in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients) in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting different climate-mediated sensitivities of modeled sugarcane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Caubel, A.; Huth, N.; Marin, F.; Martiné, J.-F.

2014-06-01

336

Technical and economic qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing ecological and technical aspects of hydropower with other forms of electricity production, we are able to assess its potential in terms of economic added value. The most obvious benefits of hydropower are its storage capability, high level of efficiency, ease of control and provision of reactive power. An assessment of the technical qualities of hydropower encompasses today's power generation and capacity, as well as the interaction with the power transmission network in both normal operation and in the case of disturbances. The benefits of hydropower versus other forms of electricity production are as follows: an energy production with the highest level of electrical efficiency (between 80% and 90%); advantage of energy production via water storage systems; excellent tradability thanks to ready availability upon demand; ideally suited for use for bridging discrepancies between purchased volume and demand thanks to high efficiency at partial load; thanks to its ready availability, hydropower can be used to quickly restore power following major damage to, or disturbances in, the electricity transmission network; provision of reactive power. Hydropower offers the following economic benefits: in an open market, services provided by hydropower plants are compensated directly; higher energy prices have to be paid for load compensation; energy production from storage systems may be utilised like a call option; hydropower plants produce electricity from a renewar plants produce electricity from a renewable energy source, which makes it more easily marketable. (author)

337

Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang - Temerloh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are p>/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

338

The optimal joint provision of water for irrigation and hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study develops a dynamic optimization model to analyze the intertemporal allocation of surface water for irrigation and for hydropower production in the western United States. The issue arises because peak irrigation demands may not coincide with periods of peak demand for power. Water released for irrigation in the spring reduces the reservoir head and diminishes the capacity to generate power during summer peak demands. The optimization model is applied to irrigation districts in central California. Results show considerable deviation between the actual and the optimal allocations. Suboptimal behavior is linked to the districts` failure to articulate clear property rights to the scarce water resources.

Chatterjee, B. [California Franchise Tax Board, Sacramento, CA (United States). Economic and Statistical Research Bureau; Howitt, R.E.; Sexton, R.J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics

1998-11-01

339

STHOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL FOR FLOOD CONTROL OPERATION IN HYDROPOWER SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic simulation model for flood control operation on hydropower reservoirs system that is used for power generation and flood control, OPCHENS. The use of the model allows the evaluation of the degree of protection provided by flood control reservoirs and statistical analysis of the operating rules adopted. The simulation uses synthetic scenarios of 12,000 daily streamflow generated by stochastic model. As an example the model is used to simulate the flood operation during the rainy season in the hydroelectric system in the Paraná River basin, located in the southeastern region of Brazil, where the reservoirs are used for flood control and power generation.

Fernanda da Serra Costa

2014-06-01

340

Contractual risk and liability sharing in hydropower construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Construction activities are uncertain and dynamic, and associated risks are often permanent and complex in construction projects. In large-scale infrastructure projects, theoretically, risks and liabilities should be fairly shared among project participants through contractual arrangements. In order to prevent unexpected risks and thus disputes during construction, international contractors should pay close attention to local project characteristics and contract practices. This paper identifies typical construction risks and describes the comparison between FIDIC (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils) and the Taiwanese government Conditions of Contract for hydropower construction projects. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location  

CERN Document Server

The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

Majumder, Mrinmoy

2013-01-01

342

78 FR 15602 - Annual Update to Fee Schedule for the Use of Government Lands by Hydropower Licensees  

Science.gov (United States)

...Schedule for the Use of Government Lands by Hydropower Licensees AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory...area) for use of government lands by hydropower licensees. DATES: This rule is effective...occupancy, and enjoyment of its lands by hydropower licensees.\\1\\ Annual charges...

2013-03-12

343

76 FR 2359 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 13637-001] Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper...46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine...

2011-01-13

344

75 FR 51451 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 7320-040] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File...d. Submitted By: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm...mudre@ferc.gov. j. Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. (Erie) filed its...

