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1

Stability of hydrated minerals on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

The validity of recent identification of various hydrated minerals (kieserite, gypsum, hexahydrite, nontronite, chamosite, and montmorillonite) on Mars was assessed by exposing these minerals to simulated Martian surface conditions of atmospheric composition and pressure, temperature, and ultraviolet light irradiation. When exposed to such conditions the hydrated minerals exhibit in general, greater losses of interlayer H2O than structural OH. Minerals such as gypsum that contain structural H2O are more resistant to H2O loss than phyllosilicates. The partial loss of OH in some of the phyllosilicates is not accompanied by a measurable and systematic change in the wavelength position or intensity of metal-OH absorption bands. The characteristic absorption features that allow for identification of these minerals on Mars may be reduced in intensity, but are nevertheless largely preserved.

Cloutis, Edward A.; Craig, Michael A.; Mustard, John F.; Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Jamroz, Wes R.; Scott, Alan; Bish, David L.; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; King, Penelope L.

2007-10-01

2

Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyap...

Chang, Seok-woo

2012-01-01

3

Hydrated mineral stratigraphy of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris  

Science.gov (United States)

New high-resolution spectral and morphologic imaging of deposits on walls and floor of Ius Chasma extend previous geomorphic mapping, and permit a new interpretation of aqueous processes that occurred during the development of Valles Marineris. We identify hydrated mineralogy based on visible-near infrared (VNIR) absorptions. We map the extents of these units with CRISM spectral data as well as morphologies in CTX and HiRISE imagery. Three cross-sections across Ius Chasma illustrate the interpreted mineral stratigraphy. Multiple episodes formed and transported hydrated minerals within Ius Chasma. Polyhydrated sulfate and kieserite are found within a closed basin at the lowest elevations in the chasma. They may have been precipitates in a closed basin or diagenetically altered after deposition. Fluvial or aeolian processes then deposited layered Fe/Mg smectite and hydrated silicate on the chasma floor, postdating the sulfates. The smectite apparently was weathered out of Noachian-age wallrock and transported to the depositional sites. The overlying hydrated silicate is interpreted to be an acid-leached phyllosilicate transformed from the underlying smectite unit, or a smectite/jarosite mixture. The finely layered smectite and massive hydrated silicate units have an erosional unconformity between them, that marks a change in surface water chemistry. Landslides transported large blocks of wallrock, some altered to contain Fe/Mg smectite, to the chasma floor. After the last episode of normal faulting and subsequent landslides, opal was transported short distances into the chasma from a few m-thick light-toned layer near the top of the wallrock, by sapping channels in Louros Valles. Alternatively, the material was transported into the chasma and then altered to opal. The superposition of different types of hydrated minerals and the different fluvial morphologies of the units containing them indicate sequential, distinct aqueous environments, characterized by alkaline, then circum-neutral, and finally very acidic surface or groundwater chemistry.

Roach, Leah H.; Mustard, John F.; Swayze, Gregg; Milliken, Ralph E.; Bishop, Janice L.; Murchie, Scott L.; Lichtenberg, Kim

2010-03-01

4

Behaviour of hydrated minerals during their analysis by electron microprobe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vacuum, electric fields and production of heat in the electron probe target may produce serious damages in hydrated minerals. The variation in time of apparent concentration of elements is often very important. The study of this phenomenon was undertaken on two zeolites (chabazite and stilbite) and two phosphates (vivianite and ludlamite). It is emphasized by complex movement of ions within the specimen which makes the irradiated region richer in Fe2+, Ca2+ or p5+ ions

5

Geologic History of a Felsic and Hydrated Mineral Suite in Syrtis Major  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we assess the ancient environments represented by the compositions of exposures within two craters near Antoniadi Crater in N. Syrtis Major, Mars (63°E, 20°N). We used both thermal (TIR) and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectroscopy to place constraints on the mineralogy, formation environment, and astrobiological potential. This region was chosen because of its varied and well-exposed mineralogy. It was first studied in the TIR because of its unique exposures of quartz- and feldspar-rich surfaces1, representing both the only current identification of crystalline quartz and the most felsic composition yet found on Mars. VNIR data acquired within the same region reveal a suite of hydrated minerals, including phyllosilicates, hydrated silica (opal), and the zeolite analcime2. In this study, we utilize the combined stability fields of the full suite of quartzofeldspathic and hydrated minerals - a unique mineral assemblage on Mars - to infer formation conditions: neutral-to-alkaline pH, low-to-moderate temperatures, and sustained water. These conditions have been cited as ideal for providing a habitable environment for nascent life3. We answer three main questions about the alteration history of these deposits: When did alteration occur? Alteration is thought to either pre-date the impact or occur in a post-impact hydrothermal cell. Our study suggests the former, since alteration is restricted to impact breccia blocks, indicating that altered rocks had formed and were later exhumed by impact. How are the quartzofeldspathic and hydrated minerals related? Quartzofeldspathic material exposed within these craters is always co-located with opal. Opal is metastable and will alter to chalcedony (microcrystalline quartz) in 400 Ma under martian conditions4 with sustained exposure to water5. In the TIR, species of opal are separable6, but spectra of chalcedony and quartz share a distinctive doublet between 8-9.5 ?m7, and are mostly indistinguishable. However, in the VNIR, opal and chalcedony are separable due to variations in the width of features at 1.4, 1.9 and 2.2 ?m, and the emergence of a new band at 2.26 ?m with increased hydration of silica8. Most of the silica spectra show features that indicate greater hydration, indicating, along with TIR evidence, that the hydrated silica is likely chalcedony. What was the temperature of alteration and how long was the water present? On Earth, analcime forms in pH > 8.59 and temperatures 200,000 years on Earth10. Due to its interesting and varied mineralogy, this unique assemblage is in a useful and powerful location for reconstructing past conditions on ancient Mars. 1. Bandfield, J.L. et al., JGR 109, 2004. 2. Ehlmann, B. et al., JGR 114, 2009. 3. Farmer, J. & D. Des Marais, JGR 104, 1999. 4. Lynne, B. et al., Sed. Geol. 179, 2005. 5. Tosca, N. & A. Knoll, EPSL 286, 2009. 6. Michalski, J. et al., GRL 30, 2003. 7. McDowell, M. et al., LPSC XL (#1419), 2009. 8. Milliken, R. et al., Geol. 36, 2008. 9. Gottardi, G. Eur. Jour. Min. 1, 1989. 10. Diagenesis, 1988.

Smith, M. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Gillespie, A.

2010-12-01

6

Hydrated Mineral Stratigraphy in Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris  

Science.gov (United States)

Kieserite, a polyhydrated sulfate, hydrated silica, Fe/Mg phyllosilicate, and a hydrated silicate (possibly consistent with an acid-leached phyllosilicate) are found in light-toned units within Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris.

Roach, L. H.; Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Bishop, J. L.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Milliken, R. E.; Lichtenberg, K.; Parente, M.

2009-03-01

7

Sulfates and Other Hydrated Minerals in Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris and Implications for Water Geochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Ius Chasma is a linear trough in western Valles Marineris containing horst and graben structures, multiple landslides, and light-toned floor deposits. Elsewhere is Valles Marineris, sulfate deposits identified by OMEGA and CRISM are restricted to Interior Layered Deposits or nearby autochthonous loose material (Gendrin et al., 2005; Murchie et al., 2007; Murchie et al., in revision). In Ius Chasma, however, sulfates are found in thin floor units in enclosed depressions at the lowest elevations. Kieserite is at the lowest elevation, with polyhydrated sulfate and an unidentified hydrated phase, at higher elevations. Some poorly defined layering is visible on the HiRISE scale, but is not diagnostic. The total exposed thickness of kieserite is 300 m, with a total range in elevation of -4175 to -4475 m. The kieserite deposit is covered in places by pyroxene-bearing dunes. The polyhydrated sulfate outcrops range from -3515 to -4000 m. The unidentified hydrated phase outcrops between -3770 to -4100 m. The polyhydrated sulfate and unidentified hydrated material occur at the same elevations and do not have a clear stratigraphic relationship. Elsewhere in Ius Chasma, the unidentified hydrated material clearly drapes chasma floor units. The unidentified hydrated material is characterized by absorptions near 1.4 and 1.9 ?m, and a narrow doublet at 2.21 and 2.27 ?m. The deep ~1.9 ?m is due to the combination tone of the OH stretch and H2O bend and the ~1.4 ?m absorption is due to the 1st overtone of the OH stretch. Sulfates or other minerals with 2 or more water molecules per unit cell in their structure are necessary to account for deep water and hydroxyl absorptions in many spectra we observe. The doublet doesn't match any known sulfate, phyllosilicate, chloride, hydrated silica library spectra. Possibly a mixture of hydrated phases could explain this phase. The 2.21-2.26 ?m region is generally convex in sulfates, but gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O ) and jarosite group members (MFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) have absorptions there. However, neither sulfates' doublet matches the unidentified spectrum's minima. While there is no phyllosilicate that exactly matches the 2.21 and 2.27 ?m doublet, a combination of smectite clays, such as nontronite and montmorillonite, produces a similar doublet at 2.21 and 2.29 ?m. A third option that is spectrally close but not exact is hydrated silica. Hydrated silica has a wider absorption over 2.21- 2.25 ?m and its hydration bands are shifted to ~1.38 and ~1.91 ?m (Milliken et al., 2008). The location of kieserite in the lowest points of Ius Chasma, with polyhydrated sulfate exclusively found at higher elevations, suggests they were formed by nearly complete evaporation of a closed basin. Polyhydrated evaporites form first and then kieserite as the basin is drawn down. Originally, Ius Chasma may have been less connected to Melas Chasma than it is now (Peulvast and Masson, 1993). These sulfates may be evidence of an environment that supported isolated, evaporating basins. Better discrimination of the sulfate assemblages present and the stratigraphic relationships within the ILD is critical to understanding the environment during and since their formation.

