WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Siting and assessment of small hydropower potential using GIS and hydrological modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Small-scale hydropower can solve the energy problems in remote and hilly areas. Small hydro projects are particularly useful because they allow installation of generating capacity in smaller increments to provide greater economic flexibility. However, most of the prospective small hydropower project sites are likely to be ungauged. Therefore, there is generally no flow data available for analyses of power potential for proposed sites. This presentation described a new solution for evaluating the feasibility of proposed small-scale hydropower schemes at ungauged sites. The solution involves a combination of geographic information system (GIS) based technologies and hydrological modeling for selection and assessment of small hydropower sites. The presentation discussed the use of the drainage system of Nagaland State in India. The presentation discussed the methodology, including the various steps that were used, such as the use of GIS technologies to extract the longitudinal profiles of the drainage systems and thereby the prevailing drops along the profile; demarcation of contributing areas of the drainage systems at identified locations; use of a soil and water assessment tool hydrological model for generation of continuous flow series at the locations of interest in the drainage system; formulation of a flow duration curve for each of the identified locations on the stream using the flow data generated through the hydrological modelling; and hydropower assessment at the sites, thereby helping in the initial selection of key sites. It was concluded that the methodology of water yield assessment works satisfactorily when the input data are reasonable. figs.

Gosain, A.K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Rao, S. [INRM Consultants Pvt Ltd., New Delhi (India)

2010-07-01

2

Evaluation of economic rent of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing studies have mostly estimated the ex post economic rent of hydropower for the hydroelectric system of a province or a country as a whole and have ignored the site- or project-specific variations in the economic rent of hydropower plants. Further, most of the existing studies have used simplified methods to calculate the rent ex post. This paper presents a rigorous methodology for estimation of site-specific (i.e., project specific) economic rent of hydropower ex ante. It applies the methodology in the case of a hydropower project and analyzes the sensitivity of the rent to variations in some key parameters.

2009-05-01

3

Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.

Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.

1955-12-01

4

New developments for the ecological enhancement of hydropower sites; Neue Entwicklungen zur gewaesseroekologischen Optimierung von Wasserkraftstandorten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is regarded as a sustainable source of electric energy without pollution of the atmosphere with carbon dioxide. But the impact on the ecology of water courses is usually considerable. To improve the ecologic quality of waterpower sites devices for fish protection and fish migration are in operation since a fairly long time. But in many cases a severe lack of efficiency of special system components is observed, resulting in a bad function of the whole system. To improve various identified problem areas in the ecologic system the Hydraulics Laboratory at the Kassel University has developed several methods and components which are presented in this paper. These include the Attracting Current Pump for the enehancement of outflow from a fish pass, the refurbishment of hydraulically overloaded vertical slot passes, the eel migration device, a fish-friendly intake screen and a new combination of trash rack cleaner and a device for downstream migration of fish. (orig.)

Hassinger, Reinhard [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Versuchsanstalt und Pruefstelle fuer Umwelttechnik und Wasserbau

2011-07-01

5

Evaluation of a Potential Site for a Small Hydropower Plant Located in the BioBio North Irrigation System, Chile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project considers an evaluation of a potential site for a small hydropower plant located in the BioBio north irrigation system, Chile. The purpose was to analyze the potential and constraints in harnessing the energy of an existing infrastructure of irrigation canals for electrical production. The site was analyzed technically, economically and managerially. Before this project nothing was done and therefore the investigations are a main part of the project. A preliminary design for the ...

2010-01-01

6

Hydropower economics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The key question in hydropower production is the time pattern of the use of the water in the reservoir. The water used to produce electricity today can alternatively be used tomorrow. The analysis of the operation of hydropower is therefore essentially a dynamic one. The paper introduces some basic models for social allocation of stored water over discrete time periods using non-linear programming assuming capacities of generation and transmission as given. Implications of constraints such as...

2005-01-01

7

How Hydropower Plants Work  

Science.gov (United States)

How Stuff Works is a site that offers in-depth articles explaining in simple terms how things work. This article provides a detailed description of how hydropower plants work and generate electricity. It describes how water provides power, what goes on in the generator to make power, the hydrologic cycle, and a new invention known as hydroelectric footwear. Links are provided for additional information.

2007-12-12

8

SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.

Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

1996-02-01

9

SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs

1996-01-01

10

US hydropower resource assessment for Oklahoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose, The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Oklahoma.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

11

US hydropower resource assessment for Arkansas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Arkansas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

12

US hydropower resource assessment for Missouri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Missouri.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

13

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - Georgia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Georgia.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

14

US hydropower resource assessment for Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Texas.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

15

US hydropower resource assessment for Louisiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Louisiana.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

16

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

17

US hydropower resource assessment for Vermont  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Vermont.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-02-01

18

US hydropower resource assessment for Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

19

US hydropower resource assessment for Indiana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Indiana.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-12-01

20

US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

US hydropower resource assessment for Washington  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Washington.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-07-01

22

US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

Francfort, J.E.

1993-12-01

23

US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Iowa.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-12-01

24

Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Global Hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, hydropower accounts for close to 16% of the world’s total power supply and is the world’s most dominant (86% source of renewable electrical energy. The key resource for hydropower generation is runoff, which is dependent on precipitation. The future global climate is uncertain and thus poses some risk for the hydropower generation sector. The crucial question and challenge then is what will be the impact of climate change on global hydropower generation and what are the resulting regional variations in hydropower generation potential? This paper is a study that aims to evaluate the changes in global hydropower generation resulting from predicted changes in climate. The study uses an ensemble of simulations of regional patterns of changes in runoff, computed from global circulation models (GCM simulations with 12 different models. Based on these runoff changes, hydropower generation is estimated by relating the runoff changes to hydropower generation potential through geographical information system (GIS, based on 2005 hydropower generation. Hydropower data obtained from EIA (energy generation, national sites, FAO (water resources and UNEP were used in the analysis. The countries/states were used as computational units to reduce the complexities of the analysis. The results indicate that there are large variations of changes (increases/decreases in hydropower generation across regions and even within regions. Globally, hydropower generation is predicted to change very little by the year 2050 for the hydropower system in operation today. This change amounts to an increase of less than 1% of the current (2005 generation level although it is necessary to carry out basin level detailed assessment for local impacts which may differ from the country based values. There are many regions where runoff and hydropower generation will increase due to increasing precipitation, but also many regions where there will be a decrease. Based on this evaluation, it has been concluded that even if individual countries and regions may experience significant impacts, climate change will not lead to significant changes in the global hydropower generation, at least for the existing hydropower system.

Aanund Killingtveit

2012-02-01

25

Uniform criteria for US Hydropower Resource Assessment. Hydropower evaluation software status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is estimating the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a DBASE, menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report details Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 12 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. One is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 12 states (Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming) extracted into the software to date, and plans for future assessments.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Moore, K.M. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1993-06-01

26

Uniform criteria for U.S. hydropower resource assessment: Hydropower Evaluation Software status report -- 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is estimating the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation Software estimates the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software application. Hydropower Evaluation Software allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This status report describes Hydropower Evaluation Software`s development, its data requirements, and its application to the 20 states assessed to date. This report does not discuss or present the various user-friendly menus of the Hydropower Evaluation Software. The reader is referred to the User`s Manual for specifics. This report focuses on data derivation, summarization of the 20 states (Arkansas, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming) assessed to date, and plans for future assessments.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1996-02-01

27

Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

NONE

2010-07-01

28

Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

Douglas G. Hall

2011-09-01

29

The role of hydropower in environment ally sustainable energy development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower has historically been the renewable energy leader, and from a technical-cost perspective, is very likely to remain the only viable renewable energy source for many countries. In recent years, hydropower has been much maligned, especially by NGOs, for not being a sustainable source of energy. Though hydropower is clearly a renewable source of energy, but the question arises whether it can also be sustainable. Hydropower can play an increasingly important role in enabling communities around the world to meet sustainability objectives. To become more accepted as a key contributor to sustainable energy systems, new and existing hydropower projects need to be built and operated in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. This paper highlights the sustain ability aspects of hydropower and discusses the criteria for selection of environmentally friendly hydropower project sites so that that hydropower can be developed in a sustainable manner and once again be considered favorably in the planning of generation mix for new energy development. Sustainability of hydropower projects involves treating both the social and environmental sustainability of the project at an early stage and including the interests of all stakeholders of the project. As a case study, the Ghazi- Barotha Hydropower Project (GBHP) in Pakistan has been selected, as it is the best example in managing the social issues and gaining public acceptance because of proper planning and addressing environmental and social issues at an early stage. (author)

2004-06-07

30

Hydropower's role in delivering sustainability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Johannesburg's World Summit on Sustainable Development stipulated in its Implementation Plan that hydropower of all scales should be included in the drive to increase the contribution of renewable energy. This can be achieved through the plant-life extension and upgrading of existing schemes as well as by the sustainable development of new projects according to the needs, opportunities and resources available. Hydropower is the world's largest source of renewable energy used for power generation; it accounts for 19 percent of the world's supply (by 2010 wind power is expected to contribute 0.6 percent and solar power 0.12 percent. Hydropower is also a truly global resource, as more than 150 countries generate hydroelectric power. There is about 730 GW of hydro capacity in operation worldwide, generating 2650 TWh/year. A further 101 GW is under construction and 338 GW is at the planning stage. Hydropower plays an important role in reducing global GhG emissions by an estimated 10 percent per annum; in its current role, hydropower offsets 4.4 million barrels of oil-equivalent (thermal electric generation) each day. There is vast unexploited potential worldwide for new hydro plants, with only 33 percent of the economic potential having been developed so far. The majority of the remaining potential exists in lesser developed countries in Asia, South America and Africa. For example, Europe has developed 75 percent of its economic potential, whereas Africa has only developed seven percent. Hydropower technologies are reliable, advanced and efficient. The energy conversion efficiency of 80 to 93 percent is far higher than that for other major types of power plant. The level of service from the various types of hydro scheme varies from base-load supply, typically from run-of-river schemes, to peak-load and system-back-up services from hydro storage schemes. In regions where there is long-developed hydro capacity, plant-life extension can be achieved by the replacement of equipment within existing infrastructure; this can extend the operating life by a further 30 to 50 years. Small-scale, decentralised development has been responsible for bringing light and power to remote communities. Such schemes have catalysed local commercial diversification and prosperity. The lower investment demand of smaller schemes has enabled private sector involvement through independent power production. Typically smaller schemes become grid connected if the power system is accessible, as this increases the security of supply. Furthermore, schemes at remote sites can assist transmission system stability. A further important role of smaller scale hydro is the recovery of energy at water infrastructure developed for other purposes. In many countries, large schemes play a significant role in national and regional supply security due to the flexibility of storage reservoirs and independence from fuel price fluctuations. Hydro also integrates well with other generation technologies, with its flexibility enabling thermal plants to operate steadily (saving fuel and reducing emissions). In addition, its responsiveness permits the back-up of the intermittent renewables. The question of storage is clearly a major issue in balancing supply and demand. Hydro reservoirs and pump-storage schemes offer security in the stability and reliability of power systems; they can absorb power when there is an excess and follow load demand instantaneously. A major challenge is that 'support' and 'storage' services are rarely understood and encouraged in the market-driven arena. The main arguments against hydropower concern its social impacts, such as land transformation, displacement of people, and environmental changes, i.e. fauna, flora, sedimentation and water quality. The social and environmental impacts can, however, be mitigated by taking appropriate steps according to established codes of good practice. As a tool for this purpose, the hydropower sector has recently developed and adopted Sustainability Guidelines. These Guidelines are currently being tested by a numb er o

2005-09-01

31

Technology Roadmap: Hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

NONE

2012-07-01

32

Smuk small Hydropower Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present thesis focuses on development of a small hydropower scheme with hydrologic and hydraulic analyses, environmental impact analysis and preliminary dimension design of the components of the scheme. The discussed theoretical bases were used on the practical example of the planned small hydropower plant Smuk on the Tržiška Bistrica River. Due to the location having been defined beforehand its determination was omitted. The first part of the thesis is hydrologic analysis, the objectiv...

Planins?ek, Gregor

2011-01-01

33

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Arizona  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Arizona.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-10-01

34

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for South Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. To assist in providing this estimate, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) computer model. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of South Carolina.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-06-01

35

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Minnesota.

Francfort, J.E.

1996-07-01

36

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New Mexico.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-03-01

37

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for West Virginia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of West Virginia.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

38

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

39

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Michigan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Michigan.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1998-02-01

40

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nebraska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nebraska.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1997-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

The potential for small scale hydropower development in the US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an earlier paper (Kosnik 2008), the potential for small scale hydropower to contribute to US renewable energy supplies, as well as reduce current carbon emissions, was investigated. It was discovered that thousands of viable sites capable of producing significant amounts of hydroelectric power were available throughout the United States. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the cost-effectiveness of developing these small scale hydropower sites. Just because a site has the necessary topographical features to allow small scale hydropower development, does not mean that it should be pursued from a cost-benefit perspective, even if it is a renewable energy resource with minimal effects on the environment. This analysis finds that while the average cost of developing small scale hydropower is relatively high, there still remain hundreds of sites on the low end of the cost scale that are cost-effective to develop right now. (author)

Kosnik, Lea [Department of Economics, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499 (United States)

2010-10-15

42

CRISM mapping of surface photometric parameters at MER landing sites  

Science.gov (United States)

CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) on-board MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) acquires observations under varied geometry conditions in visible/near infrared which can provide constraints on the surface physical properties. The study consists on the estimation of the surface photometric parameters by inverting Hapke's photometric model in a Bayesian framework at Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing sites (Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum). We present here one of the 6 photometric parameter map, the single scattering albedo ?, which is related to the composition and the particle size. The map of the parameter ? is estimated at 750 nm with a spatial resolution of 180m/pxl.

Fernando, J.; Schmidt, F.; Pinet, P.; Ceamanos, X.; Douté, S.; Daydou, Y.

2013-09-01

43

Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts

1998-01-01

44

Sustainability Analysis of Hydropower in Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis project was to analyze the sustainability of the hydropower in Nepal. As, Nepal is the second richest country in terms of the water resources, this thesis aims to provide a clear picture of the overall sustainability of the hydro power by measuring social, economical, political and environmental factors with worldwide accepted parameters. The analysis of the parameters was made and then expressed in a quantitative form to make it easy for anyone to understand the th...

Adhikari, Dwarika

2012-01-01

45

New parameters for characterizing turbulence at a potential wind site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most widely used parameter for characterizing turbulence at a potential wind turbine site has been the quantity called ``Turbulence Intensity`` (TI). Analyses of data from several sites in the US Department of Energy`s Turbulence Characterization Project show that this parameter can sometimes be seriously misleading. This project has produced a data base of three-component wind turbulence at four strategic locations over a rotor disk in different types of complex terrain. The 0.2-s sampling interval of the data from the four anemometers makes it possible to compute a composite wind over the rotor disk, as well as the wind experienced at a point on a rotating wind turbine blade. From considerations of specialized plots of these wind data, the authors have introduced engulfing gust (TEG) and fluctuating shear (TFS) turbulence parameters and compared their behavior with TI over a range of wind speeds at sites with different terrain configurations. The comparisons showed TEG and TFS to be somewhat more discriminating than TI of the nature of the turbulence at different sites. To obtain a more complete understanding of the nature of the turbulence and its relationship to upwind terrain features, shaded relief and cross-section analyses were applied to provide an overview of the upwind fetch. Using these analyses, along with the time-series plots of wind speed, allowed us to detect eddies being shed from an upwind feature at one site, and to detect a subtle difference in ridge configuration between two sites that resulted in flow separation at one site, but not at the other.

Wendell, L.L.; Barnard, J.C.; Morris, V.R.

1993-07-01

46

Hydropower development priority using MCDM method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin.

2009-05-01

47

Renewable Energy: Hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson introduces students to the use of flowing or falling water (hydropower) to perform work, particularly electric power generation. Topics include the history of hydropower development, the invention of turbines and electric generators, and the history of hydroelectric power development in the United States. There is also discussion of the environmental issues associated with the construction of large dams and flooding large tracts of land, as well as some of the physics involved in the transfer of energy from moving water to a mechanical device such as a turbine. The lesson includes an activity in which students use a model turbine and generator and vary the height from which water flows into them to examine how energy output and efficiency varies.

Pratte, John

48

Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for Hanford Assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This data package was originally prepared to support a 2004 composite analysis (CA) of low-level waste disposal at the Hanford Site. The Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site (Kincaid et. al. 2004) identified the requirements for that analysis and served as the basis for initial preparation of this data package. Completion of the 2004 CA was later deferred, with the 2004 Annual Status Report for the Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site (DOE 2005) indicating that a comprehensive update to the CA was in preparation and would be submitted in 2006. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently decided to further defer the CA update and will use the cumulative assessment currently under preparation for the environmental impact statement (EIS) being prepared for tank closure and other site decisions as the updated CA. Submittal of the draft EIS is currently planned for FY 2008. This data package describes the facility-specific parameters (e.g. location, operational dates, etc.) used to numerically simulate contaminant flow and transport in large-scale Hanford assessments. Kincaid et al. (2004) indicated that the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Kincaid et al. 2000; Bryce et al. 2002; Eslinger 2002a, 2002b) would be used to analyze over a thousand different waste sites. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site/facility, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future). This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for large-scale Hanford assessments.

Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

2006-06-01

49

Hydropower in Lao PDR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lao PDR has a substantial hydropower potential, of which only a few per cent has been developed. The country follows a three-pronged strategy: small hydro for electrification of isolated areas, medium scale hydro for the supply of power to local grids and export to Thailand, and large hydro for power exports as an opportunity to private developers. This paper describes the existing situation in Lao PDR and on-going developments. (author)

Oud, E. (Lahmeyer International GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Crighton, P. (Beca Worley International Consulting Engineers Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand))

1993-04-01

50

DOE Small Hydropower Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of work and activities of the Department of Energy's National Small Hydropower Program are discussed. Each portion of the program is discussed to provide an overall view of the program's depth. The three major subprograms are the Demonstration Projects subprogram, the Engineering Development subprogram, and the Loan subprogram. Program results are presented by graphic illustrations where applicable.

Hickman, W.W.; McLaughlin, T.B.

1980-01-01

51

Plant parameter envelopes for early site permit evaluations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1991, the US Department of Energy and the US nuclear industry initiated a cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program (ESPDP) to demonstrate the practical implementation of new regulations concerning early site permits (ESPs). The ESPs are expected to contribute to regulatory stability for future nuclear plant orders by addressing site-related issues before an organization makes a major financial investment in committing to build a new plant. The new licensing process increases an organization's ability to respond to future base-load electricity generation needs by [open quotes]banking[close quotes] suitable sites and by resolving safety and environmental issues for those sites well before new plants are needed. The objective of the ESPDP is to successfully demonstrate the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESP(S) for US site(s) for one or more advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. Certain specific plant-site information is generally not expected to be available at the time of application for an ESP because an ESP applicant may not have made a final decision on which ALWR design may be built on the site because the applicant can wait up to nearly 20 yr after obtaining an ESP before applying for a plant construction permit. To satisfy National Environmental Policy Act requirements, information on the potential environmental impact of the unspecified future plant must be provided with the ESP application. Therefore, an enveloping approach, called plant parameter envelopes (PPEs), was developed to provide required plant information. This paper provides a description of the PPE concept and explains why it is a prudent approach to use for performing safety and environmental impact assessments in support of an ESP application.

Gray, S.T. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Moonka, A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Pasedag, W. (Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

52

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2011-09-01

53

The water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world';s electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2011-09-01

54

Geochemical Parameters Required from the SKB Site Characterisation Programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SKB has described its approach to site characterisation in a number of Technical Reports. One of the scientific topics in which specific information requirements and priorities are set out is geochemistry. This report for SKI examines critically whether the geochemical parameters identified in the SKB programme documents will be adequate for safety and regulatory requirements. It also examines some of the details of parameter requirements and interpretation tools that will be necessary to convert site investigation data into knowledge about chemical conditions and groundwater movements. The SKB strategy for geochemical data focuses on a small number of 'suitability indicators', primarily dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. Their parameter requirements aim to assess those primary characteristics, as well as to acquire a wider range of data that will support those assessments and provide a broader understanding of candidate areas. An initial observation in this review that, though it is a primary suitability indicator, dissolved oxygen apparently will not be measured and instead will be inferred from other redox indicators. This raises a number of issues about sampling and monitoring measures, analytical data reliability and sensitivity, and the degree of confidence in geochemical understanding. A geochemical programme involves reconnaissance by desk study and acquisition of new data at levels of details that are appropriate to the stage of site investigations. As early as possible, a conceptual model of a candidate area should help to define the objectives of geochemical measurements on both rock and groundwater samples. It is recommended that parameters requirements should be defined and considered not only in terms of isolated measurements but more in terms of addressing broader objectives that relate to safety and also to geoscientific understanding. The safety priorities remain (e.g. dissolved oxygen) but will then be supported by an understanding of processes. This approach will also help to clarify the rationale for taking samples and making particular measurements and will indicate the tolerances in terms of data error and interpretative uncertainty. Geochemical parameters that are required from rock, mineral, water and dissolved gas samples are listed and discussed along with the reasons for requiring the data. Measures that need to be taken to optimise the quality and representativeness of samples are also discussed because these are paramount in determining the ultimate reliability of data. Finally, interpretative tools that are used to convert raw data into knowledge and confidence in understanding of processes have been briefly considered. These may have additional 'supporting' data requirements and also need to be critically reviewed for their applicability and for the robustness of the conceptual models on which they are based

2002-01-01

55

Hydropower from the Himalayas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world's largest rock debris dam - second only to the Great Wall of China as the largest structure created by man - was completed in 1976 at Tarbela on the Indus river. This not only achieved reliable water supplies for irrigation, but also markedly improved Pakistan's energy supply. Nowadays, Pakistan produces practically all the foodstuffs it requires within its own borders and has no need to import large quantities of petroleum. The performances of the Tarbela hydropower station is now being almost doubled. (orig.).

Flury, H.

1990-01-01

56

Locks and Dam 1 (Ford Dam), Mississippi River, draft feasibility report and environmental assessment for hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a detailed evaluation of additional hydropower potential at Locks and Dam 1. An earlier evaluation in a reconnaissance level report (September 1981) indicated preliminary feasibility for added hydropower at this Federal navigation project site. The original Federal navigation locks and dam project included a foundation for a hydropower plant to be developed by non-Federal interests. The existing hydropower plant and equipment are owned and operated by the Ford Motor Company. The existing four turbines generate a combined nameplate capacity of 14.4 MW (megawatts).

1984-08-01

57

Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

2000-01-01

58

Gis-based procedures for hydropower potential spotting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing demand for energy, especially from renewable and sustainable sources, spurs the development of small hydropower plants and encourages investment in new survey studies. Preliminary hydropower survey studies usually carry huge uncertainties about the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of the undeveloped potential. This paper presents a methodology for large-scale survey of hydropower potential sites to be applied in the inception phase of hydroelectric development planning. The sequence of procedures to identify hydropower sites is based on remote sensing and regional streamflow data and was automated within a GIS-based computational program: Hydrospot. The program allows spotting more potential sites along the drainage network than it would be possible in a traditional survey study, providing different types of dam-powerhouse layouts and two types (operating modes) of projects: run-of-the-river and storage projects. Preliminary results from its applications in a hydropower-developed basin in Brazil have shown Hydrospot's limitations and potentialities in giving support to the mid-to-long-term planning of the electricity sector. (author)

Larentis, Dante G.; Collischonn, Walter; Tucci, Carlos E.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Hidraulicas da UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Caixa Postal 15029, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Olivera, Francisco (Texas A and M University, Zachry Department of Civil Engineering 3136 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3136, US)

2010-10-15

59

Small-Scale Hydropower Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (ERA citation 14:...

1988-01-01

60

World Small Hydropower Development Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and being able to characterise them thermodynamically. Geochemical modelling with the MEDUSA program and the HYDRA thermodynamic database was used to construct a set of Eh/pH diagrams for the iron and sulphur system in Forsmark groundwaters. Geochemical modelling with the PHREEQCI program was used for two purposes connected with uncertainties in key hydrochemical parameters: (i) to adjust pH to compensate for CO{sub 2} outgassing on the basis of an assumption that in situ groundwater should be at equilibrium with calcite, and (ii) to evaluate the hypothetical Eh on the basis of assumed control by Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}, Fe(OH)3/Fe{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4} 2-/HS- redox couples so as to assess evidence for control and buffering of redox and for reactivity of other redox sensitive parameters. These calculations were carried out with reported groundwater data from Forsmark and Simpevarp sites and also from the Aespoe HRL. It is emphasised that the purpose of these calculations is to explore and illustrate the theoretical basis of geochemical interpretations, and to understand what are the assumptions, simplifications and uncertainties in interpreting hydrochemical data especially redox and pH. Deviations of {+-}10 mV are attributable to minor differences in thermodynamic data and other model inputs. Some of the conclusions from geochemical modelling are: (i) pH data, when adjusted to compensate for CO{sub 2} outgassing, are typically 0.2 to 0.4 pH units lower than the measured values, which suggests one aspect of uncertainty in measured pH values. (ii) Most measured pH/Eh points for Forsmark are located close to the HS{sup -}/SO{sub 4} 2-line in an Eh/pH diagram, suggesting that the couple HS{sup -}/SO{sub 4} 2-controls Eh at normal SO{sub 4} 2-concentrations (above about 0.5 mM and around 5 mM). (iii) Eh calculated from the couples SO{sub 4} 2-/HS- and Fe(OH)3/Fe{sup 2+} are rather close to the measured Eh in most cases. In contrast, the Eh calculated from the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple is oxidising, i.e. a positive Eh, which is the result of erroneous Fe{sup 3+} values

Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hermansson, Hans-Peter [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

2006-12-15

62

United States Department of Energy Hydropower Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This Department of Energy (DOE) page discusses the Hydropower Program, which is aimed at conducting and coordinating development to improve the numerous benefits of hydropower. It contains facts about hydropower such as its history and development, how it works, types of facilities, undeveloped hydropower potential, production expenses, electricity generation, and advanced programs to develop hydro technology while minimizing environmental effects. There are assessment reports for each state summarizing the current and potential outlook for hydropower use. A large annotated bibliography contains resources about hydropower from 1978 to the present.

Brookshier, Peggy; Sommers, Garold; Hunt, Robert

63

Small Hydropower - The comeback of small hydropower stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This issue of the 'Erneuerbare Energien' (renewable energies) magazine published by the Swiss Solar Energy Society takes a look at small hydropower projects in Switzerland. In a number of interviews and articles, various topics concerning small hydropower are dealt with. First of all, an interview with Bruno Guggisberg, previously responsible for small hydro at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, examines the potential of small hydro and the various political, technical and economic influences on such projects. Further articles provide an overview of the various types of small hydro schemes, including power generation using height differences in drinking-water and wastewater installations. As far as the components of small hydro schemes are concerned, various types of turbines and further system components that are needed are examined. A further article takes a look at the small hydro market and the market players involved. Ecological aspects and research activities are discussed in further articles. In a second interview with Martin Boelli, presently responsible for small hydropower at the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, the unused potential for the use of hydropower in Switzerland is discussed. Examples of small-scale hydro schemes are examined and the support offered by the Small Hydropower Program is discussed. Finally the question is asked, if the small hydro market in Switzerland is overheated as a result of promotion schemes such as cost-covering remuneration for electricity from renewable energy sources.

2008-01-01

64

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity - the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy - for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr-1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ-1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2012-01-01

65

Survey of hydropower potential in Cornwall 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Practical hydropower sites, defined as those that will yield a nominal return on capital of 16%, if the electricity produced is valued at 2.6p/kWh, are environmentally benign and are technically feasible. Using these criteria, the total practical hydropower potential in Cornwall is estimated at some 22MW of installed electrical capacity, equivalent to about 130GWh of energy per annum. Almost one third of this potential is available from the river Tamar, the remainder being available from 180 other suitable rivers and streams. The technical constraints are minor but the financial and environmental considerations will have a strong influence on the proportion of the potential that can be developed in reality. The maximum level of development (22MW) can be regarded as a strategic level that would require considerable co-operation or Central Government direction of the various interested parties, including landowners, the Water authority, Local Authority planning departments and the Electricity Board. A readily achievable level of development (5MW) would require that only the most suitable existing sites be used, though modification to existing civil works would be required and none of the larger new schemes would need to be developed. Emphasis has been placed on using local technology and labour and on using the power generated on site as well as selling to the Electricity Board. (author).

Armstrong Evans, R.J. (Evans Engineering and Power Company (GB))

1990-01-01

66

SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of air and submersion in air pathways, only. These DCSs are required by DOE O 458.1 to be used at all DOE sites in the design and conduct of radiological environmental protection programs. In this report, DCSs for the following additional pathways were considered and documented: ingestion of meat, dairy, grains, produce (fruits and vegetables), seafood, submersion in water and ground shine. These additional DCSs were developed using the same methods as in DOE-STD-1196-2011 and will be used at SRS, where appropriate, as screening and reference values.

Jannik, T.

2013-03-14

67

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

1992-01-01

68

Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites. Volume 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting.

1992-09-01

69

History of hydro-power development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting with an historical account of efforts made by mankind to put the power of running water to use, the history of the birth of hydro-power has been traced. The development of hydro-power in the various countries of the world including India has been discussed. The world's largest hydro-power plants have also been listed. A few suggestions have been made to accelerate the rate of hydro-power development in India.

Sharma, H.R.; Rai Bhatti, D.

1981-07-01

70

Site-specific reference person parameters and derived concentration standards for the Savannah River Site.  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Department of Energy Order 458.1 states that the compliance with the 1 mSv annual dose constraint to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, the MEI concept was used for dose compliance at the Savannah River Site (SRS) using adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. For future compliance, SRS plans to use the representative person concept for dose estimates to members of the public. The representative person dose will be based on the reference person dose coefficients from the U.S. DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard and on usage parameters specific to SRS for the reference and typical person. Usage parameters and dose coefficients were determined for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure pathways. The reference intake for air, water, meat, dairy, freshwater fish, saltwater invertebrates, produce (fruits and vegetables), and grains for the 95th percentile are 17.4 m d, 2.19 L d, 220.6 g d, 674 cm d, 66.4 g d, 23.0 g d, 633.4 g d (448.5 g dand 631.7 g d) and 251.3 g d, respectively. For the 50th percentile: 13.4 m d, 0.809 L d, 86.4 g d, 187 cm d, 8.97 g d, 3.04 g d, 169.5 g d (45.9 g d and 145.6 g d), 101.3 g d, respectively. These parameters for the representative person were used to calculate and tabulate SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for the pathways not included in DOE-STD-1196-2011. PMID:24667386

Stone, Daniel K; Higley, Kathryn A; Jannik, G Timothy

2014-05-01

71

Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

2010-09-15

72

Potential analysis of hydropower sites larger 1 MW in Germany; Ermittlung des Wasserkraftpotenzials an Wasserkraftanlagenstandorten mit einer Leistung ueber 1 MW in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany, hydro power is considered to be well developed, because at most of the promising sites with a rated power larger than 1 MW, hydro power plants are already installed. However, this paper shows that only regarding to river power plants with a rated power larger than 1 MW, a considerable potential of additionally producible energy is available. This potential can be used in particular by means of modernisation and upgrading of existing power plants. (orig.)

Bauer, Nikolaus; Ruprecht, Albert [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen; Heimerl, Stephan [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

2010-07-01

73

A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2013-05-01

74

Hydropower '93: The year in review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1993, 43 hydropower projects began operating in North America, adding 970 MW of hydroelectric capacity to electrical grids in the US and Canada. Owners include the US federal government, provincially owned Canadian utilities, municipalities, irrigation and water conservation groups, rural electric cooperatives, and private developers. Taken together, these new projects offer a telling commentary on trends and issues in the North American hydroelectric industry. A pervasive theme among the 1993 projects is one of making the most of what's available; that is, developing new hydropower capacity at existing structures - existing dams, irrigation canals, water supply conduits. Another is attention to environmental protection and incorporation of power facilities into the natural surroundings. A third is blending the old with the new through redevelopment of abandoned sites and refurbishing used equipment. In addition to these themes, another observation can be made: there is an abundance of diversity in hydro development in North America-diversity in approach, diversity in equipment, and diversity in the developers themselves.