2010-08-20

345

75 FR 33802 - City of Broken Bow, OK; Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam; Hydropower Project; Notice of Proposed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OK; Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam; Hydropower Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted...at the Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam Hydropower Project No. 12470-001 (Oklahoma...for the Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam Hydropower Project would be fulfilled through...

2010-06-15

346

75 FR 76001 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Project No. 7518-012] Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License...d. Submitted By: Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P. e. Name of Project: Hogansburg...we are designating Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P. as the Commission's...

2010-12-07

347

Mini-hydropower development in human province of China and its position in the national economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hunan province is situated in the southern part of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. With a population of 61 million, it covers an area of about 211,800 km2, equivalent to forty percents of the territorial area of France. Throughout the province, there are more than 5300 rivers and 13000 reservoirs completed before 1991, of which over 7300 mini-hydropower stations are under operation. The theoretical hydropower potential is 15320 MW among them 12990 MW can be exploited with a total installed capacity of 1320 MW and an annual generation output of 4150 GWh. The paper will describe the general condition of the hydropower resources, development of mini-hydropower in Human province and its positive role in the national economy. Additionally, the standard of classification, the type of equipment for the medium and small-sized hydropower plants and market conditions in Hunan will be also involved in the paper. 5 tabs

348

Municipal water supply dams as a source of small hydropower in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Turkey the laws published in recent years succeeded in promoting the utilization of renewable energy for electricity generation. After the publication of Renewable Energy Law on 18 May 2005 in Turkey there occurred a boost in renewable energy projects along with hydropower development. Thus, the economically feasible hydropower potential of Turkey increased 15% and the construction of hydropower plants also increased by a factor of four in 2007 as compared to 2006. From this perspective, this paper was aimed to evaluate the small hydropower potential of municipal water supply dams of Turkey and discussed the current situation of SHP plants in terms of the government policy. It is estimated that the installing small hydropower plants to exiting 45 municipal water supply dams in Turkey will generate 173 GWh/year electric energy without effecting the natural environment. For a case study, Zonguldak Ulutan Dam and its water treatment plant has been investigated in detail. (author)

Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)

2010-09-15

349

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-06-01

350

The importance of hydropower in Austria; Die Bedeutung der Wasserkraft in Oesterreich. Ein Land der Wasserkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

Kobau, R.; Pirker, O.; Spolwind, R.; Weiss, B.

2009-07-01

351

Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB)

352

Changes in Atmospheric weather parameters over a mountain and coastal site during the solar eclipse on January 15, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the changes in weather elements observed at two geographically different locations in south India during January 15, 2010. The annular solar eclipse of January 15, 2010 was one of the longest eclipses with a total duration of about 4 hours. Atmospheric weather parameters were monitored at Braemore (8° 45'N, 77°05'E, 360 m amsl), a mountain observatory and at a coastal field station (8.29° N, 76.59° E, 20 amsl), Thiruvanathapuram, South India. Simultaneous changes occurred in air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and wind direction were studied. The paper also examines the rate of weather parameter changes due to the eclipse event at the two different altitudes. Attempt was also made to understand the influence of topography on changes in parameters during the eclipse event.

Vishnu, R.; Varikoden, Hamza; Kumar, Anil V.