Roach, L. H.; Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Milliken, R. E.; Crowley, J. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Arvidson, R. E.

2008-12-01

8

Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

A. Salam

2007-07-01

9

Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 9 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 13 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 12°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw and 10°C higher at 100% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 7°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 100% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

A. Salam

2007-01-01

10

Enhanced CO2 hydrate formation kinetic under organo-mineral complex environment  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 hydrate formation under marine sediments can be one of the feasible options to mitigate atmospheric concentration of CO2, main source of global warming. For the better application of CO2 sequestration via hydrate form under ocean, it is indispensable to understand the effects of marine environmental factors on hydrate formation kinetic and equilibrium. In this study, we investigated the effect of organo-mineral complex (i.e., Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and glycine complex) on hydrate formation kinetic both experimentally and computationally. Organo-mineral complex suspension showed much more favorable hydrate formation kinetic (2-6 min) than pure water control (48-80 min). TEM image showed that glycine are well distributed and strongly adsorbed on Na-MMT surface and FT/IR results (i.e., increased frequency of N-H stretch) also proved that amine part of glycine can make strong hydrogen bonding with silicon atoms of Na-MMT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to fully understand the CO2 hydrate nucleation on the organo-mineral complex and its result showed that high concentration of CO2 molecules are located near Na-MMT surface and glycine attached on Na-MMT can attract water molecules to form intermediate hydrate structure. This one plays a key role in complete hydrate formation as nucleation seeds and can significantly enhance the hydrate formation kinetic. This fundamental knowledge could provide idea to select proper CO2 storage site under marine sediments and be applied to in-situ swapping technology to recover CH4 from deep sea gas hydrate deposits and sequester the CO2 to CH4 hydrate layer.

Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

2012-12-01

11

Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK) bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid?, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were ...

Heil Daniel P

2010-01-01

12

Modelling the incongruent dissolution of hydrated cement minerals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrated calciumsilicates are the main constituents of hydrated portland cements. Their chemistry will strongly influence the longterm behaviour of a concrete system envisioned in use in radioactive waste repositories. Experimental data show that hydrated calciumsilicates dissolve incongruently, depending on the calcium/silicon ratio of the solid. A model that simulates the incongruent dissolution behaviour of these hydrated calciumsilicates is presented. In the model the hydrated calciumcilicates are represented as a mixture of two congruently soluble components. The dissolution of the particular components is described using the concept of variable activities in the solid state. Each component's activity in the solid state is obtained from a large body of solubility data by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation for nonideal mixtures. Using this approach a simplified set of equations, which describe the solubility of the components as a function of the calcium/silicon ratio of the solid, is derived. As an application, the degradation of a standard portland cement in pure water and in a carbonate-rich groundwater is modelled. (orig.)

13

Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

1993-12-31

14

Spectral reflectance properties of minerals exposed to simulated Mars surface conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of mineral species were exposed to martian surface conditions of atmospheric pressure and composition, temperature, and UV light regime, and their evolution was monitored using reflectance spectroscopy. The stabilities for different groups varied widely. Phyllosilicate spectra all showed measurable losses of interlayer H 2O, with some structural groups showing more rapid H 2O loss than others. Loss of OH from the phyllosilicates is not always accompanied by a change in metal-OH overtone absorption bands. OH-bearing sulfates, such as jarosite and alunite, show no measurable change in spectral properties, suggesting that they should be spectrally detectable on Mars on the basis of diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.4-2.5 ?m region. Fe 3+- and H 2O-bearing sulfates all showed changes in the appearance and/or reduction in depths of hydroxo-bridged Fe 3+ absorption bands, particularly at 0.43 ?m. The spectral changes were often accompanied by visible color changes, suggesting that subsurface sulfates exposed to the martian surface environment may undergo measurable changes in reflectance spectra and color over short periods of time (days to weeks). Organic-bearing geological materials showed no measurable change in C sbnd H related absorption bands, while carbonates and hydroxides also showed no systematic changes in spectral properties. The addition of ultraviolet irradiation did not seem to affect mineral stability or rate of spectral change, with one exception (hexahydrite). In some cases, spectral changes could be related to the formation of specific new phases. The data also suggest that hydrated minerals detected on Mars to date retain their diagnostic spectral properties that allow their unique identification.

Cloutis, E. A.; Craig, M. A.; Kruzelecky, R. V.; Jamroz, W. R.; Scott, A.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Mertzman, S. A.

2008-05-01

15

Methane hydrate behavior when exposed to a 23% carbon dioxide 77% nitrogen gas under conditions similar to the ConocoPhillips 2012 Ignik Sikumi Gas Hydrate Field Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

In-situ replacement of methane hydrate by carbon dioxide hydrate is considered to be a promising technique for producing natural gas, while simultaneously sequestering greenhouse gas in deep geological formations. For effective application of this technique in the field, kinetic models of gas exchange rates in hydrate under a variety of environmental conditions need to be established, and the impact of hydrate substitution on geophysical (seismic) properties has to be quantified in order to optimize monitoring techniques. We performed a series of laboratory tests in which we monitored changes in methane hydrate-bearing samples while a nitrogen/carbon dioxide gas mixture was flowed through. These experiments were conducted to gain insights into data obtained from a field test in which the same mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen was injected into a methane hydrate-bearing unit beneath the north slope of the Brooks Range in northern Alaska (ConocoPhillips 2012 Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate field trial). We have measured the kinetic gas exchange rate for a range of hydrate saturations and different test configurations, to provide an estimate for comparison to numerical model predictions. In our tests, the exchange rate decreased over time during the tests as methane was depleted from the system. Following the elution of residual gaseous methane, the exchange rate ranged from 3.8×10-7 moles methane/(mole water*s) to 5×10-8 moles methane/(mole water*s) (Note that in these rates, the moles of water refers to water originally held in the hydrate.). In addition to the gas exchange rate, we also monitored changes in permeability occurring due to the gas substitution. Further, we determined the seismic P and S wave velocities and attenuations using our Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar apparatus (e.g. Nakagawa, 2012, Rev. Sci. Instr.). In addition to providing geophysical signatures, changes in the seismic properties can also be related to changes in the mechanical strength of the hydrate-bearing sand resulting from exposure to the mixed gas. Upon introduction of the mixed gas, the sample became less stiff and wave attenuation increased, indicating the presence of liquid water between mineral grains and hydrate. Slow dissociation of hydrate conducted in this experiment showed a range of hydrate stability conditions as the gas composition changed from dissociation and dilution of the previously injected nitrogen.

Borglin, S. E.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.

2013-12-01

16

CO2 + N2O mixture gas hydrate formation kinetics and effect of soil minerals on mixture-gas hydrate formation process  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 mitigation is one of the most pressing global scientific topics in last 30 years. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHGs) defined by the Kyoto Protocol and its global warming potential (GWP) of one metric ton is equivalent to 310 metric tons of CO2. They have similar physical and chemical properties and therefore, mixture-gas (50% CO2 + 50% N2O) hydrate formation process was studied experimentally and computationally. There were no significant research to reduce N20 gas and we tried to make hydrate to mitigate N20 and CO2 in same time. Mixture gas hydrate formation periods were approximately two times faster than pure N2O hydrate formation kinetic in general. The fastest induction time of mixture-gas hydrate formation observed in Illite and Quartz among various soil mineral suspensions. It was also observed that hydrate formation kinetic was faster with clay mineral suspensions such as Nontronite, Sphalerite and Montmorillonite. Temperature and pressure change were not significant on hydrate formation kinetic; however, induction time can be significantly affected by various chemical species forming under the different suspension pHs. The distribution of chemical species in each mineral suspension was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model, PHREEQC, and used for the identification of hydrate formation characteristics in the suspensions. With the experimental limitations, a study on the molecular scale modeling has a great importance for the prediction of phase behavior of the gas hydrates. We have also performed molecular dynamics computer simulations on N2O and CO2 hydrate structures to estimate the residual free energy of two-phase (hydrate cage and guest molecule) at three different temperature ranges of 260K, 273K, and 280K. The calculation result implies that N2O hydrates are thermodynamically stable at real-world gas hydrate existing condition within given temperature and pressure. This phenomenon proves that mixture-gas could be efficiently applied to CO2 sequestration at potential sites and further investigations must be conducted to identify possible effects frequently found in natural geological environments and geo-environmental conditions at the site affecting the hydrate formation kinetics.

Enkh-Amgalan, T.; Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

2012-12-01

17

Effects of physiological environments on the hydration behavior of mineral trioxide aggregate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness tests, we evaluated how various physiological environments affect the hydration behavior and physical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). We found that the microstructure of hydrated MTA consists of cubic and needle-like crystals. The former comprised the principal structure of MTA, whereas the later were less prominent and formed in the inter-grain spaces between the cubic crystals. MTA samples were hydrated in distilled water, normal saline, pH 7, and pH 5. However, no needle-like crystals were observed in the pH 5 specimens, and erosion of the cubic crystal surfaces was noted. XRD indicated a peak corresponding to Portlandite, a hydration product of MTA, and the peak decreased noticeably in the pH 5 group. The pH 5 specimens' microhardness was also significantly weaker compared to the other three groups (p<0.0001). These findings suggest that physiological environmental effects on MTA formation are determined, in part, by environmental pH and the presence of ions. In particular, an acidic environment of pH 5 adversely affects both the physical properties and the hydration behavior of MTA. PMID:14609667

Lee, Yuan-Ling; Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lin, Feng-Huei; Yun Lin, Ava; Lan, Wan-Hong; Lin, Chun-Pin

2004-02-01

18

Atomistic simulations of clay minerals subject to variably hydrated supercritical CO2  

Science.gov (United States)

Commonly occurring clay minerals, such as phyllosilicates, tend to expand as they incorporate water. The ubiquitous presence and importance of clay minerals in caprock seals and shale gas plays undergoing enhanced gas recovery with CO2 requires much better understanding of chemically induced changes in these minerals upon contact with variably wet scCO2. Recent advances in our groups experimental techniques have enabled detailed characterization of the H2O/CO2 intercalation in a variety of montmorillonites. In parallel, we have also initiated density functional (DFT) simulations to help understand the interactions between layered materials and the water-bearing supercritical fluid alone or in the presence of sulfur-containing species, pertinent to mixed-gas injection conditions. Through our simulations, we expect to understand how CO2 interacts with different intra-layer ions under different degrees of hydration or the presence of sulfur-containing species, and how the overall swelling properties of the clays will be affected. Preliminary results indicate that clays with higher degrees of hydration are likely to expand more after CO2 intercalation, as illustrated in Figure 1.; Figure 1. Radial distribution function of Ca-C obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations of fully hydrated Ca2+ ions in supercritical CO2 show that the CO2 molecules will be found at average distances > 5 Å and can potentially induce higher degrees of swelling.