Barnes, M.J.; Smith-Noggle, L.

1994-01-01

75

Reconnaissance report for hydropower, Lock and Dam 8, Mississippi River. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 8. The study shows that installation of a hydroplant with 8,750 kW (kilowatt) nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and potential hydropower installations are given. Severe environmental impacts are not necessarily associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated despite the proximity of the lock and dam to an environmentally sensitive area. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 8.

1981-09-01

76

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a performance index. For the hydropower plant studied, the PI controller has the best performance.

Maria Regina Gomes Zoby

2009-03-01

77

Probabilistic evaluation of seismic design parameters for NPP sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology of probabilistic evaluation of peak ground Acceleration (PGA) and evaluation of Uniform Hazard Response Spectra (UHRS) for a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A UHRS is a response spectrum having the same mean recurrence interval (MRI), or equivalently, the same probability of exceedence (P), at all frequencies, in a specified span of time. The analysis considers linear and point sources of earthquakes. Numerical results have been presented. It is also shown that the MRI associated with the traditional design response spectra are not the same at all frequencies. The paper examines the issue of the ratio of PGA in OBE to that in SSE from a probabilistic point of view and its effect on design. This paper presents a case study of two NPP sites in India. It is seen that the ratio of the values of PGA for OBE and SSE is highly site-specific. The paper presents a simple case study to determine the limiting value of the ratio of the PGA under OBE to that under SSE for which OBE rather than SSE would govern the design for the case under consideration. (author)

2007-03-12

78

Hydropower strategy for the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government-owned National Power Corporation (NPC) of the Philippines is in the early stages of a complete privatisation programme. The electric power sector is expected eventually to be structured around a company that will own the major transmission facilities and will serve as a broker of power and energy between generating companies and the existing distribution companies, Rural Electric Co-operations and other power users. NPC's non-transmission assets will probably be spun-off into various corporations including three generating companies, an engineering and services company and a company owning the Calivaya-Botocan-Kalayaan hydro complex. Plans for increased capacity include a real term increase in the hydropower contribution although it will decline as a percentage of the energy mix as coal and gas plants are developed. Details of the privatisation of specific hydropower projects in the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids are described. (U.K.)

1995-11-01

79

Hydropower strategy for the Philippines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The government-owned National Power Corporation (NPC) of the Philippines is in the early stages of a complete privatisation programme. The electric power sector is expected eventually to be structured around a company that will own the major transmission facilities and will serve as a broker of power and energy between generating companies and the existing distribution companies, Rural Electric Co-operations and other power users. NPC`s non-transmission assets will probably be spun-off into various corporations including three generating companies, an engineering and services company and a company owning the Calivaya-Botocan-Kalayaan hydro complex. Plans for increased capacity include a real term increase in the hydropower contribution although it will decline as a percentage of the energy mix as coal and gas plants are developed. Details of the privatisation of specific hydropower projects in the Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao grids are described. (U.K.)

McCandless, D.H. [Harza Consulting Engineers, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-11-01

80

Hydropower development in the Philippines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present policy on energy development is geared towards harnessing renewable and indigenous energy resource which can offer clean, abundant and efficient power supply for the country. a review of the current generation mix of the power system, especially the Luzon grid will establish a high dependency in imported fuel - oil and coal to power our generating plants. Thus, the policy of reducing dependence on imported fuel will depend largely on the success of tapping the alternative renewable and indigenous sources. The sustainable development era of the 90's brought fresh interest on the performance and commercial viability of indigenous and/or renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar, geothermal, natural gas and water power or hydropower. Among these alternative renewable sources, water or hydropower is the most readily available, and will produce clean domestic source of electricity - no carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide or any other air emissions. The potential is available in most parts of the country that are mountainous and have high rainfall. In terms of production, hydropower leads as the most developed and more proven in terms of commercial viability. It is also more reliable, efficient and less expensive than geothermal, biomass, wind and solar energy, as will be shown later. (author)

1997-10-23

 
 
 
 
81

The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr?1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ?1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

M. M. Mekonnen

2012-01-01

82

Site-specific parameter values for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's food pathway dose model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Western South Carolina result in radionuclide releases to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiation doses to the off-site maximum individual and the off-site population within 80 km of the SRS are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are currently generated using dose models prescribed for the commercial nuclear power industry by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC provides default values for dose-model parameters for facilities without resources to develop site-specific values. A survey of land- and water-use characteristics for the Savannah River area has been conducted to determine site-specific values for water recreation, consumption, and agricultural parameters used in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 (1977) dosimetric models. These site parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk, and vegetable production; recreational and commercial activities on the Savannah River; and meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates. This paper describes how parameter data were obtained at the Savannah River Site and the impacts of such data on off-site dose. Dose estimates using site-specific parameter values are compared to estimates using the NRC default values

1992-01-01

83

System dynamics in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

Stuksrud, Dag Birger

1998-12-31

84

Hydrogen sulfide in hydropower reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on hydrogen sulfide which is toxic to aquatic life and corrosive to hydropower plant construction materials when ? at concentrations that are considerably lower than detection limits of analytical procedures commonly used in the United states. A titrimetric procedure found in the Chinese literature has been translated and converted to a field method with quality control procedures. This method has allowed the measurement of sulfide distribution in two tributary impoundments and one tailwater and has provided the first available information on the occurrence of sulfide at levels below the commonly detection limits. Also investigated were the effects of sulfide and other anoxic constituents on turbine system fouling and corrosion

1991-07-24

85

The importance of hydropower in Austria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses the importance of hydropower-based power generation in Austria as a clean and emission-free source of electricity. The contribution made to total electricity generation is examined and figures are quoted. Hydropower is provided from both storage dams and run-of-river power stations such as those on the river Danube. The use of the various types of hydropower in connection with their economic optimisation, for example for the supply of valuable peak power, is discussed. The promotion of hydropower within the scope of European climate-protection efforts is examined. Projects concerning the augmentation of hydropower capacities are discussed and three exemplary projects are briefly described. Finally, the situation in Austria is compared with that to be found in neighbouring Switzerland.

2009-01-01

86

Available water for hydropower generation in Swaziland  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of available water for hydropower generation was carried out in Swaziland as part of the national water study commissioned by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The study was carried out in 2004/05 and it involved field assessment of major hydropower stations, hydrological assessment of the major water courses where hydropower generation plants are located, climatic changes over the last 10 years and an assessment of the demand for electricity in Swaziland. The study showed that more than 90% of the electricity which Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) provides to its customers is produced by hydropower while a small proportion is produced by diesel power. The study also showed that the capacity of SEB to generate hydropower is limited mainly by low water flows. It was found out that due to limited capacity to generate hydropower, SEB imports most of the electricity from ESKOM in South Africa and that in 2004 the imported power was more that 84% of the total electricity consumed in Swaziland. It was found out that the causes of low water flows were upstream abstractions and long-term drought conditions. This indicated that hydropower generation is now less favourable in Swaziland than it was in the 1970s, when the existing schemes were built or studied. The other cause for reduced availability of water for hydropower generation is deforestation and increasing land use pressure in the catchment leading to high sedimentation levels in reservoirs. It was concluded that, while the future of locally generated hydropower is limited by dwindling water flows, the capacity to generate more power can be increased by constructing additional dams. It was also recommended that deforestation and intensive cultivation of the catchment areas need to be controlled to reduce the sedimentation of hydropower reservoirs and that more dams should be constructed to counteract the effects of droughts on river flows.

Mwendera, E. J.

87

Assessment of small hydropower potential using remote sensing data for sustainable development in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India being a developing country has witnessed a rapidly growing energy needs owing to fast industrialization. Sustainable and qualitative growth for developing economics and habitat requires increased energy input from various resources while maintaining balance in the ecosystem during exploitation. Paper discusses state of the resource potentials, achievements and various issues related to the power generation in India. The growing concern over environmental degradation caused by fossil fuel based systems, opposition to large hydropower projects on grounds of displacement of land and population, environmental problems with nuclear fuel based systems and the ever-rising shortage of power highlights the need for tapping alternate energy sources for power generation. Amongst the alternate sources utilization of hydropower on a smaller scale (small, mini and micro hydropower) has become the thrust area for sustainable growth in the power sector. Hydropower is an economical and environmentally clean source of renewable energy abundantly available in hilly regions of India. Hydropower stations have an inherent ability for instantaneous starting, stopping, load variations, etc., and help in improving the reliability of power system. Huge hydropower potential in India, yet to be explored is located at inaccessible mountainous region. However, development of this potential is challenging due to difficult and inaccessible terrain profile. Paper presents application of remote sensing data for identification and selection of probable site for hydropower projects. The algorithm for identification and assessment of water resources and its perennial is developed in Visual Basic (VB) platform and it is successfully applied for IRS-1D, LISS III Geo-coded False Color Composite (FCC) satellite image for plain as well as hilly and mountainous regions. Classification of satellite image in to different objects is modeled as the task of clustering based on the intensity of R-G-B values of pixels. Results obtained are presented and compared with the Survey of India Toposheets (53K/2, 53K/3 and 53J/16). Use of Remote sensing data provides a scientific method of hydropower identification and assessment

2006-11-01

88

Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Wieringa, M.J. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Morton, A.G. [Dept. of Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-11-01

89

Identifying evolutionary trees and substitution parameters for the general Markov model with invariable sites  

CERN Document Server

The general Markov plus invariable sites (GM+I) model of biological sequence evolution is a two-class model in which an unknown proportion of sites are not allowed to change, while the remainder undergo substitutions according to a Markov process on a tree. For statistical use it is important to know if the model is identifiable; can both the tree topology and the numerical parameters be determined from a joint distribution describing sequences only at the leaves of the tree? We establish that for generic parameters both the tree and all numerical parameter values can be recovered, up to clearly understood issues of `label swapping.' The method of analysis is algebraic, using phylogenetic invariants to study the variety defined by the model. Simple rational formulas, expressed in terms of determinantal ratios, are found for recovering numerical parameters describing the invariable sites.

Allman, Elizabeth S

2011-01-01

90

The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

2011-03-01

91

Hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns over climate change and the Climate Change Levy are said to have created an upsurge in interest in hydroelectric power. The advantages of hydro are extolled and the lesser known factor of yield is explained. UK hydro companies have formed an exporters' network with the aim of increasing their contribution to the global demand for renewable energy. Ian Pope Associates have been busy in eastern Europe, especially on rehabilitation of hydro stations and training of local personnel. Similarly, EPD Consultants (part of the Pell Frischmann Group) have been busy in India, Albania and Kenya. Gilbert Gilkes and Gordon has recently supplied turbines in Guatemala and Thailand

2000-01-01

92

Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for Basic Transport Parameters at the Horonobe Site, Hokkaido, Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

Incorporating results from a previously developed finite element model from the Hazama Corporation, an uncertainty and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted using site-specific data from Horonobe, Japan. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is used to draw random parameter values from the site-specific measured, or approximated, physicochemical uncertainty distributions. Using pathlengths and groundwater velocities extracted from the currently available three-dimensional, finite element flow and particle tracking model for Horonobe, breakthrough curves for multiple realizations were calculated with the semi-analytical, one-dimensional, multirate transport code, STAMMT--L. A stepwise linear regression analysis using the 5, 50, and 95% breakthrough times as the dependent variables and LHS sampled site physicochemical parameters as the independent variables was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the distribution coefficients and hydraulic conductivities are the parameters responsible for most of the variation among simulated breakthrough times. This suggests that researchers and data collectors at the Horonobe site should focus on accurately assessing these parameters and quantifying their uncertainty.

James, S. C.; Makino, H.; Kunimaru, T.

2003-12-01

93

Preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for basic transport parameters at the Horonobe Site, Hokkaido, Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incorporating results from a previously developed finite element model, an uncertainty and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted using preliminary site-specific data from Horonobe, Japan (data available from five boreholes as of 2003). Latin Hypercube Sampling was used to draw random parameter values from the site-specific measured, or approximated, physicochemical uncertainty distributions. Using pathlengths and groundwater velocities extracted from the three-dimensional, finite element flow and particle tracking model, breakthrough curves for multiple realizations were calculated with the semi-analytical, one-dimensional, multirate transport code, STAMMT-L. A stepwise linear regression analysis using the 5, 50, and 95% breakthrough times as the dependent variables and LHS sampled site physicochemical parameters as the independent variables was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the distribution coefficients and hydraulic conductivities are the parameters responsible for most of the variation among simulated breakthrough times. This suggests that researchers and data collectors at the Horonobe site should focus on accurately assessing these parameters and quantifying their uncertainty. Because the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is in an early phase of its development, this work should be considered as a first step toward an integration of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with decision analysis

2003-01-01

94

Preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for basic transport parameters at the Horonobe Site, Hokkaido, Japan.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incorporating results from a previously developed finite element model, an uncertainty and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted using preliminary site-specific data from Horonobe, Japan (data available from five boreholes as of 2003). Latin Hypercube Sampling was used to draw random parameter values from the site-specific measured, or approximated, physicochemical uncertainty distributions. Using pathlengths and groundwater velocities extracted from the three-dimensional, finite element flow and particle tracking model, breakthrough curves for multiple realizations were calculated with the semi-analytical, one-dimensional, multirate transport code, STAMMT-L. A stepwise linear regression analysis using the 5, 50, and 95% breakthrough times as the dependent variables and LHS sampled site physicochemical parameters as the independent variables was used to perform a sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the distribution coefficients and hydraulic conductivities are the parameters responsible for most of the variation among simulated breakthrough times. This suggests that researchers and data collectors at the Horonobe site should focus on accurately assessing these parameters and quantifying their uncertainty. Because the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is in an early phase of its development, this work should be considered as a first step toward an integration of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with decision analysis.

James, Scott Carlton; Zimmerman, Dean Anthony (Gram Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM)

2003-10-01

95

Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for the 2004 Composite Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for the 2004 Composite Analysis. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future).

Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

2004-07-01

96

PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-07-01

97

Lock and Dam 1, Mississippi River, Minneapolis - St. Paul, Minnesota. Reconnaissance report for hydropower. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of additional hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 1. An existing hydropower plant at the site has a capacity of 14,400-kW. The study shows that installation of a new additional hydroplant with a 4,000-kW or 8,000-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and two optional installations are given. Severe environmental impacts do not appear to be associated with construction of a new plant of the sizes investigated. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 1.

1981-09-01

98

Hydropower and biomass - a successful combination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains numbers on the importance of biomass and hydropower in the energy balance of Austria. The importance of the CO_2 taxes in the European Communities on the economics of different fuels is outlined. (Quittner)

1991-10-17

99

Debut delayed: [hydropower pumped storage systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The future hydropower will include distributed pumped storage systems to tackle local demand peaks and provide grid balancing services. However, US electricity market conditions have delayed their debut, though they could be a useful tool for economic salmon protection. (author)

Reynolds, Patrick

1995-06-01

100

Value of stochasticity in hydropower planning optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With respect to market liberalization, efficient use of resources is becoming more important for players in the market. In order to achieve that different optimization techniques were developed which enable better operational efficiency. These techniques can be segmented in to two different categories, depending on their time horizon: • Yearly time horizon – mid-term hydropower scheduling • Daily time horizon – short-term hydropower scheduling These two time horizons account for two c...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of flexibility in hydropower stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report seeks to evaluate the flexibility in a number of Fortum’s hydropower stations. The deregulation of the Nordic electricity market has put an emphasis on revenue maximizing rather than cost minimizing and there are good indications that flexible assets will be even more valuable in the future when more wind power has been introduced into the system. Through interviews with people involved in the hydropower planning and operation process a number of factors with the potential of af...

Crona, Mats

2012-01-01

102

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied by the atmospheric community within different administrative domains yielding an inconsistent global air quality picture. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' average catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The derived parameters describing representativeness were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from generally remote to more polluted agglomeration sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer-lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters describing representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the applicability of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2010-04-01

103

Assessment of parameters describing representativeness of air quality in-situ measurement sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The atmospheric layer closest to the ground is strongly influenced by variable surface fluxes (emissions, surface deposition and can therefore be very heterogeneous. In order to perform air quality measurements that are representative of a larger domain or a certain degree of pollution, observatories are placed away from population centres or within areas of specific population density. Sites are often categorised based on subjective criteria that are not uniformly applied within different administrative domains. A novel approach for the assessment of parameters reflecting site representativeness is presented here, taking emissions, deposition and transport towards 34 sites covering Western and Central Europe into account. These parameters are directly inter-comparable among the sites and can be used to select sites that are, on average, more or less suitable for data assimilation and comparison with satellite and model data. Advection towards these sites was simulated by backward Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Modelling (LPDM to determine the sites' annual catchment areas for the year 2005 and advection times of 12, 24 and 48 h. Only variations caused by emissions and transport during these periods were considered assuming that these dominate the short-term variability of most but especially short lived trace gases. The parameters of representativeness derived were compared between sites and a novel, uniform and observation-independent categorisation of the sites based on a clustering approach was established. Six groups of European background sites were identified ranging from very remote coastal to polluted rural sites. These six categories explained 50 to 80% of the inter-site variability of median mixing ratios and their standard deviation for NO2 and O3, while differences between group means of the longer lived trace gas CO were insignificant. The derived annual catchment areas strongly depended on the applied LPDM and input wind fields, the catchment settings and the year of analysis. Nevertheless, the parameters of representativeness showed considerably less variability than the catchment geometry, supporting the robustness of the derived station categorisation.

S. Henne

2009-09-01

104

European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization II: High angular resolution parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the Design Study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mo...

Ramio?, He?ctor Va?zquez; Vernin, Jean; Mun?oz-tun?o?n, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Herve?; Delgado, Jose? Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesu?s J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego Garci?a; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca

2012-01-01

105

Ghazi Barotha hydropower project : a sustainable infrastructure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shortage of electric power in Pakistan has hindered the country's economic development. Energy demand has grown but energy conservation measures alone have not proven to be sufficient to deal with the crisis. New electric power production facilities are required. The Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project, located on the Indus River in the northwestern part of Pakistan downstream of the Tarbela Dam has proven to be a technically sound, environmentally and socially acceptable project which is also economically viable. A 5 km stretch of the Indus was studied to determine the optimum location of the barrage, the alignment of the power channel, and the siting of the power complex. The project was scheduled to use the hydraulic head available between the tailrace at Tarbela Dam and the confluence with the Haro River. The Indus River dropped approximately 76 m over a distance of 63 m. The project was designed to consist of a barrage 7 km downstream from the Tarbela Dam, a 52 km long concrete lined power channel with a capacity of 1600 cumecs and a power facility to generate power and discharging the water back into the river. The average output was calculated to reach 6,600 GWHr to provide for the peak capacity during the year and full power generation in May and June, when the Tarbela and Mangla Power Stations operate at reduced capacity due to low reservoir levels. 1 ref., 1 annex.

Khan, B. A.; Ahmad, W.

2000-07-01

106

Geostatistical characterisation of geothermal parameters for a thermal aquifer storage site in Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

The design of geothermal systems such as aquifer thermal energy storage systems (ATES) must account for a comprehensive characterisation of all relevant parameters considered for the numerical design model. Hydraulic and thermal conductivities are the most relevant parameters and its distribution determines not only the technical design but also the economic viability of such systems. Hence, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of these parameters is essential for a successful design and operation of such systems. This work shows the first results obtained when applying geostatistical techniques to the characterisation of the Esseling Site in Germany. In this site a long-term thermal tracer test (> 1 year) was performed. On this open system the spatial temperature distribution inside the aquifer was observed over time in order to obtain as much information as possible that yield to a detailed characterisation both of the hydraulic and thermal relevant parameters. This poster shows the preliminary results obtained for the Esseling Site. It has been observed that the common homogeneous approach is not sufficient to explain the observations obtained from the TRT and that parameter heterogeneity must be taken into account.

Rodrigo-Ilarri, J.; Li, T.; Grathwohl, P.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

2009-04-01

107

[Avoncliff Hydropower Good Practice Guidelines - Competing Hydropower Schemes Annex Appendix 2 -.pdf  

…benefits in exercising its licensing powers. 5. The Environment Agency actively supports the use of sustainable energy, including hydropower, to help meet UK and Welsh Government renewable energy and greenhouse gas reduction targets. That said, if not properly designed, hydropower schemes can threaten fish…

108

Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. PMID:24726970

Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

2014-07-01

109

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 1. Pacific Northwest region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The preliminary inventory and analysis procedures provide a comprehensive assessment of the undeveloped hydroelectric power potential in the US and determines which sites merit more thorough investigation. Over 5400 existing structures have been identified as having the physical potential to add hydropower plants or increase hydropower output thereby increasing our present hydropower capacity from a total of 64,000 MW to 158,000 MW and our energy from 280,000 GWH to 503,000 GWH. While the physical potential for this increase is clearly available, some of these projects will undoubtedly not satisfy more-detailed economic analysis as well as the institutional and environmental criteria which will be imposed upon them. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. In some cases, individual projects may be site alternatives to others in the same general location, when only one can be considered for hydropower development. The number of sites per state is identified, but specific information is included for only the sites in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington in this first volume.

None

1979-07-01

110

Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package. [PAPRECON and RECON III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary economic study package for small hydroelectric projects. The HCR package was developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It is designed to perform two levels of studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available, and an Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described. It provides information on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

Broadus, C.R.

1980-09-01

111

River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree of anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the river type and its representativity of the region where it is located, and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

2001-01-01

112

Hydropower : A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

113

Reconnaissance report for hydropower, Lock and Dam number 2, Mississippi River. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 2. The study shows that installation of a hydroplant with a 4,000-kW (kilowatt) or 5,000-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and two optional installations are given. Severe environmental impacts do not appear to be associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 2.

1981-09-01

114

Hydropower: A Regulatory Guide to Permitting and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, construction and operation of a hydropower project can result in many potential impacts. These potential impacts are of concern to a host of federal, state, and local authorities. Early consultation with land and water management, fish and wildlife resource protection, and health and human safety-oriented agencies should occur to determine specific concerns and study requirements for each proposed project. This Guide to Permitting and Licensing outlines the characteristic features of attractive hydropower sites; summarizes an array of developmental constraints; illustrates potential environmental impacts and concerns; and summarizes all federal, state, and local permitting and licensing requirements.

McCoy, Gilbert A.

1992-12-01

115

Analysis of the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work is to study the primary control system of a hydropower plant in isolated mode. The power plant is modeled by differential equations and results are compared to field data from an actual hydropower plant, presenting deviations lower than 1.0%. The study of primary control system is conducted in order to define useful sets of parameters for controllers. Four controllers are studied: traditional, PI, PID and PI-PD. The performances are evaluated by stability criteria and a p...

Maria Regina Gomes Zoby; Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara

2009-01-01

116

Lock and Dam 5, Mississippi River near Minneiska, Minnesota, Reconnaissance report for hydropower. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 5. The study shows that installation of a hydroplant with a 6,000-kW (kilowatt), 8,400-kW, or 10,800-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and potential hydropower installations are given. Severe environmental impacts are not necessarily associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated despite the proxity of the lock and dam to an environmentally sensitive area. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at lock and dam 5.

1981-09-01

117

Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem. Altogether, the selected parameters will create a solid basis for determination of the lake type and its representativity of the region where it is located and of the function and eventual malfunction of the inherent ecosystem

2000-01-01

118

Evaluation of water quality parameters and associated environmental impact at nuclear power plant sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Power Plants use a large quantity of water for the purpose of cooling the turbine condenser. The heated effluents are discharged to aquatic environment by means of once through cooling wherever large water bodies like seacoast or fresh water reservoir are available. The quality of water bodies are important for the growth and biodiversity of aquatic organisms. Several environmental factors like Temperature pH, Dissolved Oxygen have a bearing on the life cycle of aquatic organisms. The paper describes the evaluation of water quality parameters at the two typical sites one on the sea coast (Tarapur) and other at inland site Kaiga and discusses the environmental impact due to discharge to aquatic environment. It is found that the environmental impacts due to both heated effluents and radioactivity are insignificant. The water quality parameters are found to be well within the prescribed standards. (author)

2005-06-05

119

Parameter studies of radionuclide sorption in site-specific sediment/groundwater systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of parametric studies gained by batch experiments with site-specific waters and sedimentary rocks from strata overlying the Gorleben salt dome are given. The tracer nuclides used were U-233, Ra-226, Th-228. Pd-210, Ni-63, Ac-227, Sr-90. The parameters investigated were mainly volume/mass ratio, pH, Eh, temperature, ionic strength, complexing agents and concentrations of nuclides. Relationships generated from these studies with regard to safety assessment prediction are discussed. (orig.)

1994-01-01

120

Parameter studies of radionuclide sorption in site-specific sediment/groundwater systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of parametric studies gained by batch experiments with site-specific waters and sedimentary rocks from strata overlying the Gorleben salt dome are given. The tracer nuclides used were U-233, Ra-226, Th-228. Pd-210, Ni-63, Ac-227, Sr-90. The parameters investigated were mainly volume/mass ratio, pH, Eh, temperature, ionic strength, complexing agents and concentrations of nuclides. Relationships generated from these studies with regard to safety assessment prediction are discussed. (orig.)

Meier, H. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany); Zimmerhackl, E. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany); Zeitler, G. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany); Menge, P. [Staatliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Geochemie, Bamberg (Germany)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of the Overall Costs for the Croatian Repository: Varying Site, Design and Financial Parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)

2000-06-19

122

Recommended food chain parameter values and distributions for use around CANDU sites in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Site-specific parameter values should be used whenever possible to increase the accuracy of dose predictions. Parameter values specific to agricultural practices and human lifestyles in southern Ontario are presented for use in CSA-N288.1-M87 (Canadian Standards Association Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities) and CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code). Use of these values in place of the default parameter values in CSA-N288.1-M87 is shown to reduce the predicted dose by nearly a factor of 2. (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

1996-01-01

123

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and K{sub d} values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

Norden, Sara (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Avila, Rodolfo; De la Cruz, Idalmis; Stenberg, Kristofer; Grolander, Sara (Facilia AB (Sweden))

2010-12-15

124

Element-specific and constant parameters used for dose calculations in SR-Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents Best Estimate (BE) values and Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of Concentration Ratios (CR) for different types of terrestrial and aquatic biota and distribution coefficients (Kd) for organic and inorganic deposits, as well as for suspended matter in freshwater and marine ecosystems. The BE values have been used in deterministic simulations for derivation of Landscape Dose Factors (LDF) applied for dose assessments in SR-Site. The PDFs have been used in probabilistic simulations for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the LDFs. The derivation of LDFs for SR-Site is described in /Avila et al. 2010/. The CR and Kd values have been derived using both site-specific data measured at Laxemar and Forsmark during the site investigation program and literature data. These two data sources have been combined using Bayesian updating methods, which are described in detail in an Appendix, along with the input data used in the statistical analyses and the results obtained. The report also describes a kinetic-allometric model that was applied for deriving values of CR for terrestrial herbivores in cases when site and literature data for an element were missing. In addition, the report presents values for a number of other parameters used in the SR-Site Radionuclide Model for the biosphere: radionuclide decay-ingrowth data, elemental diffusivities, fractions of element content released during decomposition processes, ingestion of food, water and soil by cattle, elements retention fraction on plant surfaces during irrigation. The report also presents parameter values used in calculation of doses to a reference man: dose coefficients for inhalation, ingestion and external exposure, inhalation rates, ingestion rates of food and water

2010-01-01

125

Different Aspects of Flushing of Hydropower Intakes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different design criteria for successful flushing of hydropower headworks have been evaluated. Main focus has been on handling of floating debris for small hydropower plant in Norway, as well as sediment handling for run of the river-projects in sediment-carrying rivers. As a new way of cleaning intake screens clogged by debris, the concept of backflushing has been investigated. The intake screen, called trash rack, is then cleaned by a reveresed water flow over a short period of time, and th...

Nielsen, Lars Eid; Rettedal, Bjørnar

2012-01-01

126

The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

2010-09-15

127

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP from RI data, using the relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Héctor Zegarra Martínez

2006-08-01

128

Tools for Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning and Development: A Review of Technology and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews and compares software tools for the planning and design of small hydropower (SHP plants. The main emphasis is on small scale hydropower resource assessment computer tools and methodologies for the development of SHP plants corresponding to a preliminary or prefeasibility study level. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the historic software tools and the current tools used in the small hydro industry. The reviewed tools vary from simple initial estimates to quite sophisticated software. The integration of assessment tools into Geographic Information System (GIS environments has led to a leap forward in the strengthening of the evaluation of the power potential of water streams in the case of the spatial variability of different factors affecting stream power. A number of countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Norway, Scotland and the US have re-assessed their hydropower capacities based on spatial information of their water stream catchments, developing tools for automated hydro-site identification and deploying GIS-based tools, so-called Atlases, of small-scale hydropower resources on the Internet. However, a reliable assessment of real SHP site feasibility implies some “on the ground” surveying, but this traditional assessment can be greatly facilitated using GIS techniques that involve the spatial variability of catchment characteristics.

Gitana Vyciene

2011-08-01

129

Land surface scheme conceptualisation and parameter values for three sites with contrasting soils and climate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to test the performance of the ECMWF land surface module (LSM developed by Viterbo and Beljaars (1995 and to identify primary future adjustments, focusing on the hydrological components. This was achieved by comparing off-line simulations against observations and a detailed state-of-the-art model over a range of experimental conditions. Results showed that the standard LSM, which uses fixed vegetation and soil parameter values, systematically underestimated evapotranspiration, partly due to underestimating bare soil evaporation, which appeared to be a conceptual problem. In dry summer conditions, transpiration was seriously underestimated. The bias in surface runoff and percolation was not of the same sign for all three locations. A sensitivity analysis, set up to explore the impact of using standard parameter values, found that implementing specific soil hydraulic properties had a significant effect on runoff and percolation at all three sites. Evapotranspiration, however affected only slightly at the temperate humid climate sites. Under semi-arid conditions, introducing site specific soil hydraulic properties plus a realistic rooting depth improved simulation results considerably. Future adjustments to the standard LSM should focus on parameter values of soil hydraulic functions and rooting depths and, conceptually, on the bare soil evaporation parameterisation and the soil bottom boundary condition. Implications of changing soil hydraulic properties for future large-simulations were explored briefly. For Europe, soil data requirements can be fulfilled partly by the recent data base HYPRES. Sandy and loamy sand soils will then cover about 65% of Europe, whereas in the present model 100% of the area is loam. Keywords: land surface model; soil hydraulic properties; water balance simulation

M. Soet

2000-01-01

130

Planning and construction of Langschede hydropower plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Structures for the generation of electrical energy on the basis of water-power have always been demanding in terms of planning and coordination of engineering activities. The problems and solutions shown here with respect to the construction of Langschede Hydropower Plant exemplify the complexity of this type of project. (orig.)

1994-01-01

131

Proven but new. Innovation of hydropower  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower has been utilised traditionally and its technology is being further developed and advanced. Current developments are addressed by outlining the challenges for operators and manufacturers. The case examples show a wide range of possible innovations. This refers to single components up to novel overall concepts like hybrid plants and compact turbine plants as well as run-of-river power plants. (orig.)