353

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

None

1979-07-01

354

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

None

1979-07-01

355

The impacts of climate change on a Norwegian high-head hydropower plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Norway relies on hydropower for 99 percent of the electricity production and thus Hydropower is important for Norway today and in the future energy system. The work presented in this paper shows how a high-head hydropower system in Norway will be affected in the future climate. The Aurland Hydropower system, operated by E-Co Vannkraft, Norway is the test case for the study. The Aurland hydropower system has many reservoirs and transfer systems and is considered to be one of the complex systems in Norway, but also a typical example of a Norwegian high head system. The nMAG Hydropower simulation model, which has been developed at the Norwegian Hydro technical Laboratory, is used to simulate the hydropower system. Historical and future inflow series were transposed from the neighbouring catchment Flaamselvi using scaling based on area and specific runoff, as there is no discharge station in Aurland catchment with long unregulated inflow series to set up the model and to be used for developing future climate scenarios. To generate the future inflow series for the analysis, the HBV hydrological model is calibrated for the Flaamselvi catchment. The model is then used to generate future inflow series of using the Hadley GCM (HADAm3) and A2, B2 climate scenarios. The operation of the hydropower system is then simulated for the period 2071 -2100 to see how future power production is affected by the change in the inflow conditions. The HBV model is also used to see how snow accumulation will be affected in the future as snow melt is important for Norwegian reservoir and hydropower systems. The Hydrologic scenarios under climate change imply an average increase in runoff for the system. Snow accumulation will decrease with sooner snow melt and more winter precipitation as rain. The hydropower simulation results show that associated with the increase in runoff there is an increase in energy generation with 10-20% under the current reservoir operation strategies. (Author)

Chernet, Haregewoin Haile; Alfredsen, Knut; Killintveit, Aanund

2010-07-01

356

Population around the French nuclear power plant sites: a key-parameter for crisis management and safety economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper undertakes an analysis of population around the French nuclear power plant sites, tackles the problem of evacuation planning and provides a glimpse into ongoing research at the Laboratory of Nuclear Safety Economics of the IRSN, about the cost assessment of a nuclear accident and long-term land contamination. (author)

357

Ergonomics program management in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. PMID:22317147

Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A

2012-01-01

358

Status of fish passage facilities at nonfederal hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The status of direct mitigation practices for fish passage was assessed as part of an ongoing, multi-year study of the costs and benefits of environmental mitigation measures at nonfederal hydroelectric power plants. Information was obtained from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, hydropower developers and state and federal resource agencies involved in hydropower regulation. Fish ladders were found to be the most common means of passing fish upstream; elevators/lifts were less common, but their use appears to be increasing. A wide variety of mitigative measures, including spill flows, narrow-mesh intake screens, angled bar racks and light- or sound-based guidance measures, is employed to prevent fish from being drawn into turbine intakes. Performance monitoring and detailed, quantifiable performance criteria were frequently lacking. Fifty-two of the 66 projects (82%) with operating downstream fish passage measures had no performance monitoring requirements; 50 of 71 project operators (70%) indicated that no performance objectives had been specified for the mitigative measures. The authors found that comprehensive field studies needed to evaluate the effectiveness of fish passage devices have been rare. 16 refs., 8 figs

359

A progress report on DOE's advanced hydropower turbine systems program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent hydropower research within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has focused on the development of new turbine designs that can produce hydroelectricity without such adverse environmental affects as fish entrainment/impingement or degradation of water quality. In partnership with the hydropower industry, DOE's advanced turbine program issued a Request for Proposals for conceptual designs in October 1994. Two contracts were awarded for this initial program phase, work on which will be complete this year. A technical advisory committee with representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and natural resource agencies was also formed to guide the DOE turbine research. The lack of quantitative biological performance criteria was identified by the committee as a critical knowledge gap. To fill this need, a new literature review was completed on the mechanisms of fish mortality during turbine passage (e.g., scrape/strike, shear, press change, etc.), ways that fish behavior affects their location and orientation in turbines, and how these turbine passage stresses can be measured. Thus year, new Laboratory tests will be conducted on fish response to shear, the least-well understood mechanism of stress. Additional testing of conceptual turbine designs depends on the level of federal funding for this program

360

Loss of European silver eel passing a hydropower station  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to assess escapement success of silver eels, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in a lowland river while passing a reservoir and a hydropower station. It was hypothesized that passage success would be lowest at the hydropower station and that survival and migration speed would be highest in the free-flowing river section upstream the reservoir. Forty-five female silver eels 56–86 cm in length were tagged with acoustic transmitters and released in November 2006. Their migration was monitored via automatic listening stations (ALS) in various sections of the river, covering a total migration distance of 64 km. Survival and progression rate of downstream migration was highest in the upstream river section and significantly lower in the reservoir. The eels apparently had trouble finding their way past the turbines and spent between 1.5 and 35 h in the forebay. The results show that within the study period, only 23% of the tagged eels reached the tidal limit, mainly due to difficulties in passing thehydropower dam. With such high loss-rates, the escapement goals set in the management plan cannot be achieved