Glezakou, V.; Schaef, T.; McGrail, P.

2012-12-01

19

Hydrated salt minerals on Europa's Surface from the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

We reported evidence of heavily hydrated salt minerals present over large areas of Europa's surface from analysis of reflectance spectra returned by the Galileo mission near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) [McCord et al., 1997a, b, 1998a, b]. Here we elaborate on this earlier evidence, present spatial distributions of these minerals, examine alternate water-ice interpretations, expand on our hydrated-salts interpretation, consider salt mineral stability on Europa, and discuss the implications. Extensive well-defined areas on Europa show distinct, asymmetric water-related absorption bands in the 1 to 2.5-??m region. Radiative transfer modeling of water ice involving different particle sizes and layers at Europa temperatures does not reproduce the distinctive Europa water bands. However, ice near its melting temperature, such as in terrestrial environments, does have some characteristics of the Europa spectrum. Alternatively, some classes of heavily hydrated minerals do exhibit such water bands. Among plausible materials, heavily hydrated salt minerals, such as magnesium and sodium sulfates, sodium carbonate and their mixtures, are preferred. All Europa spectral features are present in some salt minerals and a very good match to the Europa spectrum can be achieved by mixing several salt spectra. However, no single or mix of salt mineral spectra from the limited library available has so far been found to perfectly match the Europa spectrum in every detail. The material is concentrated at the lineaments and in chaotic terrain, which are technically disrupted areas on the trailing side. Since the spectrum of the material on Europa is nearly the same everywhere so-far studied, the salt or salt-mixture composition may be nearly uniform. This suggests similar sources and processes over at least a near-hemispheric scale. This would suggest that an extensive subsurface ocean containing dissolved salts is the source, and several possible mechanisms for deposit emplacement are considered. The hydrogen bonds associated with hydration of these salts are similar or greater in strength and energy to those in pure water ice. Thus, once on the surface, the salt minerals should be as stable to disruption as water ice at the Europa temperatures, and mechanisms are suggested to enhance the stability of both materials. Spectra obtained of MgSO4???6H2O at 77 K show only small differences from room temperature spectra. The main difference is the .appearance of the individual absorptions composing the broad, composite water features and associated with the several different H2O sites in the salt hydrate molecule. This suggests that the Europa absorption bands are also composites. Thus higher spectral resolution may reveal these diagnostic features in Europa's spectrum. The specific salts present and their relative abundances would be indicators of the chemistry and conditions of an ocean environment, and areas of fresh, heavy concentration of these minerals should make ideal lander mission sampling sites. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

McCord, T. B.; Hansen, G. B.; Matson, D. L.; Johnson, T. V.; Crowley, J. K.; Fanale, F. P.; Carlson, R. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Martin, P. D.; Hibbitts, C. A.; Granahan, J. C.; Ocampo, A.

1999-01-01

20

Efflorescence as a source of hydrated sulfate minerals in valley settings on Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

A distinctive sulfur cycle dominates many geological processes on Mars and hydrated sulfate minerals are found in numerous topographic settings with widespread occurrences on the Martian surface. However, many of the key processes controlling the hydrological transport of sulfur, including sulfur sources, climate and the depositional history that led to precipitation of these minerals, remain unclear. In this paper, we use a model for the formation of sulfate efflorescent salts (Mg-Ca-Na sulfates) in the Rio Puerco watershed of New Mexico, a terrestrial analog site from the semiarid Southwest U.S., to assess the origin and environmental conditions that may have controlled deposition of hydrated sulfates in Valles Marineris on Mars. Our terrestrial geochemical results (?S34 of -36.0 to +11.1‰) show that an ephemeral arid hydrological cycle that mobilizes sulfur present in the bedrock as sulfides, sulfate minerals, and dry/wet atmospheric deposition can lead to widespread surface accumulations of hydrated sulfate efflorescences. Repeating cycles of salt dissolution and reprecipitation appear to be major processes that migrate sulfate efflorescences to sites of surface deposition and ultimately increase the aqueous SO42- flux along the watershed (average 41,273 metric tons/yr). We suggest that similar shallow processes may explain the occurrence of hydrated sulfates detected on the scarps and valley floors of Valles Marineris on Mars. Our estimates of salt mass and distribution are in accord with studies that suggest a rather short-lived process of sulfate formation (minimum rough estimate ?100 to 1000 years) and restriction by prevailing arid conditions on Mars.

Szynkiewicz, Anna; Borrok, David M.; Vaniman, David T.

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
21

Water in the formation of biogenic minerals: peeling away the hydration layers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minerals of biogenic origin form and crystallize from aqueous environments at ambient temperatures and pressures. The in vivo environment either intracellular or intercellular, contains many components that modulate both the activity of the ions which associate to form the mineral, as well as the activity and structure of the crowded water. Most of the studies about the mechanism of mineralization, that is, the detailed pathways by which the mineral ions proceed from solution to crystal state, have been carried out in relatively dilute solutions and clean solutions. These studies have considered both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Most have not considered the water itself. Is the water a passive bystander, or is it intimately a participant in the mineral ion densification reaction? A wide range of experiments show that the mineralization pathways proceed through a series of densification stages with intermediates, such as a "dense liquid" phase and the prenucleation clusters that form within it. This is in contrast to the idea of a single step phase transition, but consistent with the Gibbs concept of discontinuous phase transitions from supersaturated mother liquor to crystal. Further changes in the water structure at every surface and interface during densification guides the free energy trajectory leading to the crystalline state. In vertebrates, mineralization takes place in a hydrated collagen matrix, thus water must be considered as a direct participant. Although different in detail, the crystallization of calcium phosphates, as apatite, and calcium carbonates, as calcite, are mechanistically identical from the viewpoint of water. PMID:23791831

Dorvee, Jason R; Veis, Arthur

2013-08-01

22

Lung cancer risk among Czech miners exposed to radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of underground miners of uranium and other substances are at present the principal source of information on the effects of exposure to radon and its progeny. One of the largest such studies is that of uranium miners in West Bohemia (Jachymov). This study, sometimes referred to as the S cohort, was set up in 1970 by the late Josef Sevc. About ten years later, two further cohorts were delineated by him. One of uranium miners (N) who worked under improved conditions mostly in the Pribram mines, and the second one of burnt clay miners (L) located in the Rakovnik district. Brief characteristics of the cohorts are shown

23

Adhesion of CO2 on hydrated mineral surfaces and its implications to geologic carbon sequestration  

Science.gov (United States)

Most mineral surfaces are water wetting, which has important implications for the transport of non-aqueous phase liquids, such as CO2, through porous media. In this work, contact angle experiments were carried out wherein unusual wetting behavior was observed between mineral surfaces and liquid or supercritical CO2 under certain geochemical conditions. This behavior can be understood in the context of adhesion between the CO2 and the mineral surface. When adhesion occurs, the wettability characteristics of the surfaces are significantly altered. More importantly, the CO2 exhibits a strong affinity for the surface and is highly resistant to shear forces in the aqueous phase. A static pendant drop method was used on a variety of polished mineral surfaces to measure contact angles. The composition of the aqueous phase (e.g., pH, ionic strength) and the characteristics of the mineral surface (e.g., composition, roughness), were evaluated to understand their impact on the prevalence of adhesion. Pressure and temperature conditions were selected to represent those that would be prevalent in geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) or during leakage from target repositories. Adhesion was widely observed on phlogopite mica, silica, and calcite surfaces with roughness on the order of ~10 nanometers. CO2 exhibited no adhesion on mineral surfaces with higher roughness (e.g., quartz). On smoother surfaces, the CO2 is thought to have more effective contact area with the mineral, enabling the weak van der Waals forces that drive most adhesion processes. Brine chemistry also had an important role in controlling CO2 adhesion. Increases in CO2 partial pressure and ionic strength both increased the incidence of adhesion. The addition of strong acid or strong base permanently inhibited the development of adhesion. These results suggest that the development of adhesion between the CO2 and the mineral surface is dependent on the integrity and thickness of the hydration layer between the CO2 and the mineral. N2 control experiments were carried out under the same pressure and temperature conditions and adhesion was also observed. The wettability hysteresis phenomena were quantified under adhesion conditions by means of advancing/receding contact angle measurements. The experimental results indicated that adhesion could cause an increase in the contact angle by a factor of three. These results support an emerging understanding of adhesion of nonpolar non-aqueous phase fluids on mineral surfaces influenced by the relative thickness of the electrical double layer embedded in the hydration layer between CO2 or N2 and the mineral surface. These findings could have important implications in certain geological formations for estimating residual trapping, capillary pressure, and a number of other processes that are strongly dependent on the wetting behavior of mineral surfaces. Keywords: geologic carbon sequestration, CO2 adhesion, hydration layer, wettability alteration and hysteresis, aqueous chemistry, surface roughness

Wang, S.; Clarens, A. F.; Tao, Z.; Persily, S. M.