Harreiter, Herfried [Verbund Hydro Power AG, Vienna (Austria); Godde, Dominik [E.ON Generation GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Zickermann, Richard [ALSTOM (Schweiz) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

2012-07-01

132

A study of the main atmospheric electric parameters at a little polluted seashore site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the electric elements of the air near the ground, we realized a set of apparatus for the measurement of several parameters: electric field, space charge, conductivities, air-earth current, as well as an automatic condensation nuclei counter. The characteristics of a very important photolytic process of nuclei production closely related to air exposure of living algae, at daytime low-tide periods were first determined. Then a systematic study of the electrical behaviour of the air at the seashore, was also carried out in relation with meteorological parameters. The results observed by sea winds, and especially the data on electric field and space charge showed out a very strong electrode effect above the sea surface, and were very different from those recorded at another site, 20 km inland. Finally, the atmospheric electric fog effect at the coastline and the possibility of using our results for forecasting the phenomenon were studied. (author)

1978-01-01

133

Selected environmental considerations and their measuring parameters for nuclear power plant siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The site selection process for nuclear power stations encompasses a broad range of considerations. A categorization of these considerations consistent with the needs of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, as the regulatory agency, and of the utility company involves these major areas of concern. They are issues related to safety, environmental impact, and engineering/economics. The more important environmental considerations and their measuring parameters presented in this paper include biota, ecological systems and water quality, land use, aesthetics, water availability, and meteorology. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

134

Model parameters for simulating fate and transport of on-site wastewater nutrients.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a critical review of model-input parameters for transport of on-site wastewater treatment system (OWS) pollutants. Approximately 25% of the U.S. population relies on soil-based OWS for effective treatment and protection of public health and environmental quality. Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting the transport and fate of wastewater pollutants and for addressing water-budget issues related to wastewater reclamation from site to watershed scales. However, input parameters for models that simulate fate and transport of OWS pollutants are not readily obtained. The purpose of this analysis is to illustrate an objective, statistically supported method for choosing model-input parameters related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Data were gathered from existing studies reported in the literature. Cumulative frequency distributions (CFDs) are provided for OWS effluent concentrations of N and P, nitrification and denitrification rates, and linear sorption isotherm constants for P. When CFDs are not presented, ranges and median values are provided. Median values for model-input parameters are as follows: total N concentration (44 mg/L), nitrate-N (0.2 mg/L), ammonium (60 mg/L), phosphate-P (9 mg/L), organic N (14 mg/L), zero-order nitrification rate (264 mg/L/d), first-order nitrification (2.9/d), first-order dentrification (0.025/d), maximum soil capacity for P uptake (237 mg/kg), linear sorption isotherm constant for P (15.1 L/kg), and OWS effluent flow rates (260 L/person/d). PMID:16029188

McCray, John E; Kirkland, Shiloh L; Siegrist, Robert L; Thyne, Geoffrey D

2005-01-01

135

Emerging hydropower technologies R and D : a strategy for Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed the increasing interest in hydrokinetic potential in Canada for power production using instream flow turbines that do not require dams or barrages. Run-of-river hydropower plants include small and low-head hydro and represent valuable opportunities for new energy development. Although conventional small hydro is competitive with other energy sources, there are several emerging technologies that need further development, such as economical and efficient low-head turbines, mitigation technologies, eco-engineering and protection of aquatic resources. For the past 25 years, the Canadian government has been supporting emerging hydropower technologies. The federal Hydraulic Energy Group (HEG) at Natural Resources Canada is actively involved with provinces, utilities, private industry, academia and other organizations on key projects to reduce equipment and construction costs and increase turbine and site efficiencies. HEG also supports technology demonstrations both nationally and internationally. This paper also summarized the state of the small hydro industry with particular reference to research and development in electromechanical equipment, control and monitoring, power plant rehabilitation and modernization. 14 refs.

Huang, J.; Ranjitkar, G.; Handler, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy, Hydraulic Energy Program

2009-07-01

136

High-Resolution Free-GIS operations to assist hydropower potential assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for renewable energy suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, according to EU and national environmental regulations. High resolution hydrological analysis is then needed to comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants and of other water withdrawals. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. For this study, developed within the RENERFOR-ALCOTRA Project, a regional "spatially smooth" model has been developed for FDC estimation: the procedure adopted relates the L-moments of the FDC to several geomorphoclimatic parameters (more than 100), with the purpose to directly reconstruct a "naturalized" FDC. The proposed procedure is systematically extended to all the gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy, which is an area characterized by the presence of a large number of dams. For each basin, the annual average FDC is computed, its L-moments are calculated and corrected using a simplified model that takes into account the effect of upstream reservoirs and power plants. Then, each corrected L-moment is regionalized using multiple regressions techniques, allowing one to reconstruct the L-moments at any ungauged basin. Finally, the "naturalized" FDC is reconstructed at the ungauged site on the basis of the predicted L-moments. Due to necessity of obtaining high-resolution estimates, the method has been designed to keep the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences. This feature is obtained considering only raster-summable explanatory variables, which are only a subset of the available descriptors. The residual hydropower potential is evaluated by mapping the mean naturalized flow estimated for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model in two mountain basins used as case studies. Applying extensively the proposed methodology, the mean annual flow is reconstructed not only in some significant sections, but in all the about 25000 sections defined by each network pixel. We used a 50 m DEM to compute, for each network pixel, the upstream watershed and all the morpho-climatic characteristics needed in the regional model. Maps obtained can return flow-altitude relations for each pixel along a drainage path assuming different possible headrace length (1, 2.5 and 5 km). Spatial algorithms and data management are developed by the use of the Free&OpenSource software GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL as database manager, integrated with PostGIS elaboration to create the outputs. The large number of data and the complexity of the information derived required some thinking about the best way to access and represent the data, that has to be easy-to-use also for no-expert GIS users.

Ganora, Daniele; Gallo, Enrico; Masoero, Alessandro; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

2013-04-01

137

Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

2000-01-01

138

Environmental redesign of hydropower. Potential and examples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text: Most of the Norwegian hydropower system was designed more than 30 years ago when environmental concern was lower and the focus was on energy supply security. In the recent years, environmental impacts have gained more focus and we have obtained more knowledge about the function of aquatic ecosystems and their relationship to changes caused by river regulation. The energy system has been operated as a free marked for many years and the future scenarios with integration of an increased amount of intermittent energy sources will lead to changes in the operation of regulated rivers. On top of this, climate change is another factor that has both direct and indirect impacts on the operation of hydropower systems. The combination of more focus on environmental impacts, changes in operation strategies and climate change may create possibilities to increase both the power production income and the environmental conditions in regulated rivers. If this is combined with upgrading and refurbishment, the potential of creating 'win-win' for both power production and the environmental conditions is even higher. The principle for win-win situations will be drawn and some examples of this will be shown. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of hydropower development in the River Surna in Mid-Norway, several options are investigated to optimize the mitigation. In the section with reduced flow, a small hydropower plant may release diverted water back into the river. The amount and timing of flow released through the small hydropower plant are studied to increase fish production. Fish growth in summer is affected by cold water release from the reservoir, and several alternative intake solutions are investigated in order to increase fish growth. Due to hydro operations, potential stranding of fish are investigated. Results will also include the cost and gains of each alternative. Scenarios of climate change and possible changes in air temperature, water temperature and discharge in the regulated river Orkla in Norway was studied in order to predict possible impacts on Atlantic salmon (salmo salar) populations. Results indicates increased hydropower production, less spill of water, higher discharge in winter, reduced periods with surface ice cover, higher water temperature in spring and early summer, increased energy consumption in salmon and then higher mortality in winter, increased growth of salmon during spring and better conditions for fish migration in regulated rivers. The overall results indicates increased production of energy and salmon. (Author)

Harby, Atle; Forseth, Torbjoern

2010-07-01

139

The impact of spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters - Monte Carlo calculations using SITE-94 data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, several issues related to the probabilistic methodology for performance assessments of repositories for high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel are addressed. Random Monte Carlo sampling is used to make uncertainty analyses for the migration of four nuclides and a decay chain in the geosphere. The nuclides studied are cesium, chlorine, iodine and carbon, and radium from a decay chain. A procedure is developed to take advantage of the information contained in the hydrogeological data obtained from a three-dimensional discrete fracture model as the input data for one-dimensional transport models for use in Monte Carlo calculations. This procedure retains the original correlations between parameters representing different physical entities, namely, between the groundwater flow rate and the hydrodynamic dispersion in fractured rock, in contrast with the approach commonly used that assumes that all parameters supplied for the Monte Carlo calculations are independent of each other. A small program is developed to allow the above-mentioned procedure to be used if the available three-dimensional data are scarce for Monte Carlo calculations. The program allows random sampling of data from the 3-D data distribution in the hydrogeological calculations. The impact of correlations between the groundwater flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion on the uncertainty associated with the output distribution of the radionuclides' peak releases is studied. It is shown that for the SITE-94 data, this impact can be disregarded. A global sensitivity analysis is also performed on the peak releases of the radionuclides studied. The results of these sensitivity analyses, using several known statistical methods, show discrepancies that are attributed to the limitations of these methods. The reason for the difficulties is to be found in the complexity of the models needed for the predictions of radionuclide migration, models that deliver results covering variation of several orders of magnitude. Correlations between parameters also make it difficult to separate the contribution from each parameter on the output. Finally, it is concluded that even in cases where correlations between parameters can be disregarded for the sake of the uncertainty analysis, they cannot be disregarded in the sensitivity analysis of the results. A new approach for global sensitivity analysis based on neural networks has been developed and tested on results for the peak releases of caesium. Promising results have been obtained by this method, which is robust and can tackle results from non-linear models even when there are correlations between parameters. This represents a considerable improvement over the capabilities of the commonly used traditional statistical methods.

Pereira, A.; Broed, R. [AlbaNova Univ. Center, Stockholm (Sweden). Stockholm Center for Physics Astronomy and Biotechnology

2002-03-01

140

Hydropower resources at risk: The status of hydropower regulation and development - 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents today`s hydropower licensing and development status based on published data as follows: (a) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) databases, maintained by FERC`s Office of Hydropower Licensing, of: (1) operating FERC-regulated projects, federal projects, and known unlicensed projects; (2) surrendered licenses; and, (3) recent licensing and relicensing actions; (b) Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on installed capacity and generation from 1949 through 1995 for the various resources used to produce electricity in the U.S.; and, (c) FERC licensing orders, and environmental assessments or environmental impact statements for each individual project relicensed since 1980. The analysis conducted to prepare this paper includes the effects of all FERC hydropower licensing actions since 1980, and applies those findings to estimate the costs of hydropower licensing and development activity for the next 15 years. It also quantifies the national cost of hydropower regulation. The future estimates are quite conservative. The are presented in 1996 dollars without speculating on the effects of future inflation, license surrenders, conditions imposed through open-ended license articles, license terms greater than 30 years, or low water years. Instead, they show the most directly predictable influences on licensing outcomes using actual experiences since ECPA (after 1986).

Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.A. [Richard Hunt Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1997-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Site-specific analysis of radiological and physical parameters for cobbly soils at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remedial action at the Gunnison, Colorado, processing site is being performed under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 [Public Law (PL) 95-6041]. Under UMTRCA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged with the responsibility of developing appropriate and applicable standards for the cleanup of radiologically contaminated land and buildings at 24 designated sites, including the Gunnison, Colorado, inactive processing site. The remedial action at the processing site will be conducted to remove the tailings and contaminated materials to meet the EPA bulk soil cleanup standards for surface and subsurface soils. The site areas disturbed by remedial action excavation will be either contoured or backfilled with radiologically uncontaminated soil and contoured to restore the site. The final contours will produce a final surface grade that will create positive drainage from the site

1993-01-01

142

Influence of the operation of small hydropower station on the communities of selected groups of macrozoobenthos (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera) of the submountain section of Hucava river (Polana Mts., Slovakia) - preliminary results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of a small hydropower station on communities of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) was studied in the metarhithral section of Hucava stream. Natural flow (Hucava 1 = reference site) was compared with reduced flow (Hucava 2) and peak flow regime (Hucava 3). We have not found significant reduction of the number of taxa and indices of diversity and equitability at sites affected by operation of the hydropower station. Stoneflies were the only group that showed the expected decrease. Relative changes (%) in density of studied groups at affected sites also did not support the assumption of an adverse effect of the small hydropower station. (authors)

2003-06-01

143

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail

2001-01-01

144

Seismic Microzonation Based on Geotechnical Parameters - Estimation of Site Effects in Bucharest (Romania)  

Science.gov (United States)

Romania frequently is hit by strong intermediate depth earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea area in the SE Carpathians. During the 20th century four major earthquakes (moment magnitudes between MW = 6.9 and MW = 7.7) occurred in this region which strongly affected the Romanian capital Bucharest (1.9 mio. inhabitants). Due to the large hypocentral distance between the Vrancea area and Bucharest (approx. 160 km) influences of source directivity and travel path effects are assumed to be constant in the entire city. Therefore significant lateral variations in ground motion must be caused by site effects, related to near-surface geology, mainly dominated by large alluvial and diluvial deposits and anthropogenic backfill. The objective of this study, which is part of the German Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 461 `Strong Earthquakes: A Challenge for Geosciences and Civil Engineering', is to quantify the local influence of site effects on earthquake triggered ground motion and to generate a microzonation map of Bucharest. At first a numerical modelling of ground response was performed by using one-dimensional linear-elastic approaches and geotechnical data, derived from the digital geological subsurface model. The analysis of ground motion was carried out at discrete points. For these raster dots the transfer functions were computed and parameterised by characteristic shake parameters (e. g. dominant frequencies, peak amplifications or spectral amplifications at characteristic frequencies). After spatial interpolation of the computed values these parameters could be presented in continuous microzonation maps. Further the surficial ground motion was computed using a novel (visco-) hypoplastic constitutive law that also takes non-linear soil behaviour into account. The results of both approaches were compared with each other and indicate, that the consideration of non-linear effects is required to get more realistic results for the microzonation.

Ehret, D.; Hannich, D.

2004-12-01

145

Hydropower plants in Thuringia; Wasserkraftwerke in Thueringen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Especially due to the existing difference in height and due the higher rainfall, the Federal State Thuringia (Federal Republic of Germany) offers the natural conditions or the utilization of regenerative pumped-storage power plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the development of the hydropower utilization in the last 100 years. Due to historical aspects, the author differentiates between the development before the year 1945, between 1945 and 1990 as well as the development subsequent to the year 1991.

Rindelhardt, Udo

2013-02-01

146

Estimation of soil petrophysical parameters from resistivity data: Application to oil-contaminated site characterization  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish El método Sondeo Eléctrico Vertical (SEV), conocido desde 1912, ha cambiado sustancialmente durante los últimos 10 años, apareciendo una nueva tecnología llamada Imagen de Resistividad (IR) con interpretación 2D de los datos de resistividad. Otra vía posible de desarrollo del método SEV es, partiend [...] o de las relaciones existentes entre la resistividad eléctrica y los parámetros petrofísicos (PP), estimar estos últimos a partir de datos de IR. Para la realización práctica de este concepto fue desarrollada la teoría del problema directo e inverso que relaciona la resistividad eléctrica con los PP. Cada trabajo de campo deberá incluir un levantamiento de SEV (IR), mediciones de resistividad eléctrica del agua subterránea con el objetivo de determinar su salinidad y la recolección de algunas muestras representativas de suelo del sitio con mediciones hechas en laboratorio de la resistividad eléctrica como función de la salinidad del agua de poro, creando el modelo petrofísico del suelo de este sitio. Esta tecnología puede ser utilizada tanto para la caracterización de sitios limpios como contaminados por hidrocarburos. Para el caso de sitios contaminados, los valores de los PP determinados en laboratorio, salinidad de agua y los datos de IR, permiten establecer la frontera petrofísica entre suelo limpio y contaminado, y por consiguiente, configurar la pluma contaminante. En este trabajo se incluyen, como ejemplos prácticos, los resultados de la aplicación de esta tecnología en algunos sitios contaminados por hidrocarburos en México. Abstract in english Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, known from 1912, has changed greatly during the last 10 years, into a new technology named Resistivity Imaging (RI) with 2D data interpretation. Another possible development for VES method is estimating petrophysical parameters (PP) from RI data, using the [...] relationship between electrical resistivity and PP. In order to reach this purpose, the theory of the forward and inverse problem that relates the electrical resistivity with PP was developed. Each field survey should include a VES (RI) survey, groundwater resistivity measurements in order to determine the groundwater salinity, and collecting some representative soil samples in the study site for resistivity measurements as function of pore water salinity in laboratory, creating a soil petrophysical model of the site. This technology can be used for the characterization of uncontaminated and oil contaminated sites. For the case of contaminated site PP values determined in laboratory, groundwater salinity and RI data help to define the petrophysical boundary between contaminated and uncontaminated soil, and consequently, to obtain the contamination plume. In this work, the results of the application of this technology in some hydrocarbon contaminated sites in Mexico are presented.

Vladimir, Shevnin; Omar, Delgado Rodríguez; Aleksandr, Mousatov; David, Flores Hernández; Héctor, Zegarra Martínez; Albert, Ryjov.

147

HIGH-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS AND SOURCE PARAMETERS OF MICROEARTHQUAKES RECORDED AT HARD-ROCK SITES.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have estimated the source parameters of 53 microearthquakes recorded in July 1983 which were aftershocks of the Miramichi, New Brunswick, earthquake that occurred on 9 January 1982. These events were recorded by local three-component digital seismographs at 400 sps/component from 2-Hz velocity transducers sited directly on glacially scoured crystalline basement outcrop. Hypocentral distances are typically less than 5 km, and the hypocenters and the seven digital seismograph stations established all lie essentially within the boundaries of a granitic pluton that encompasses the faults that ruptured during the main shock and major aftershocks. The P-wave velocity is typically 5 km/sec at the surface and at least 6 km/sec at depths greater than about 1 km. The events have S-wave corner frequencies in the band 10 to 40 Hz, and the calculated Brune model seismic moments range from 10**1**5 to 10**1**8 dyne-cm. The corresponding stress drops are generally less than 1. 0 bars, but there is considerable evidence that the seismic-source signals have been modified by propagation and/or site-effects.

Cranswick, Edward; Wetmiller, Robert; Boatwright, John

1985-01-01

148

Pumped-storage with small hydropower – an option?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contributes towards exploring the technical and institutional feasibility of small hydropower storage and pumped-storage schemes in Switzerland. Within the European and Swiss context of the facilitation of renewable energy technologies, which includes small hydropower (SHP), intermittent sources such as solar and wind increase the need for additional energy storage capacities. Hydropower pumped-storage schemes remain the most efficient and profitable option to “store” electrici...

2011-01-01

149

Reliability validation of hydropower units of high-head developments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout the development of the hydropower special attention was paid to the formation of a theoretical framework and methods of parameters and operating modes of powerhouses study. Under current design standards mathematical modeling of powerhouse is performed in two-dimensional for the axisymmetric problem. Up to now this method of simulation in Russia is the determining, although it has long lagged behind the capabilities of modern universal software of finite element analysis.The article presents analysis of the mathematical modeling methods for powerhouses of high-head hydroelectric power plants. Statement of the problem of three-dimensional modeling of the object – powerhouse is given. The procedure for multilayer three-dimensional modeling of water-conveyance conduits is presented. Outlined are the advantages of detailed numerical models of powerhouses in the context of their reliability verification.

G.L. Kozinets

2012-08-01

150

Water: resources management under conflicting objectives: hydropower versus national park  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower plays an essential role in the Austrian energy supply. About two thirds of the electric consumption are covered by hydropower generation. The objective of this paper is to analyse a pending conflict between hydropower utilisation and environmental concerns along the Austrian section of the Danube downstream of Vienna. In the first step the utilizable hydropower potential of the respective section and the environmental impacts are assessed. In a subsequent step a framework is elaborated to compare and to trade off economic and environmental objectives. Such a procedure requires preference values and is thus subjected to subjectivity, introduced either by decision makers or by involved parties. (author)

1994-04-25

151

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. I: Overview and atmospherical parameters vertical stratification on [0-20] km  

CERN Document Server

We present the overview of the MOSE project (MOdeling ESO Sites) aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of the classical atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence OT (CN2 profiles and the most relevant integrated astro-climatic parameters derived from the CN2: the seeing, the isoplanatic angle, the wavefront coherence time) above the two ESO ground-based sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. The final outcome of the study is to investigate the opportunity to implement an automatic system for the forecast of these parameters at these sites. In this paper we present results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the vertical stratification of the atmospherical parameters along the 20 km above the ground. The very satisfactory performances shown by the model in reconstructing most of these parameters (and in particular the wind speed) put this tool of investigation as the most suitable to be used in as...

Masciadri, E; Fini, L

2013-01-01

152

Next Generation Hydropower Technology: Available, Economical, Quickly Deployed, While Minimizing The Impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kinetic Energy Recovery Turbine TREK technology is an innovative technology that will convert a fraction of the kinetic energy contained in rivers currents. The TREK technology targets sites that cannot be economically, technically or environmentally developed using conventional hydropower technologies (i.e. hydroelectric dams). The TREK is expected to deliver renewable base load electricity at a competitive cost compared to other renewable energy options. The technology can also be used to provide dispatchable and remote electricity.

Hamad, Imad

2010-09-15

153

Experiments and simulations of the flow velocity distribution downstream the Xiluodu hydropower station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower is a more environmental friendly way of producing electric power than many other alternatives today. Though, the effects of constructing mega dams are much tangible for the local eco systems in addition to changing many people’s lives forever. In order to prevent floods, riverbank erosions or landslides, proper investigations of the environmental impact from dam constructions must be performed. One of the key parameters in such investigations is the flow discharge velocity. This ...

Bra?nd, Emelie; Olofsson, Ann-mari

2011-01-01

154

21st century Himalayan hydropower: Growing exposure to glacial lake outburst floods?  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary energy demand in China and India has increased fivefold since 1980. To avoid power shortages and blackouts, the hydropower infrastructure in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region is seeing massive development, a strategy supported by the policy of the World Bank and in harmony with the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. The targeted investments in clean energy from water resources, however, may trigger far-reaching impacts to downstream communities given that hydropower projects are planned and constructed in close vicinity to glaciated areas. We hypothesize that the location of these new schemes may be subject to higher exposure to a broad portfolio of natural hazards that proliferate in the steep, dissected, and tectonically active topography of the Himalayas. Here we focus on the hazard from glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF), and offer an unprecedented regional analysis for the Hindu Kush-Himalaya orogen. We compiled a database of nearly 4,000 proglacial lakes that we mapped from satellite imagery; and focus on those as potential GLOF sources that are situated above several dozen planned and existing hydropower plants. We implemented a scenario-based flood-wave propagation model of hypothetic GLOFs, and compared thus simulated peak discharges with those of the local design floods at the power plants. Multiple model runs confirm earlier notions that GLOF discharge may exceed meteorological, i.e. monsoon-fed, flood peaks by at least an order of magnitude throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. We further show that the current trend in hydropower development near glaciated areas may lead to a >15% increase of projects that may be impacted by future GLOFs. At the same time, the majority of the projects are to be sited where outburst flood modelling produces its maximum uncertainty, highlighting the problem of locating minimum risk sites for hydropower. Exposure to GLOFs is not uniformly distributed in the Himalayas, and is particularly high in rivers draining the Mt. Everest and Lulana regions of Nepal and Bhutan, respectively. Together with the dense, cascading sequence of hydropower stations along several river networks in these areas, the combination of GLOFs and artificial reservoirs in steep terrain may result in increasing threats to downstream communities. Hydropower stations are infrastructural investments with minimum design lives of several decades, and our results suggest that their planning should be orchestrated with projected changes in glacier response to future climate change. Our data underline the preponderance of glacial lakes in areas with high glacial retreat rates and a commensurate exposure of hydropower stations to GLOFs. To ensure sustainable water resources use at minimum risk implications for on-site downstream communities, potential changes in GLOF hazard should be taken seriously when planning hydropower stations in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya.

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

155

Influence of meteorological parameters on seasonal pan evaporation at KKNPP site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moisture in the atmosphere plays a significant role in weather and climate that is commonly treated separately from the other constituents of air. Evaporation of water from free water surface is influenced by a number of meteorological variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation. It also depends upon other variables such as, geographical location, season, time of day, etc. These variables have been known for a long time, but their evaluation is rather complex, due to their interdependent effects. In this paper, meteorological variables influencing seasonal evaporation in tropical region were examined for 6 years (2004-2009) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Site. The results of correlation and regression analysis revealed that in winter season, relative humidity is the most influencing parameter on pan evaporation rate, which affected negatively. Ambient air temperature, solar radiation and wind velocity are the main variables which show positive correlation in summer season. In south west monsoon, ambient air temperature and wind velocity are the most influential variables. In addition to that, all the four seasons, solar radiation plays significant role and positively correlated with pan evaporation. During north east monsoon, only solar radiation showed its influence on evaporation

2012-01-01

156

Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr. [Voith Hydro, Inc. (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

157

User's Guide Virtual Hydropower Prospector Version 1.1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a web-based geographic information system (GIS) application for displaying U.S. water energy resource sites on hydrologic region maps. The application assists the user in locating sites of interest and performing preliminary, development feasibility assessments. These assessments are facilitated by displaying contextual features in addition to the water energy resource sites such as hydrograpy, roads, power infrastructure, populated places, and land use and control. This guide provides instructions for operating the application to select what features are displayed and the extent of the map view. It also provides tools for selecting features of particular interest and displaying their attribute information.

Douglas G. Hall; Sera E. White; Julie A. Brizzee; Randy D. Lee

2005-11-01

158

Geothermal and hydropower production in Iceland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the impact of current and future development of geothermal and hydropower production on the economy of Iceland. Natural conditions in Iceland favor the increased utilization and development of both of these abundant power sources. The mean surface run-off in Iceland is about 50 l/s/km2 (liters per second per square kilometer), with a large part of the country consisting of a plateau more than 400 meters above sea level. More than half of the country is above 500 meters above sea level. ne technically harnessable hydropower potential is estimated at 64 TWh/year (terawatthours per year), of which 30 TWh/year is considered economically and environmentally harnessable. In addition, Iceland has abundant geothermal energy sources. A quarter of the entire country is a volcanic area. Keeping in mind that geothermal resources are not strictly renewable, it is estimated that the potential power production from this source is 20 TWh/year. Present utilization of these two resources totals only 4.2 TWh/year, or only about 8% of Iceland's aggregate potential. There are many issues facing Iceland today as it considers development opportunities utilizing both of these abundant power supplies. This paper will first consider the technical aspects of both hydropower and geothermal power production in Iceland. Then, the economic consequences of alternative utilization of these energy sources will be evaluated. The first alternative to be considered will be the direct export of power by HVDC submarine cable to other countries, such as Scotland or the United Kingdom. Iceland could, as a second alterative, concentrate its efforts on bringing in energy intensive industries into the country

1993-05-01

159

The Buchholz small hydro-power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short, illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the commissioning of a small hydro-power installation on the Glatt river, Eastern Switzerland after more than 90 years of downtime. The authors state that the hydro-plant meets all requirements regarding nature conservancy, flood protection and ecology (river continuum for fish). The construction of the plant, which features a dam-integrated powerhouse, is described, as is a novel means of allowing fish to pass the dam. The work done in rebuilding the installation is documented in a series of photographs

2007-01-01

160

Temporary bottlenecks, hydropower and acquisitions in networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to study the effects of an acquisition in an energy system dominated by hydropower and with temporary bottlenecks. We apply a model with four markets: two regions and two time periods. It is shown that an acquisition has an ambiguous effect on welfare. In some instances it would lead to larger differences in prices between different markets, which would lead to an increase in the dead weight loss. In other instances an acquisition would lead to a reduction in pr...

Skaar, Jostein; Sørgard, Lars

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Hydropower System Management Considering the Minimum Outflow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the operating rules of the Grijalva River hydropower serial system obtained by means of stochastic dynamic programming and its subsequent simulation using historical records and synthetic series. Penalties in spills and deficit were considered in optimum policies. During simulation several restrictions were added to the original problem, particularly to ensure minimum outflow so as to guarantee the ecological river flow, which enables operators to adjust energy at daily demands peak and consider the existing autocorrelation between biweekly volume data.

M. L. Arganis

2008-01-01

162

Lock and Dam 7 Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. Reconnaissance report for hydropower. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the addition of hydropower at the existing navigation Lock and Dam 7. The study shows that installation of a hydro plant with a 4,800-kW (kilowatt) or 7,200-kW nameplate rating is economical. Pertinent data concerning the site and two optional installations are given. Severe environmental impacts do not appear to be associated with construction of a plant of the sizes investigated despite the proximity of the lock and dam to an environmentally sensitive area. The District Engineer recommends that the Corps of Engineers prepare a feasibility report which can serve as a basis for congressional authorization for hydropower plant construction at Lock and Dam 7.

1980-12-01

163

Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-01-01

164

Using Conventional Hydropower to Help Alleviate Variable Resource Grid Integration Challenges in the Western U.S  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating high penetration levels of wind and solar energy resources into the power grid is a formidable challenge in virtually all interconnected systems due to the fact that supply and demand must remain in balance at all times. Since large scale electricity storage is currently not economically viable, generation must exactly match electricity demand plus energy losses in the system as time unfolds. Therefore, as generation from variable resources such as wind and solar fluctuate, production from generating resources that are easier to control and dispatch need to compensate for these fluctuations while at the same time respond to both instantaneous change in load and follow daily load profiles. The grid in the Western U.S. is not exempt to grid integration challenges associated with variable resources. However, one advantage that the power system in the Western U.S. has over many other regional power systems is that its footprint contains an abundance of hydropower resources. Hydropower plants, especially those that have reservoir water storage, can physically change electricity production levels very quickly both via a dispatcher and through automatic generation control. Since hydropower response time is typically much faster than other dispatchable resources such as steam or gas turbines, it is well suited to alleviate variable resource grid integration issues. However, despite an abundance of hydropower resources and the current low penetration of variable resources in the Western U.S., problems have already surfaced. This spring in the Pacific Northwest, wetter than normal hydropower conditions in combination with transmission constraints resulted in controversial wind resource shedding. This action was taken since water spilling would have increased dissolved oxygen levels downstream of dams thereby significantly degrading fish habitats. The extent to which hydropower resources will be able to contribute toward a stable and reliable Western grid is currently being studied. Typically these studies consider the inherent flexibility of hydropower technologies, but tend to fall short on details regarding grid operations, institutional arrangements, and hydropower environmental regulations. This presentation will focus on an analysis that Argonne National Laboratory is conducting in collaboration with the Western Area Power Administration (Western). The analysis evaluates the extent to which Western's hydropower resources may help with grid integration challenges via a proposed Energy Imbalance Market. This market encompasses most of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council footprint. It changes grid operations such that the real-time dispatch would be, in part, based on a 5-minute electricity market. The analysis includes many factors such as site-specific environmental considerations at each of its hydropower facilities, long-term firm purchase agreements, and hydropower operating objectives and goals. Results of the analysis indicate that site-specific details significantly affect the ability of hydropower plant to respond to grid needs in a future which will have a high penetration of variable resources.

Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L.

2011-12-01

165

A model of the environmental impacts of hydropower projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to create a model of the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects in Finland. To illustrate the effects of hydropower projects a checklist in the form of matrice was constructed. In this matrice all issues that could be significant in future hydropower projects were collected. Stable physical environmental changes are the starting-point for this matrice. The temporary change of hydropower constructions have also been under consideration. These are mainly environmental changes during construction. In chapter two the effects of hydropower modernization and extension projects physical environmental changes were examined. In chapter three the matrice was applied to some example cases. The cases were chosen to represent future hydropower projects. In addition these example cases represent urban areas, rural areas and uninhabited areas. The example cases were the extension of Tainionkoski hydropower plant at Vuoksi river, the modernization of Aeetsae power plant at Kokemaeenjoki river, the modernization of Stadsfors power plant at Lapuanjoki river in the centre of Uusikaarlepyy town and the construction of Kaitfors power plant at Perhonjoki river. Conclusions from usability of the model can be drawn on the ground of the example cases. The purpose of the model is to produce a checklist of estimated environmental effects in hydropower project of various kinds. Examination of issues within the model depends on local circumstances. Endangered animal and plant species, for example, can be studied and estimated only if endangered animal and plant species exist in the area of hydropower plant. Furthermore, the direction and extent of environmental effects depend on the local circumstances. The model is mainly a checklist of environmental effects caused by hydropower plant projects

1992-01-01

166

Hydroelectric power in Hawaii. A report on the statewide survey of potential hydroelectric sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An assessment was made of the hydropower potential in Hawaii. The major conclusion of this study is that hydropower resources in the State of Hawaii are substantial, and they offer the potential for major increases in hydropower generating capacity. Hydropower resources on all islands total about 50 MW of potential generating capacity. Combined with the 18 MW of existing hydropower capacity, hydropower resources potentially could generate about 307 million kWh of electric energy annually. This represents about 28% of the present combined electricity needs of the Neighbor Islands, Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and the Big Island. Hydropower resources on Kauai equal 72% of that island's electricity needs; on Molokai, 40%, on the Big Island, 20%; and on Maui, 18%. The island of Oahu, however, has only small hydropower resources, and could only generate a negligible portion of its electricity needs from this energy source. A summary of existing and future (potential) hydropower capacities and estimated annual outputs for each island is presented. How much of the potential capacity is being actively considered for development and how much is only tentatively proposed at the time is indicated. The economics of hydropower at specific sites were analyzed. The major conclusion of this analysis is that hydropower development costs vary widely among the different sites, but that generally the cost of hydroelectric power is either less than or comparable to the cost of oil-fired power.