Pedersen, Michael Ingemann; Jepsen, Niels

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Hydrological data management for run-of-river hydropower projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provided background on traditional data management issues commonly encountered in the industry of hydrological data collection for hydropower developments. Knight Piesold Ltd. maintains and operates more than 150 gauging stations in remote alpine regions of British Columbia for potential run-of-river hydropower developments. In order to evaluate these projects, the company measures the discharge in steep mountainous streams using dilution techniques such as Rhodamine Dye WT method. This paper focused on the volume of data and management that is required to undertake high quality data collection and interpretation of tracer dye measurements. It emphasized that integrated data management systems promote accuracy in collection, processing and interpretation of hydrology data. Knight Piesold Ltd. developed an innovative data management system for the storage, processing and preliminary analysis of hydrological data. The use of the system has facilitated the standardization of many aspects of field and data management and has resulted in a considerable improvement in the overall quality and defensibility of discharge data. 13 figs.

Butt, C.; Cathcart, J. [Knight Piesold Consulting, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2009-07-01

362

Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this challenge, the following study was designed to investigate the potential for wind power integration to alter riparian flow regimes below hydroelectric dams. A hydrological model of a three-dam cascade in the Roanoke River basin (Virginia, USA) is interfaced with a simulated electricity market (i.e. a unit commitment problem) representing the Dominion Zone of PJM Interconnection. Incorporating forecasts of electricity demand, hydro capacity and wind availability, a mixed-integer optimization program minimizes the system cost of meeting hourly demand and reserve requirements by means of a diverse generation portfolio (e.g. nuclear, fossil, hydro, and biomass). A secondary 'balancing' energy market is executed if real-time wind generation is less than the day-ahead forecast, calling upon reserved generation resources to meet the supply shortfall. Hydropower release schedules are determined across a range of wind development scenarios (varying wind's fraction of total installed generating capacity, as well as its geographical source region). Flow regimes for each wind development scenario are compared against both historical and simulated flows under current operations (negligible wind power), as well as simulated natural flows (dam removal), in terms of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Results quantify the ability of wind power development to alter within-week stream flows downstream from hydropower dams.

Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

2012-12-01

363

A selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 agonist: Activation of receptor signaling via an allosteric site modulates stress parameters in vivo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes (mGluR1 to mGluR8) act as important pre- and postsynaptic regulators of neurotransmission in the CNS. These receptors consist of two domains, an extracellular region containing the orthosteric agonist site and a transmembrane heptahelical domain involved in G protein activation and recognition of several recently synthesized pharmacological modulators. The presynaptic receptor mGluR7 shows the highest evolutionary conservation within the family...

Mitsukawa, Kayo; Yamamoto, Rina; Ofner, Silvio; Nozulak, Joachim; Pescott, Oliver; Lukic, Snezana; Stoehr, Natacha; Mombereau, Cedric; Kuhn, Rainer; Mcallister, Kevin H.; Putten, Herman; Cryan, John F.; Flor, Peter J.

2005-01-01

364

Investigation of Site-Specific Wind Field Parameters and Their Effect on Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main contributing factors to unsteady loading of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT are wind shear, turbulence, and waves. In the present paper, the turbulence intensity and the wind shear exponent are investigated. Using data from the FINO 1 research platform, these parameters are analyzed and compared with the proposed wind field parameters in the IEC standard 61400-3. Based on this analysis, aeroelastic simulations are performed to determine the effect of wind field parameters on the fatigue and the extreme loads on the rotor blades. For the investigations, the aeroelastic model of a 5 MW OWT is used with a focus on design load cases in an operating state (power production. The fatigue loads are examined by means of the damage-equivalent load-range approach. In order to determine the extreme loads with a recurrence period of 50 years, a peak over threshold extrapolation method and a novel method based on average conditional exceedance rates are used. The results show that the requirements of the IEC standard are very conservative for the design of the rotor blades. Therefore, there could be a large optimization potential for the reduction of weight and cost of the rotor blades.