2013-12-01

24

Hydrated minerals on Europa’s surface: An improved look from the Galileo NIMS investigation  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface composition of Europa is of great importance for understanding both the internal evolution of Europa and its putative ocean. The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) investigation on Galileo observed Europa and the other Galilean satellites from 0.7 to 5.2 ?m with spatial resolution down to a few kilometers during flybys by the spacecraft as it orbited Jupiter. These data have been analyzed and results published over the life of the Galileo mission and afterward. One result was the discovery of hydrated minerals at some locations on Europa and Ganymede. The data are noisy, especially for Europa, due to radiation affecting the NIMS electronics and detectors, and other artifacts are also present. The NIMS data are now being reprocessed using the accumulated knowledge gained over the entire missions to remove noise spikes and compensate for some other defects in the data. We are analyzing these reprocessed data in an attempt to defined better the nature of the hydrate spectral features and improve their interpretation. We report here on analyses of two NIMS reprocessed observations for the 0.7-3-?m region. A revised hydrate spectrum is calculated and mapped in detail across two lineaments. The spectrum shows the expected distorted water features but little or no spectral structure in these features. A narrow, weak spectral feature appears at 1.344 ?m, which is weakly correlated with lower albedo. Several other weak features may be present but are difficult to confirm in these limited data sets. The hydrate signature shows the greatest strength within and toward the center of the lineaments, confirming and strengthening the association of the hydrate with these endogenic features. This trend may indicate that the material in the lineaments is youngest toward the center and has more water frost coverage toward the edge. A small, visually dark, circular feature has a spectrum that shows both hydrate and crystalline water ice features and perhaps contains a hydrate different in spectral characteristics and perhaps composition than found in the lineament.

McCord, Thomas B.; Hansen, Gary B.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Hayne, Paul

2010-10-01

25

Effects of EDTA on the hydration mechanism of mineral trioxide aggregate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is commonly used during the preparation of obstructed root canals that face a high risk of root perforation. Such perforations may be repaired with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Due to EDTA's ability to chelate calcium ions, we hypothesized that EDTA may disrupt the hydration of MTA. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, we found that MTA specimens stored in an EDTA solution had no crystalline structure and a Ca/Si molar ratio considerably lower than those obtained for specimens stored in distilled water and normal saline. Poor cell adhesion in EDTA-treated MTA was also noted. X-ray diffraction indicated that the peak corresponding to portlandite, which is normally present in hydrated MTA, was not shown in the EDTA group. The microhardness of EDTA-treated specimens was also significantly reduced (p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that EDTA interferes with the hydration of MTA, resulting in decreased hardness and poor biocompatibility. PMID:17525353

Lee, Y-L; Lin, F-H; Wang, W-H; Ritchie, H H; Lan, W-H; Lin, C-P

2007-06-01

26

Silica-rich deposits and hydrated minerals at Gusev Crater, Mars: Vis-NIR spectral characterization and regional mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has discovered surprisingly high concentrations of amorphous silica in soil and nodular outcrops in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. In Pancam multispectral observations, we find that an absorption feature at the longest Pancam wavelength (1009 nm) appears to be characteristic of these silica-rich materials; however, spectral analyses of amorphous silica suggest that the ???1009 nm spectral feature is not a direct reflection of their silica-rich nature. Based on comparisons with spectral databases, we hypothesize that the presence of H2O or OH, either free (as water ice), adsorbed or bound in a mineral structure, is responsible for the spectral feature observed by Pancam. The Gertrude Weise soil, which is nearly pure opaline silica, may have adsorbed water cold-trapped on mineral grains. The origin of the ???1009 nm Pancam feature observed in the silica-rich nodular outcrops may result from the presence of additional hydrated minerals (specific sulfates, halides, chlorides, sodium silicates, carbonates or borates). Using the ???1009 nm feature with other spectral parameters as a "hydration signature" we have mapped the occurrence of hydrated materials along the extent of Spirit's traverse across the Columbia Hills from West Spur to Home Plate (sols 155-1696). We have also mapped this hydration signature across large panoramic images to understand the regional distribution of materials that are spectrally similar to the silica-rich soil and nodular outcrops. Our results suggest that hydrated materials are common in the Columbia Hills. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Rice, M.S.; Bell, J.F., III; Cloutis, E.A.; Wang, A.; Ruff, S.W.; Craig, M.A.; Bailey, D.T.; Johnson, J.R.; De Souza, P.A., Jr.; Farrand, W.H.

2010-01-01

27

The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1 MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO4-H2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous sulfates likely to be found on Mars enhance our understanding of the degrees of hydration of various sulfates that should currently exist on Mars at various seasons and locations and during various atmospheric pressure and obliquity periods. Two sets of systematic experiments were described; one on hydrous Mg sulfates and the other on hydrous Fe3+ sulfates. Also, their implications to Mars sulfates mineralogy were discussed.

Chou, I.-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

2013-01-01

28

Multiphasic finite element modeling of concrete hydration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a model predicting the development of hydration and its consequences on temperature and water content. As it considers the effects of climatic conditions, the proposed model is a promising tool to evaluate the temperature, hydric and hydration fields of structures in situ. The hydration model predicts the hydration evolution of several main species (not only clinker but also mineral additions like fly ash or silica fume for instance). For each component, the modeling considers hydration development and chemical interaction between reactions. It also takes into account temperature and water content effects on reaction kinetics through thermal and hydric activation. Hydration development in turn modifies the thermal and hydric states of material. The result is a numerical model coupling hydration, and the thermal and hydric states of cement-based material. The model was tested on a 27 m3 concrete block in situ equipped with temperature sensors situated in the core and close to the face exposed to solar radiation

29

The mortality experience of a group of Newfoundland fluorspar miners exposed to Rn progeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters has been conducted using two control groups (surface workers and Newfoundland males). Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland and buccal cavity/pharynx were significantly elevated among underground miners. A highly significant relationship was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity/pharynx cancers (n = 6) precluded meaningful analysis of dose-response. Also significantly elevated among underground miners were deaths from silicosis and pneumoconioses. No statistically significant excess was found for any cause of death among surface workers. Using external controls, attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 per working level month per million person-years and 0.89 percent per working level month respectively. Attributable risk coefficients were similar to some, but not all related mining studies. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed attributable risks to non-smokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age at observation whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. Using the risk coefficients from the present study, a miner exposed for 30 years at 4 WLM per year from age 20 has a risk of 7,366 per 100,000 of dying of lung cancer by age 70 using the relative risk model and a risk of 6,371 per 100,000 using the attributable risk model. This compares to 3,740 per 100,000 for a non-exposed male. 85 refs

30

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207+/-23 vs. 166+/-14 pmol/10(6) lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1+/-3.8 vs. 54.8+/-4.1 pmol/10(6) lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:15081736

Muzyka, V; Scheepers, P T J; Bogovski, S; Lang, I; Schmidt, N; Ryazanov, V; Veidebaum, T

2004-04-25

31

Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207{+-}23 vs. 166{+-}14 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1{+-}3.8 vs. 54.8{+-}4.1 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring index of organism sensitivity to underground working. The alterations of PP levels, FC activity and PP/DNA association in peripheral lymphocytes of miners illustrate the harmful effects of exposure to diesel exhaust.

Muzyka, V.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Carcinogens, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Hiiu 42, Tallinn 11619 (Estonia); Scheepers, P.T.J. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre St Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen NL 6500 HB (Netherlands)

2004-04-25

32

Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-lived species are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation of lead in bone tissues. In this paper we gain insights into the sublethal effects of lead contamination on Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Our approach was done on the comparison of two populations (Canary Islands and Iberian Peninsula) differing in exposures to the ingestion of lead ammunition. Blood lead levels were higher in the island population (Canary Islands range: 5.10-1780 ?g L-1n = 137; Iberian Peninsula range: 5.60-217.30 ?g L-1n = 32) showing clear seasonal trends, peaking during the hunting season. Moreover, males were more susceptible to lead accumulation than females. Bone lead concentration increased with age, reflecting a bioaccumulation effect. The bone composition was significantly altered by this contaminant: the mineralization degree decreased as lead concentration levels increased. These results demonstrate the existence of long-term effects of lead poisoning, which may be of importance in the declines of threatened populations of long-lived species exposed to this contaminant. - Bone lead accumulation decreases the degree of bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

33

Neurophysiological anomalies in brainstem responses of mercury-exposed children of Andean gold miners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health hazards of occupational exposure to Mercury (Hg) in adult gold miners are well known, but little attention has been given to the effects of Hg exposure in the children of gold miners. Children who assist their parents in gold mining operations or live in mining enclaves may be exposed to elemental Hg vapors or methylmercury-contaminated food, both of which may induce neurodevelopmental disabilities. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses (BAER) were measured as biomarkers of subtle mercury-induced neurological impairment in Andean children of gold miners living in the Ecuadorian gold mining settlement of Nambija, where Hg exposure is prevalent. Thirty-one children (19 boys and 12 girls, aged 4-14 years, mean age: 10 years) in the study group were found to have a mean blood mercury (HgB) level of 23.0 micrograms/L (SD: 19, range: 2.0-89.0 micrograms/L; median: 20 micrograms/L), which was significantly higher than the mean HgB level of a reference group of 21 Ecuadorian children (4.5 micrograms/L, SD: 2.3; t = 4.39, P = 0.0001), and in excess of the health-based biological limits for the U.S. (10 micrograms/L). The BAER measures indicated statistically significant differences in interpeak III-V (P = 0.03) and I-V (P = 0.008) neural conduction times for children with HgB levels above the median. BAERs at the conventional click stimulus rate of 10/second showed statistically significant positive correlations between HgB level and the absolute latency of wave V (P = 0.03), and the neural conduction times of the eighth nerve to midbrain I-V interval (P = 0.02). BAER at 50/second revealed statistically significant relationships between HgB and the latency of wave VI (P = 0.03), and the I-VI interpeak interval (P = 0.02). Brainstem neural conduction times suggested that some of the Hg-intoxicated children in the study group have subtle neurophysiological anomalies that may be more manifest at higher BAER stimulus rates, and that the Hg-exposed children of gold miners are at risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. PMID:12553183