Beck, C. A.

1981-02-01

167

A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

?ofia Kuzevi?ová

2013-12-01

168

Hydro-power potential of Slovakia and its environmental constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Slovak energy production sector has been utilising renewable energy sources for decades in a hydro-power form. The hydro-power plants produce approximately one sixth of electric energy (16 percent). According to the original conception of utilisation of the Danube River 7.361 GWh/year of usable primary hydro-power potential could be used. The current conception considers utilisation of 6,608 GWh/year. At present time approximately 3, 799 GWh are produced in existing hydro-power plants, what means that hydro-power potential of the country is used only on 57.5 percent. Existing development programmes included in the energy policy consider a growth of production by 671.3 GWh/year by 2001, i.e. by 0.2 percent. It means that use of hydro-power will reach a level of 67.7 percent. This number is approaching to level of hydro-power use in developed countries of Europe

2001-01-01

169

Groundwater numerical modelling of the Fjaellveden study site - evaluation of parameter variations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sensitivity/uncertainty of the hydraulic conductivity distribution in crystalline rocks is considered at the Fjaellveden study site - a site included in the Swedish site selection programme for final storage of spent nuclear fuel. A three-dimensional FEM-model assuming steady-state flow with constant fluid properties under saturated conditions is used. The bedrock of the site is divided into three hydraulic units; rock mass, local and regional fracture zones. The data set of hydraulic conductivity of each unit has been treated statistically in various ways, reflecting different aspects of the physical conditions of the site. A total of nine cases have been prepared, all based on 214 data points. (orig./HP)

1987-01-01

170

Legal problems of hydropower: noise of hydropower stations; Rechtsfragen um die Wasserkraft: Geraeuschimmissionen von Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. jur. Wilhelm Buerstedde, attorney at law, discusses noise problems of hydropower plants, which luckily apply only to the few plants located in the immediate vicinity of domestic buildings. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag befasst sich der versierte Rechtsanwalt Dr. jur. Wilhelm Buerstedde mit Schall- und Immissionsschutzfragen im Zusammenhang mit Waserkraftwerken. Nachdem Wasserkraftanlagen weitgehend immissionsfrei arbeiten, betrifft das Thema in der Regel nur wenige Prozent von Anlagen, welche sich in unmittelbarer Naehe von Wohnhaeusern befinden bzw. sogar mit diesenzusammengebaut sind. (orig.)

Buerstedde, W.

2002-07-01

171

Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

2008-09-08

172

Design of a reliable and low-cost stand-alone micro hydropower station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stand-alone micro-hydropower station was presented. The plant was comprised of a squirrel cage induction machine coupled to a Kaplan water turbine. Power converters were used to control the variable frequency and voltage outputs of the generator caused by variations in water flow. The hydropower plant was installed a farm in the Kwazulu-Natal region of South Africa, and was designed to provide electricity in relation to the low power demand of users in the region as well as according to the site's hydrology and topology. Load forecasts for the 8 houses using the system were conducted. A generator with a higher output than the average power needed to feed the load was selected in order to ensure load supply during peak demand. The system was designed to shore energy generated during off-peak periods in batteries. An AC-DC-AC converter was used as an interface between the generator and the load in order to ensure voltage and frequency stabilization. Simulations of plant components were conducted to demonstrate output power supply during water flow variations. Results of the modelling study indicated that power converters are needed to stabilize generator outputs. The hydropower design is a cost-effective means of supplying power to low-income households. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

Kusakana, K.; Munda, J.L. [Tshwane Univ. of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

2008-07-01

173

Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

2012-12-01

174

MOSE: optical turbulence and atmospherical parameters operational forecast at ESO ground-based sites. II: atmospherical parameters in the surface layer [0-30] m  

CERN Document Server

This article is the second of a series of articles aiming at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity) and the optical turbulence (Cn2 and the derived astro-climatic parameters like seeing, isoplanatic angle, wavefront coherence time...). This study is done in the framework of the MOSE project, and focused above the two ESO ground-bases sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones. In this paper we present the results related to the Meso-Nh model ability in reconstructing the surface layer atmospherical parameters (wind speed intensity, wind direction and absolute temperature, [0-30] m a.g.l.). The model reconstruction of all the atmospherical parameters in the surface layer is very satisfactory. For the temperature, at all levels, the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is inferior to 1{\\deg}C. For the wind speed, it is ~2 m/s, and for the wind direction, it is in the ran...

Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

2013-01-01

175

Hydro-power and its ecological implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydro-power is not only one of the oldest energy sources of man but played also a significant role for his cultural development. During the Antique Age water-puma, watermills and other water driven engines and instruments such as the water-organ and water clocks reached a high level of sophistication. Along with the fast expansion of watermills ecological impacts started during the Middle Ages, when the construction of millstreams and even the damming of lakes became significant activities. The critical change from local towards regional environmental impact, however, started only in connection with hydroelectric power engineering and comprises mainly the period since 1940. Its ecological, socioeconomic and even seismic consequences are underlined and described in this paper: It will be, however, demonstrated that the most unexpected positive ecological outcome from certain constructions of hydroelectric power-plants did also occur. (author)

1994-04-25

176

Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute's nuclear research facilities are currently being maintained in a surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) mode with continual decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) activities being conducted under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract W-7405-ENG-92. These activities are referred to under the Contract as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations referenced in this report are performed in support of S ampersand M and D ampersand D activities. Battelle's King Avenue facility is not considered in this report to the extent that the West Jefferson facility is. The source term at the King Avenue site is a small fraction of the source term at the West Jefferson site. Off site levels of radionuclides that could be attributed to the west Jefferson and King Avenue nuclear operations wereindistinguishable from background levels at specific locations where air, water, and direct radiation measurements were performed. Environmental monitoring continued to demonstrate compliance by Battelle with federal, state and local regulations. Routine, nonradiological activities performed include monitoring liquid effluents and monitoring the ground water system for the West Jefferson North site. Samples of various environmental media including air, water, grass, fish, field and garden crops, sediment and soil were collected from the region surrounding the two sites and analyzed

1995-01-01

177

Value of Stochasticity in Hydropower Planning Optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With respect to market liberalization, efficient use of resources is becoming more important for players in the market. In order to achieve that different optimization techniques were developed which enable better operational efficiency. These techniques can be segmented into two different categories, depending on their time horizon: • Yearly time horizon – mid-term hydropower scheduling • Daily time horizon – short-term hydropower scheduling These two time horizons account for two ca...

2012-01-01

178

Hydropower engineering. Paper no. IGEC-1-005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower. (author)

2005-06-12

179

Hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When talking about renewable energy sources today, the most important and economical energy sources for Turkey are hydropower and biomass.The present study gives a review of production, consumption, and economics of hydropower and biomass as renewable energy sources in Turkey. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 36% of the economically usable potential of the country could be tapped. On the other hand, biomass (wood and wastes) energy is the second most important renewable energy source for Turkey. However, the biomass energy sources of Turkey are limited. In 1998, the biomass share of the total energy consumption of the country is 10%. In this study, the potential of important biomass energy sources and animal solid wastes of the country were determined. The effects of hydropower and biomass usage on the environment were also discussed. Considering total cereal products and fatty seed plants, approximately 50-60 million tons per year of biomass and 8-10 million tons of solid matter animal waste are produced, and 70% of total biomass is seen as being usable for energy. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important potential for hydropower and biomass energy sources in Turkey. (author)

Kaygusuz, K.

2001-10-15

180

Simultaneous inversion of source spectra, attenuation parameters and site responses. Application to the data of the French Accelerometric Network.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Displacement spectra of earthquakes recorded by the French accelerometric network at regional scale are modeled as the product of source, propagation (including geometric and anelastic attenuation), and site effects. We use an iterative Gauss–Newton inversion to solve the nonlinear problem and retrieve these different terms. This method is easy to implement because the partial derivatives of the amplitude spectrum with respect to the different parameters have simple analytic forms. After co...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

BCLDP site environmental report for calendar year 1997 on radiological and nonradiological parameters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Battelle Memorial Institute currently maintains its retired nuclear research facilities in a surveillance and maintenance (S and M) mode and continues decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities. The activities are referred to as the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP). Operations reference in this report are performed in support of S and M and D and D activities. The majority of this report is devoted to discussion of the West Jefferson facility, because the source term at this facility is larger than the source term at Battelle's King Avenue site. The contamination found at the King Avenue site consists of small amounts of residual radioactive material in solid form, which has become embedded or captured in nearby surfaces such as walls, floors, ceilings, drains, laboratory equipment, and soils. By the end of calendar year (CY) 1997, most remediation activities were completed at the King Avenue site. The contamination found at the West Jefferson site is the result of research and development activities with irradiated materials. During CY 1997, multiple tests at the West Jefferson Nuclear Sciences Area found no isotopes present above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for air releases or for liquid discharges to Big Darby Creek. Data obtained from downstream sampling locations were statistically indistinguishable from background levels

1998-01-01

182

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

None

1979-07-01

183

BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

2007-01-31

184

Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a fuzzy rating tool was developed for river-type hydropower plant projects, and risk assessment and expert judgments were utilized instead of probabilistic reasoning. The methodology is a multi-criteria decision analysis, which provides a flexible and easily understood way to analyze project risks. The external risks, which are partly under the control of companies, were considered in the model. A total of eleven classes of risk factors were determined based on the expert interviews, field studies and literature review as follows: site geology, land use, environmental issues, grid connection, social acceptance, macroeconomic, natural hazards, change of laws and regulations, terrorism, access to infrastructure and revenue. The relative importance of risk factors was determined from the survey results. The survey was conducted with the experts that have experience in the construction of river-type hydropower schemes. The survey results revealed that the site geology and environmental issues were considered as the most important risks. The new risk assessment method enabled a Risk Index (R) value to be calculated, establishing a 4-grade evaluation system. The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis to make decisions and it can prevent cost and schedule overruns. - Highlights: ? A new methodology is proposed for risk rating of river-type hydropower plant projects. ? The relative importance of the risk factors was determined from the expert judgments. ? The most concerned risks have been found as environmental issues and site geology. ? The proposed methodology was tested on a real case. ? The proposed risk analysis will give investors a more rational basis.

2011-10-01

185

Estimation of the seismic hazard parameters for various sites in Greece using a probabilistic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The probabilistic approach that was recently introduced by Kijko and Graham (1998,1999 was applied for the estimation of seismic hazard for various sites in Greece in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA and peak ground velocity (PGV. These sites represent geographically cities of Greece among which are the capital of Greece and some others with high, intermediate and low seismicity. The approach allows the use of earthquake catalogues with incomplete reported historical and complete instrumental data, the consideration of different magnitude thresholds, and the incorporation of magnitude uncertainties. One of the advantages of the method is that it does not require any determination of seismic zones. The estimated values of PGA for return periods of 476 years were grouped in 4 categories, the same ones used in the seismic hazard map for the New Seismic Code of Greece. Comparison results were quite interesting and very encouraging concerning the reliability of this probabilistic approach.

I. D. Banitsiotou

2004-01-01

186

Development of the methodology on priority of element-specific biosphere parameters for geological disposal applicable to any proposed repository site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult to acquire all of biosphere parameters for geological disposal at the repository site because several hundreds of the parameters have to be dealt with in one calculation case of the biosphere assessment. Before site-specific activities, it is important to develop the data acquisition methodology of biosphere parameters applicable to any proposed repository site. The methodology for identification of the priority of the parameters was developed for the effective data acquisition of biosphere parameters at the site. First of all, flow diagram was constructed to evaluate the availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset. It was found to be effective for the data acquisition at the site to focus on the element-specific parameters with the existing dataset. Secondly, the priority of the data acquisition was identified for element-specific parameters at the site, with considering the variation of dose rate by combining the significant element-specific parameters. The availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset and the priority on data acquisition were identified for the element-specific parameters of key radionuclides in the safety assessment of geological disposal that should be acquired at the site. This priority list would be useful for effective data acquisition at the site. (author)

2009-03-01

187

Estimating Parameters of Speciation Models Based on Refined Summaries of the Joint Site-Frequency Spectrum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the processes and conditions under which populations diverge to give rise to distinct species is a central question in evolutionary biology. Since recently diverged populations have high levels of shared polymorphisms, it is challenging to distinguish between recent divergence with no (or very low) inter-population gene flow and older splitting events with subsequent gene flow. Recently published methods to infer speciation parameters under the isolation-migration framework are ...

Tellier, Aure?lien; Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Haubold, Bernhard; Naduvilezhath, Lisha; Rose, Laura E.; Sta?dler, Thomas; Stephan, Wolfgang; Metzler, Dirk

2011-01-01

188

Estimating parameters of speciation models based on refined summaries of the joint site-frequency spectrum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the processes and conditions under which populations diverge to give rise to distinct species is a central question in evolutionary biology. Since recently diverged populations have high levels of shared polymorphisms, it is challenging to distinguish between recent divergence with no (or very low) inter-population gene flow and older splitting events with subsequent gene flow. Recently published methods to infer speciation parameters under the isolation-migration framework are ...

Tellier, Aure?lien; Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Haubold, Bernhard; Naduvilezhath, Lisha; Rose, Laura E.; Sta?dler, Thomas; Stephan, Wolfgang; Metzler, Dirk

2011-01-01

189

Diurnal variations of the Martian surface layer meteorological parameters during the first 45 sols at two Viking Lander sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind speed, ambient and surface temperatures from both Viking Landers have been used to compute bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov lengths during the earliest phase of the Mars missions. These parameters are used to estimate drag and heat transfer coefficients, friction velocities and surface heat fluxes at the two sites. The principal uncertainty is in the specification of the roughness length. Maximum heat fluxes occur near local noon at both sites, and are estimated to be in the range 15--20 W m-2 at the Viking 1 site and 10--15 W m-2 at the Viking 2 site. Maximum values of friction velocity occur in late morning at Viking 1 and are estimated to be 0.4--0.6 m s-1. They occur shortly after drawn at the Viking 2 site where peak values are estimated to be in the range 0.25--0.35 m s-1. Extension of these calculations to later times during the mission will require allowance for dust opacity effects in the estimation of surface temperature and in the correction of radiation errors of the Viking 2 temperature sensor

1978-01-01

190

Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus

1976-01-01

191

Final report on a calculational parameter study of soils typical of some ESSEX I cratering sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The one-dimensional computer calculations described in this report were performed to simulate stress-wave propagation and kinetic energy transfer associated with subsurface cratering detonations in soils. A hypothetical 20-ton-yield nuclear explosive was assumed as the energy source, surrounded by a single soil material. Various soil descriptions were selected in order to systematically study the range of soil response to the nuclear detonation. The soils were representative of the layered mixtures of sand and clay found at the ESSEX high-explosive cratering sites near Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Soil properties analyzed in this study include water saturation, bulk density, failure envelope, and low-pressure bulk modulus.

Goodrich, M.F.; Bryan, J.B.; Thomsen, J.M.; Snell, C.M.

1976-03-15

192

Can Hydropower Drive Green Economy for Nepal: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economy is of importance for everyone but the growing environmental destruction and disparity between the rich and poor demands adoption of cleaner and better path so as to secure the future resources and achieve sustainable development with better social inclusion. On this regard, the term “green economy” came into light. The Asian Center for Environment Management and Sustainable Development (AEMS then explored the “green economy” concept in Nepal through a regional workshop on May 2012 with participants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Canada, UK and Nepal. Consequently, the hydropower sector of Nepal was recognized as one of the most feasible and potential sector for green economy. Therefore, various case studies of hydropower projects, interaction programs and interviews with relevant personnel were carried out for this study to analyze the scope of hydropower in achieving the three important attributes of green economy, namely—resource efficiency, low carbon and social inclusion. Nepal is rich in water resources; it is therefore possible to use our abundant water resource in an efficient manner. Likewise, the end product of hydropower is clean energy though carbon emission is involved during the construction. It shows the potential to replace considerable amount of carbon emission from biomass based energy resources. Similarly, hydropower project exhibits positive implication on the local society besides making electricity available to the whole nation. The locals also get floating shares and royalty benefits to develop the project affected area. However, the affected areas now have minimal share in royalty. Besides, this study also addresses the issues of policy implication and challenges. All the relevant issues of hydropower as studied reveal that there are required provisions at place in Nepal for hydropower sector to fit perfectly in green economy concept, if only, the prevalent issues are handled efficiently and effectively by the relevant sectors.

Ajay B. Mathema

2013-07-01

193

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

1979-01-01

194

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

195

Translation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA: parameters influencing the selection of the internal initiation site  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The initiation of encephalomyocarditis virus translation is by internal ribosome entry exclusively at the 11th AUG codon from the 5'-end, which is the central of the three AUG codons in the sequence..ACGAUGAUAAUAUGGCCACAACCAUG.., and is located some 25 nt downstream from an oligopy rimidine tract conserved amongst related viruses. As the sequences between the oligopyrimidine tract and AUG-10/11 are poorly conserved and thus possibly serve only as a spacer, the influence of this spacer length on initiation frequency at the three AUG codons was examined in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of 11 residues resulted in initiation almost exclusively at AUG-12 but at significantly reduced overall efficiency. Insertion of eight residues caused a 15-fold increase in initiation frequency at AUG-10 and a decrease at AUG-11. Longer insertions reduced overall efficiency without changing the initiation site preferences. With the wild-type spacing, complete substitution of the oligopyrimidine tract by purines caused a 30-35% decrease in initiation efficiency, and partial substitution only a 10-15% decrease. Thus the internal initiation mechanism selects the initiation site partly on the basis of its distance from upstream elements, of which the oligopyrimidine tract is not the most critical, but for reasons not yet understood a preference for AUG-11 is superimposed on this selection.

Kaminski, A.; Belsham, Graham

1994-01-01

196

Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1964-2000 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological parameters at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is presented. The parameters examined for extreme value analysis are maximum wind speed at 120 m and gust, maximum and minimum surface air temperature, maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum and minimum rainfall in a year, and maximum rainfall in a month and a day along with intensity of rainfall averaged over 5 minutes. The period of observation for rainfall is 1964 -2000, while for other variables, it is 1980 -2000. From the extreme value analysis, it is observed that the variables for annual maximum rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, maximum temperature, maximum pressure and maximum hourly wind speed obey Fisher -Tippette type I distribution, whereas annual minimum rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, minimum temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure and gust (5 min. averaged maximum wind speed at 120m height) follow Fisher -Tippette type II distribution. Parameters of the distribution functions for each variable are established and occurrence of the extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are also derived. These derived extreme values are very useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure safety of any civil structure in the vicinity of RAPS site with respect to expected stresses due to climatic conditions. (author)

2003-01-01

197

MOSE: meso-scale prediction of near-ground meteorological parameters at ESO sites (Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the framework of the MOSE project, we present in this contribution a detailed analysis of the results obtained by comparison between Meso-NH numerical model simulations and measurements from in situ instruments. The important amount of meteorological data comes from in situ measurements from masts (distributed from the ground up to 30 m) and automatic weather stations (AWS). Parameters analyzed are wind speed, wind direction and temperature, at both sites. Different numerical set-up have been tested, with the highest model horizontal resolution equal to 100 m. A sample of 20 nights in 2007 have been simulated. Model outputs have been compared to the in situ measurements from masts and AWS. The Meso-NH model succeeded very well in reproducing the meteorological parameters near the surface. We obtained excellent results for both wind and temperature parameters. These very encouraging results proved that the model could be used in operational mode at ESO E-ELT site to forecast wind speed, wind direction and temperature with a good level of accuracy, for application to the telescope management. Among the most important applications we cite the near-ground temperature forecast fundamental for the thermalization of the dome and the wind forecast extremely useful to evaluate telescope and secondary mirror vibrations.

Lascaux, Franck; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

2013-12-01

198

Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

NONE

2001-07-01

199

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31

200

Geospatial Technology for Mapping Suitable Sites for Hydro Power Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydropower is one possible method of generating electric power close to potential consumers. The accessibility of the possible sites which are mostly located in rural and mountainous areas, large amount of data is required, consumes huge amount of money and time. Since small hydropower schemes, used to produce electrical energy which is benefited for nearby small towns, villages or small industries. Expensive ground investigations must be carefully targeted to the areas which are most likely to yield useful sites for hydropower development. In order to cope with these problems, the present study proposes the use of Geospatial Technology & Soil Water Analysis Tool (SWAT hydrological model to select the feasible sites of small hydropower projects. The study using the above methodology to identifies suitable site in Bennihalla catchment, for small scale hydropower development. The hydrological factors yield a map representing an overall feasible potential site for small hydropower development. In the present study sub catchment 1 and outlet of the catchment are more suitable for small scale hydropower plant.

Dr. Nagraj S. Patil

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Development of Hydropower in India: Between Global Norms and Local Actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower is an important source of renewable energy. At the same time hydropower projects are prone to adverse environmental and social impacts. This makes responsible hydropower development an important area of research. This thesis addresses the process governing hydropower development in India through an analysis of the importance of environment impact assessment (EIA) and EIA follow-up in the overall decision-making, existence of resettlement and rehabilitation (R&R) norms to mitigate s...

Choudhury, Nirmalya

2013-01-01

202

Two new hydro-power plants on the river Lahn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Main Power Utility (MKW) operates six hydro-power plants on the lower stretches of the Lahn, the total output is ca. 10 mw and the average annual generation amounts to 55 mill kwh. One of these plants, the Cramberg Power Plant, is owned by the lahn Power Utility which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the MKW. Under the stipulations of the 'Lahn Power Plants Agreement', drawn up in 1926, which forsees the installation of hydro-power plants during the canalisation of the Lahn, the Lahn Power Utility is constructing two identical plants for hydro-power at the existing Nassau and Dausenau dams. The operating rights of the plants are in the hands of the MKW. Due to their location in the Nassau natural park and the obligation not to change the flow characteristics of the Lahn or the existing sluices and locks, the design of these power plants was governed by extraordinary considerations. (orig.).

Friesenecker, F.; Brauer, G.

1986-03-03

203

Sustainable Hydropower Bulletin - Highlights for 31 May 2007  

... Hydropower Congress Concludes in Antalya Roger Gill, Vice President, IHA, Peter Rae, Chairman, International Renewable Energy Alliance, and Jürg Gerber, Chief Operating Officer, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, during the closing session. The International Hydropower Association (IHA) World Congress on ... Jürg Gerber, Chief Operating Officer, WBCSD, drew attention to the WBCSD's shared commitment to sustainable development. Rosalyn Hees, Transparency International, noted corruption's reputation risk, damage to internal corporate culture, and extra cost to business. Amanda Banks, Sustainable ... Closing Session Jürg Gerber, Chief Operating Officer, WBCSD, highlighted that IHA had initiated dialogue on a suggestion to convene a group on water, climate and hydropower. Peter Rae, Chairman, International Renewable Energy Alliance, noted discussions could have concentrated on ...

204

Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed-load transport rate by Meyer-Petter and Muller bed-load equation. As the results are small, the top set slope is fixed as half of the bed slope. The movement of delta pivot point was 6 and 9 Km for the years 1973 and 1994, respectively. (author)

2007-01-01

205

The Narcotrend Index: classification algorithm, correlation with propofol effect-site concentrations, and comparison with spectral parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reliable assessment of the depth of hypnosis during sedation and general anaesthesia using the EEG is a subject of current interest. The Narcotrend Index implemented in the latest version 4.0 of the EEG monitor Narcotrend provides an automatic classification of the EEG on a scale ranging from 100 (awake) to 0 (very deep hypnosis, EEG suppression). The classification algorithms implemented in the EEG monitor Narcotrend are described. In a study the correlation of the propofol effect-site concentration with the Narcotrend Index and with the traditional spectral parameters total power, relative power in the standard frequency bands delta, theta, alpha, and beta, median frequency, 95% spectral edge frequency, burst-compensated spectral edge frequency, and spectral entropy was investigated. The Narcotrend Index had the highest average correlation with the propofol effect-site concentration and the smallest variability of the individual correlation values. Moreover, the Narcotrend Index was the only parameter which showed a monophasic trend over the whole investigated time period. The Narcotrend monitor can make a significant contribution to the improvement of the quality of anaesthesia by adjusting the dosage of hypnotics to individual patient needs. PMID:15106896

Schultz, A; Grouven, U; Beger, F A; Schultz, B

2004-03-01

206

EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

2010-08-01

207

Bacterial Profiles and Physico-chemical Parameters of Water Samples from Different Sites of the New Calabar River, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were collected from three sites (Ogbakiri, Choba and Iwofe of the New Calabar River and were evaluated for microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics. Bacterial isolates consisting mainly of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella spp., Vibrio sp. and Nocardia asteroides were isolated from the samples. The highest total coliform counts log10 2.9 were encountered in water samples from Iwofe but the lowest counts log101.9 occurred in the water samples from Ogbakiri. Ecological parameters varied among the sites with the highest pH value of 7.87 occurring at Iwofe and lowest of 6.12 at Choba. Maximum salinity level of 150/00 was observed at Iwofe and lowest at Choba. In contrast, maximum dissolved oxygen of 10.1ppm was observed at Choba and the minimum at Iwofe. The different bacterial profiles are probably attributable to the anthropogenic and industrial activities of the sites.

Edun O. M.

2012-06-01

208

Theoretical study on the phase stability, site preference, and lattice parameters for Gd(Fe, T)12  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of the intermetallics Gd(Fe, T)12 and the site preferences of the ternary 3d or 4d transition element T are investigated by using a series of interatomic pair potentials, ?Fe-Fe(r), ?Fe-Gd(r), ?Fe-T(r), ?T-T(r), ?T-Gd(r), and ?Gd-Gd(r), for the first time. The calculated results show that adding either Cr, Mo, Ti, or V atoms makes the crystal cohesive energy of Gd(Fe, T)12 decrease markedly, proving that these atoms can stabilize Gd(Fe, T)12 with ThMn12 structure even though the GdFe12 crystal structure is itself metastable. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with experiment. The amount of cohesive energy decrease is correlated with the species and occupation site of the ternary atoms. The order of site preference of these stabilizing elements T is 8i, 8j, and 8f, with 8i corresponding to the greatest energy decrease. The calculated results further show that the addition of Co, Cu, Ni, Sc, and Zn does not stabilize the GdFe12 phase in the ThMn12 structure. The calculated results reported correspond well to available experimental data indicating that the ab initio interatomic potentials can be used to describe rare-earth materials.

Nan-xian, Chen; Jiang, Shen; Xuping, Su

2001-03-01

209

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

1996-01-01

210

DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington. Completed a state-of-the-science review of hydropower optimization methods and published reports on alternative operating strategies and opportunities for spill reduction. Carried out feasibility studies of new environmental performance measurements of the new MGR turbine at Wanapum Dam, including measurement of behavioral responses, biomarkers, bioindex testing, and the use of dyes to assess external injuries. Evaluated the benefits of mitigation measures for instream flow releases and the value of surface flow outlets for downstream fish passage. Refined turbulence flow measurement techniques, the computational modeling of unsteady flows, and models of blade strike of fish. Published numerous technical reports, proceedings papers, and peer-reviewed literature, most of which are available on the DOE Hydropower website. Further developed and tested the sensor fish measuring device at hydropower plants in the Columbia River. Data from the sensor fish are coupled with a computational model to yield a more detailed assessment of hydraulic environments in and around dams. Published reports related to the Virtual Hydropower Prospector and the assessment of water energy resources in the U.S. for low head/low power hydroelectric plants. Convened a workshop to consider the environmental and technical issues associated with new hydrokinetic and wave energy technologies. Laboratory and DOE staff participated in numerous workshops, conferences, coordination meetings, planning meetings, implementation meetings, and reviews to transfer the results of DOE-sponsored research to end-users.

Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2006-07-01

211

Chaotic Optimal Operation of Hydropower Station with Ecology Consideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional optimal operation of hydropower station usually has two problems. One is that the optimal algorithm hasn’t high efficiency, and the other is that the optimal operation model pays little attention to ecology. And with the development of electric power market, the generated benefit is concerned instead of generated energy. Based on the analysis of time-varying electricity price policy, an optimal operation model of hydropower station reservoir with ecology consideration is established. The model takes the maximum annual power generation benefit, the maximum output of the minimal output stage in the year and the minimum shortage of eco-environment demand as the objectives, and reservoir water quantity balance, reservoir storage capacity, reservoir discharge flow and hydropower station output and nonnegative variable as the constraints. To solve the optimal model, a chaotic optimization genetic algorithm which combines the ergodicity of chaos and the inversion property of genetic algorithm is exploited. An example is given, which shows that the proposed model and algorithm are scientific and feasible to deal with the optimal operation of hydropower station.

Yuqin Gao

2010-08-01

212

Developing a module for estimating climate warming effects on hydropower pricing in California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate warming is expected to alter hydropower generation in California through affecting the annual stream-flow regimes and reducing snowpack. On the other hand, increased temperatures are expected to increase hydropower demand for cooling in warm periods while decreasing demand for heating in winter, subsequently altering the annual hydropower pricing patterns. The resulting variations in hydropower supply and pricing regimes necessitate changes in reservoir operations to minimize the revenue losses from climate warming. Previous studies in California have only explored the effects of hydrological changes on hydropower generation and revenues. This study builds a long-term hydropower pricing estimation tool, based on artificial neural network (ANN), to develop pricing scenarios under different climate warming scenarios. Results suggest higher average hydropower prices under climate warming scenarios than under historical climate. The developed tool is integrated with California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM) to facilitate simultaneous consideration of climate warming on hydropower supply, demand and pricing. EBHOM estimates an additional 5% drop in annual revenues under a dry warming scenario when climate change impacts on pricing are considered, with respect to when such effects are ignored, underlining the importance of considering changes in hydropower demand and pricing in future studies and policy making. - Highlights: ? Addressing the major gap in previous climate change and hydropower studies in California. ? Developing an ANN-based long-term hydropower price estimation tool. ? Estimating climate change effects on hydropower demand and pricing in California. ? Investigating the sensitivity of hydropower operations to future price changes. ? Underlining the importance of consideration of climate change impacts on electricity pricing.