Jörg R. Seume

2012-10-01

365

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and particulate phase mercury (Hgp were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF, marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI, and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hgo, RGM, and Hgp and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hgo and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hgo at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hgo. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and Hgp was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and Hgp increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and Hgp through deposition. RGM and Hgp levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. In the coastal region relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3–4 higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of Hgp at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of Hgp in all seasons in the marine environment.

H. Mao

2011-10-01

366

Climate change impact on the discharge in meso-scale catchments and consequences for the hydropower-production in Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential effect of climate change on hydrology is the acceleration of the hydrological cycle that in turn will likely cause changes in the discharge regime. As a result, socio-economic systems (e.g., tourism, hydropower industry) may be drastically affected. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of climate change on different hydrological components like mean and low-flow levels, and drought stress in mesoscale catchments of Switzerland. In terms of mean flows approx. 200 catchments in Switzerland were simulated for the reference period 1984-2005 using the hydrological model PREVAH and projection for near (2025-2046) and far future (2074-2095) are based on delta-change values of 10 ENSEMBLES regional climate models assuming A1B emission scenario (CH2011 climate scenario data sets). We found seven distinct response types of catchments, each exhibiting a characteristic annual cycle of hydrologic change. A general pattern observed for all catchments, is the clearly decreasing summer runoff. Hence, within a second analysis of future discharge a special focus was set on summer low flow in a selection of 29 catchments in the Swiss Midlands. Low flows are critical as they have great implications on water usage and biodiversity. We re-calibrated the hydrological model PREVAH with a focus on base-flow and gauged discharge and used the aforementioned climate data sets and simulation time periods. We found low flow situations to be very likely to increase in both, magnitude and duration, especially in central and western Switzerland plateau. At third, the drought stress potential was analyzed by simulating the soil moisture level under climate change conditions in a high mountain catchment. We used the distributed hydrological model WaSiM-ETH for this aspect as soil characteristics are much better represented in this model. Soil moisture in forests below 2000 m a.s.l. were found to be affected at most, which might have implication to their function as avalanche protection forests. However, we found high uncertainties related to the downscaling method applied. Finally, we analyzed the effect of changed discharge characteristics on the hydropower production by coupling the hydrological model BERNHYDRO with a hydropower management model. For the near future (until 2050), the results indicate that losses in the hydropower production during the summer can be compensated by benefit during winter. These different aspects of climate change impacts on the hydrosphere reveal a differentiated picture involving potentially threatened and widely unaffected catchments, hydrologic parameters and hydrologic constraints to the society.

Rössler, Ole; Hänggi, Pascal; Köplin, Nina; Meyer, Rapahel; Schädler, Bruno; Weingartner, Rolf

2013-04-01

367

ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Federal and state regulatory agencies that are concerned with issues of environmental management have adopted approaches toward policy-making that are dose- and risk-informed. To that end they (and others) have developed environmental models and computer codes to mimic the transport of contaminants along air, water, food-chain, and related pathways for estimating potential exposures, doses, and risks to individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Their calculations commonly find application in the planning of remediation, and thereafter in the demonstration of compliance with federal and state cleanup standards. As the models and codes have become more sophisticated, so also have requirements on the accuracy and level of detail of the numerical point values and probability distributions of environmental transfer factors and other parameters that serve as input parameters to them. In response to this growing need, the federal Interagency Steering Committee On Radiation Standards (ISCORS) and the Argonne National Laboratory have developed an on-line, national repository of information on parameter values and distributions of known provenance and demonstrated utility. The ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity is a web-based, indexed compilation of references, compendia, databases, and other sources of peer-reviewed information on parameters. It does not itself contain numerical point values or distributions for any particular parameter, but rather it provides links or directions to sites or other published materials where such information can be obtained. Designed to be user-friendly, easily searchable, and readily up-dateable, the Catalog is being filled, after some initial priming, mainly through on-line submissions of proposed references by the Catalog users themselves. The relevant information on a proposed reference is submitted to ISCORS in a simple, standardized format; it is vetted (with acceptance criteria such as publication in a peer-reviewed technical journal, or appearance in a formally-issued federal agency report) and then added semi-automatically to the Catalog. Built around a relational database, the system offers subject- and text-search capabilities, provides information on parameter definitions and methods of measurement, on transport/exposure pathways, and on standard models and codes. The Catalog is intended for use by (and being populated by) the professionals, managers, and others involved or interested in the application of pathway modeling to estimate doses and risks associated with sites contaminated with radioactive or other hazardous materials. PMID:16224267