Counter, S Allen

2003-01-01

34

Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, that are a continuing cause of concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the U.S. Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of U.S. veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality radio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

35

Thermodynamics of Uranyl Minerals: Enthalpies of Formation of Uranyl Oxide Hydrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enthalpies of formation of seven uranyl oxide hydrate phases and one uranate have been determined using high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry: [(UO2)4O(OH)6](H2O)5, metaschoepite; ?-UO2(OH)2; CaUO4; Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6(H2O)8, becquerelite; Ca(UO2)4O3(OH)4(H2O)2; Na(UO2)O(OH), clarkeite; Na2(UO2)6O4(OH)6(H2O)7, the sodium analogue of compreignacite and Pb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6(H2O)2, curite. The enthalpy of formation from the binary oxides, ?Hf-ox, at 298 K was calculated for each compound from the respective drop solution enthalpy, ?Hds. The standard enthalpies of formation from the elements, ?Hfo, at 298 K are -1791.0 ± 3.2, -1536.2 ± 2.8, -2002.0 ± 3.2, -11389.2 ± 13.5, -6653.1 ± 13.8, -1724.7 ± 5.1, -10936.4 ± 14.5 and -13163.2 ± 34.4 kJ mol-1, respectively. These values are useful in exploring the stability of uranyl oxide hydrates in auxiliary chemical systems, such as those expected in U-contaminated environments

36

Thermodynamics of Uranyl Minerals: Enthalpies of Formation of Uranyl Oxide Hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The enthalpies of formation of seven uranyl oxide hydrate phases and one uranate have been determined using high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry: [(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}O(OH){sub 6}](H{sub 2}O){sub 5}, metaschoepite; {beta}-UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}; CaUO{sub 4}; Ca(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}, becquerelite; Ca(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}; Na(UO{sub 2})O(OH), clarkeite; Na{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}, the sodium analogue of compreignacite and Pb{sub 3}(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 8}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, curite. The enthalpy of formation from the binary oxides, {Delta}H{sub f-ox}, at 298 K was calculated for each compound from the respective drop solution enthalpy, {Delta}H{sub ds}. The standard enthalpies of formation from the elements, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup o}, at 298 K are -1791.0 {+-} 3.2, -1536.2 {+-} 2.8, -2002.0 {+-} 3.2, -11389.2 {+-} 13.5, -6653.1 {+-} 13.8, -1724.7 {+-} 5.1, -10936.4 {+-} 14.5 and -13163.2 {+-} 34.4 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. These values are useful in exploring the stability of uranyl oxide hydrates in auxiliary chemical systems, such as those expected in U-contaminated environments.

K. Kubatko; K. Helean; A. Navrotsky; P.C. Burns

2005-05-11

37

Geochemical inputs for hydrological models of deep-lying sedimentary units: Loss of mineral hydration water  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrological models that treat phenomena occurring deep in sedimentary piles, such as petroleum maturation and retention of chemical and radioactive waste, may require time spans of at least several million years. Many input quantities classically treated as constants will be variables on this time scale. Models sophisticated enough to include transport contributions from such processes as chemical diffusion, mineral dehydration and shale membrane behavior require considerable knowledge about regional geological history as well as the pertinent mineralogical and geochemical relationships. Simple dehydrations such as those of gypsum and halloysite occur at sharply-defined temperatures but, as with all mineral dehydration reactions, the equilibrium temperature is strongly dependent on the pore-fluid salinity and degree of overpressuring encountered in the subsurface. The dehydrations of analcime and smectite proceed by reactions involving other sedimentary minerals. The smectite reaction is crystallographically complex, yielding a succession of mixed-layered illite/smectites, and on the U.S.A. Gulf of Mexico coast continues over several million years at a particular stratigraphic interval.

Graf, D. L.; Anderson, D. E.

1981-12-01

38

Fiber size and number in workers exposed to processed chrysotile asbestos, chrysotile miners, and the general population  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyzed chrysotile and chrysotile-associated amphibole (largely tremolite) asbestos fibers in 21 workers exposed to various types of processed (milled) chrysotile ore, 20 long-term chrysotile miners, and 20 members of the general population (controls). Significantly greater amounts of both chrysotile and tremolite were found in processed-ore workers and miners than in controls. On average, the mean fiber lengths and aspect ratios for the mining and processed-ore-exposed workers were similar and were significantly greater than the values seen in the controls; within the processed-ore group, there was a marked variation in these parameters, and some workers appeared to be exposed to fairly long, thin fibers. It was found empirically that the fiber size data, and to a lesser extent the concentration data, could be used to classify workers accurately into those with processed-ore exposure and controls. We conclude that fiber sizes in the lungs of processed-ore-exposed workers are similar to those of chrysotile miners and are considerably longer than those found in the general population; some processed-ore workers have longer fibers which might be responsible for higher disease incidences in certain working groups; tremolite accompanies chrysotile in a variable proportion of workers exposed to processed chrysotile products and might be important in the genesis of mesothelioma in such workers; and mineralogic analysis will usually detect exposure even when chrysotile has largely disappeared from lung tissue.

Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

1986-01-01

39

Stable isotope fractionation factors of water in hydrated saline mineral-brine systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors of water between water of crystallization of carnallite, bischofite and tachyhydrite and the mother solutions were determined from the isotopic activity ratios of the mother solutions (? a) in the temperature range of 10-40°C. Deuterium is depleted and 18O enriched in the water of crystallization of all these minerals. No clear temperature dependence can be observed. The published fractionation factors in the literature, which were all determined from the isotopic concentration ratios of the mother solutions (? c) were corrected to ? a using the "salt effect" coefficients. It is proposed that only the ? a values can be applied to the natural settings.

Horita, Juske

1989-10-01

40

PIXE analysis of mineral composition of alfalfa root-tip exposed to low pH or aluminum stress condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PIXE analysis was applied to study alteration of mineral composition (Al, P, K, and Cl) of alfalfa root-tip exposed to low pH or aluminum stress. These minerals were detectable using one or two pieces of root-tips. Short-term (within 4 h) decreases in K/P and Cl/P ratios were observed under low pH and aluminum stress conditions. However, degree of the decrease was not same. Differences in toxic effects of low pH and Al on the root-tip of alfalfa are discussed. (author).

Yokota, Satoshi; Mae, Tadahiko; Ojima, Kunihiko [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Ishii, Keizo

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
41

Mutation rates at the glycophorin A and HPRT loci in uranium miners exposed to radon progeny.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To find whether a relation exists between estimated levels of exposure to radon and its progeny and mutations in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and glycophorin A in a cohort of former uranium miners. METHODS--A cohort study involving a sample of miners from the Radium Hill uranium mine in South Australia, which operated from 1952 to 1961. Radiation exposures underground at Radium Hill were estimated from historical radon gas measures with a job exposure matrix. Wor...

Shanahan, E. M.; Peterson, D.; Quintana, J.; Morely, A. A.; Woodward, A.

1996-01-01

42

Identification of hydrated silicate minerals on Mars using MRO-CRISM: Geologic context near Nili Fossae and implications for aqueous alteration  

Science.gov (United States)

The Noachian terrain west of the Isidis basin hosts a diverse collection of alteration minerals in rocks comprising varied geomorphic units within a 100,000 km2 region in and near the Nili Fossae. Prior investigations in this region by the Observatoire pour l'Min??ralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activit?? (OMEGA) instrument on Mars Express revealed large exposures of both mafic minerals and iron magnesium phyllosilicates in stratigraphic context. Expanding on the discoveries of OMEGA, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has found more spatially widespread and mineralogically diverse alteration minerals than previously realized, which represent multiple aqueous environments. Using CRISM near-infrared spectral data, we detail the basis for identification of iron and magnesium smectites (including both nontronite and more Mg-rich varieties), chlorite, prehnite, serpentine, kaolinite, potassium mica (illite or muscovite), hydrated (opaline) silica, the sodium zeolite analcime, and magnesium carbonate. The detection of serpentine and analcime on Mars is reported here for the first time. We detail the geomorphic context of these minerals using data from high-resolution imagers onboard MRO in conjunction with CRISM. We find that the distribution of alteration minerals is not homogeneous; rather, they occur in provinces with distinctive assemblages of alteration minerals. Key findings are (1) a distinctive stratigraphy, in and around the Nili Fossae, of kaolinite and magnesium carbonate in bedrock units always overlying Fe/Mg smectites and (2) evidence for mineral phases and assemblages indicative of low-grade metamorphic or hydrothermal aqueous alteration in cratered terrains. The alteration minerals around the Nili Fossae are more typical of those resulting from neutral to alkaline conditions rather than acidic conditions, which appear to have dominated much of Mars. Moreover, the mineralogic diversity and geologic context of alteration minerals found in the region around the Nili Fossae indicates several episodes of aqueous activity in multiple distinct environments. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Swayze, G. A.; Clark, R. N.; Bishop, J. L.; Poulet, F.; Des, Marais, D. J.; Roach, L. H.; Milliken, R. E.; Wray, J. J.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Murchie, S. L.