2012-03-01

213

The use of multicriteria decision making methods to find the environmental costs of hydropower development alternatives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference paper deals with a decision support system (DSS) developed to find the costs of environmental goods. The system is based on multicriteria decision making and uses pairwise comparisons of two and two criteria. The criteria weights are calculated with linear regression. When one criterion is monetary, all criteria weights can be expressed in monetary units when the weights are known. The DSS has been tested on a hydropower project in the area of Sauda in Norway. To represent the decision makers, three panels each consisting of three persons were formed. The persons were selected from governmental agencies, the developers, the local environmental administration and a local politician. The DSS worked well with the panels. One problem was that impacts of hydropower projects are very site specific and also hard to quantify. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was used in creating a cognitive understanding of the issues involved and how they were represented by quantitative criteria. Some had also difficulties in accepting the principle of expressing environmental goods in monetary units. The results so far are preliminary. This research work is part of the Norwegian research programme Energy, Environment and Development. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

1994-08-01

214

Implications of the sedimentation phenomenon in the design of hydropower reservoirs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of sedimentation phenomena on the operational parameters of the hydropower reservoirs built on several Romanian rivers was assessed. A cascade of eight reservoirs on the Olt river, with initial volumes of 20-50 M m3, lost about 30% of the conservation capacity and about 3-7% of head as well. Smaller reservoirs, with volumes of 2-10 M m3, lost 60-85% of their capacity. Dredging operations had to be done, thus, increasing the initial costs by 20%. The acquired experience revealed that the evolution in time of the reservoir capacity over the operation period should be as accurately as possible taken into account in the designing stage. The operation conditions and designing criterions for small and medium hydropower reservoir have to be reassessed also from the environmental and efficiency points of view. The content of the paper is the following: 1. Sedimentation knowledge and planning concepts for inland rivers; 2. Implications of the sedimentation phenomenon; 3. Forecast of the sedimentation phenomenon; 4. Retrospective and perspective; 5. Conclusions. (authors)

1992-01-01

215

Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

1995-01-01

216

Field GE gamma spectrometry for on site measurements of some parameters characterizing radon-222 exhalation rates from soils and covers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe a new method based on differential gamma spectrometry for on site determination of some of the parameters which are relevant for the production of radon 222 in soil gas and its transfer from soil to indoor and outdoor atmospheres. This method is investigated in the context of a 3-year Slovenian-French cooperation programme, the PROTEUS project. We are currently using a germanium detector of 100 cm3. The height of the 20 deg. C collimated detector above the soil surface is from 1.5 to 3 m when using a tripod. This arrangement provides results which are representative of soil areas ranging from 1 to 4 square metres. Routine measurements would require larger detector volumes. The main objective is to provide technology and methodology for an efficient mapping of zones with potential for being the source of a high level of indoor radon, eliminating the need for soil sampling followed by laboratory analysis. The feasibility of an airborne mapping laboratory flying at low altitude will be investigated. Another objective is the rapid measurement of radon profiles across covers used to reduce exhalation rates from the surface of a pile of tailings, with characterisation of the influence of humidity content of the top layer. Airborne survey would allow for measuring exhalations from surfaces of slurries not otherwise accessible. (author)

1997-11-01

217

A New Tool for Environmental and Economic Optimization of Hydropower Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, researchers from Argonne, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the development of an integrated toolset to enhance hydropower operational decisions related to economic value and environmental performance. As part of this effort, we developed an analytical approach (Index of River Functionality, IRF) and an associated software tool to evaluate how well discharge regimes achieve ecosystem management goals for hydropower facilities. This approach defines site-specific environmental objectives using relationships between environmental metrics and hydropower-influenced flow characteristics (e.g., discharge or temperature), with consideration given to seasonal timing, duration, and return frequency requirements for the environmental objectives. The IRF approach evaluates the degree to which an operational regime meets each objective and produces a score representing how well that regime meets the overall set of defined objectives. When integrated with other components in the toolset that are used to plan hydropower operations based upon hydrologic forecasts and various constraints on operations, the IRF approach allows an optimal release pattern to be developed based upon tradeoffs between environmental performance and economic value. We tested the toolset prototype to generate a virtual planning operation for a hydropower facility located in the Upper Colorado River basin as a demonstration exercise. We conducted planning as if looking five months into the future using data for the recently concluded 2012 water year. The environmental objectives for this demonstration were related to spawning and nursery habitat for endangered fishes using metrics associated with maintenance of instream habitat and reconnection of the main channel with floodplain wetlands in a representative reach of the river. We also applied existing mandatory operational constraints for the facility during the demonstration. We compared the optimized virtual operation identified by the toolset to actual operations at the facility for the same time period to evaluate implications of the optimized operational regime on power/revenue generation and environmental performance. Argonne National Laboratory's work was part of a larger "Water-Use-Optimization" project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Water Power Program, under Announcement DE-FOA-0000070. The submitted manuscript has been created by UChicago Argonne, LLC, Operator of Argonne National Laboratory ("Argonne"). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, is operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The U.S. Government retains for itself, and others acting on its behalf, a paid-up nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide license in said article to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the Government.

Saha, S.; Hayse, J. W.

2012-12-01

218

Imersuaq - Hydropower potential in Greenland; Imersuaq - Vandkraftpotentiale i Groenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project aims at a more precise estimate of the contribution from the icesheet to hydropower potentials, based on the largest bassin in Western Greenland 'Tasersiaq', situated between the cities of Maniitsoq and Kangerlussuaq. New methods are applied: 1) Detailed mapping of the icemargin using radar measurements from satellite. 2) Airborne radio-echo soundings, precisely estimating the ice thickness and bedrock topography. 3)Accurate determination of the aircraft's position by means of GPS and laser altimetry of the aircraft altitude above the ice. Furthermore, fully automatic climate stations on the surface provides in situ climate data for calculation of the snowmelt. The insight gained from combining the extensive data set with the broad range of expertise available within the project, is to be condensed into a strong scientific tool, which can be applied when the prospects for new hydropower plants in Greenland has to be assessed. (LN)

Egede Boeggild, C.; Ahlstroem, A.P. [Danmark og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse (GEUS), Copenhagen (Denmark); Tvis Knudsen, N. [Aarhus Univ., Geologisk Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

2001-07-01

219

Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

1991-07-24

220

Environmental certification for small hydropower plants; Umweltzertifizierung Kleinwasserkraftwerke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report for the Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology describes product-differentiation options for small hydropower plant in Switzerland and proposes a form of differentiation based on ecological characteristics as a promising market strategy. The labels created in various countries to assure customers of the environmental compatibility of 'green' power production are looked at. In particular, the implications for small hydropower plant associated with the Swiss green power labelling procedure introduced by the Association for the Promotion of Environmentally Sound Electricity (VUE) are discussed. The report proposes a simplified procedure for these small power stations and presents a sample calculation for the overall costs of certification. The report is rounded off with four detailed case studies in which the necessary upgrades to the plant and associated costs are discussed in detail.

Truffer, B.; Meier, W.; Vollenweider, S. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland); Seiler, B.; Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Delta-Hedging a Hydropower Plant Using Stochastic Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important challenge for hydropower producers is to optimize reservoir discharges, which is subject to uncertainty in in?ow and electricity prices. Furthermore, the producers want to hedge the risk in the operating pro?t. This article demonstrates how stochastic programming can be used to solve a multi-reservoir hydro scheduling case for a price-taking producer, and how such a model can be employed in subsequent delta-hedging of the electric- ity portfolio.

Fleten, Stein-erik; Wallace, Stein W.

2008-01-01

222

Climate change impacts on financial risk in hydropower projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases from power generation will depend, among other things, on the continuing and increased use of hydroelectric power. However, climate change itself may alter rainfall patterns, adversely affecting the financial viability of existing and potential hydro schemes. Previous work developed a methodology for quantifying the potential impact of climate change on the economics of hydropower schemes. Here, the analysis is extended to examine the potential fo...

Harrison, Gareth P.; Whittington, Bert; Wallace, Robin

2003-01-01

223

Mechanical Smoke Exhaust in Underground Transport Passage of Hydropower Station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the fire scenario occuring in the main transformer hall of an underground hydropower station is taken as an example of the mechanical smoke exhaust effect in the transport passage when the smoke spilled from the fired main transformer hall is analyzed by means of theoretical analysis, experiment and FDS simulation. Firstly, the mathematic correlations regarding the mechanical exhaust rate are derived through theoretical analysis. Secondly, a series of experiments are conduct...

2012-01-01

224

Bidding Revealed : An Empirical Analysis of Selling Hydropower through Elspot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the deregulated Nordic electricity market, power producers bid to sell tomorrow's power in the day-ahead auction Elspot. This thesis presents an empirical analysis of bids submitted by three medium to large sized Norwegian reservoir hydropower producers over four two-week periods in 2011. Being price takers, the producers maximize their profits by bidding their marginal cost, which is dependent on both known and unknown variables. Additionally, producers must abide by both external market ...

Grøndahl, Roger Blikra; Alnæs, Erik Nicholas

2012-01-01

225

Hydraulic transient events in hydropower plants with installed Francis turbines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydraulic transient events are the result of time related changes of hydrodinamical quantities in a hydraulic passage system. Treatise of transient events is essential to ensure safe operation of the hydropower plant, and for suitable design of turbine components and related hydromechanical equipment. Causes of transient events and their characteristics in different hydraulic passage systems are presented in this work. Basic system of water hammer equation was derived, consisting of the momen...

Mazij, Jernej

2009-01-01

226

New hydropower converters for very low-head differences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a significant but unused hydropower potential with head differences below 2.5 m in many countries. Standard turbine types are considered not economical in this situation, since large turbine diameters and extensive civil engineering works are required. In addition, ecological effects need to be considered. Recently, a novel power-conversion mechanism which utilizes hydrostatic force differences was developed at Southampton University. Two different applications were developed: (1) th...

2010-01-01

227

Expert system for hydropower stations developed in Volve Knowledge Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the fact that hydropower stations are equipped with the latest technology in both regulation and remote control, it is not enough to replace the traditional machine expert. The machine expert was a person stationed in the power plant. He had the responsibility for the running and maintenance of the station. This person’s experience and human senses made him crucial for the surveillance of the station. Since the machine expert has now been replaced by electronics and newer technology...

Timberlid, Erlend

2008-01-01

228

Rock Mass Classification of Karstic Terrain in the Reservoir Slopes of Tekeze Hydropower Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower reservoirs in deep gorges usually experience slope failures and mass movements. History also showed that some of these projects suffered severe landslides, which left lots of victims and enormous economic loss. Thus, it became vital to make substantial slope stability studies in such reservoirs to ensure safe project development. This study also presents a regional scale instability assessment of the Tekeze Hydropower reservoir slopes. Tekeze hydropower project is a newly constructed double arch dam that completed in August 2009. It is developed on Tekeze River, tributary of Blue Nile River that runs across the northern highlands of Ethiopia. It cuts a savage gorge 2000m deep, the deepest canyon in Africa. The dam is the highest dam in Ethiopia at 188m, 10 m higher than China's Three Gorges Dam. It is being developed by Chinese company at a cost of US350M. The reservoir is designed at 1140 m elevation, as retention level to store more than 9000 million m3 volume of water that covers an area of 150 km2, mainly in channel filling form. In this study, generation of digital elevation model from ASTER satellite imagery and surface field investigation is initially considered for further image processing and terrain parameters' analyses. Digitally processed multi spectral ASTER ortho-images drape over the DEM are used to have different three dimensional perspective views in interpreting lithological, structural and geomorphological features, which are later verified by field mapping. Terrain slopes are also delineated from the relief scene. A GIS database is ultimately developed to facilitate the delineation of geotechnical units for slope rock mass classification. Accordingly, 83 geotechnical units are delineated and, within them, 240 measurement points are established to quantify in-situ geotechnical parameters. Due to geotechnical uncertainties, four classification systems; namely geomorphic rock mass strength classification (RMS), slope mass rating (SMR), rock slope stability probability classification (SSPC) and geological strength index (GSI) are employed to classify the rock mass. The results are further compared with one another to delineate the instability conditions and produce an instability map of the reservoir slopes. Instability of the reservoir slopes is found to be mainly associated with daylighting discontinuities, thinly bedded/foliated slates, and karstified limestone. It is also noted that these features are mostly located in the regional gliding plane and shear zone, which are related with old slides scars. In general, the instabilities are found relatively far from the dam axis, in relatively less elevated and less steep slopes, which are going to be nearly covered by the impoundment; thus, they are normally expected to have less hazard in relation to the reservoir setting. Some minor failures will be generally expected during the reservoir filling.

Hailemariam Gugsa, Trufat; Schneider, Jean Friedrich

2010-05-01

229

Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir wat...

Ivan Rajšl; Perica Ilak; Marko Delimar; Slavko Krajcar

2012-01-01

230

The facilitation of mini and small hydropower through institutional mechanisms for development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mini and small hydropower is a renewable, clean and efficient resource for the production of mechanical and electrical power. By offsetting thermal generation, it can be a leading technology in climate change mitigation and sustainable development. Small hydropower plants combine the advantages of hydropower and decentralised power generation. There are limited environmental costs, marginal costs for the electricity transport, minor need for expensive maintenance and independence from importe...

Crettenand, Nicolas; Hemund, Carol

2010-01-01

231

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

2013-06-17

232

Hydropower generation and storage, transmission constraints and market power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study hydropower generation and storage in the presence of uncertainty about future inflows, market power and limited transmission capacity to neighboring regions. Within our simple two-period model, market power leads to too little storage. The monopolist finds it profitable to produce more than the competitive amount in the first period and thereby stores little water in the first of two periods in order to become import constrained in the second period. In addition, little storage reduces the probability of becoming export constrained in the second period, even if the second period exhibits large inflow. Empirical findings for an area in the western part of Norway with only hydropower and high ownership concentration at the supply side, fit well to our theoretical model. We apply a numerical model to examine various policies to reduce the inefficiencies created by the local monopoly. Transmission investments have two effects. First, the export possibilities in the first period increase. More export leads to lower storage in the first period. Second, larger import capacity reduces the market power problem in the second period. The two opposite effects of transmission investments in a case with market power may be unique to hydropower systems. Introducing financial transmission rights enhance the market power of the monopolist in our model. Price caps in both or in the second period only, reduce the strategic value of water storage. (Author)

2001-06-01

233

Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

2013-06-01

234

Development of methodological support of the automated hydropower potential calculation using geographic information systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The latest large-scale researches of hydropower potential of large and medium size rivers in Russia were conducted in 1940–1980 years. Nowadays updating of hydropower potential data (including not only large, but also minor and medium rivers is carried out. This paper is dedicated to the development and approbation of methodology and GIS-based tools for calculating hydropower potential of rivers, located in Russian Federation. The list of initial data and information sources used in research were described. The approaches and GIS-tools described in present paper allow executing an assessment of hydropower potential of the rivers in a short time on large areas.

N.V. Badenko

2013-10-01

235

Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

Fall, Latsoucabe

2010-09-15

236

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters

1979-01-01

237

Parameters of radiation situation on the territory of the Red Forest site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone as impact factors for wild non-human species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed description of parameters of radiation situation on the territory of the Red Forest site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone is given. Results of measurements of soil contamination by 90Sr, 134,137Cs, 154,155Eu, 241Am and 238,239,240Pu are provided. Some parameters of a spatial dynamic many-nuclides source of radiation exposure formation for wild animals are calculated. Typical profiles of radionuclides distribution in soil are demonstrated. (author)

2003-09-01

238

Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters.

Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

1979-12-01

239

Eddy covariance flux measurements confirm extreme CH4 emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir and resolve their short-term variability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas budgets quantified via land-surface eddy covariance (EC) flux sites differ significantly from those obtained via inverse modeling. A possible reason for the discrepancy between methods may be our gap in quantitative knowledge of methane (CH4) fluxes. In this study we carried out EC flux measurements during two intensive campaigns in summer 2008 to quantify methane flux from a hydropower reservoir and link its temporal variability to environmental driving forces: wate...

Eugster, W.; Delsontro, T.; Sobek, S.

2011-01-01

240

Eddy covariance flux measurements confirm extreme CH4 emissions from a Swiss hydropower reservoir and resolve their short-term variability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas budgets quantified via land-surface eddy covariance (EC) flux sites differ significantly from those obtained via inverse modeling. A possible reason for the discrepancy between methods may be our gap in quantitative knowledge of methane CH4 fluxes. In this study we carried out EC flux measurements during two intensive campaigns in summer 2008 to quantify methane flux from a hydropower reservoir and link its temporal variability to environmental driving forces: water ...

Eugster, W.; Delsontro, T.; Sobek, S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Deterioration and maintenance models for components in hydropower plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High reliability is an indispensable requirement for the operation of technical systems and infrastructure, such as power plants, oil platforms, aircrafts, railway lines and bridges. Failures can result in high costs and hazards to humans and the environment. Practically all technical systems are subject to deterioration, and a failure is often the consequence of excessive deterioration. Thus, inspections and maintenance are undertaken to uncover deterioration and to prevent failures and damage. The improvement and the optimization of maintenance has great potential for cost savings. In order to exploit this potential, we need a systematic and structured approach. Furthermore, mathematical models are required to quantify the influence of maintenance decisions on reliability and costs. The main objective of this thesis has been the development of a general deterioration and maintenance model for components in hydropower plants. The model was designed to serve as basis for maintenance planning and maintenance optimization. It is intended help to answer questions, such as: What is the probability of failure in a given time interval? How often should inspections be carried out? Is it better to carry out a maintenance action now or in x years? Is it advisable to postpone the action? What are the costs if the action is postponed? If we choose between alternatives A and B: Which alternative should be performed first? The aim has been to develop a general model that can be applied to different components and failure modes. The model was designed to utilize existing methods, processes and perspectives in the Norwegian electricity industry. The general maintenance model presented in this thesis is based on a deterioration model consisting of a semi-Markov process with discrete state space. The model was built on an existing state definition established by the industry. This state definition is based on observable and thus physical properties of the deteriorating component. These states are therefore denoted physical states. It is assumed that the sojourn time in a physical state may be modelled using a gamma distribution. A numerical solution procedure is suggested that requires states with exponentially distributed sojourn times. Thus, it is suggested transforming the gamma distributed sojourn times in the physical states into virtual states with exponentially distributed sojourn times, that is, transforming the gamma distributions into a Markov process. The thesis discusses different approaches on how to establish the virtual states. A challenge in maintenance modelling is to provide a time-dependent model solution and to incorporate different maintenance strategies in the model, such as non-periodic inspections. An analytical solution for this case is difficult to obtain. Thus, a numerical solution is presented in this thesis for computing the expected number of inspections and maintenance actions in a given time interval. It is shown how deterioration, inspections and maintenance can be mathematically treated by simple numerical procedures. Furthermore, imperfect inspection and imperfect repair may also be realized. The numerical procedure presented serves the requirements of the Norwegian electricity industry. A Bayesian framework is suggested for estimating the parameters of the sojourn time distributions. Both expert judgement and condition monitoring data may be used as sources of information for the parameter estimation. The thesis also provides suggestions on how to carry out expert judgement. The thesis also discusses two other popular models: First, a maintenance model that also uses a Markov processes and that is frequently applied to modelling maintenance of components in electric power systems, and second, a maintenance model that treats the deterioration as a gamma process. It is shown that the former yields an error when it is used to analyse maintenance strategies with non-periodic inspections. The results presented make clear that the incorporation of a non-periodic inspection strategy is not as easy as suggeste

Welte, Thomas

2008-07-01

242

Preliminary analysis of important site-specific dose assessment parameters and exposure pathways applicable to a groundwater release scenario at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop capabilities for compliance determination, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducts total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) in an iterative manner. Because the new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for YM may set a dose or risk limit, an auxiliary study was conducted to develop estimates of site-specific dose assessment parameters for future TSPAS. YM site-relevant data was obtained for irrigation, agriculture, resuspension, crop interception, and soil. A Monte Carlo based importance analysis was used to identify predominant parameters for the groundwater pathway. In this analysis, the GENII-S code generated individual annual total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) for 20 nuclides and 43 sampled parameters based upon unit groundwater concentrations. Scatter plots and correlation results indicate the crop interception fraction, food transfer factors, consumption rates, and irrigation rate are correlated with TEDEs for specific nuclides. Influential parameter groups correspond to expected pathway readily to plants, such as 99Tc, indicate crop ingestion pathway parameters are most highly correlated with the TEDE, and those that transfer to milk (59Ni) or beef (79Se, 129I, 135Cs, 137Cs) show predominant correlations with animal product ingestion pathway parameters. Such relationships provide useful insight to important parameters and exposure pathways applicable to doses from specific nuclides

1995-12-01

243

Regional double-porosity solute transport in the Culebra dolomite: An analysis of parameter sensitivity and importance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high-transmissivity fracture-controlled path is assumed, for modeling purposes, to provide the means for transport of infinitely long-lived radionuclides through the Culebra dolomite to the accessible environment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, following a breach which does not disturb the existing head potentials within the unit. Both matrix diffusion and sorption retard the transport. Parameter ranges and base-case values depict the uncertain properties of the Culebra while simulations with SWIFT II exhibit the corresponding ranges in travel time, the performance measure adopted for this report. Consistent with the paucity of the double-porosity data base, model assumptions are kept simple and parameter ranges relatively large. Thus, computed travel times may be unrealistic and should not be quoted apart from the model assumptions. Computed parameter sensitivities and estimated parameter importance, however, should provide valuable guidance to the current site-characterization program at the WIPP site. The report demonstrates the importance of the rate of fluid flow within the fractures and the relative capacity of the rock matrix for the retention of radioactive contaminants. It also demonstrates the relative unimportance of some of the matrix kinetic parameters which relate to the matrix-diffusion time. 53 refs., 46 figs., 15 tabs

1987-01-01

244

Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.  

Science.gov (United States)

In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas. PMID:18992986

McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

2009-07-01

245

Satellite-derived snow coverage related to hydropower production in Norway: present and future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower derived from snow-melt runoff is a major source of electricity in Norway. Therefore, amount of snow-melt runoff is key to the prediction of available water. The prediction of water quantity may be accomplished through the use of hydrological models. These models, which may be run for individual basins, use satellite-derived snow-covered area in combination with snow-cover depiction curves. While it is known that snow albedo information would increase the accuracy of the models, large-scale albedo measurements have not yet been obtained from satellites on a regular basis. This paper presents Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) reflectances recorded in May 1989 from a mountainous catchment at Kvikne, Norway. Satellite-derived albedo values are analysed, and compared with simultaneously measured in situ albedo. The satellite-derived shortwave snow albedo is comparable with bare ground albedo and values as low as 0.19 were found in areas where the snow was highly metamorphosed and heavily blackened by organic material. To map snow-covered areas, the contrast between snow and snow-free areas can be improved by using a normalized TM Band 2-5 difference image. While TM Band 2 alone shows varying degrees of snow surface contamination within the study area, the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) is not affected by impurities. This paper also discusses the use of NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, which is planned to be launched in the summer of 1999 for mapping of large-scale geophysical parameters including snow-cover. MODIS will enable snow cover and albedo to be mapped in Norway on a daily basis, and should enhance our ability to estimate snow coverage and thus manage hydropower production. (author)

Winther, J.-G. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromso (Norway); Hall, D.K. [NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goodard Space Flight Center

1999-07-01

246

Technical and economic qualities of hydropower in comparison with other forms of electricity production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By comparing ecological and technical aspects of hydropower with other forms of electricity production, we are able to assess its potential in terms of economic added value. The most obvious benefits of hydropower are its storage capability, high level of efficiency, ease of control and provision of reactive power. An assessment of the technical qualities of hydropower encompasses today's power generation and capacity, as well as the interaction with the power transmission network in both normal operation and in the case of disturbances. The benefits of hydropower versus other forms of electricity production are as follows: an energy production with the highest level of electrical efficiency (between 80% and 90%); advantage of energy production via water storage systems; excellent tradability thanks to ready availability upon demand; ideally suited for use for bridging discrepancies between purchased volume and demand thanks to high efficiency at partial load; thanks to its ready availability, hydropower can be used to quickly restore power following major damage to, or disturbances in, the electricity transmission network; provision of reactive power. Hydropower offers the following economic benefits: in an open market, services provided by hydropower plants are compensated directly; higher energy prices have to be paid for load compensation; energy production from storage systems may be utilised like a call option; hydropower plants produce electricity from a renewable energy source, which makes it more easily marketable. (author)

1999-01-01

247

Hydrological assessment for mini hydropower potential at Sungai Pahang - Temerloh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sg Pahang at Temerloh was considered for assessment of hydropower potential using hydrological analysis method and hydrological model. The available data related to topography, soil, land use, weather and discharge pertaining to the study catchment were used to characterize the catchment. The characterization was required for water resources hence hydropower assessment. The hydrology of the study catchment was simulated through the model. This hydrological study is required due to the proposed mini hydroelectric power plant at Pulau Temerloh. It is essential to evaluate the existing river flow characteristic and to model the environmental flow assessment of the river. Two rainfalll stations, JPS Temerloh and Pintu Kawalan Paya Kertam Station are selected to develop the Rainfall Intensity Duration frequency (RIDF) Curve to determine the rainfall intensity of the area. Daily river flow were recorded at Sg Pahang at Temerloh and Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku were used to develop the Flow Duration Curve (FDC) to study the characteristic of Sungai Pahang flow. The 7 days low flow with 10 years return period (7Q10 low flow) was obtained using both Gumbel Method and Log Pearson Type III Method. The results from FDC shows that 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Temerloh is exceeded over a historical period is 400 m3/s and 50% percentage of time the Sg Pahang - Lubok Paku is exceeded over a historical period is 650 m3/s. The required environmental flow are set to be 7Q10 low flow which is 64.215 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Temerloh and 79.24 m3/s for Sg Pahang at Lubok Paku. The results show the water resources are abundant and hence boost the mini hydropower potentiality at Sg Pahang.

2013-06-17

248

Hydropower application of confined space regulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OSHA`s {open_quotes}Permit Required Confined Space{close_quotes} rules, 1910.146, became effective April 15, 1993. Their rules define a {open_quotes}confined space{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}permit required confined space{close_quotes}; provide general requirements for those entering the confined space, for the attendant and entry supervisor; define what a confined space program and permit system should be; and describe training requirements and rescue considerations. Tapoco Inc., began preparing confined space procedures in 1992 using Alcoa Engineering Standards and OSHA`s proposed rules. A joint union management team was formed, and this team began evaluating spaces which meet the confined space definition. In 1993, employees were trained, and all entries into spaces were done according to Alcoa`s and OSHA`s proposed rules. Rescue teams have been trained at each site. Some unique confined spaces and or unique entry conditions have been encountered which have required extensive evaluation.

Franseen, H.W. [Tapoco, Inc., Alcoa, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

249

Short Term Hydropower Planning in the Icelandic System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The format the text is saved as is unreadable, so i retyped it to my best ability.  This master thesis contains my work of studies of a short term planning model, with the time span of one week, or 168 hours. The models are based on the future hydropower system in pjorsa- and Tungnaa- river system, located in the south part of Iceland. The purpose ot this thesis is to formulate and develop one week operation schedules for this future power generation system, which for a given inflow-and load...

Bjo?rnsson, Gudmundur

2009-01-01

250

Hydropower from Dutch rivers: a survey of potential and restrictions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives a survey of the energy potential of two dutch rivers as a source of renewable energy. Therefore two different technologies, to extract useful energy from rivers, have been considered. The first technology concerns the conventional and well known application of hydropower plants. The second concerns the technical possibility to extract useful energy from the mixing process of fresh water (river or other flows) with salt water of the North sea. This can be achieved on the base of osmosis. Such systems, which have not been developed or demonstrated till now, are called 'osmotic energy conversion'-systems (OEC-systems).

de Graaf, F.A.M.

1982-06-01

251

Electric Energy Conversion Systems : Wave Energy and Hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electric energy conversion is an important issue in today's society as our daily lives largely depend on the supplies of energy. Two energy sources are studied for conversion in the present thesis, ocean waves and hydropower. The work focuses on the generator and the transmission of its output to the electric grid. Different approaches have been used, over the years, to convert the energy in ocean waves, and the method presently used is based on a point absorber (buoy) directly coupled to a l...

Thorburn, Karin

2006-01-01

252

Wind power pumped storage system for hydropower plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, an idea to use a wind pumped storage system to pump water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir and use it to reduce the construction size of a new reservoir or to increase electricity production in a hydropower plant, is presented. Instead of using a wind turbine to produce electricity to drive the pumps, a shaft is proposed to connect the wind turbine and the pumps. A profitability assessment is performed for the reservoir reduction and the electricity production. A w...

Árni Vignir Pálmason 1963

2010-01-01

253

Atatuerk 2400-MWe hydropower project supplies largest irrigation scheme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most ambitious engineering feats ever attempted is being carried out on the River Euphrates in Turkey. A truly gargantuan dam is being constructed for a hydropower station with a generation capacity of 2400 MW from eight Francis turbines operating under a head of 154.4 m. The scheme will also provide irrigation for agriculture to a land area of 900,000 hectares. The project will be a vital factor in the nation's economic development prospects. 11 figures, 2 tables.

1985-03-01

254

Contractual risk and liability sharing in hydropower construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Construction activities are uncertain and dynamic, and associated risks are often permanent and complex in construction projects. In large-scale infrastructure projects, theoretically, risks and liabilities should be fairly shared among project participants through contractual arrangements. In order to prevent unexpected risks and thus disputes during construction, international contractors should pay close attention to local project characteristics and contract practices. This paper identifies typical construction risks and describes the comparison between FIDIC (Federation Internationale Des Ingenieurs Conseils) and the Taiwanese government Conditions of Contract for hydropower construction projects. (author)

1999-01-01

255

Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location  

CERN Document Server

The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

Majumder, Mrinmoy

2013-01-01

256

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-06-01

257

Experimental study of a model and parameters calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author tries to develop a new model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for a nuclear power plant to be build in coastal site based on field experiments. This model considers not only the difference between shore ward and off-shore but also the comprehensive effect of following factors: mixed layer and thermal internal boundary layer, mixing release and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast and so on. The various parameters needed in the model are obtained from the field atmospheric experiments done on the NPP site during 1995?1996. There dimension joint frequency is got from wind and temperature measurements at 4 heights of a tower of 100 m; diffusion parameters shore ward and off-shore from turbulent measurement and wind tunnel simulation test; the parameters relative to sea and land breeze and thermal internal boundary layer are obtained from tests with low altitude radiosonde and lost balloon at 3 sites during two periods of Summer and Winter. Finally a comparison of the results given by this model and commonly used model provided by relative guides is done. The comparison shows that about 1 times under estimation is found for the maximum of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor in common model because the effect from thermal internal boundary layer and other factors are neglected

1999-09-01

258

Quantifying eco-sustainable water releases from small hydropower plants by means of the Principle of Marginal Utility  

Science.gov (United States)

Water use for hydropower production is increasing in mountain regions, as is an awareness of the importance of generating sustainable water releases for riparian ecosystems. Traditionally, hydropower releases have been regulated by minimum flow release policies, but these can have a number of shortcomings. Perona and Dürrenmatt propose a method of determining releases that is based on the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU), which considers the environment as a (non-traditional) water user that is in full competition with other uses. Although simple, this model suggests a way of generating quasi-natural flow releases at diversion nodes while maximizing the aggregate economic benefit of all uses, including environmental. In this paper we demonstrate the implementation of the method of Perona and Dürrenmatt for several real-cases in Switzerland, evaluating the long term performances of various release policies from both an ecological and economic point of view. The model is implemented by proposing some simple environmental utility functions, followed by an examination of: i) the statistics of the flow releases predicted by the model using the "Range of Variability Approach" originally proposed by Richter et al. (1997); ii) the meaning of environmental benefits, through use of a parametric analysis which evaluates the best allocation strategy; iii) the implicit economic valuation of ecosystem health underlying each simulated alternative. This last point is evaluated assuming that allocating a unit of water to the environment and not to hydropower means assigning a higher economic value to the environment. The long term mean of the ratio between the allocated flows may be used as a suitable engineering parameter, which allows for a comparison of the environmental value of water with other uses over the system lifetime. Results are used to explore the idea that the balance between cumulative financial value, loss of biodiversity and the future costs of ecosystem restoration can be used as a means of improving water resource management.

Gorla, L.; Characklis, G.; Perona, P.