Wolbarst, Anthony B; Biwer, Bruce M; Cady, Ralph; Chen, Shih-Yew; Domotor, Stephen; Egidi, Philip; LePoire, David J; Mo, Tin; Peterson, Julie; Walker, Stuart

2005-11-01

368

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England – Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, and particulate phase mercury (HgP were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF, marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI, and elevated inland rural (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hg0, RGM, and HgP from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hg0, RGM, and HgP and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hg0 and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hg0 at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hg0. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and HgP was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and HgP increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and HgP through deposition. RGM and HgP levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. At the coastal site relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3–4 to two orders of magnitude higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of HgP at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of HgP in all seasons in the marine environment.

H. Mao

2012-05-01

369

EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

None

2011-12-01

370

Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs  

Science.gov (United States)

In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

2014-04-01

371

Changing currents in Norwegian hydropower governance? The challenge of reconciling conflicting interests  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present report focuses on the potential for reconciling energy and environmental policy concerns when phasing in new renewable electricity production. In order to identify the potential for a better reconciliation for Norwegian hydropower, the report assesses the governance of the sector, focusing on the licensing of hydropower production along two dimensions: (1) horizontally, looking at the level of governance related to the degree of coordination between relevant policy domains and sectors - with related objectives, plans and regulations, as well as interests, actors and institutions; and (2) vertically, focusing on the interaction between different levels of governance (international/national/regional/local). In addition, perspectives from research and documentation of assumed effects and impacts of hydropower will also be viewed as a crucial part of the licensing processes. In sum, main political and regulatory drivers and barriers impacting upon the current and future hydropower development in Norway are quite complex and fragmentary, and there is currently no overall target providing a general direction for hydropower development. Given the lack of an overall, coherent approach, the interaction between the different levels of governance does not demonstrate a specific, coherent pattern. At the same time the interest for further expansion of hydropower production is growing. Knowledge and documentation stand out as crucial in two major ways: (1) A need to reinforce the accessibility and transparency of the licensing process; and (2) complementary and updated research and documentation on how to meet the challenges raised by the renewed interest in, and further demand for, hydropower. (Author)

Knudsen, Joergen Kjetil; Ruud, Audun

2011-06-15

372

The impact of global change on the hydropower potential of Europe: a model-based analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study presents a model-based approach for analyzing the possible effects of global change on Europe's hydropower potential at a country scale. By comparing current conditions of climate and water use with future scenarios, an overview is provided of today's potential for hydroelectricity generation and its mid- and long-term prospects. The application of the global water model WaterGAP for discharge calculations allows for an integrated assessment, taking both climate and socioeconomic changes into account. This study comprises two key parts: First, the 'gross' hydropower potential is analyzed, in order to outline the general distribution and trends in hydropower capabilities across Europe. Then, the assessment focuses on the 'developed' hydropower potential of existing hydropower plants, in order to allow for a more realistic picture of present and future electricity production. For the second part, a new data set has been developed which geo-references 5991 European hydropower stations and distinguishes them into run-of-river and reservoir stations. The results of this study present strong indications that, following moderate climate and global change scenario assumptions, severe future alterations in discharge regimes have to be expected, leading to unstable regional trends in hydropower potentials with reductions of 25% and more for southern and southeastern European countries. (author)