2009-01-01

43

Conspicuous assemblages of hydrated minerals from the H2O-MgSO4-CO2 system on Jupiter’s Europa satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

Water ice, hydrated salts, and other volatile ices such as carbon dioxide (CO2), have been detected by spectroscopy on Europa’s surface. Although the presence of other candidate compounds like clathrate hydrates have not yet been observed on the moon, the existence of water and carbon dioxide combined with low temperature and relatively high cryostatic pressure in the interior of the planetary body, favors their occurrence. In this study, the evolution of the H2O-MgSO4-CO2 system as a function of temperature, pressure and high salt concentration was investigated, focusing especially on the differences between the resulting mineral parageneses. CO2-clathrate formation and dissociation were examined by Raman spectroscopy in the presence of other hydrated phases crystallized from aqueous solutions rich in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) at several concentrations (5, 17 and 30 wt%) from 268 to 290 K and pressures up to 60 bar. The CO2-clathrate experimental equilibrium line in this salty system is presented for both gas and liquid CO2 stability fields. During the heating process, the mineral assemblage of the system evolved differently depending on the salt concentration. At subsaturation (5 wt% of MgSO4), the CO2-clathrate co-existed with water ice from 268 to 272 K. However, when the initial sulfate concentration was 17 wt%, at a temperature above 269 K, no mineral phase was stable apart from CO2-clathrate. If the salt concentration of the system was supersaturated (30 wt%), CO2-clathrate co-existed with meriadianiite (MgSO4·11H2O) from 269 to 275 K. Subsequently, meridianiite was transformed into epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) and continued crystallizing until 300 K. The evolution of the supersaturated solution at different heating rates was also evaluated in detail. In experiments with the fastest heating, the epsomite was not stabilized and the resulting aqueous solution became more concentrated than initially, promoting a clathrate dissociation at lower temperatures than expected. Volume changes due to mineral transformations and partial/total melting processes were assessed for the system and applied to Europa’s geology. Thus, assuming that this system is present in Europa’s interior, the evolution of the presumed fluids and mineral assemblages may have resulted in the generation of local stresses promoting resurfacing. Depending on the initial composition of the system, the percentage of volume change would imply a chaotic terrain formation, or cause faulting.

Muñoz-Iglesias, Victoria; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Bonales, Laura J.

2014-01-01

44

Lung cancer risk among Czech miners exposed to radon related to histological types  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long term exposure to radon and its progeny is one of the most important health problems. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure of miners to radon in a mine atmosphere can cause lung cancer. It has been recognized that lung cancer risk in uranium miners is associated with increased incidence of certain histological types, especially epidermoid and small cell. Recent results showed that the basic dependence of the relative risk for the two main histological types is linear with cumulative exposure. However, there is a suggestion that time and age modifiers of the dependence may be different for the two types. The aim of the study was firstly to verify the assumed differences in incidence of histological types of lung cancer for the studied cohort and general population and secondly to characterize the relation of histological types specific incidence to different exposure patterns. The study is based on data of the oldest Czechoslovak cohort, which belongs among the largest ones with the longest follow-up. The cohort includes 4320 former uranium miners who started their work in uranium mines in West Bohemia in the period 1948-59, and were working at least for 4 years and their complete personal and anamnestic data were available

45

Water-mineral interaction in hygromechanics of clays exposed to environmental loads  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water-mineral interaction in narrow interstices (<3 nm) in dense, saturated clays is discussed in view of recent experimental findings and molecular dynamics simulations. Consequences to the macroscopic behavior are considered. A mixture theory for two interacting constituents is developed. Effects of temperature and chemicals are discussed. A postulate of mass transfer of absorbed water from solid to fluid fraction caused by thermal or chemical load is then discussed. Theory of plasticity of clays affected by heat or chemicals is developed to deal with the effects of thermal and chemical consolidation

46

Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

... minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. Let's take a closer look at some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes ...

47

The effect of water structure and solute hydration on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical crystal growth theory relates growth and dissolution rates to the degree of supersaturation. However, the solution composition may also affect the growth rate of carbonate minerals, via the Ca2+ to CO32- concentration ratio (e.g. Perdikouri et al., 2009; Stack and Grantham, 2010), ionic strength (e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2010) or the presence of organic matter (Hoch et al., 2000). For this reason, the influence of these parameters on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution has generated a considerable amount of research in the last decade. In particular, effects of both inorganic and organic impurities on mineral growth and dissolution have been frequently reported in the literature. Commonly, water in contact with rock forming minerals, contains significant and variable amounts of ions in solution. The effect of such ions on dissolution and growth rates has been traditionally ascribed to changes in solubility. However, experimental studies performed on different minerals have shown that the dependence of growth or dissolution rates on ionic strength is complex, and that the effect of ionic strength is not independent of the ionic species producing it. Here, we report investigations aimed at addressing the basic hypothesis that mineral growth and dissolution is governed by complex interactions between solvent structure, surface hydration and the ion solvation environment induced by the presence of electrolytes. It is proposed that any factor affecting ion solvation should alter growth and dissolution rates. These results have opened the possibility of a new understanding of very diverse phenomena in geochemistry and demonstrate the need for the inclusion of this "hydration effect" in the development of predictive models that describe crystal growth and dissolution in complex systems, such as those found in nature. Furthermore, we can hypothesise that ion-assisted dehydration of trace and minor element ions could occur in biological systems, thus affecting their incorporation and isotopic fractionation, providing interesting insights into the possible origin of anomalies found in systems used as environmental proxies and the so-called "vital effects".

Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

2012-04-01

48

Natural gas hydrate in sediments imaged by cryogenic SEM: Insights from lab experiments on synthetic hydrates as interpretive guides.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the investigation of natural gas hydrates, distinguishing in situ grain textures and microstructures from artifacts produced during retrieval, storage, and examination can be quite challenging. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the physical states of gas hydrates produced in our lab as well as of those in drill core of hydrate-bearing sediment from marine and Arctic permafrost environments. Here, we compare grain and pore structures observed in samples from the Cascadia margin (courtesy IODP Expedition 311), McKenzie River Delta (Mallik Well 5L-38), and Gulf of Mexico (RSV Marion Dufresne 2002), with those present in hydrocarbon hydrates grown in our laboratory and subjected to controlled P-T conditions. The following trends are apparent for the natural gas hydrates imaged to-date: (1) Samples typically contain massive domains of polycrystalline gas hydrate that in turn contain isolated gas-filled pores that are sometimes lined with euhedral hydrate crystals. Pores are typically 5 50 microns in diameter and occupy roughly 10-30 percent of the domain. Grain sizes, where visible, are commonly 20 to 50 microns. (2) Hydrate grain boundaries, particularly near the exposed sample surface, are often replaced by a nanoporous material. Based on its location and behavior, this material is presumed to be gas-charged porous ice produced by hydrate decomposition along grain surfaces. In some samples, grains are instead bounded by a framework of dense, tabular material embedded within the sample, best revealed upon sublimation of the hydrate. Their composition is yet unknown but may be salt or carbonate-bearing minerals. (3) Where hydrate grows into clayey sediments, the clays typically arrange with platelets subparallel around the pods or veins of hydrate. (4) Domains of nano-to-micro- porous water ice are also seen in all recovered natural samples, presumed to be hydrate decomposition product produced during drill-core retrieval and handling. Based on lab experiments, we believe the initial liquid product is frozen as a result of the local temperature reduction accompanying the endothermic dissociation reaction. The porous texture is then preserved by liquid nitrogen quenching. (5) Samples from both marine and permafrost environments also display closely juxtaposed regions of dense and porous hydrate and ice. Although the close association of these regions remains puzzling, lab tests verify that dense hydrate can exhibit such porous appearance along it's surface after even minor decomposition at cold conditions (below 273 K). In turn, companion experiments show that nanoporous hydrate anneals to a densely crystalline habit at conditions within the hydrate stability region above 273 K, suggesting that nanoporous gas hydrate is not stable at most in situ natural conditions.

Stern, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.

2006-12-01

49

Supplementation of Acqua Lete® (Bicarbonate Calcic Mineral Water) improves hydration status in athletes after short term anaerobic exercise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Experimental studies suggest that mineral waters with high concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate can impact acid–base balance. The purpose of this study was to test the effect on acid–base balance and specific urine gravity, of a bicarbonate calcic mineral water (Acqua Lete®) compared to a minimally mineralized water. Methods 88 amateur male athletes underwent two experimental trials with a modified Wingate test: the first was carrie...

Brancaccio Paola; Limongelli Francesco; Paolillo Iride; D’Aponte Antonio; Donnarumma Vincenzo; Rastrelli Luca

2012-01-01

50

Minerals associated with biofilms occurring on exposed rock in a granitic underground research laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock requires the effects of microbial action to be investigated. The Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a pluton of the Canadian Shield provides a unique opportunity to study these effects. Three biofilms kept moist by seepage through fractures in granitic rock faces of the Underground Research Laboratory have been examined. The biofilms contained a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive morphotypes held together by an organic extracellular matrix. Nutrient levels in the groundwater were low, but energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has shown biogeochemical immobilization of several elements in the biofilms; some of these elements were concentrated from extremely dilute environmental concentrations, and all elements were chemically complexed together to form amorphous or crystalline fine-grained minerals. These were seen by transmission electron microscopy to be both associated with the surfaces of the bacteria and scattered throughout the extracellular matrix, suggesting their de novo development through bacterial surface-mediated nucleation. The biofilm consortia are thought to concentrate elements both by passive sorption and by energy metabolism. By Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, one of the biofilms showed that iron was both oxidized and precipitated as ferrihydrite or hematite aerobically and reduced and precipitated as siderite anaerobically. We believe that some Archean banded-iron formations could have been formed in a manner similar to this, as it would explain the deposition of hematite and siderite in close proximity. This biogeochemical development of minerals may also affect the transport of material in waste disposal sites. PMID:16349374

Brown, D A; Kamineni, D C; Sawicki, J A; Beveridge, T J

1994-09-01

51

Radon and its daughters in ore mine air in North Bohemian Region and incidence of occupational lung cancer in exposed miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hygienic conditions are described in nonuranium ore mines in the North Bohemian region with respect to expo-sure of miners to radon and its short-lived daughter products. The concentrations of radon before the introduction of forced ventilation were considerably high. Before 1980, altogether 45 cases of occupational lung cancer were reported associated with exposure to radon and its daughter products. In spite of the fact that forced ventilation of mines resulted in reduced exposure of miners, new cases of tumours are reported in miners exposed to radon and its daughters in the previous period. (author)

52

New french uranium mineral species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; ? uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the ? uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author)

53

Simulation of hydrate dynamics in reservoirs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas hydrates in reservoirs are generally not in thermodynamic equilibrium and there may be several competing phase transitions involving hydrate. Formation of carbon dioxide hydrates during aquifer storage of carbon dioxide involves roughly 10% volume increase compared to groundwater. Dissociation of hydrate towards under saturated fluid phases involves the same level of contraction. Hydrate phase transitions are generally fast (scales of seconds) compared to mineral dissolutio...