2012-04-01

259

National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

None

1979-07-01

260

Experimental determination of site-specific transfer parameter Fm and Ff values for 137Cs and 90Sr in agricultural ecosystem environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After nuclear power plant accidents radionuclides often spread into the environment. For human exposure dose evaluation it is necessary to examine migration of the radionuclides in agricultural environment: soil-grass-cow-food-human. The migration describes site-specific values of transfer parameters soil-to-grass (Bv), grass-cow-milk (Fm) and grass-meat (Ff). Site-specific migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in Lithuania was examined. These transfer parameter values were defined according to experimentally measured data of specific activity levels in soil, fodder and food obtained by the Lithuanian National Veterinary Laboratory from 1975 to 1994. Fm and Ff values were determined for summer and winter time separately in connection with different type of fodder. The parameter values were evaluated for the four largest Lithuanian regions: Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda and Shiauliai. The transfer parameter site-specific values for these regions were similar. Recommended transfer parameter values for all the Lithuanian territory are as follows: Bv=0.9±(1.2), Fmv=0.007±(0.005) d/L, Fmz=0.005±(0.003) d/ L, Ffv=0.03±(0.03) d/kg, Ffz=0.02±(0.02) d /kg - for 137Cs and Bv=2.0±(2.2), Fmv=0.0025±(0.002) d/L, Fmz=0.0014±(0.0007) d/L, Ffv=0.0028±(0.0036) d/kg, Ffz=0.0014±(0.0009) d/kg - for 90Sr (in brackets standard deviation values are given). Probability density distribution was lognormal for all the foregoing parameters. (author)

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Modeling sugar cane yield with a process-based model from site to continental scale: uncertainties arising from model structure and parameter values  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM have been developed from the integration of specific crop processes into large-scale generic land surface models that allow calculating the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. When developing agro-LSM models, a particular attention must be given to the effects of crop phenology and management on the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty of Agro-LSM models is related to their usually large number of parameters. In this study, we quantify the parameter-values uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS, using a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Réunion and Brazil. In ORCHIDEE-STICS, two models are chained: STICS, an agronomy model that calculates phenology and management, and ORCHIDEE, a land surface model that calculates biomass and other ecosystem variables forced by STICS' phenology. First, the parameters that dominate the uncertainty of simulated biomass at harvest date are determined through a screening of 67 different parameters of both STICS and ORCHIDEE on a multi-site basis. Secondly, the uncertainty of harvested biomass attributable to those most sensitive parameters is quantified and specifically attributed to either STICS (phenology, management or to ORCHIDEE (other ecosystem variables including biomass through distinct Monte-Carlo runs. The uncertainty on parameter values is constrained using observations by calibrating the model independently at seven sites. In a third step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying the most sensitive parameters to investigate their effects at continental scale. A Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used to quantify the sensitivity of harvested biomass to input parameters on a continental scale across the large regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Ten parameters driving most of the uncertainty in the ORCHIDEE-STICS modeled biomass at the 7 sites are identified by the screening procedure. We found that the 10 most sensitive parameters control phenology (maximum rate of increase of LAI and root uptake of water and nitrogen (root profile and root growth rate, nitrogen stress threshold in STICS, and photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate, radiation interception (extinction coefficient, and transpiration and respiration (stomatal conductance, growth and maintenance respiration coefficients in ORCHIDEE. We find that the optimal carboxylation rate and photosynthesis temperature parameters contribute most to the uncertainty in harvested biomass simulations at site scale. The spatial variation of the ranked correlation between input parameters and modeled biomass at harvest is well explained by rain and temperature drivers, suggesting climate-mediated different sensitivities of modeled sugar cane yield to the model parameters, for Australia and Brazil. This study reveals the spatial and temporal patterns of uncertainty variability for a highly parameterized agro-LSM and calls for more systematic uncertainty analyses of such models.

A. Valade

2014-01-01

262

Hydrological data management for run-of-river hydropower projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provided background on traditional data management issues commonly encountered in the industry of hydrological data collection for hydropower developments. Knight Piesold Ltd. maintains and operates more than 150 gauging stations in remote alpine regions of British Columbia for potential run-of-river hydropower developments. In order to evaluate these projects, the company measures the discharge in steep mountainous streams using dilution techniques such as Rhodamine Dye WT method. This paper focused on the volume of data and management that is required to undertake high quality data collection and interpretation of tracer dye measurements. It emphasized that integrated data management systems promote accuracy in collection, processing and interpretation of hydrology data. Knight Piesold Ltd. developed an innovative data management system for the storage, processing and preliminary analysis of hydrological data. The use of the system has facilitated the standardization of many aspects of field and data management and has resulted in a considerable improvement in the overall quality and defensibility of discharge data. 13 figs.

Butt, C.; Cathcart, J. [Knight Piesold Consulting, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2009-07-01

263

Application procedures for hydropower licenses, exemptions, and preliminary permits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides essential information regarding the FERC's regulations and procedures for filing an application with the Commission for hydropower licenses, exemptions and preliminary permits. Each section is page numbered with a roman numeral followed by consecutive arabic numbering. The appendices are page numbered with an alphabetical prefix and consecutve page numbering within each section. The first section of this book contains background descriptions of the Commission's authority and regulations and serves as an introduction to the Commission's hydropower licensing program. Two general tables follow this introductory text and provide a quick reference to the types of applications and the relationship between the Commission's orders and regulations. Following the introduction are sections which include the Commission's regulations by application type: preliminary permits; licenses; and exemptions. Each section contains an introduction describing application procedures by type of action requested. There are two appendices provided contain information on the consultation process and lists of agencies to be consulted and a section by section analyses of the Commission's orders.

1982-04-01

264

Stormwater Storage Pond Configuration for Hydropower Solutions: Adaptation and Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze different storage pond configurations used to manage the water inflow from storm events and to establish a methodology to optimize the energy production using this water. The case study area is a catchment based on the Alcântara zone, in Lisbon, Portugal. This is an urban area, which faces severe occurrences of storm events. These events are caused by a non-efficient drainage system, and the proximity of the river and the sea, which cannot handle large storm event inflows. Due to climate change effects, the storm rainfall hyetographs are modified and runoff in this urban area has increased for the last decades causing major inundations.The Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI MIKE BASIN (MB and Bentley PondPack software are used to define solutions for this case study by embodying some of the Alcântara’s catchment characteristics. Different relevant components used to create the models are presented. In order to model completely the studied area, several physical elements such as reservoirs or hydropower plants are included. The Nedbør-Afstrømnings-Model (NAM model is also presented. It is a rainfall-runoff simulator, included in DHI MB, which can create runoff time series from rainfall time series. The methodologies used to optimize energy production in each of case studies developed are detailed. Results are presented showing that some ponds configurations permit to produce more energy than others and the production of energy can be maximized by optimizing the hydropower production target demand.

Helena M Ramos

2012-07-01

265

Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

Payne, Suzette

2008-08-01

266

Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this challenge, the following study was designed to investigate the potential for wind power integration to alter riparian flow regimes below hydroelectric dams. A hydrological model of a three-dam cascade in the Roanoke River basin (Virginia, USA) is interfaced with a simulated electricity market (i.e. a unit commitment problem) representing the Dominion Zone of PJM Interconnection. Incorporating forecasts of electricity demand, hydro capacity and wind availability, a mixed-integer optimization program minimizes the system cost of meeting hourly demand and reserve requirements by means of a diverse generation portfolio (e.g. nuclear, fossil, hydro, and biomass). A secondary 'balancing' energy market is executed if real-time wind generation is less than the day-ahead forecast, calling upon reserved generation resources to meet the supply shortfall. Hydropower release schedules are determined across a range of wind development scenarios (varying wind's fraction of total installed generating capacity, as well as its geographical source region). Flow regimes for each wind development scenario are compared against both historical and simulated flows under current operations (negligible wind power), as well as simulated natural flows (dam removal), in terms of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Results quantify the ability of wind power development to alter within-week stream flows downstream from hydropower dams.

Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.

2012-12-01

267

The potential of hydropower generation in Jordan; Micro-hydropower analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted by collecting information about all known water flows in Jordan, including seasonal flows. The information included the monthly mean rate of flow (m[sup 3]/s) for a period of 20 years, topographical maps showing the falls in the flow paths, and the population of the communities close to the paths. From the promising sites, the best six (with the highest potential) were selected for this study. Histograms, flow duration and power duration curves were constructed for each site. Sites' power generation potential were compared with their power demand from the nearest community. An economic study followed to find the minimum costs per kilowatt hour for a feasible project, and to list costs for each site. A cost-benefit analysis was also conducted. (Author)

Hammad, M. (Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Faculty of Engineering); Aburas, R.; Abuzahra, B. (Jordan Electricity Authority, Amman (Jordan))

1994-06-01

268

reservoir operation and hydropower generation schemes for regional scale hydrological models: case study in the northeastern united states  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the development of the Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM), we are developing an integrated hydrologic modeling framework that incorporates various aspects of the coupled human-hydrologic system, from supply to demand, into a single framework. This framework provides temporally and spatially explicit information on the regional water system under different scenarios of climate, population, and land use/ land cover change. To support these efforts, we have incorporated two new modules into the Water Balance Model (WBM) that simulate reservoir operation and calculate the hydropower production from dams. Dams and reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on natural stream flow, sediment flux, thermal characteristics and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. In the Northeast Region of the United States alone, the National Inventory of Dams (NID) lists over 12000 reservoirs. Depending on site-specific characteristics of the dam, its watershed and its intended purpose, each will have a specific optimum operating rule. Since no comprehensive dataset of these operating rules exists, we have to simulate them. We developed an Artificial Neural Network and used data from 35 dams for calibration. Approximately 60 % of the dataset was dedicated to training process, 20 % to validation and the other 20 % used for testing. If (t) represents current time, we use three sets of inputs; inflow [It , It-1 , It-2], release in previous months [Rt-1 , Rt-2] and month (Mt), to calculate release from reservoir (Rt). We also used a simple continuity equation for reservoirs by considering the maximum (from NID) and minimum reservoir storage to improve the model's performance in extreme wet and dry events. Using results from WBM we show how reservoirs regionally alter discharge in streams of Northeast United States compared to their natural state. We also are assessing the effects of climate change on water availability and how our reservoir module responds to climate change. We have extended our efforts in modeling reservoir behaviors in the context of hydropower production across the region. By using the results from the reservoir operation module in our framework we calculate the hydraulic head of reservoirs, which allows us to calculate individual and collective hydropower production in contemporary and future time frames. We show how climate change could affect electricity production from hydropower in the future and estimate electricity production potential by converting currently non-powered dams to dams with electricity generators. We also analyze the impact of producing more electricity by building new dams.

Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

2013-12-01

269

Population around the French nuclear power plant sites: a key-parameter for crisis management and safety economics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper undertakes an analysis of population around the French nuclear power plant sites, tackles the problem of evacuation planning and provides a glimpse into ongoing research at the Laboratory of Nuclear Safety Economics of the IRSN, about the cost assessment of a nuclear accident and long-term land contamination. (author)

2012-01-01

270

Preliminary study: small hydropower installation on the Steintalerbach stream in Ebnat-Kappel - Reactivation of the 'Muehle' hydropower plant; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk Muehle am Steintalerbach in Ebnat-Kappel. Reaktivierung der ehemaligen Wasserkraftanlage Muehle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study made on the reactivation of an existing but disused hydropower plant. The report describes the current situation at the site, where originally three water-wheels were in use. The new project is described, which foresees a new 231 kW turbine integrated into a new building on the site as well as new weir, a fish ladder and a new water conduit. The local topographical and hydrological situation is discussed. Three project variants for different water volumes are discussed and compared. The variant chosen for possible realisation is described. Figures are given on investment and operating costs, the price of the power produced and the installation's economic viability. Further topics relating to environmental protection issues are also discussed.

Burri, J.; Binder, F.

2002-07-01

271

EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

None

2011-12-01

272

Portfolio optimisation for hydropower producers that balances riverine ecosystem protection and producer needs  

Science.gov (United States)

In deregulated electricity markets, hydropower portfolio design has become an essential task for producers. The previous research on hydropower portfolio optimisation focused mainly on the maximisation of profits but did not take into account riverine ecosystem protection. Although profit maximisation is the major objective for producers in deregulated markets, protection of riverine ecosystems must be incorporated into the process of hydropower portfolio optimisation, especially against a background of increasing attention to environmental protection and stronger opposition to hydropower generation. This research seeks mainly to remind hydropower producers of the requirement of river protection when they design portfolios and help shift portfolio optimisation from economically oriented to ecologically friendly. We establish a framework to determine the optimal portfolio for a hydropower reservoir, accounting for both economic benefits and ecological needs. In this framework, the degree of natural flow regime alteration is adopted as a constraint on hydropower generation to protect riverine ecosystems, and the maximisation of mean annual revenue is set as the optimisation objective. The electricity volumes assigned in different electricity submarkets are optimised by the noisy genetic algorithm. The proposed framework is applied to China's Wangkuai Reservoir to test its effectiveness. The results show that the new framework could help to design eco-friendly portfolios that can ensure a planned profit and reduce alteration of the natural flow regime.

Yin, X. A.; Yang, Z. F.; Liu, C. L.

2014-04-01

273

Scaling-up parameters for site restoration process using surfactant-enhanced soil washing coupled with wastewater treatment by Fenton and Fenton-like processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimation of scaling-up parameters for a site restoration process using a surfactant-enhanced soil washing (SESW) process followed by the application of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton and photo-Fenton) was performed. For the SESW, different parameters were varied and the soil washing efficiency for pesticide (2,4-D) removal assessed. The resulting wastewater was treated using the Fenton reaction in the absence and presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation for pesticide removal. Results showed that agitation speed of 1550 rpm was preferable for the best pesticide removal from contaminated soil. It was possible to wash contaminated soils with different soil concentrations; however the power drawn was higher as the soil concentration increased. Complete removal of the pesticide and the remaining surfactant was achieved using different reaction conditions. The best degradation conditions were for the photo-Fenton process using [Fe(II)] = 0.3 mM; [H2O2] = 4.0 mM where complete 2,4-D and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) removal was observed after 8 and 10 minutes of reaction, respectively. Further increase in the hydrogen peroxide or iron salt concentration did not show any improvement in the reaction rate. Kinetic parameters, i.e. reaction rate constant and scaling-up parameters, were determined. It was shown that, by coupling both processes (SESW and AOPs), it is possible the restoration of contaminated sites. PMID:23530350

Bandala, Erick R; Cossio, Horacio; Sánchez-Lopez, Adriana D; Córdova, Felipe; Peralta-Herández, Juan M; Torres, Luis G

2013-01-01

274

Site for unpurified islet transplantation is an important parameter for determination of the outcome of graft survival and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transplantation of unpurified islets into the liver, unlike that of purified islets, causes portal hypertension and coagulopathy. The aim of this project was to determine the most suitable alternative site for transplantation of unpurified pancreatic islets in autotransplanted dogs. Twenty-five female mongrel dogs were divided into 5 groups depending on the site of islet transplantation: liver (3), spleen (7), skeletal muscle (5), omental pouch (6), and renal subcapsule (4). Pancreatic digestion of the total pancreatectomized specimen was carried out by distension of the pancreas with 1.5 mg/mL collagenase suspended in 250 mL Hanks' balanced salt solution using a semiautomatic method. The total number of islets equivalent isolated from 25 dogs was 90948 +/- 6053. Only islets > 60 microns in diameter were counted, and the mean islet equivalent transplanted per kg body wt was 6762 +/- 429. Islet function was achieved with transplantation into spleen in 71%, omental pouch in 50%, and muscle in 20%, but none in the renal subcapsule or liver groups. Glucose tolerance test at 30 d showed a mean K Value (decline in glucose, %/min) of 1.94 +/- 0.73, 0.79 +/- 0.15 and 1.02 in the splenic, omental pouch and muscle groups, respectively. All animals in the liver group, 2 from the splenic group, and 2 from the renal subcapsule group died of diffuse bleeding. Four out of 5 dogs in the muscle group developed necrosis at the site of transplantation and the islets never functioned. This study demonstrates that in dogs, spleen and omental pouch appear to be suitable sites for transplantation of unpurified islets. PMID:7640869

al-Abdullah, I H; Anil Kumar, M S; Kelly-Sullivan, D; Abouna, G M

1995-01-01

275

Investigation of Site-Specific Wind Field Parameters and Their Effect on Loads of Offshore Wind Turbines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main contributing factors to unsteady loading of Offshore Wind Turbines (OWT are wind shear, turbulence, and waves. In the present paper, the turbulence intensity and the wind shear exponent are investigated. Using data from the FINO 1 research platform, these parameters are analyzed and compared with the proposed wind field parameters in the IEC standard 61400-3. Based on this analysis, aeroelastic simulations are performed to determine the effect of wind field parameters on the fatigue and the extreme loads on the rotor blades. For the investigations, the aeroelastic model of a 5 MW OWT is used with a focus on design load cases in an operating state (power production. The fatigue loads are examined by means of the damage-equivalent load-range approach. In order to determine the extreme loads with a recurrence period of 50 years, a peak over threshold extrapolation method and a novel method based on average conditional exceedance rates are used. The results show that the requirements of the IEC standard are very conservative for the design of the rotor blades. Therefore, there could be a large optimization potential for the reduction of weight and cost of the rotor blades.

Jörg R. Seume

2012-10-01

276

Study of motor-pump operating as generator groups in hydroelectric micro hydropower plants; Estudo de grupos moto-bomba operando como grupos geradores em microcentrais hidreletricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work aims to evaluate the in site use of pumps working as turbines (PATs) and induction engines operating as generators (MIGs), for the replacement of conventional generating groups in micro hydropower plants (MHPs), focusing on PATs. To achieve this goal, a case study was accomplished on a micro hydropower plant installed in Mantiqueira Mountain that, after been rebuilt, received a PAT/MIG generating group. It's a pioneer research, being the first documented case of implementation of PATs and MIGs in a real MHP in Brazil. After tests for defining the efficiency, and the comparison with theoretical and laboratory results, it was concluded that PAT/MIG generating groups can be used effectively in electricity generation, by the application of appropriate selection methodologies and adjustments to optimize its operation in reverse. Besides the technical aspects, it was also addressed the technology's economic aspects. Through prices research and costs composition, it was possible to quantify the economic benefit of PAT/MIG groups over conventional generating groups, noting that the studied technology reduces the micro hydropower plants deployment costs in a significant way . (author)

Ricardo, Mateus

2007-07-01

277

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Sale, M.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-07-01

278

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-05-01

279

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-07-01

280

Operational use of distributed hydrological models. Experiences and challenges at a Norwegian hydropower company (Agder Energi).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Scandinavian hydropower industry has traditionally adopted the lumped conceptual hydrological model - HBV, as the tool for producing forecasts of inflows and mountain snow packs. Such forecasting systems - based on lumped conceptual models - have several drawbacks. Firstly, a lumped model does not produce spatial data, and comparisons with remote sensed snow cover data (which are now available) are complicated. Secondly, several climate parameters such as wind speed are now becoming more available and can potentially improve forecasts due to improved estimates of precipitation gauge efficiency, and more physically correct calculation of turbulent heat fluxes. At last, when the number of catchments increases, it is cumbersome and slow to run multiple hydrology models compared to running one model for all catchments. With the drawbacks of the lumped hydrology models in mind, and with inspiration from other forecasting systems using distributed models, Agder Energy decided to develop a forecasting system applying a physically based distributed model. In this paper we describe an operational inflow and snowpack forecast system developed for the Scandinavian mountain range. The system applies a modern macroscale land surface hydrology model (VIC) which in combination with historical climate data and weather predictions can be used to produce both short-term, and seasonal forecasts of inflow and mountain snowpack. Experiences with the forecast system are illustrated using results from individual subcatchments as well as aggregated regional forecasts of inflow and snowpack. Conversion of water volumes into effective energy inflow are also presented and compared to data from the Nordic hydropower system. Further on, we document several important "lessons-learned" that may be of interest to the hydrological research community. Specifically a semi-automatic data cleansing system combining spatial and temporal visualization techniques with statistical procedures are combined into a robust and fast data cleansing and interpolation system. One experience from this work is that advanced interpolation techniques (kriging), do not outperform calibrated inverse distance methods when also computational speed is used as a criteria for model selection. The paper also discusses several challenges related to uncertainty in simulated snow reservoir, regionalization of parameters, choice of spatial resolution, techniques for reducing computational needs without compromising information needs, amongst others.

Viggo Matheussen, Bernt; Andresen, Arne; Weisser, Claudia

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Fish, the protection of streams and rivers, and hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how the river Rhine along the Swiss-German border has been affected by man-made changes over the last 200 years. The grave effects on fish stocks caused by the construction of several hydropower stations along this stretch of the river are discussed. The two programmes 'Salmon 2000' and 'Rhine 2020' are discussed that aim to provide power station dams with fish passes to enable migrant fish to reach their old spawning grounds. Proposals are described that are to improve the situation and new Europe-wide regulations on the matter are discussed. The changes that the influence of man have caused on the Rhine's fauna are described and an historical review of the changes which the river has undergone is presented

2004-01-01

282

Retrofitting of the hydro-power installation of Vicques, Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work involved in obtaining a new concession for the use of the water in the mill canal in Vicques, Switzerland on the Scheulte river. The author states that the existing concession for use is not optimal and should be optimised. A window of opportunity exists as a new river protection law requires a higher residual water flow rate and the creation of a fish passage facility. The paper discusses how the production of electrical energy could be doubled. The existing installation is described. Details of existing conduits and the installed power generator are presented. The measures proposed for the renewal of the hydro-power plant are described. An annex includes a copy of the construction plans

2007-01-01

283

Turkey's water resources and hydropower potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this paper is to investigate the water sources in Turkey. Annual rainfall varies from 220 mm to 2500 mm with an average of 643 mm, which means total volume of 501 km{sup 3} and average annual potential of surface water is 186 km{sup 3} and 95 km{sup 3} of this amount potential can be feasibly developed. Ground water reservoirs are estimated to be around 12 km{sup 3}. As a result of construction of 700 dams, with different types, purposes and sizes, 140 km{sup 3} of water is being stored in the reservoirs. Total hydropower potential of Turkey is annually 433,000 GWh. Almost 50% of the total potential is technically exploitable, and 29% is (122,322 GWh/year) economically exploitable. (author)

Demirbas, A.; Bakis, R.

2003-10-01

284

Trempel hydropower station - renewal and extension of the existing plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the refurbishment and/or extension of a 450 kW hydropower plant near Krummenau, Switzerland. Three possible variants are presented, one involving the renewal of the installation and two variants for enhancing production to provide 1 MW and 2.25 MW of power respectively. Details on the hydrology of the location are given and the equipment of the existing two-turbine power station is described. Residual water questions are discussed and the civil works envisaged are described. The report also presents data on the economics of the project and assesses the effects on the environment, landscape and ground water it would bring with it

2003-01-01

285

Optimised deployment of hydro-power generation facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how the opening-up of the European electricity market has led to the creation of more room for manoeuvre in the deployment of the generation capacity of dam and pumped-storage-based hydropower facilities and low-head power stations. Software tools for the optimisation of the operation of power generation facilities that can take care of complex hydraulic interdependencies are described. The use of the software for the assessment of new installations being planned or of older installations being extended is examined. The influence of climatic conditions, market prices for power, the general requirements placed on the system and other influences on financial gain are looked at. The article makes recommendations on those factors influencing the design of the software and for its optimal use in practice

2004-01-01

286

Glaciers and hydropower for Nuuk/Godthaab West Greenland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations have been made by the Greenland Technical Organization (GTO) since the early 1980s on the feasibility of hydropower for Nuuk/Godthaab, West Greenland. The main source of water would be the Kangerluarsunnguaq (KNNQ) basin to the south of Nuuk although the possibility of transferring extra water from another basin, The Isortuarsuup tasia basin (ISTA), was considered at an early stage of planning. The KNNQ basin contains only a sparse glacier cover while the ISTA basin has an extensive glacier cover, including sectors of the Inland Ice, and contains large ice-dammed lakes. Glaciological measurements have been made by the Geological Survey of Greenland (GGU) at Qamanarssup sermia to the north-east of the area, and in both the KNNQ and ISTA basins, and the present report assesses the possible effects of glaciers on runoff from both basins. Runoff from the KNNQ basin is not significantly influenced by glaciers and the basin is essentially a precipitation basin. By contrast, glaciers are the main source of runoff from the ISTA basin and strongly influence runoff variations through both ablation variations and the filling/draining of ice-dammed lakes. Runoff simulations for the KNNQ basin by GTO can therefore ignore glacier effects but there is a serious problem with the homogenuity of the precipitation data from Nuuk which is caused by the relocation of the measuring station and must be solved. Runoff simulations for ISTA must include glacier effects, and especially runoff from the Inland Ice. GGUs measurements of accumulation on a glacier in the KNNQ basin can be used to forecast runoff from the basin, and should be continued, and possibly extended, as a contribution to the operation of the hydropower station if it is ever built. (author) 57 refs.

Braithwaite, R.J.

1989-05-15

287

Instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric parameters, relevant for IACTs, for site-search and correction of the energy spectra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The atmospheric conditions have impact on the measured data by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). Cherenkov light from air showers traverses 5-25 km distance in the atmosphere before reaching the telescopes. This light becomes attenuated because of absorption by oxigen and ozone as well as because of the Rayleigh and the Mie scatterings. The latter is the variable component in the atmosphere that depends on the momentary distribution of aerosols, their size and types and distribution heights. We have developed a micro-LIDAR system for parametrising these losses and plan to locate it next to the MAGIC telescopes for simultaneous operation. This shall allow us to improve the energy resolution of the telescopes for the data taken at non-ideal weather conditions. Also, we are working on developing diverse instrumentation for paramerising the atmosphere and for the searching proper sites for the CTA project. In our presentation we plan to report about the above-mentioned activities.

Fruck, Christian; Hose, Juergen; Engelhardt, Toni; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Schweizer, Thomas; Teshima, Masahiro [Max Plank Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

2010-07-01

288

Instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric parameters, relevant for IACTs, for site-search and correction of the energy spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atmospheric conditions have impact on the measured data by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). Cherenkov light from air showers traverses 5-25 km distance in the atmosphere before reaching the telescopes. This light becomes attenuated because of absorption by oxigen and ozone as well as because of the Rayleigh and the Mie scatterings. The latter is the variable component in the atmosphere that depends on the momentary distribution of aerosols, their size and types and distribution heights. We have developed a micro-LIDAR system for parametrising these losses and plan to locate it next to the MAGIC telescopes for simultaneous operation. This shall allow us to improve the energy resolution of the telescopes for the data taken at non-ideal weather conditions. Also, we are working on developing diverse instrumentation for paramerising the atmosphere and for the searching proper sites for the CTA project. In our presentation we plan to report about the above-mentioned activities.

2010-03-15

289

Measurement of energy spectrum parameters in MNSR irradiation site by solid track method-dual foil method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solid track method-dual foil method i.e. "2"3"9Pu-"2"3"5U pair and "1"1"5In-"5"5Mn Pair, which have been used to measure the neutron temperature and epithermal index in the irradiation site on the prototype MNSR, is described. The experimental principle and method, the measuring technique of the solid track method, the experimental results and error analysis are explained in detail. The results are compared with those obtained by the dual foil method-"1"7"6Lu-"1"6"4Dy and "1"1"5In-"5"5Mn pairs, and they are in good coincidence within the error scope

1994-12-01

290

Development of a Speckle Interferometer and the Measurement of Fried's Parameter $(r_{o})$ at the Telescope Site  

CERN Document Server

A new optical speckle interferometer for use at the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope (VBT), at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India, has been designed and developed. Provisions have been made for observation both at the prime focus (f/3.25), as well as at the Cassegrain focus (f/13) of the said telescope. The technical details of this sensitive instrument and the design features are described. An interface between the telescope and the afore-mentioned interferometer is made based on a concept of eliminating the formation of eddies due to the hot air entrapment. The performances of this instrument has been tested both at the laboratory, as well as at the Cassegrain end of the telescope. It is being used routinely to observe the speckle-grams of close-binary (separation $<$1 arc second) stars. The size of the Fried's parameter, r$_{o}$, is also measured.

Saha, S K; Chandra, A U; Chinnappan, V

1999-01-01

291

Analysis of the cost for the refurbishment of small hydropower plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of all the concerns associated with fossil fuels and energy demand it is appropriate to investigate the large number of abandoned small hydropower plants. In order to solve the difficulty implied, by a viability study on the refurbishment of a small hydropower plant, a series of simple equations has been developed based on the economic optimization of the different elements. These equations can also be used for completely new hydropower plants. The result of this study will allow us to obtain quite approximate costs for the refurbishment of old hydropower plants, or the construction of new ones. These data on costs will act as a reference to examine real possibilities of refurbishment through different tools of financial and economic analysis. Although the equations developed have used unitary prices referring to Spain, they will be applicable to other countries just changing those prices for those of the country, required. (author)

2009-11-01

292

Initiatives in the hydro sector post-World Commission on Dams – The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The World Commission on Dams (WCD) has called for developers, governments, civil society, etc. to use its Strategic Priorities as a starting point for dialogue and initiatives to address issues regarding the development of dams. One very notable follow-up initiative has been led by the hydropower industry. The International Hydropower Association developed Sustainability Guidelines (IHA, 2004) and a Sustainability Assessment Protocol (IHA, 2006), and most recently has been involved in a two-y...

2010-01-01

293

Viewpoint – The role of the German development cooperation in promoting sustainable hydropower  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After long and intense discussions on the recommendations of the World Commission on Dams (WCD), large dams are back on the agenda of international finance institutions. Asia, Latin America and Africa are planning to expand their hydropower utilisation. Hydropower is a key component of renewable energy, and therefore supports protection against climate change. Water storage over the long term and flood control are the main issues discussed with regard to climate adaptation measures.Such trend...

2010-01-01

294

Viewpoint – Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD) report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin wate...

2010-01-01

295

2014 Water Power Program Peer Review: Hydropower Technologies, Compiled Presentations (Presentation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document represents a collection of all presentations given during the EERE Wind and Water Power Program's 2014 Hydropower Peer Review. The purpose of the meeting was to evaluate DOE-funded hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic R&D projects for their contribution to the mission and goals of the Water Power Program and to assess progress made against stated objectives.

2014-02-01

296

Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. W...

Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Mcgrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-filho, Britaldo S.

2013-01-01

297

Hydropower Bidding Strategies to Day-Ahead and Real-Time Markets : Different Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ongoing growth in wind power introduce huge amount of uncertainties to the power market. The stochastic nature of these power sources increases the need for the reserve power in real-time market. Having a flexible power source, hydropower producer can provide reserve power and increase its profit. Therefore, to build a planning model, which will allocate available capacity in different market places is an essential task for the price-taker hydropower producer. This paper uses optimal bidd...

Vardanyan, Yelena; So?der, Lennart; Amelin, Mikael

2013-01-01

298

Hydropower - active contribution to environmental protection; Wasserkraft - aktiver Beitrag zum Umweltschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a short introduction, the paper focuses on the surrounding of hydro-power, concentrating on environmental-political issues. Based on a presentation of particularities related to hydro-power as well as external effects, the aspect of sustainability is dealt with. (orig.) [German] Es wird auf das Umfeld der Wasserkraft mit Schwergewicht auf umweltpolitische Fragestellungen eingegangen. Auf Basis einer Darstellung von Besonderheiten der Wasserkraft sowie von externen Effekten wird der Aspekt der Nachhaltigkeit gesondert dargestellt. (orig.)

Kaupa, H. [Verbund-Austrian Power Grid AG, Wien (Austria); Harreiter, H. [Verbund-Austrian Hydro Power AG, Wien (Austria)

2002-07-01

299

STABILTY ASSESSMENT OF HEADRACE TUNNEL SYSTEM FOR PUNATSANGCHHU II HYDROPOWER PROJECT, BHUTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bhutan is a small Buddhist country nested in the cradles of the eastern Himalayas. It has rugged mountainous terrains with altitudes ranging from 500 masl in its southern plains to 4500masl in the snowy capped mountains in north. This rugged mountainous topography blessed Bhutan with huge hydropower potential. The hydropower potential of Bhutan is estimated at 30000MW with projects above 10MW capacity as per the power system master plan. This is one of the highest in the world considering its...

2012-01-01

300

Real Options in Small Hydropower Investments: An Empirical Study from Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This empirical study examines investment behavior in small hydropower investments under uncertain electricity prices and revenues from selling so-called green certificates. We assess 73 small hydropower projects granted a license to build from the Norwegian authorities. The license is considered an American call option with infinite lifetime. To examine the investment behavior, we conduct a survey to recreate the available information on the date of investment decision. We apply a net present...