373

Implementing parameter optimization, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a biogeochemical model with a forest Flux Tower site in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecosystem models are useful for understanding the ecological processes and for the sustainable management of resources. For example, the biogeochemical models have been widely used for investigating the carbon dynamics under global changes. However, it is a challenge to tune parameters and estimate the uncertainties for large complex models such as Century. This study was to investigate the parameter identifiability, optimization, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for the Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), a modified version of Century, using our developed EDCM-Auto which incorporated a comprehensive R package--Flexible Modeling Framework (FME) and the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm as well. Taking the available multiple measurements of carbon fluxes based on eddy covariance technique, we conducted a model inversion with nine parameters and four target variables for a deciduous forest flux tower site: the Harvard Forest in Massachusetts in the United States. The results indicate that our methods performed well in identifying candidate parameters, fitting model with multiple parameter and objectives, and quantifying sensitivity and uncertainty with instant visualization. This study also demonstrates that the methods we adopted can be applied for other ecological models.

WU, Y.; Liu, S.; Huang, Z.

2013-12-01

374

Sensitivity of erythemal UV/global irradiance ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) irradiance were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV irradiance. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV irradiance at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.

Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist

2014-10-01

375

Sensitivity of erythemal UV/global irradiance ratios to atmospheric parameters: application for estimating erythemal radiation at four sites in Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Factors affecting the ratio of erythemal UV (UVER) to broadband (G) irradiance were investigated in this study. Data from four solar monitoring sites in Thailand, namely Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Pathom and Songkhla were used to investigate the UVER/G ratio in response to geometric and atmospheric parameters. These comprised solar zenith angle, aerosol load, total ozone column, precipitable water and clearness index. A modeling scheme was developed to isolate and examine the effect of each individual environmental parameter on the ratio. Results showed that all parameters with the exception of solar zenith angle and clearness index influenced the ratios in a linear manner. These results were also used to develop a semi-empirical model for estimating hourly erythemal UV irradiance. Data from 2009 to 2010 were used to construct the ratio model while validation was performed using erythemal UV irradiance at the above four sites in 2011. The validation results showed reasonable agreement with a root mean square difference of 13.5% and mean bias difference of - 0.5%, under all sky conditions and 10.9% and - 0.3%, respectively, under cloudless conditions.

Buntoung, Sumaman; Janjai, Serm; Nunez, Manuel; Choosri, Pranomkorn; Pratummasoot, Noppamas; Chiwpreecha, Kulanist

2014-11-01

376

Small Hydropower Projects for Rural Electrification in Nigeria: A Developer’s Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Power generation in developing nations is a vital index for the socio-economic development of these countries. Renewable and sustainable options for electric power generation have become attractive to many nations. This paper addresses power generation for rural applications by means of small hydropower plants. A flowchart is developed for use by Power utilities and Independent Power Producers that are interested in small hydropower generation. Recommendations and possible cost reductions for small hydropower projects for interested developers are also highlighted.

Anyaka Boniface Onyemaechi,

2013-10-01

377

Ecological quality of hydropower in comparison with other ways of producing electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article compares the ecological quality of hydropower with other electricity production systems. Hydropower is compared with steam-turbine power stations burning coal, oil or uranium and combined gas turbine / steam turbine power stations with natural gas firing. Also, hydropower is compared with wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). The methodology of the assessment of the ecological quality of the various systems is discussed. The results of the comparison and suggestions for the improvement of the ecological quality of the various systems are presented

378

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-05-01

379

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-07-01

380

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Sale, M.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