Kvamme, Bjørn; Vafaei, Mohammad Taghi; Chejara, Ashok; Jemai, Khaled

2011-01-01

54

Trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cattle environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium around different industrial units.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation was carried out to assess the trace mineral profile in blood and hair from cows environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium and to examine if these toxic heavy metals in blood and hair could affect blood copper, cobalt, zinc and iron concentrations and their accumulation in hair. Respective blood and tail hair samples were collected from adult cows above 3 years, reared in different industrial localities. Samples were also collected from urban areas with small industrial units (n = 55) and areas supposed to be free from pollution. The concomitant exposure of animals to both the heavy metal pollutants was not recorded in either of the industrial or urban locality. Blood lead was significantly (P lead concentrations, irrespective of area of collection of samples, was associated with declining blood copper and iron, and cows with blood lead level above 0.60 mug/ml had significantly (P lead but not cadmium significantly influenced the accumulation of lead (r = 0.323, P leading to significantly (P lead and cadmium in hair from cattle around lead-zinc smelters and closed lead-cum-operational zinc smelter, where blood cadmium level was comparable with that from unpolluted area. Concentration of zinc (r = 0.237, P lead and cadmium had a significant (P lead concentrations in cattle irrespective of locality/industrial operations areas affected trace elements profile in blood and hair. PMID:17105572

Patra, R C; Swarup, D; Sharma, M C; Naresh, R

2006-12-01

55

Long-term mineral stability of bentonites exposed to elevated temperature in neutral, alkaline and salty environments of natural analogues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many experiments were performed to predict the long-term behavior of clay barriers at higher temperatures, different pH conditions, and salt concentrations. Nevertheless, the level of knowledge is far from the point where we are able to give a clear picture of the bentonite clay evolution in the long-term perspective. The only way how to tackle the problem of the time frame for the stability of bentonites is to find and study natural analogues which were exposed to the factors of different geochemical environments for a real time. We bring the results of natural analogues for long-term exposure of buried bentonite beds to the temperature between 20 and 300 C in neutral, alkaline and salty environments. All studied cases come from the East Slovak Basin Neogene basin with high recent thermal gradient and variable geological and geochemical environments during deposition of sediments and volcano-clastics. Buried bentonite beds are of volcanic origin (rhyolitic to andesitic volcanites) which creates ideal geological analogue to most of the bentonites tested as the potential barrier for the radioactive disposals. Our results are based on the detail study of mineral composition, mechanism of alteration, K-Ar dating, temperature exposure modeling and laboratory testing. They show that smectite as the main component of the bentonites is stable in neutral environment in large temperature interval for millions of years. Temperature up to 100 C is able to deteriorate only 10% ofo 100 C is able to deteriorate only 10% of original bentonite composition. Higher temperatures up to 150 C still preserve 50% of bentonite composition for more than period necessary for radioactive waste disposals live-time. Clearly, smectites in bentonites of volcanic origin are much more temperature resistant than smectites in clay-stones of sedimentary origin. Mechanism of the alteration is continual and controlled by the temperature so it is possible to predict the process. Salty and alkaline environments (documented by the presence of halite and zeolites) along with an elevated temperature enhance the process of smectite alteration. Up to 80% of original smectite mineral in bentonites can be deteriorated at elevated temperature. The time frame and mechanism of smectite alteration is very complex and hardly predictable. It depends very much on the local geochemical conditions. In an extreme case, complete alteration of smectite was observed in geologically short period up to thousands of years at high temperature about 300 C. Results indicate the large risk of bentonite stability in a presence of salts and alkaline environment, however if bentonite is preserved from the influence of these factors it can ensure long time stability even at elevated temperature. (authors)

56

Minerals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty fish is fried in olive oil the quality of the fish oil improves, enhancing the nutritive utilization of iron and other dietary minerals.

Vaquero, M. P.

1998-08-01

57

Chloral Hydrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Chloral hydrate, a sedative, is used in the short-term treatment of insomnia (to help you fall asleep and ... Chloral hydrate comes as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to insert rectally. ...

58

Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50 mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2 mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5 mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0 mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead.

Herman, D' souza Sunil, E-mail: hermansdsouza@rediffmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Manipal Life Sciences Centre, KMC, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Geraldine, Menezes, E-mail: gere1@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, St. John' s Medical College, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India); T, Venkatesh, E-mail: venky_tv@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, St. John' s Medical College, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India)

2009-07-30

59

Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300?mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4?months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

Gao Shu-guang

2012-06-01

60

Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50 mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2 mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5 mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0 mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead.

 
 
 
 
61

Estudio comparativo de los efectos de Hidrato de Cloral y Etanol en ratas expuestas a Fluoracetato de Sodio / Comparative study of the effects of cloral hydrate and ethanol in rats exposed to sodium fluoracetate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El fluoroacetato de sodio, es un raticida prohibido en algunos países y permitido en otros, que causa severas intoxicaciones humanas y animales. Actúa por inhibición del ciclo de Krebs e interfiere con la producción de energía, lo cual conduce a disfunción celular irreversible, especialmente en sist [...] ema nervioso central y corazón. El alcohol etílico, debido a su oxidación a acido acético y a su amplia disponibilidad, es uno de los fármacos usados en esta intoxicación, lo que podría causar controversias éticas y legales. La biotransformación del hidrato de cloral a tricloroetanol y a ácido tricloroacético, el efecto anticonvulsivante y su amplio uso en Pediatría, fueron las razones para su evaluación en la intoxicación por fluoroacetato. Se realizó un estudio experimental, para comparar los efectos de hidrato de cloral y alcohol en ratas intoxicadas con fluoroacetato de sodio. El análisis estadístico aplicado fue la prueba de chi cuadrado. Los resultados mostraron que el hidrato de cloral a dosis bajas, permite la sobrevivencia en 100% de los animales expuestos. Se confirmó igualmente la efectividad del alcohol etílico a dosis altas. Este resultado sugiere que el hidrato de cloral puede ser una opción tan útil como el etanol y que podría ser el fármaco de elección en aquellos pacientes que no puedan recibir monoacetin o etanol o porque haya mayor accesibilidad al hidrato de cloral. Abstract in english Sodium fluoroacetate is a banned rodenticide in some countries and allowed in others, which causes severe human and animal poisonings. It acts for inhibition of Krebs's cycle and interferes with energy production leading to irreversible cellular dysfunction, specially in nervous central system and h [...] eart. Ethyl alcohol, because oxidation to acetic acid and to its wide availability, is one of the drugs used in this poisoning, which should can cause ethical and legal controversies. Biotransformation of chloral hydrate to trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid, the anticonvulsant effect and its widespread use in Pediatrics, were the reasons for its evaluation in fluoroacetate poisoning. An experimental study was conducted, to compare effects of chloral hydrate and ethanol in poisoned rats with sodium fluoroacetate. The statistical analysis applied was the chi square test. The results showed that chloral hydrate in low doses allows survival in 100 % of the exposed animals. It also confirms the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol at high doses. This result suggests that chIoral hydrate may be an option as useful as ethanol and could be the choice drug in those patients who could not receive monoacetin or ethanol or because there is greater accessibility to chloral hydrate.

Jenni L, Ramírez M; Manuel S, Ramírez S; Elsa Y, Gutiérrez R; Francisco, Mujica.

2012-12-01

62

Bone mineral density and polymorphisms in metallothionein 1A and 2A in a Chinese population exposed to cadmium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cadmium (Cd) effect on bone varies between individuals. We investigated whether genetic variation in metallothionein (MT)1A and MT2A associated with Cd induced bone loss in this study. A total of 465 persons (311 women and 154 men), living in control, moderately and heavily polluted areas, participated. The participants completed a questionnaire and the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. Samples of urine and blood were collected for determination of Cd in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd). Genotypes for polymorphisms in MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. BCd had a weak association with variant alleles for MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) in female living in the highly polluted group (p = 0.08 and 0.05, respectively). A weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT2A polymorphisms variation (p = 0.06) in female living in the highly polluted group. Only a weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT1A polymorphisms variation in female. Genetic variation in the MT1A and MT2A genes may not associate with bone loss caused by cadmium exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the association between metallothionein polymorphisms bone mineral density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed a weak association with cadmium in blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed no association with bone mineral density.

Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi 030001 (China); Tian, Liting [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: chx_win@hotmail.com [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jin, Taiyi, E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2012-04-15

63

Bone mineral density and polymorphisms in metallothionein 1A and 2A in a Chinese population exposed to cadmium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) effect on bone varies between individuals. We investigated whether genetic variation in metallothionein (MT)1A and MT2A associated with Cd induced bone loss in this study. A total of 465 persons (311 women and 154 men), living in control, moderately and heavily polluted areas, participated. The participants completed a questionnaire and the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. Samples of urine and blood were collected for determination of Cd in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd). Genotypes for polymorphisms in MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. BCd had a weak association with variant alleles for MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) in female living in the highly polluted group (p = 0.08 and 0.05, respectively). A weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT2A polymorphisms variation (p = 0.06) in female living in the highly polluted group. Only a weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT1A polymorphisms variation in female. Genetic variation in the MT1A and MT2A genes may not associate with bone loss caused by cadmium exposure. - Highlights: ? We investigated the association between metallothionein polymorphisms bone mineral density. ? MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed a weak association with cadmium in blood. ? MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed no association with bone mineral density.