Gravdehaug, Guro; Remmen, Ragnhild

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Modelling the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing South African dams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An investigation was carried out with the primary objective of ascertaining whether it is possible to develop a model for determining the feasibility of retrofitting hydropower to existing dams in South Africa. The need for such a model is primarily due to the growing importance of small-scale hydropower projects resulting from the global shift towards renewable energy and the South African energy crisis, the increased price of energy and the introduction of feed-in tariffs for renewables. Th...

Vuuren, S. J.; Blersch, C. L.; Dijk, Marco

2011-01-01

302

Incorporating Climate Change in Flow Regime Alteration Studies in Hydropower Licensing  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has yet to mandate incorporation of anticipated climate change effects on hydropower system operations when assessing environmental impacts from the renewal of hydropower licenses. One stated reason is the lack of specific project-level specificity in future impacts. We demonstrate how a hydropower system operations model, incorporating the latest climatological realizations (3 GCMs x RCPs 4.5 and 8.5), can be used to assess environmental impacts generally, and hydrological flow alterations in particular, during the hydropower licensing process. We demonstrate that we can, in fact, quantify project-level impacts from climate change, albeit within the context of quantified uncertainty about non-stationary future conditions. The systems operations model analysis encompasses the combined effects of the Yuba River Development Project and Yuba-Bear Drum-Spaulding Projects, an interconnected series of complex hydropower systems located in the Sierra Nevada, California. Daily water system operations are simulated using a monthly-scale optimization model for hydropower decisions. Though there is inherent uncertainty generated by the modeling process and operational assumptions (e.g., static energy demand), there are sufficient data, modeling techniques, and analytical approaches to assess the how management decisions made today may be confounded by non-stationary hydroclimates in 30-50 years, which is the duration of most hydropower licenses. Such decisions need to include adaptive management approaches to address not only non-stationary hydroclimates, but also cumulative impacts to ecological functions and processes caused by serial flow manipulation. This study can help provide the scientific guidance needed to improve climate change policy in hydropower system planning.

Rheinheimer, D. E.; Akhbari, M.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Null, S. E.; Viers, J. H.

2013-12-01

303

Thermal counditions of the lower sava river during the construction of a chain of hydropower plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thermal burden of the lower Sava River from the already existing infrastructure operating along its stream is increasing due to the new hydropower plants that are being built in the area. In the year 2003, an evaluation study based on different mathematical models was made concerning the influence of Trbovlje Thermoelectric Power Plant, Krško Nuclear Power Plant and the existing hydropower plants on river water temperature rise by the company IBE. In 2007, a continuous temperature monito...

Volkar, Nina

2011-01-01

304

Tools for Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning and Development: A Review of Technology and Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews and compares software tools for the planning and design of small hydropower (SHP) plants. The main emphasis is on small scale hydropower resource assessment computer tools and methodologies for the development of SHP plants corresponding to a preliminary or prefeasibility study level. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the historic software tools and the current tools used in the small hydro industry. The reviewed tools vary from simple initial estimates to quite soph...

Petras Punys; Antanas Dumbrauskas; Algis Kvaraciejus; Gitana Vyciene

2011-01-01

305

Experiments on optimization and standardising of turbines for small-scale hydro-power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of small scale hydropower plants in the field of power generation increases worldwide. For an economic power generation a standard program for small scale turbines has been developed. Exhaustive test results were the basis for optimizing those turbines hydraulically. Simple, mature and well proven designs ensure troublefree and maintenancefree operation. The advantages of standardization in connection with available hydraulic test results and experience in design make the use of small and even smallest hydropower plants economically efficient.

Strohmer, F.

1983-01-01

306

Solving the unit commitment problem of hydropower plants via Lagrangian Relaxation and Sequential Quadratic Programming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the optimal scheduling of hydropower plants in a hydrothermal interconnected system. This problem, of outmost importance for large-scale power systems with a high proportion of hydraulic generation, requires a detailed description of the so-called hydro unit production function. In our model, we relate the amount of generated hydropower to nonlinear tailrace levels; we also take into account hydraulic losses, turbine-generator efficiencies, as well as multiple 0-1 states associate...

Finardi, Erlon C.; Da Silva, Edson L.; Claudia Sagastizábal

2005-01-01

307

Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling and illustrate the benefits of the methodology I providing better estimates of predictive uncertiay8, quantitative results for use in assessing risk, and an improved understanding of the system behavior and the limitations of the models.

Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2007-07-30

308

Multi parameter tuning of a firn air transport model for the NEEM ice core site in Northern Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

The compacted snow (firn) found in the accumulation zone of major ice sheets acts as a unique archive of old air. Contrary to ice cores, large sample volumes can be pumped from the firn, making this archive especially suited for studying changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric trace gases. At the NEEM deep drilling site in northern Greenland firn air has been sampled from 4 different bore holes during two field campaigns. Through a collaboration of several laboratories NEEM firn air has been analyzed for an unprecedented number of analytes, including isotopes of CO2, CH4, N2O, CO and H2. The atmospheric signal as recorded in the firn is affected by a number of processes such as diffusion, advection and gravitational enrichment. Modeling of gas transport is therefore essential for the interpretation of firn gas records. For the NEEM site there is a joint effort to derive the firn transport properties by comparing the output of four different firn models. How the molecular diffusivity changes with depth is uncertain, and it is common practice to tune the model by forcing it with a gas of relatively well-known atmospheric history (usually CO2), and subsequently optimizing the fit to experimental data. By tuning to a single atmospheric history, the problem is under-determined. Many gas age distributions can be found that optimize the fit. To constrain the problem better the NEEM diffusivity profile is tuned to an ensemble of analytes, including CO2, CH4, SF6, ?14CO2, and several CFCs. It is however not a priori clear how to combine constraints from different gases in the tuning procedure. We introduce a method that can quantify how well a certain gas constrains the diffusivity profile at each depth, based on 1) the particular shape of its atmospheric history and uncertainties therein, 2) measurement uncertainties and 3) the possibility of in situ alteration. By taking these three factors into consideration, we can determine for each depth how to weigh the individual contributions of the different gases in the ensemble. We let the gas that places the most stringent constraint carry the most weight, thus exploiting the relative strength of each gas to the fullest.

Buizert, Christo; Petrenko, Vasilii; Martinerie, Patricia; Severinghaus, Jeffrey; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, William; Levin, Ingeborg; Blunier, Thomas

2010-05-01

309

Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification  

Science.gov (United States)

It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

2013-12-01

310

Resource rent taxation and benchmarking-A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs.

2010-05-01

311

Resource rent taxation and benchmarking-A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs.

Banfi, Silvia, E-mail: sbanfi@ethz.c [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstrasse 18, ZUE, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstrasse 18, ZUE, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Universita della Svizzera italiana, Department of Economics, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

312

Resource rent taxation and benchmarking. A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs. (author)

Banfi, Silvia [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstrasse 18, ZUE, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH Zurich, Zuerichbergstrasse 18, ZUE, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Universita della Svizzera italiana, Department of Economics, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland)

2010-05-15

313

Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation  

Science.gov (United States)

The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

Lee, T.

2013-12-01

314

Resource rent taxation and benchmarking. A new perspective for the Swiss hydropower sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs. (author)

2010-05-01

315

Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

2013-12-01

316

What is the color of Chinese water? : Challenges and opportunities for European hydropower companies in the Chinese market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: China is the country with the worldwide hugest hydropower reserves. Interms of meeting its electricity demand, further development of its reserves is necessary.European companies are leading on the hydropower market and strive for projects inChina, resulting in challenges and opportunities while facing emerging market features.Aim: This study presents an analysis of the Chinese electricity market with the aim toidentify challenges and opportunities European hydropower companies fa...

Seidel, Julia

2011-01-01

317

Modelling of input data uncertainty based on random set theory for evaluation of the financial feasibility for hydropower projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The design of hydropower projects requires a comprehensive planning process in order to achieve the objective to maximise exploitation of the existing hydropower potential as well as future revenues of the plant. For this purpose and to satisfy approval requirements for a complex hydropower development, it is imperative at planning stage, that the conceptual development contemplates a wide range of influencing design factors and ensures appropriate consideration of all related aspects.

Beisler, Matthias Werner

2011-01-01

318

The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia  

Science.gov (United States)

River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial or Heavily Modified (following the definitions of the WFD) in most cases have to fulfil more limited environmental targets. The involvement of local stakeholders must be ensured along the whole certification procedure and, when completed, during the lifespan of the label. The methodology includes a predefined framework where pressure factors due to hydropower production are related to potentially impacted environmental quality elements. For each of these cause-effect relationships possible mitigation measures are suggested. In the long run, it is expected that the certification will have a positive impact on hydro power generation in Europe, will help focusing the conception of new HPPs towards more sustainable solutions and making easier authorization procedure.

Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

2010-05-01

319

Climate change in the Sierra Nevada mountains: Implications for the management of hydropower facilities and aquatic ecosystems | Projects at SEI  

...Climate change in the Sierra Nevada mountains: Implications for the management of hydropower facilities and aquatic ecosystems | Projects at SEI Climate ...change in the Sierra Nevada mountains: Implications for the management of hydropower facilities and aquatic ecosystems | Projects at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM ... 4# Climate change in the Sierra Nevada mountains: Implications for the management of hydropower facilities and aquatic ecosystems This project used a WEAP ...application of the entire Sierra Nevada Range to investigate how best to balance hydropower production and ecosystem management on an eco-regional basis in the ...

320

Arc-based constrained ant colony optimisation algorithms for the optimal solution of hydropower reservoir operation problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower is currently the number one source of electricity production in the world. For the design and construction of such systems, mathematical modelling is often use for reservoir operations. As conventional methods present some shortcomings in solving reservoir operation problems, a new method is presented here. It consists in an arc-based formulation of hydropower reservoir operation problems which can be applied to ant colony optimization algorithms. This paper first described this formulation and then applied it to solve two hydropower reservoir operation problems. The results showed that this formulation can optimally solve large-scale hydropower reservoir operation problems while offering a clear definition of heuristic information.

Moeini, R.; Afshar, M.H.

2011-07-15

 
 
 
 
321

A process-based, climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands: application to 5 wetlands sites, sensitivity to model parameters and climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane emissions from natural wetlands constitutes the largest methane source at present and depends highly on the climate. In order to investigate the response of methane emissions from natural wetlands to climate variations, a 1-dimensional process-based climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands is developed. In the model the processes leading to methane emission are simulated within a 1-dimensional soil column and the three different transport mechanisms diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition are modeled explicitly. The model forcing consists of daily values of soil temperature, water table and net primary productivity, and at permafrost sites the thaw depth is included. The methane model is tested using observational data obtained at 5 wetland sites located in North America, Europe and Central America, representing a large variety of environmental conditions. It can be shown that in most cases seasonal variations in methane emissions can be explained by the combined effect of changes in soil temperature and the position of the water table. Our results also show that a process-based approach is needed, because there is no simple relationship between these controlling factors and methane emissions that applies to a variety of wetland sites. The sensitivity of the model to the choice of key model parameters is tested and further sensitivity tests are performed to demonstrate how methane emissions from wetlands respond to climate variations. (orig.)

Walter, B.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Heimann, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany)

1999-07-01

322

A Process-based, Climate-Sensitive Model to Derive Methane Emissions from Natural Wetlands: Application to 5 Wetland Sites, Sensitivity to Model Parameters and Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane emissions from natural wetlands constitutes the largest methane source at present and depends highly on the climate. In order to investigate the response of methane emissions from natural wetlands to climate variations, a 1-dimensional process-based climate-sensitive model to derive methane emissions from natural wetlands is developed. In the model the processes leading to methane emission are simulated within a 1-dimensional soil column and the three different transport mechanisms diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition are modeled explicitly. The model forcing consists of daily values of soil temperature, water table and Net Primary Productivity, and at permafrost sites the thaw depth is included. The methane model is tested using observational data obtained at 5 wetland sites located in North America, Europe and Central America, representing a large variety of environmental conditions. It can be shown that in most cases seasonal variations in methane emissions can be explained by the combined effect of changes in soil temperature and the position of the water table. Our results also show that a process-based approach is needed, because there is no simple relationship between these controlling factors and methane emissions that applies to a variety of wetland sites. The sensitivity of the model to the choice of key model parameters is tested and further sensitivity tests are performed to demonstrate how methane emissions from wetlands respond to climate variations.

Walter, Bernadette P.; Heimann, Martin

1999-01-01

323

The use of public participation and economic appraisal for public involvement in large-scale hydropower projects: Case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gaining public acceptance is one of the main issues with large-scale low-carbon projects such as hydropower development. It has been recommended by the World Commission on Dams that to gain public acceptance, public involvement is necessary in the decision-making process (). As financially-significant actors in the planning and implementation of large-scale hydropower projects in developing country contexts, the paper examines the ways in which public involvement may be influenced by international financial institutions. Using the case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in Laos, the paper analyses how public involvement facilitated by the Asian Development Bank had a bearing on procedural and distributional justice. The paper analyses the extent of public participation and the assessment of full social and environmental costs of the project in the Cost-Benefit Analysis conducted during the project appraisal stage. It is argued that while efforts were made to involve the public, there were several factors that influenced procedural and distributional justice: the late contribution of the Asian Development Bank in the project appraisal stage; and the issue of non-market values and discount rate to calculate the full social and environmental costs. - Highlights: ? Public acceptance in large-scale hydropower projects is examined. ? Both procedural and distributional justice are important for public acceptance. ? International Financial Institutions can influence the level of public involvement. ? Public involvement benefits consideration of non-market values and discount rates.

2012-08-01

324

Hydropower operations data management at Bonneville Power Administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision support software used by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in its operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System in the Pacific northwest was presented along with examples of water resources data and information regarding weather and stream flow. Water resources data is used extensively in hydropower operations for planning purposes through to real-time operations. This includes long-term historical hydrology and realtime system information on snow cover, river discharges and water elevations. Since the data comes from many different sources, the quality and frequency varies, with sample intervals ranging from seconds to days. Some data may be intermittent and transmitted only when thresholds are reached. Data can be communication via SCADA telemetry, the Internet, direct satellite feed, telephone or fax. The key requirement for a decision support system is the reliable and easily accessed compilation of all this data. The BPA uses long-term planning models, system-wide generation scheduling applications, and near-real-time optimization of generating units. It was suggested that the hydrologic forecasting community could benefit from the utility's experience using these applications. tabs., figs

2006-11-15

325

Hydropower licensing and climate change: Insights from cooperative game theory  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooperative game theory solutions can provide useful insights into how parties may use water and environmental resources and share any benefits of cooperation. Here, a method based on Nash and Nash-Harsanyi bargaining solutions is developed to explore the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process, in which owners of non-federal hydropower projects in the United States have to negotiate their allowable operations, with other interest groups (mainly environmental). Linkage of games to expand the feasible solution range and the "strategic loss" concept are discussed and a FERC relicensing bargaining model is developed for studying the bargaining stage (third stage) of the relicensing process. Based on the suggested solution method, how the lack of incentive for cooperation results in long delay in FERC relicensing in practice is explained. Further, potential effects of climate change on the FERC relicensing are presented and how climate change may provide an incentive for cooperation among the parties to hasten the relicensing is discussed. An "adaptive FERC license" framework is proposed, based on cooperative game theory, to improve the performance and adaptability of the system to future changes with no cost to the FERC, in face of uncertainty about future hydrological and ecological conditions.

Madani, Kaveh

2011-02-01

326

Calculating Hamiltonian parameters for Yb3+ in a low-symmetry lattice site, and fitting the structure and levels of Yb3+:RETaO4 (RE = Gd, Y, and Sc)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An iterative method is used to find the values of the Hamiltonian parameters for Yb3+ in a given low-symmetry crystalline site. Samples of Yb3+:RETaO4 (RE = Gd, Y, and Sc) were prepared and their structures were determined. Based on the obtained structural data, their orbital-spin parameters and crystal field parameters were fitted by the superposition model (SM). Using the crystal field parameters obtained by the SM fitting as the initial parameters, the Hamiltonian parameters were fitted iteratively. The calculated and experimental energy levels for Yb3+:RETaO4 are consistent, and the maximal mean-root-square deviation is only 2.84 cm?1, indicating that the method is effective to determine the Hamiltonian parameters of Yb3+ in low-symmetry crystalline sites

2013-06-01

327

Land And Water Use Characteristics And Human Health Input Parameters For Use In Environmental Dosimetry And Risk Assessments At The Savannah River Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6) Air pathway collective doses may go down about 30 percent mainly due to the decrease in the inhalation rate assumed for the average individual.

328

LAND AND WATER USE CHARACTERISTICS AND HUMAN HEALTH INPUT PARAMETERS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETRY AND RISK ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in releases of small amounts of radioactive materials to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. For regulatory compliance purposes, potential offsite radiological doses are estimated annually using computer models that follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides. Within the regulatory guides, default values are provided for many of the dose model parameters but the use of site-specific values by the applicant is encouraged. A detailed survey of land and water use parameters was conducted in 1991 and is being updated here. These parameters include local characteristics of meat, milk and vegetable production; river recreational activities; and meat, milk and vegetable consumption rates as well as other human usage parameters required in the SRS dosimetry models. In addition, the preferred elemental bioaccumulation factors and transfer factors to be used in human health exposure calculations at SRS are documented. Based on comparisons to the 2009 SRS environmental compliance doses, the following effects are expected in future SRS compliance dose calculations: (1) Aquatic all-pathway maximally exposed individual doses may go up about 10 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors; (2) Aquatic all-pathway collective doses may go up about 5 percent due to changes in the aquatic bioaccumulation factors that offset the reduction in average individual water consumption rates; (3) Irrigation pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go up about 40 percent due to increases in the element-specific transfer factors; (4) Irrigation pathway collective doses may go down about 50 percent due to changes in food productivity and production within the 50-mile radius of SRS; (5) Air pathway doses to the maximally exposed individual may go down about 10 percent due to the changes in food productivity in the SRS area and to the changes in element-specific transfer factors; and (6) Air pathway collective doses may go down about 30 percent mainly due to the decrease in the inhalation rate assumed for the average individual.

Jannik, T.; Karapatakis, D.; Lee, P.; Farfan, E.

2010-08-06

329

Consolidation and ownership trends of nonfederal hydropower generating assets, 1980-2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes ownership trends of nonfederal hydropower generating assets from 1980-2003. Previous research has shown that the overall electricity industry is unique in that, because of the extreme inelasticity of demand for power, even small sectors of the industry have the potential to exhibit substantial price setting behavior. Hydropower assets especially, with their unique ability to ''shift'' electricity between time periods, have the potential to be used to exhibit horizontal market power. For this reason, an analysis of consolidation trends of hydropower assets is important. Our empirical results show that from 1980-2003, while transfer rates of nonfederal hydropower dams have been substantial (at 46%), there is little evidence of consolidation leading to the potential exercise of horizontal market power as a result of this. A detailed look at the data reveals that it is smaller dams, with less power production capacity, that have tended to be transferred more than other dams over this time period, and that it is private industrial owners and private utilities that are selling dams to private non-utility generation companies. This suggests that a realignment of hydropower assets, most likely in response to state-and federal-level regulatory initiatives, is taking place, but that increasing consolidation along with this is currently not a threat. (author)

Kosnik, Lea [Department of Economics, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499 (United States)

2008-05-15

330

Value of ecosystem hydropower service and its impact on the payment for ecosystem services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower is an important service provided by ecosystems. We surveyed all the hydropower plants in the Zagunao River Basin, Southwest China. Then, we assessed the hydropower service by using the InVEST (The Integrated Value and Tradeoff of Ecosystem Service Tools) model. Finally, we discussed the impact on ecological compensation. The results showed that: 1) hydropower service value of ecosystems in the Zagunao River Basin is 216.29 Euro/hm(2) on the average, of which the high-value area with more than 475.65 Euro/hm(2) is about 750.37 km(2), accounting for 16.12% of the whole watershed, but it provides 53.47% of the whole watershed service value; 2) ecosystem is an ecological reservoir with a great regulation capacity. Dams cannot completely replace the reservoir water conservation function of ecosystems, and has high economic and environmental costs that must be paid as well. Compensation for water conservation services should become an important basis for ecological compensation of hydropower development. 3) In the current PES cases, the standard of compensation is generally low. Cascade development makes the value of upstream ecosystem services become more prominent, reflecting the differential rent value, and the value of ecosystem services should be based on the distribution of differentiated ecological compensation. PMID:24291631

Fu, B; Wang, Y K; Xu, P; Yan, K; Li, M

2014-02-15

331

Systematization of crystal field parameters for trivalent rare-earth (RE3+) ions at orthorhombic sites in selected laser materials—standardization approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The crucial intrinsic features of orthorhombic crystal field (CF) parameter (CFP) sets, i.e. existence of alternative disparate sets, which belong to different regions in the CFP space, and incorrectness of comparison of such CFP sets, are elucidated. Several cases of incorrect comparisons of fitted CFP sets obtained by various authors have been revealed by survey of spectroscopic studies of rare-earth ions at orthorhombic sites in technologically important crystals. This finding indicates that these features are not fully realized and calls for clarification of implications of these features for interpretation of spectroscopic data. For this purpose, we outline standardization approach for dealing with intrinsically incompatible CFP sets. It is shown that direct comparisons of disparate yet correlated CFP sets lead to incorrect conclusions concerning the relative magnitudes of CFPs and structural implications. The axis systems in which the theoretical CFPs are expressed or which are assigned to the fitted CFPs are also discussed. The standardization approach is employed for systematization and comparative analysis of the orthorhombic non-standard CFP sets for selected systems, i.e. Er3+:SrLaAlO4, Ce3+:Ce2Ge2In, Eu3+:BaFCl, Er3+:LiKGdF5, Eu3+:SBN, Pr3+:K2PrCl5 and Pr3+:K2YF5. The present results may facilitate future spectroscopic determination of CFPs and increase reliability of fitted and theoretical CFPs for fN ions at orthorhombic sites.

Yadav, D.; Kripal, R.; Gnutek, P.; Rudowicz, C.

2013-05-01

332

Simultaneous Estimation of Earthquake Source Parameters and Site Response from Inversion of Strong Motion Network Data in Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Inversion of horizontal components of S-wave spectral data in the frequency range 0.1-10.0 Hz has been carried out to estimate simultaneously the source spectra of 38 aftershocks (Mw 2.93-5.32) of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) and site response at 18 strong motion sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India. The spatial variation of site response (SR) in the region has been studied by averaging the SR values obtained from the inversion in two frequency bands; 0.2-1.8 Hz and 3.0-7.0 Hz, respectively. In 0.2-1.8 Hz frequency band, the high SR values are observed in the southern part of the Kachchh Mainland Fault that had suffered extensively during the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. However, for 3.0-7.0 Hz band, the area of Jurassic and Quaternary Formations show predominantly high SR. The source spectral data obtained from the inversion were used to estimate various source parameters namely, the seismic moment, stress drop, corner frequency and radius of source rupture by using an iterative least squares inversion approach based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. It has been observed that the seismic moment and radius of rupture from 38 aftershocks vary between 3.1x10^{13} to 2.0x10^{17} Nm and 226 to 889 m, respectively. The stress drop values from these aftershocks are found to vary from 0.11 to 7.44 MPa. A significant scatter of stress drop values has been noticed in case of larger aftershocks while for smaller magnitude events, it varies proportionally with the seismic moment. The regression analysis between seismic moment and radius of rupture indicates a break in linear scaling around 10^{15.3} Nm. The seismic moment of these aftershocks found to be proportional to the corner frequency, which is consistent for earthquakes with such short rupture length.

Dutta, U.; Mandal, P.

2010-12-01

333

Dissolved oxygen analysis for hydropower additions on the Illinois River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Illinois Waterway is comprised of a system of eight locks along the Illinois River, the Des Plaines River, and the Chicago Sanitary Ship Canal which allow commercial barge traffic between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan at the City of Chicago. Opportunities for production of hydroelectric power is present at several of these lock and dams. This paper presents the field study and computer simulation conducted to determine the feasibility of constructing hydroelectric powerhouses on two of these lock and dams. So as not to degrade recent improvements to water quality, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in issuing the construction and operating licenses for these two hydroelectric facilities, requires the hydropower additions to not reduce the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) level downstream of the hydroelectric facilities below 6 parts per million (ppm). Presently, the waterway discharge passes through taintor gates at both of these lock and dam facilities which creates aeration. The addition of hydroelectric powerhouses would divert water from these spillways through generation equipment; consequently, the spillway aeration would not occur. The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of power generation from these facilities, given the existing waterway water quality and the FERC D.O. criteria. A computer simulation generation analysis was conducted to provide a database of the waterway water quality. A four-month extensive field collection survey was conducted over the 63 kilometer (39 mile) reach of the waterway which comprises the two downstream pools of the Brandon Road and Dresden Island projects, and 3 kilometers (2 miles) upstream of the Brandon Road Project. The analysis revealed that the hydroelectric additions were economically feasible and are an example of how the benefits of hydroelectric development can be balanced with environmental concerns

1993-04-13

334

Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also generally well simulated, mostly limited by the accuracy of inflow hydrology. System-wide hydropower generation is reduced by 9% with 6 °C warming. Most reductions in hydropower generation occur in the highly productive watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada. The central Sierra Nevada sees less reduction in annual runoff and can adapt better to changes in runoff timing. Generation in southern watersheds is expected to decrease. System-wide, reservoirs adapt to capture earlier runoff, but mostly decrease in mean reservoir storage with warming due to decreasing annual runoff. Second, a multi-reservoir optimization model is developed using linear programming that considers the minimum instream flows (MIFs) and weekly down ramp rates (DRRs) in the Upper Yuba River in the northern Sierra Nevada. Weekly DRR constraints are used to mimic spring snowmelt flows, which are particularly important for downstream ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada but are currently missing due to the influence of dams. Trade-offs between MIFs, DRRs and hydropower are explored with air temperature warming (+0, 2, 4 and 6 °C). Under base case operations, mean annual hydropower generation increases slightly with 2 °C warming and decreases slightly with 6 °C warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduce hydropower generation 5.5% compared to base case operations and a historical climate, which has important implications for re-licensing the hydropower project. Finally, reservoir management for downstream temperatures is explored using a linear programming model to optimally release water from a reservoir using selective withdrawal. The objective function is to minimize deviations from desired downstream temperatures, which are specified to mimic the natural temperature regime in the river. One objective of this study was to develop a method that can be readily integrated into a basin-scale multi-reservoir optimization model using a network representation of system features. The second objective was to explore the potential use of reservoirs to maintain an ideal str

Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

335

Research of Cascaded Hydropower Stations Short-time Optimize Dispatcher Based on Improvement A-NGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimal operation of cascade hydropower stations is a high dimension, non-protruding, dispersed, non-linear dynamic optimization question, at present, though the researchers have put forward some methods to solve this question but always there are certain defects during the process of solving. This study analyses the characteristic of the niche genetic algorithm, direct against the question that the traditional niche genetic algorithm exists, improve the niche genetic algorithm, has proposed a kind of self-adaptation niche genetic algorithm with predator and applied it to solve the problem of cascade hydropower stations optimal operation that the result of the example shows, this algorithm can well solve the optimal operation problem of cascade hydropower stations which has high speed of operation and precision of solution.

Tinghong Zhao

2013-01-01

336

Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Geopolitical Vulnerabilities to Hydropower Development on the Nu River, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid hydropower development is occurring in China's Yunnan province in response to increasing clean energy demands, exposing potential vulnerabilities of the area's ecosystems, communities, and geopolitical systems. Here, we present original data on the cultures, economics, hydro-politics, and environments of the Nu River basin, based on household surveys, analysis of geopolitical events, and hydrological, hydraulic, and landscape modeling. We identify sources of vulnerability and investigate relationships among biophysical, socioeconomic, and geopolitical elements that contribute to vulnerability. Our results illustrate the role of geographic isolation in intensifying vulnerability to hydropower development and how access to information, data uncertainty, and geopolitics influence the vulnerability of people and the environment. We emphasize specific needs for developing support mechanisms for social, ecological, and political groups that are vulnerable to hydropower development.

Desiree D. Tullos

2013-09-01

337

Dispatch Method for Independently Owned Hydropower Plants in the Same River Flow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a coexistence model for two independent companies both operating hydropower plants in the same river flow, based on a case study of the Cetina river basin in Croatia. Companies are participants of the day-ahead electricity market. The incumbent company owns the existing hydropower plants and holds concessions for the water. The new company decides to build a pump storage hydropower plant that uses one of the existing reservoirs as its lower reservoir. Meeting reservoir water balance is affected by decisions by both companies which are independently seeking maximal profit. Methods for water use settlement and preventing of spillage are proposed. A mixed-integer linear programming approach is used. Head effects on output power levels are also considered. Existences of dispatches that satisfy both companies are shown.

Slavko Krajcar

2012-09-01

338

The calculation interest for administration of hydropower in the long-term  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of important findings in newer, economic literature on discount rate in the long term is presented. Based on this review, two questions relating to the administration of Norwegian hydropower resources are briefly discussed. Firstly, which discount rate should be used as basis when valuating the existent Norwegian hydropower plants? Secondly, how should the socio-economic discount rate for investments in hydro projects be determined compared relatively to other types of investments in the power sector? The main conclusion is that the existing rate for administration of hydropower need not be substituted. Neither theory nor empiricism provides a conclusive answer. Certain relevant aspects that may be further investigated are put forth (ml)

2005-01-01

339

Integration of Hydropower in a Competitive power market model for water-energy scenario analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hydrological systems and power systems are strongly linked: water is needed for most electricity generation technologies, and electricity is required for all stages of water usage. Growing water and energy demands, and potential climate changes suggest this relationship will become more important for the management of both water and energy resources, and should be assessed. We propose a coupled water-energy modeling approach in which a hydrological model imposes the water constraints on the power system model; hydropower generation is bid to the power market based on the hydrological state of the system; and the demands from one system to the other are computed by both models jointly. For this purpose, we develop a bidding strategy for a price-taker hydropower generator based on reservoir volumes and expected electricity prices. The results from the methodology are comparable to those from a dynamic program. The hydropower bidding strategy showed reasonable performance when tested in a simplified model of a competitive power market.

Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Carrion-Sanchez, Laura

2011-01-01

340

Phasing in wind-power in Norway: Network congestion and crowding-out of hydropower  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects on utilisation of existing hydropower in a region of investing in significant wind-power in the region within the present network. Policy simulations are conducted using a dynamic system-wide model that is calibrated to reflect the structure of the Nordic power market. This model is the one used by the Norwegian electricity regulator and large hydropower companies in Norway for scheduling of hydro and market analyses. Simulations are carried out for different inflow situations based on past observations going back 60 years. Introduction of wind-power leads to significant increase in network congestion in the region, lower hydropower production, higher level of storage, increased spillage of water, and considerably lower price level in the local region in question

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

The potential of hydropower - Scenarios in the area of conflict between the economy and politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article takes a look at how hydropower in Switzerland has developed over the years and the potential for its further use in the future. The article reviews developments in the use of hydropower in Switzerland over the years and discusses the possibilities that still exist for increasing the amount of power produced. Details on the various estimates of production potential are quoted for the period up to 2050. Both technical and ecological aspects are reviewed. Diagrams and tables provide data on the subject. The development of the various scenarios is described. The total potential of hydropower and the development of a strategy for the use of this CO2-neutral form of energy are briefly discussed

2006-01-01

342

Initiatives in the hydro sector post-World Commission on Dams – The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD has called for developers, governments, civil society, etc. to use its Strategic Priorities as a starting point for dialogue and initiatives to address issues regarding the development of dams. One very notable follow-up initiative has been led by the hydropower industry. The International Hydropower Association developed Sustainability Guidelines (IHA, 2004 and a Sustainability Assessment Protocol (IHA, 2006, and most recently has been involved in a two-year process with governments, NGOs and the finance sector to develop a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool based on review and update of the IHA Sustainability Assessment Protocol. This cross-sectoral process, known as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Forum (HSAF, has drawn on the knowledge base and many of the findings and recommendations of the World Commission on Dams, as well as a number of other developments in the last ten years. A fundamental premise of the work of the Forum is that an industry-driven and -owned initiative has far-reaching potential to influence performance in the hydropower sector. At the same time, the potential for the use of a broadly endorsed sustainability assessment tool for hydropower by those in other sectors is well recognised and aspired to by the Forum. This paper describes the work of the Forum up to August 2009 and the contents of the Draft Protocol released publicly in August 2009, and considers some of the commonalities and points of departure between this process and the WCD. The Forum’s work on the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is a work in progress, so this paper can describe but not give a full analysis of the work while it is in train.