Ricardo, Mateus

2007-07-01

382

A selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 agonist: activation of receptor signaling via an allosteric site modulates stress parameters in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes (mGluR1 to mGluR8) act as important pre- and postsynaptic regulators of neurotransmission in the CNS. These receptors consist of two domains, an extracellular region containing the orthosteric agonist site and a transmembrane heptahelical domain involved in G protein activation and recognition of several recently synthesized pharmacological modulators. The presynaptic receptor mGluR7 shows the highest evolutionary conservation within the family, but no selective pharmacological tool was known. Here we characterize an mGluR7-selective agonist, N,N'-dibenzhydrylethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN082), which directly activates receptor signaling via an allosteric site in the transmembrane domain. At transfected mammalian cells expressing mGluR7, AMN082 potently inhibits cAMP accumulation and stimulates GTPgammaS binding (EC50-values, 64-290 nM) with agonist efficacies comparable with those of L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) and superior to those of L-glutamate. AMN082 (AMN082 in the transmembrane region of mGluR7, and we demonstrate that this allosteric agonist has little, if any, effect on the potency of orthosteric ligands. Here we provide evidence for full agonist activity mediated by the heptahelical domain of family 3 G protein-coupled receptors (which have mGluR-like structure) that may lead to drug development opportunities. Further, AMN082 is orally active, penetrates the blood-brain barrier, and elevates the plasma stress hormones corticosterone and corticotropin in an mGluR7-dependent fashion. Therefore, AMN082 is a valuable tool for unraveling the role of mGluR7 in stress-related CNS disorders. PMID:16339898

Mitsukawa, Kayo; Yamamoto, Rina; Ofner, Silvio; Nozulak, Joachim; Pescott, Oliver; Lukic, Snezana; Stoehr, Natacha; Mombereau, Cedric; Kuhn, Rainer; McAllister, Kevin H; van der Putten, Herman; Cryan, John F; Flor, Peter J

2005-12-20

383

Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are combined into a robust and fast data cleansing and interpolation system. One experience from this work is that advanced interpolation techniques (kriging), do not outperform calibrated inverse distance methods when also computational speed is used as a criteria for model selection. The paper also discusses several challenges related to uncertainty in simulated snow reservoir, regionalization of parameters, choice of spatial resolution, techniques for reducing computational needs without compromising information needs, amongst others.

Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

2014-05-01

384

Development of a Simple Impulse Turbine for Nano Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to provide an impulse type hydraulic turbine to utilize unexploited water resources as nano hydropower in the mountainous area. The turbine is simplified to make cheap energy and uses inexpensive components for widespread utilization. The turbine model is tested experimentally to reveal the power characteristics. The flow visualization and numerical simulation are conducted to clarify the behavior of free surface flow in the runner with different nozzle positions. The experimental results show that the maximum runner efficiency of the prototype turbine is 0.56. Numerical simulation shows that the output power depends on the nozzle positions with the impingement of the tail of the jet portion to the backside of the blade. This study gives the fundamental information of the turbine performance to acquire a guideline for future practical applications.

Nakanishi, Yuji; Iio, Shouichiro; Takahashi, Yoji; Kato, Akito; Ikeda, Toshihiko

385

Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

1976-01-01

386

Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans

387

Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conducted to investigate the smoke spreading in the transport passage under different mechanical exhaust rates, and the same smoke spreading processes are simulated using FDS. By comparing the results of theoretical analysis, experiments and FDS simulations, it is showed that the mechanical exhaust rate prescribed in the regulation of China is adequate for the transport passage of main transformer under a main transformer hall fire.

Jiang Hu

2012-09-01

388

Innovative technology in small hydropower practice. [In China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small hydropower construction can provide a good opportunity for pioneering, testing and experimenting with innovative technology, which can often lead to significant cost savings. This article describes two cases of innovative approaches in recent small hydroelectric practice in China, both pertaining to upgrading existing plants. The first is the case of the heightening of the Lashi thin arch dam, where the concept of the cylindrical shelled arch dam first proposed in 1977 was introduced to reduce initial costs and accelerate the construction time. In the second case, an inter-basin water diversion and pumped-storage component was added to an existing stepped three-plant development scheme on the Linxi river which provided a significant increase of power production. (author)

Xiong Sizheng (Information Research Inst., MOE and MWR, Liupukan, Beijing (China))

1993-05-01