Helen Locher

2010-06-01

343

Impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower systems in central and southern Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate change is altering hydrological processes with varying degrees in various regions of the world. This research work investigates the possible impacts of climate change on water resource and Hydropower production potential in central and southern Africa. The Congo, Zambezi and Kwanza, Shire, Kafue and Kabompo basins that lie in central and southern Africa are used as case studies. The review of climate change impact studies shows that there are few studies on impacts of climate change on hydropower production. Most of these studies were carried out in Europe and north America and very few in Asia, south America and Africa. The few studies indicate that southern Africa would experience reduction in precipitation and runoff, consequently reductions in hydropower production. There are no standard methods of assessing the resulting impacts. Two approaches were used to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources and hydropower. One approach is lumping changes on country or regional level and use the mean climate changes on mean annual flows as the basis for regional changes in hydropower production. This is done to get an overall picture of the changes on global and regional level. The second approach is a detailed assessment process in which downscaling, hydrological modelling and hydropower simulations are carried out. The possible future climate scenarios for the region of central and southern Africa depicted that some areas where precipitation are likely to have increases while other, precipitation will reduce. The region northern Zambia and southern Congo showed increases while the northern Congo basin showed reductions. Further south in southern African region, there is a tendency of decreases in precipitation. To the west, in Angola, inland showed increases while towards the coast highlighted some decreases in precipitation. On a global scale, hydropower is likely to experience slight changes (0.08%) due to climate change by 2050. Africa is projected for a slight decrease (0.05%), Asia with an increase of 0.27%, Europe a reduction up to 0.16% while America is projected to have an increase of 0.05%. In the eastern African region, it was shown that hydropower production is likely to increase by 0.59%, the central with 0.22% and the western with a 0.03%. The southern, and northern African regions were projected to have reductions of 0.83% and 0.48% respectively. The basins with increases in flow projections have a slight increase on hydropower production but not proportional to the increase in precipitation. The basins with decreases had even high change as the reduction was further increased by evaporation losses. The hydropower production potential of most of southern African basins is likely to decrease in the future due to the impact of climate change while the central African region shows an increasing trend. The hydropower system in these regions will be affected consequently. The hydropower production changes will vary from basin to basin in these regions. The Zambezi, Kafue and Shire river basins have negative changes while the Congo, Kwanza and Kabompo river basins have positive changes. The hydropower production potential in the Zambezi basin decreases by 9 - 34%. The hydropower production potential in the Kafue basin decreases by 8 - 34% and the Shire basin decreases by 7 - 14 %. The southern region will become drier with shorter rainy seasons. The central region will become wetter with increased runoff. The hydropower production potential in the Congo basin reduces slightly and then increases by 4% by the end of the century. The hydropower production potential in the Kwanza basin decreases by 3% and then increases by 10% towards the end of the century and the Kabompo basin production increases by 6 - 18%. It can be concluded that in the central African region hydropower production will, in general, increase while the southern African region, hydropower production will decrease. In summary, the analysis has shown that the southern African region is expected to experience decreases in rainfall

Hamududu, Byman H.

2012-11-15

344

Design and Implementation for Ladder Diagram in Hydropower Simulation System Based on All Paths Searching Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An approach to design and implement the control function of LD (Ladder Diagram) in the hydropower simulation system based on all paths searching algorithm is proposed in this paper. LD is widely used as a programming language for PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), but it doesn’t be executed automatically in the hydropower simulation system which is a software system, and there is no compiler or interpretation for LD in it. The approach in this paper is not only to present a graphical inte...

Li, Bo; Zhao, Hai; Song, Chun-he; Li, Hui; Ai, Jun

2009-01-01

345

Evaluation of small hydropower plants in Latin America and the Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latin America and the Caribbean Region has a long-standing tradition of small hydropower plant development. In the 1890s the first plants were installed in the Region, and in the first half of this century pioneering efforts were made to develop the technology. The major reason was the technical modernization of agriculture (coffee, cacao, sugar, etc.) and small-scale mining, which led to increased energy demand in isolated areas when the electrification process was just beginning in the region. However, interest in small hydropower plants (SHP) waned because of technological improvements, enhanced efficiency, lower purchase prices and installation costs of gasoline engines, and the expansion of interconnected power systems

1991-12-01

346

??????????????????? Brief Discussion of Several Issues on Development of Hydropower Energy under Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The global climate change has been doing greater and greater influence on nature and human society. After a brief discussion on the great opportunities, as well as challenge, that brought by the global climate change, this paper try to probe several issues such as the development and utilization, running risk analysis, and optimal scheduling of hydropower energy under the climate change. The main research contents existed in this field are analyzed finally. It is only way, for the social development and modern management of hydropower energy, that to minimize the its sensitivity to climate change taking full account of all kinds of extreme weather.

???

2012-11-01

347

IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

Acker, T.

2011-12-01

348

Viewpoint – Better management of hydropower in an era of climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin water transfers. As a former Director of Freshwater for WWF International and now as a researcher on the water-energy nexus, I spent much of the past decade seeking to influence the direction of water infrastructure development, and in this viewpoint I have been asked to reflect on the changes that have occurred, and the opportunities in an era of climate change to reduce the environmental and social impacts of hydropower development while maximising the benefits. Better outcomes are more likely with a renewed focus on limiting the perverse impacts of climate change policies, implementing standards for certification of more sustainable hydropower, building capacities within developing countries, and enhancing management of existing dams.

Jamie Pittock

2010-06-01

349

Estimating the future ice sheet hydropower potential in Paakitsoq, Ilulissat, West Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Meltwater running off the Greenland ice sheet yield significant hydropower potentials in catchments bordering the ice sheet, especially in West and South Greenland. Hydropower has been chosen as the most desired source of energy by the Greenland Home Rule, but recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet has emphasized the risk of sudden changes in catchment supply. In this study, we present a thorough investigation of hydropower feasibility at the Paakitsoq basin, near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The catchment is completely dominated by the Greenland ice sheet which provides large quantities of meltwater during the summer season. However, geometrical changes in the ice sheet, for example due to a retreat or an advance of the ice sheet margin, could change the hydrological catchment within the ice sheet. Such a change would have a devastating economical impact as a hydropower plant is a significant long-term investment for an Arctic community of modest population. Here we present a new bedrock and surface map of the Paakitsoq/Swiss Camp part of the Greenland ice sheet and a prediction of the future discharge up to 2080 AD using regional climate model output, dynamic ice sheet modelling and surface melt modelling. The results are aimed at supporting the political decision-making regarding the future energy supply in Greenland.

Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Mottram, R.H.

2008-01-01

350

The relevance of the historical dimension of hydropower; Zur Bedeutung der historischen Dimension der Wasserkraft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower has played an important role throughout the past two millennia. It is therefore conceivable that this potential source of energy could again come much more to the forefront today. This is illustrated by examples of the successful reactivation of old hydropower facilities. Furthermore, the paper points out the significance of hydropower for craft and trade during the Middle Ages, for the monastic culture and existing landscape features and for the industrialization that took place in Southern Germany during the 19{sup th} century. Finally, the early days of electricity generation using hydropower are recalled. (orig.) [German] Der Verfasser macht deutlich, dass vielfache historische Quellen auf eine kuenftig moegliche, wesentlich staerkere Nutzung der Wasserkraft hindeuten. Beispielhaft berichtet er von messbaren Erfolgen bei der Wieder-Aktivierung alter Wasserkraftanlagen. Ausserdem wird die Bedeutung der Wasserkraft fuer das Gewerbe im Mittelalter, fuer erhaltene Klosterkultur und Landschaft sowie auf die Industrialisierung mit Wasserkraft im Sueddeutschland des 19. Jahrhunderts hingewiesen. Zum Schluss erinnert der Autor an die Anfaenge der Stromversorgung mit Wasserkraft. (orig.)

Aicher, J.

2000-04-01

351

Wasserkraft und Biomasse als Energieerfolgsduo. (Hydropower and biomass - a successful combination).  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper contains numbers on the importance of biomass and hydropower in the energy balance of Austria. The importance of the CO(sub 2) taxes in the European Communities on the economics of different fuels is outlined. (Quittner). (Atomindex citation 23:...

A. Reichl

1991-01-01

352

Hydropower development in South East Europe. Experience report; Wasserkraft in Suedosteuropa entwickeln. Erfahrungsbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

South East Europe offers high undeveloped potential of hydropower compared to West Europe. That is the main reason why Austrian's Kelag and Germany's RWE Innogy started project development in this region. An overview about the projects under development, construction and in operation is given. Finally the characteristics and track record of individual projects is described. (orig.)

Berger, Gerald [KELAG-Kaerntner Elektrizitaets-Aktiengesellschaft, Klagenfurt (Austria). Bereich Erzeugung; KI-KELAG International GmbH, Klagenfurt (Austria); Funke, Hans-Christoph [RWE Innogy GmbH, Essen (Germany). Development International and Engineering

2012-11-01

353

Export of Norwegian hydropower under a common European regime of environmental taxes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper sets out to investigate the strategic position of Norwegian hydropower and, in particular, to study optimal decisions with respect to the installation of new export transmission lines. For this purpose an integrated long-run equilibrium model for the northern European electricity market determining production, consumption and trade is constructed. (author)

1994-10-01

354

External effects of hydropower in Switzerland; Externe Effekte der Wasserkraftnutzung. Verbandsschrift 60 des Schweizerischen Wasserwirtschaftsverbandes, Baden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of hydropower has implications on the environment and the socio-economic system. All these effects have a certain value, either in a positive sense as benefits or in a negative sense as damages. Many of these effects are known, quantified and even internalised, that is, the beneficiary pays for his or her benefits and the sufferer gets a compensation. Yet, this is not the case with all implications. In this case, the effects are so-called externalities, costs or benefits which are not included in the price of the product. Prices for products are a good measure to promote the sustainable development of markets, as long as they contain all externalities, that is, as long as they are 'true' prices. Therefore, the inclusion of externalities in the evaluation of product costs became an important issue during the last years. The study 'External Effects of Hydropower in Switzerland' is an attempt to identify and quantify externalities of hydropower and to attribute a monetary value to all these effects. In a first part, the study gives a list of possible externalities and analyses different methods to quantify and value these effects. The evaluation is then based on a number of specific plants and projects, mainly with available environmental impact studies and project data including the construction phase. In order to extend the result on the total number of Swiss hydropower plants, an extrapolation is done based on selected plant criteria for each effect. (author)

Hauenstein, W

1999-07-01

355

Agricultural vs. hydropower tradeoffs in the operation of the High Aswan Dam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tradeoff relationship is defined between hydropower and agriculture for the monthly operations of the High Aswan Dam under current water availability conditions. A stochastic dynamic programming model is employed which incorporates the physical constraints (e.g., reservoir storage limits, turbine capacity, allowable reservoir releases, etc.) of the High Aswan Dam system. Variations of monthly reservoir releases for agriculatural purposes are imposed on the system through this model, and consequent impacts on hydropower production at the high dam are studied. The results show that once operating rules are optimized for current agricultural demands an 11-20% increase in firm monthly hydropower production can be gained when summer irrigation allocations are reduced by 25%. A simple benefit/cost analysis concludes that potential benefits obtained by gains in firm monthly hydropower are nearly equal to potential losses in the agricultural sector when summer allocations are reduced by 5-10%. Operation questions raised by the introduction of a new emergency flood control spillway at Toshka are addressed. Recommendations are made for the operating guidelines of the high dam releases in light of these results.

Oven-Thompson, K. (Metcalf and Eddy, Boston, MA); Alercon, L.; Marks, D.H.

1982-12-01

356

Specific methodology of recuperation of mini hydropower; Consideraciones practicas sobre la recuperacion de minicentrales hidroelectricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

He encounters at work a specific methodology of recuperation of mini hydropower without operation in Extremadura, obtained to depart, fundamentally, of experience acquired in the farm work accomplished. In addition, to verify the validity of methodology proposed, his application is evidenced to an existent installation at the region, susceptible rehabilitative. (Author)

Rojas-Rodriguez, S.; Miranda, M. T.; Montero-Puertas, I.; Ruiz-Celma, A.

2004-07-01

357

Multi-impact evaluation of new medium and large hydropower plants in Portugal centre region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower plants projects, has been based mostly on technical and economical analyses focused on the electric production aspects. Nowadays a broader approach is necessary, which takes into consideration multiple impacts such as:- Energy impacts;- Water resources impacts;- Social-economics development impacts;- Agricultural sector impacts;- Environmental impacts.

Almeida, Ani?bal T.; Moura, Pedro S.; Marques, Alfe?u S.; Almeida, Jose? L.

2005-01-01

358

Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

2010-12-01

359

Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R. [Department of Hydraulic and Energy Engineering, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), c/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2010-12-15

360

Hydropower research programme 2008 - 2011; Forschungsprogramm Wasserkraft 2008 - 2011. Schlussbericht zur Entwicklung eines Forschungsprogramms. Aktualisierte Fortschreibung vom September 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This revised final report on the development of a research programme for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the proposals for the development of a concept for Swiss hydropower research activities for the period 2008 - 2011. According to the authors, the new research programme will not only include activities in the small hydropower area, but rather all aspects of hydropower usage, including dams and large hydropower stations. The results of a survey made concerning research and further education in the hydropower area are discussed. These results formed the basis of the new concept. The report also presents a review of the present situation with regard to hydrological questions and dams as well as mechanical and electrical equipment. The education and training of professionals is looked at and national and international co-operation in the hydropower area is also discussed. Future developments are looked at, as are the economic aspects of the use of hydropower. Measures to be taken in the research area are proposed.

Jorde, K.

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Water consumption from hydropower plants - review of published estimates and an assessment of the concept  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the report from IPCC on renewable energy (IPCC, 2012) was published; more studies on water consumption from hydropower have become available. The newly published studies do not, however, contribute to a more consistent picture on what the "true" water consumption from hydropower plants is. The dominant calculation method is the gross evaporation from the reservoirs divided by the annual power production, which appears to be an over-simplistic calculation method that possibly produces a biased picture of the water consumption of hydropower plants. This review paper shows that the water footprint of hydropower is used synonymously with water consumption, based on gross evaporation rates. This paper also documents and discusses several methodological problems when applying this simplified approach (gross evaporation divided by annual power production) for the estimation of water consumption from hydropower projects. A number of short-comings are identified, including the lack of clarity regarding the setting of proper system boundaries in space and time. The methodology of attributing the water losses to the various uses in multi-purpose reservoirs is not developed. Furthermore, a correct and fair methodology for handling water consumption in reservoirs based on natural lakes is needed, as it appears meaningless that all the evaporation losses from a close-to-natural lake should be attributed to the hydropower production. It also appears problematic that the concept is not related to the impact the water consumption will have on the local water resources, as high water consumption values might not be problematic per se. Finally, it appears to be a paradox that a reservoir might be accorded a very high water consumption/footprint and still be the most feasible measure to improve the availability of water in a region. We argue that reservoirs are not always the problem; rather they may contribute to the solution of the problems of water scarcity. The authors consider that an improved conceptual framework is needed in order to calculate the water footprint from hydropower projects in a more reasonable way.

Bakken, T. H.; Killingtveit, Å.; Engeland, K.; Alfredsen, K.; Harby, A.

2013-10-01

362

Modernization and optimization of a small hydropower plant; Modernisierung und Optimierung einer Kleinwasserkraftanlage am Beispiel Brenzursprung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydropower accounts for almost 70% of renewable energy utilized in Germany. This makes it the foremost and the most effective source of alternative energy. The available power from hydroelectric generation amounts to about 8,900 MW, which is equivalent to approximately 90% of the economically exploitable hydropower potential. About 12% of the currently developed potential is generated by hydropower plants with a rated capacity of less than 5 MW. However, the licensing procedure and the conditions to be fulfilled for the construction of new plants are becoming more and more difficult. Although the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) promotes hydropower besides other renewables, only plants with a capacity up to 5 MW actually benefit under this legislation. In theory, this represents around 8% of the energy generated from renewable sources in Germany. Therefore, in addition to the reactivation of shut-down plants, the modernization and optimization of hydropower facilities is becoming increasingly important. (orig.) [German] Die Wasserkraft ist mit einem Anteil von knapp 70% die wichtigste und effektivste regenerative Energiegewinnung in Deutschland. Mit etwa 8 900 MW installierter Leistung sind hier annaehernd 90% des wirtschaftlich moeglichen Wasserkraftpotenzials ausgebaut. Ca. 12% des bereits ausgebauten Potenzials wird von Wasserkraftanlagen mit einer Leistung von weniger als 5 MW erzeugt. Die Genehmigungsverfahren und die Auflagen fuer den Bau einer neuen Anlage sind jedoch schwieriger als je zuvor. Das EEG (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz) foerdert zwar neben anderen regenerativen Energien die Wasserkraft, jedoch zur Zeit nur bis zu einer Anlagenleistung von 5 MW. Das sind theoretisch rund 8% der regenerativ erzeugten Energie in Deutschland. Daher gewinnt nicht nur die Aktivierung stillgesetzter Wasserkraftanlagen, sondern auch die Modernisierung und Optimierung von Kraftwerken immer mehr an Bedeutung. Am Beispiel der Wasserkraftanlage Brenzursprung in Koenigsbronn wird gezeigt, welche Leistungsreserven in den aelteren Kraftwerken verborgen sein koennen. (orig.)

Wirth, M. [Voith Siemens Hydro Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Heidenheim (Germany)

2001-10-01

363

Gross greenhouse gas fluxes from hydro-power reservoir compared to thermo-power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the findings of gross carbon dioxide and methane emissions measurements in several Brazilian hydro-reservoirs, compared to thermo power generation. The term 'gross emissions' means gas flux measurements from the reservoir surface without natural pre-impoundment emissions by natural bodies such as the river channel, seasonal flooding and terrestrial ecosystems. The net emissions result from deducting pre-existing emissions by the reservoir. A power dam emits biogenic gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, studies comparing gas emissions (gross emissions) from the reservoir surface with emissions by thermo-power generation technologies show that the hydro-based option presents better results in most cases analyzed. In this study, measurements were carried in the Miranda, Barra Bonita, Segredo, Tres Marias, Xingo, and Samuel and Tucurui reservoirs, located in two different climatological regimes. Additional data were used here from measurements taken at the Itaipu and Serra da Mesa reservoirs. Comparisons were also made between emissions from hydro-power plants and their thermo-based equivalents. Bearing in mind that the estimated values for hydro-power plants include emissions that are not totally anthropogenic, the hydro-power plants studied generally posted lower emissions than their equivalent thermo-based counterparts. Hydro-power complexes with greater power densities (capacity/area flooded-W/m2), such as Itaipu, Xingo, Segredo and Miranda, have the best performance, well above thermo-power plants using state-of-the-art technology: combined cycle fueled by natural gas, with 50% efficiency. On the other hand, some hydro-power complexes with low-power density perform only slightly better or even worse than their thermo-power counterparts

2006-03-01

364

Gross greenhouse gas fluxes from hydro-power reservoir compared to thermo-power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the findings of gross carbon dioxide and methane emissions measurements in several Brazilian hydro-reservoirs, compared to thermo power generation. The term 'gross emissions' means gas flux measurements from the reservoir surface without natural pre-impoundment emissions by natural bodies such as the river channel, seasonal flooding and terrestrial ecosystems. The net emissions result from deducting pre-existing emissions by the reservoir. A power dam emits biogenic gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. However, studies comparing gas emissions (gross emissions) from the reservoir surface with emissions by thermo-power generation technologies show that the hydro-based option presents better results in most cases analyzed. In this study, measurements were carried in the Miranda, Barra Bonita, Segredo, Tres Marias, Xingo, and Samuel and Tucurui reservoirs, located in two different climatological regimes. Additional data were used here from measurements taken at the Itaipu and Serra da Mesa reservoirs. Comparisons were also made between emissions from hydro-power plants and their thermo-based equivalents. Bearing in mind that the estimated values for hydro-power plants include emissions that are not totally anthropogenic, the hydro-power plants studied generally posted lower emissions than their equivalent thermo-based counterparts. Hydro-power complexes with greater power densities (capacity/area flooded-W/m{sup 2}), such as Itaipu, Xingo, Segredo and Miranda, have the best performance, well above thermo-power plants using state-of-the-art technology: combined cycle fueled by natural gas, with 50% efficiency. On the other hand, some hydro-power complexes with low-power density perform only slightly better or even worse than their thermo-power counterparts. (author)

Santos, Marco Aurelio dos; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Santos, Ednaldo Oliveira dos [IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ and Energy Planning Program/COPPE/UFRJ, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, Sala 129, Cidade Universitaria, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sikar, Bohdan [Department of Hydraulics, University of Sao Paulo at Sao Carlos (Brazil); Sikar, Elizabeth [Construmaq Sao Carlos Ind. e Com. Ltda. (Brazil)

2006-03-01

365

Combined Hydraulic Tomography - Self Potential - Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Parameter Estimation in the Unconfined Aquifer at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of combined hydrogeophysical tests were conducted during a two-week period in June 2007 in the unconfined coarse fluvial aquifer at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS). The tests included three component experiments -- hydraulic tomography (HT), self potential measurements (SP), and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) -- which will be used, both individually and jointly, to image subsurface heterogeneity. The major aim of the tests is the estimation of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution from hydrologic responses and from SP anomalies under both transient and steady state pumping conditions. The ERT results provide independent information both for the electrical conductivity distribution (which may correlate with subsurface hydrologic parameters) and for the use of this distribution in the SP analysis. For HT, the dipole (pumping and injection, conservative) test configuration was used to achieve steady state as rapidly as possible and also to generate two high-gradient disturbance zones per test, rather than one as in conventional pumping tests. The investigated volume is the central region of the BHRS which is roughly 30m x 30m x 20m and is known to have laterally varying thickness-averaged K variation as wells as layered and patchy heterogeneity. This area was instrumented with offset SP and ERT electrode grids at the surface, transducers in wells, and also SP electrodes in seven wells including the pumping and injection wells; river boundary conditions also were monitored. Preliminary reviews of raw data by respective method teams suggest (pseudo) hydrologic steady state was reached at most observation wells, SP anomalies are clearly observable (but asymmetrical for most tests), and ERT data are repeatable and capture water table drawdown and buildup anomalies. In addition, stage variations in the Boise River adjacent to the BHRS propagated throughout the site and were observed at wells. Although flow rates in the river are controlled, aquifer responses to changes in river stage are analogous to natural stream- aquifer interactions, and the magnitude and timing of these responses at wells can provide additional information for inverse modeling.

Barrash, W.; Revil, A.; Cardiff, M.; Johnson, T.; Malama, B.; Rizzo, E.; Miller, C.; Straface, S.

2007-12-01

366

Free energy calculation using molecular dynamics simulation combined with the three dimensional reference interaction site model theory. I. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration along a coupling parameter  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a free energy calculation method based on the molecular dynamics simulation combined with the three dimensional reference interaction site model theory. This study employs the free energy perturbation (FEP) and the thermodynamic integration (TDI) along the coupling parameters to control the interaction potential. To illustrate the method, we applied it to a complex formation process in aqueous solutions between a crown ether molecule 18-Crown-6 (18C6) and a potassium ion as one of the simplest model systems. Two coupling parameters were introduced to switch the Lennard-Jones potential and the Coulomb potential separately. We tested two coupling procedures: one is a ``sequential-coupling'' to couple the Lennard-Jones interaction followed by the Coulomb coupling, and the other is a ``mixed-coupling'' to couple both the Lennard-Jones and the Coulomb interactions together as much as possible. The sequential-coupling both for FEP and TDI turned out to be accurate and easily handled since it was numerically well-behaved. Furthermore, it was found that the sequential-coupling had relatively small statistical errors. TDI along the mixed-coupling integral path was to be carried out carefully, paying attention to a numerical behavior of the integrand. The present model system exhibited a nonmonotonic behavior in the integrands for TDI along the mixed-coupling integral path and also showed a relatively large statistical error. A coincidence within a statistical error was obtained among the results of the free energy differences evaluated by FEP, TDI with the sequential-coupling, and TDI with the mixed-coupling. The last one is most attractive in terms of the computer power and is accurate enough if one uses a proper set of windows, taking the numerical behavior of the integrands into account. TDI along the sequential-coupling integral path would be the most convenient among the methods we tested, since it seemed to be well-balanced between the computational load and the accuracy. The numerical results reported in this article qualitatively agree with the experimental data for the potassium ion recognition by the 18C6 in aqueous solution.

Miyata, Tatsuhiko; Ikuta, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Fumio

2010-07-01

367

Tourism due to turbines. Hydropower as a promoter of tourism; Tourismus dank Turbinen. Wasserkraft als Foerderin des Fremdenverkehrs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author directs on hydropower in Germany and how tourism can be contacted with people who are interested in hydropower, a friendly manner of power generation. He informs about the phenomena that a high interest of enthusiastic people is attracted by hydropower and presents the places where nature and engineering are in harmony. (GL) [German] Mit einem etwas ungewoehnlichen Thema befasst sich der Autor. Er zeigt auf, wie der Tourismus dank der Wasserkraft in vielen Regionen Deutschlands unterstuetzt werden kann und verdeutlicht dies an guten Beispielen. Er informiert darueber, welch grosses Interesse die faszinierende Wasserkraft auf technikbegeisterte Touristen ausuebt. (orig.)

Aicher, J.

2005-07-01

368

Hydropower projects. Selected contributions from the journal WasserWirtschaft; Wasserkraftprojekte. Ausgewaehlte Beitraege aus der Fachzeitschrift WasserWirtschaft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book under consideration presents important publications on hydropower projects from the journal WasserWirtschaft. New analyses regarding the potential of hydropower in Europe, Germany, Austria and Switzerland are described. Developments and technical particularities are presented. The compilation is round off by contributions on projects within the years 2010 to 2012. The conflict between the development of the regenerative power generation and the requirements by regulations, laws and strategies of biodiversity is a subject of discussion. Occupational safety, economy and socio economic aspects of hydropower projects are considered additionally.

Heimerl, Stephan (ed.)

2013-02-01

369

Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also lead to more dynamic water temperatures and alter the interaction with the adjacent hyporheic zone. Frequent drying and wetting may impact the aquatic ecosystem e.g. through stranding of fish, and it may increase erosion and sediment transport in receiving reservoirs and rivers. During winter, most Norwegian systems currently adapt releases to prevent unstable ice conditions and ice runs and a more intermittent production schedule may lead to more unstable ice conditions. More transient flow may also have implications in the transfer tunnels and new methods are needed to monitor conditions to avoid turbine damage and loss of production. As a part of the Norwegian governments focus on developing renewable energy, a number of research centers for environmentally friendly energy production were created in 2009. For one of these centers, Center for environmentally design of renewable energy (CEDREN), one of the main objectives is to study the use of the Norwegian hydropower system for large scale peaking and load balancing, and to provide means of mitigating possible unwanted impacts. We will present data on how increased load balancing will influence the Norwegian hydropower system and an overview of challenges and possible solutions that the new operational strategy may incur.

Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

2011-12-01

370

Determination of the continuous operation time of the Hydro units with the upper compensating basin at small Hydropower Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The matter of the joint operation of the hydro units with the upper compensating basin at the small hydropower plants has become an issue of present interest after the decision of the State Energy Regulatory Commission for modification of the price of electric energy produced by hydropower plants. It sets higher price for the electric energy produced by hydropower plants provided that the hydro energy system makes use of upper compensating basin, whose volume allows continuous operation of the plant under nominal output for more than 2 hours. The work presents the methods for determination of the continuous operation time of the hydro units, installed at a given hydropower plant, with the upper compensating basin. The possibilities of the methods are illustrated by specific example (Kitka HPP). (author)

2004-06-11

371

77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application...Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of Project...Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

2012-07-20

372

On optimal hydropower bidding in systems with wind power : Modeling the impact of wind power on power markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The introduction of large amounts of wind power into power systems will increase the production uncertainties due to unforeseen wind power production variations. This will have a significant impact on the required balance management quantities. The most suitable power source to balance fast production or consumption variations is hydropower because of its flexibility and low operational costs. This thesis addresses the problem of trading of electricity on the daily marketfrom a hydropower pro...

Olsson, Magnus

2009-01-01

373

Operation of Complex Hydropower Schemes and its Impact on the Flow Regime in the Downstream River System under Changing Scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydropower is the world’s most important renewable electricity source. More than 40% of European hydroelectric energy is produced in Alpine countries. High-head storage hydropower plants (HPP) contribute significantly to peak energy production as well as electricity grid regulation. Future plant management is faced with several challenges concerning modified availability of water resources due to climate change as well as new economic constraints associated with legal, political and electri...

Bieri, Martin Peter

2012-01-01

374

Assessing impacts of hydropower schemes in upland rivers and sensitivity to hydrological change: new modelling tools for evaluating environmental flows  

Science.gov (United States)

Upland river systems provide a suite of critical ecosystem services, such as the provision of high quality downstream water supplies and the maintenance of in-stream habitats. Environmental legislation dictates that exploiting the hydro-power potential of such headwaters requires that the ecological status of in-stream habitats is maintained. This requires that decision makers have adequate scientific understanding of natural flow regimes, the nature of regulation impacts, and the sensitivity of managed systems to future change. This is often limited by a lack of adequate pre- regulation data. Here we present a new modelling tool that can be used in data sparse mountain river ecosystems to assess current impacts, evaluate sensitivity to future change and provide a basis for discussing the development of new adaptive management strategies. The HBV rainfall-runoff model was adapted to incorporate regulation components (reservoirs, water transfers), and applied to the heavily regulated River Lyon (391 km2), Scotland, UK. The Lyon has long been subjected to hydropower generation, which is supported by several river impoundments and a complex network of inter- and intra-catchment water transfers, and there are concerns that these are affecting high conservation status freshwater populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). In the absence of adequate pre-regulation data, the model was used to characterise the natural flow regime, assess the regulation impacts, and explore sensitivities to hydrological changes in water management. Overall, changes following regulation in the Lyon include decreases in inter-and intra annual variability of all parameters of the flow regime in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration and timing that are important in various life stages of the Atlantic Salmon. Although these effects are most pronounced closest to the impoundments, the regulation affects the regime for a considerable distance downstream. Sensitivity tests showed that a more variable release regime, as opposed to changes in the efficiency of the present regulation regime, could be most beneficial for the ecological status of the Lyon. The simple, conceptual modelling approach presented here captures the dominant catchment and regulation processes well, especially at the time scale at which operation rules apply. Consequentially, it is data undemanding, flexible, widely applicable, and its results are easily communicated to stakeholders. Hence, it is providing a basis for assessing impacts on flow regimes and informing environmental flows in other (data sparse) regions with heavily regulated mountain river ecosystems.

Tetzlaff, D.; Geris, J.; Seibert, J.; Vis, M.; Soulsby, C.

2013-12-01

375

New ecological concepts for the refurbishment of large hydro-power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article discusses how new ecological concepts are applied when renewing large hydropower stations. Two examples are given of such renewal schemes on two major Swiss rivers - the Aare and the Rhein. The chances offered by the necessity to renew such installations are looked at. In particular, the ways in which the disadvantages of the original power stations with respect to ecological factors are discussed. These include the installation of fish-passes and ways and means of guaranteeing minimum quantities of water in the old river bed. The new hydropower stations are described and figures on their technical equipment are presented, along with information on the almost natural conditions guaranteed in the old river beds