64

Mortality and cancer incidence in a small cohort of miners exposed to low levels of alpha radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the continuing controversy over the effects on humans of low-level ionizing radiation, overall mortality and cancer incidence among miners from a magnetite mine was investigated. The study comprises 332 underground miners. The average concentration of Rn progeny is presently 0.10-0.15 working levels (WL). Included in the study were those employed for more than 36 months in the period 1940-1960, who were still alive in 1953. The follow-up period covers 1953-1980. Mortality was equal to estimated values based on age-specific national figures. The observed/expected ratio for lung cancer incidence was 1.1. Comparison was also made to 190 miners from a mine with negligible radiation (less than 0.02 WL). The same mortality was observed, but this mine showed a ratio for lung cancer incidence of 2.2. The study population is too small to repudiate the hypothesis of increased health risk after exposure to low levels of alpha radiation

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Theoretical studies of Methane Hydrate Dissociation in porous media using RetrasoCodeBright simulator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methane hydrates in reservoir are generally not in chemical equilibrium, there may be several competing hydrate phase transitions like for instance hydrate dissociation due to pressure or temperature changes, hydrate reformation, hydrate dissociation due to contact with under saturated fluids and mineral surfaces. The limited numbers of reservoir simulators, which have incorporated hydrate, are normally simplified by considering only pressure and temperature as criteria for hydrate stabil...

Chejara, Ashok; Kvamme, Bjørn; Vafaei, Mohammad Taghi; Jemai, Khaled

2012-01-01

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Epidemiological study of radon-exposed mineral mine workers in north east Bavaria including chromosome dosimetric method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

360 hard-rock miners were examined for breathing organ health, working conditions, smoking habits, and partly for chromosome aberrations (115 persons, 100 cells each). Long-time exposure at diameter 1 to 4 WL Rn-daughters and/or occasional >= 1000 pCi Rn/l air increased rates of S2-type aberrations (x 3,4; P 2-rates. From dose estimations, bronchial radiation conditions appear as bronchitis cofactor; lymphocyte but not lymph node dose fairly fits S2-rate after 20 years' exposure. (orig.)

67

Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus markers among malaria-exposed gold miners in Brazilian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C virus markers were assessed during a survey on malaria in gold mine camps in southern Brazilian Amazon in order to identify risk factors associated to these viral diseases. The study comprised 520 subjects, most of them were gold miners. Missing subjects totaled 49 (8.6%. Among these 520, 82.9% had HBV markers and 7.1% were HBsAg positive. Previous hospitalization, surgery, sexually transmitted diseases and incarceration were quite common among surveyed people, but there is no association between total HBV markers and these factors. On other hand, HBsAg was independently associated to history of sexually transmitted diseases and history of surgery after adjustment. The most frequent HBsAg subtypes identified, adw2 (59%, predominates in populations of Northeast Brazil. The most surveyed people were immigrants coming from that area suggesting that immigrants carried HBV themselves to the study area. Immunoblot (RIBA confirmed-anti-HCV were found in 2.1%. The only variable associated to anti-HCV in multivariate analysis was illicit intravenous drug. Lack of HCV infection in subjects with such a high HBV markers prevalence reinforces the opinion that HCV is transmitted by restricted routes when compared to HBV. Furthermore, gold miners in Amazon may be considered as a risk group for HBV infection, but not for HCV.

Souto Francisco José Dutra

2001-01-01

68

CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANT MINERALS AND VITAMINS IN WISTAR MALE RATS EXPOSED TO METHIONINE CONTAINING ACETAMINOPHEN FORMULATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of toxic and subtoxic doses of acetaminophen on antioxidant vitamins and minerals in male Wistar rats. Five groups served as the test groups and received different doses of the acetaminophenmethionine formulation in ratio 9:1. The sixth group served as the control and received only the vehicle: physiologic saline. At the end of 24 hours of exposure, blood was obtained from each rat through retro-orbital bleeding, the levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. Results showed that at 100 mg/kg BW level of exposure, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium were significantly increased (p0.05 compared with controls. At both 350 and 1000 mgkg BW levels of exposure, all these antioxidant indices were significantly decreased (p0.05 at 350 mgkg BW (body weight level of exposure compared with the control group. The animals in 3000 mgkg BW and 5000 mgkg groups suffered 40% and 100% mortality respectively by the end of the 24th hour. This study therefore showed that acetaminophenmethionine formulation in the ratio of 9:1 may cause alteration of vital elements and biomolecules not only at toxic levels but also at tolerable level of 100 mgkg BW.

Adeniyi Francis A. A.

2011-05-01

69

Gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formation and occurrence of gas hydrates was discussed. Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas. A solid water-lattice accommodates gas molecules within the structure called a clathrate. Gas hydrates are found in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in the sediment of outer-continental margins. Methane hydrates are the most common in nature, although propane and other gases can be included. The Messoyakha gas hydrate field in Russia has shown that gas hydrates are an immediate source of natural gas that can be produced by conventional methods. Their formation is controlled by formation temperature, formation pore pressure, gas chemistry, pore water salinity, availability of gas and water, and gas and water migration pathways. A resource appraisal was conducted to estimate the gas hydrate resources in the United States both onshore and offshore. In-place gas resources within the gas hydrates of the United States were estimated to range from 112,765 to 676,110 trillion cubic feet of gas at the 0.95 and 0.05 probability levels, respectively. 1 tab., 6 figs.

Collett, T.S. [Geological Survey, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-06-01

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Integrating dosemeters for the determination of the radiation exposure of miners exposed to short-lived radon daughter products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the determination of the radiation exposure by short-lived radon daughters integrating measuring instruments are especially suited, because variations of activity concentrations can cause essential errors using short-term dosemeters. At present a measuring instrument based on thermluminescence detectors is used by the SAAS as a stationary area monitor. An electronic personal dosemeter with a semiconductor detector exists as a prototype. Structure and mechanism of both the measuring instruments are described and the feasibility of application in workplaces exposed to radon daughter products are discussed. Proceeding from experience gained in development and application of these instruments an outlook is given for the possibility to develop an applicable universal component system used for standardization of Ra and Ra daughter dosemeters within the CMEA

71

Lung function, blood gases, pH and serum electrolytes of small-scale miners exposed to chrome ore dust on the Great Dyke in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured and compared lung function indices and some blood parameters (gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, red cell indices) of 54 male small-scale miners (SSM) chronically exposed to chrome ore dust to those of 50 nonmining control subjects (NMC) and 46 large-scale chrome miners (LSM) who had taken internationally recommended precautionary measures (secondary control). The respirable dust level in the SSM environment (6.0 +/- 0.5 mg/m3) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in the NMC and LSM environments (0.3 +/- 0.1 mg/m3 and 0.5 +/- 0.3 mg/m3, respectively). There were no significant differences in neither dust levels nor lung function status between NMC and LSM environments. The values of FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEV1% of the SSM were 3.5 +/- 0.09 l, 2.61 +/- 0. 09 l, 6.07 +/- 0.36 l/second and 76.19 +/- 2.36%, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of NMC (P < 0.01, respectively). However, the blood parameters of the SSM and NMC were not significantly different. The results are indicative of both restrictive and obstructive ventilatory defects in the SSM which may be attributed exposure to chrome ore dust in the environment. Associated risk factors appear to be advancing age, prolonged exposure to chrome ore dust and acid base disturbance. PMID:10540303

Osim, E E; Tandayi, M; Chinyanga, H M; Matarira, H T; Mudambo, K K; Musabayane, C T

1999-09-01

72

Effect of the Curcumin Supplementation on the Regional Bone Mineral Density of Femur and Tibial Bones in Young Rats Exposed to Lead Acetate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Recent studies have shown that lead causes oxidative stress in bones by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, the effects of 8-week curcumin supplementation on the regional bone mineral density of femur and tibial bones in rats exposed to lead acetate was investigated. Materials and Method: Fifty days aged Wistar rats were randomly assigned to baseline, sham-operate, lead acetate and curcumin + lead (curcumin groups. Lead and/or curcumin groups received 20 mg/kg lead acetate peritoneally for 8 weeks (3 days/week. In addition, the curcumin group received 30 mg/kg curcumin solution for 3 days-a-week for 8 weeks. The femur and tibial BMD were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA methods. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and SPSS 17. Results: MDA and lead levels were significantly lower in the curcumin group compared with lead-exposed and baseline groups. In addition, BMD and TAC levels was significantly higher in the curcumin group compared with lead-treated and baseline groups. Conclusion: These results show that environmental exposure to lead may be a risk factor for skeletal diseases. Furthermore, the curcumin supplementation possibly has inhibitory effects on lead-induced loss of femur and tibial BMD. Sci Med J 2011; 10(3:295-307

Dabidi Roshan Valiollah

2011-07-01

73

Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

74

Hydrated silica on Mars: Global comparison and in-depth analysis at Antoniadi Crater  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrated silica is found in a variety of Martian deposits within suites of minerals that indicate aqueous alteration, mostly because hydrated silica forms easily in different environments. Because of its relative ubiquity on Mars, it makes a good tracer mineral to compare otherwise dissimilar deposits and relate their relative degrees of aqueous alteration. The first portion of this dissertation uses near-infrared and thermal-infrared spectroscopy to determine the relative degree of crystallinity of hydrated silica and the bulk SiO2 abundance of hydrated-silica-bearing surfaces. This analysis reveals that Martian hydrated silicas exhibit a range of crystalline structures, from noncrystalline (opal-A or hydrated glass) to crystalline (quartz), implying a range in the maturity of these silica deposits. However, bulk SiO2 abundances show less diversity, with most Martian silica deposits having relatively low SiO2 abundances, similar to a basaltic andesitic composition that exists over much of the surface and that suggests little interaction with water. The second portion of this dissertation focuses on one location that contains the only detected quartz on the planet. High-resolution satellite imagery and thermal and near-infrared spectroscopy is used to construct a geologic history of these deposits and their local context. The quartz-bearing deposits are consistently found co-located with hydrated silica, and this spatial coherence suggests that the quartz formed as a diagenetic product of amorphous silica, rather than as a primary igneous mineral. Diagenetic quartz is a mature alteration product of hydrated amorphous silica, and indicates more persistent water and/or higher temperatures at this site. There is also spectral evidence for smectites beneath the silica-bearing rocks, in the lowermost exposed Noachian-aged breccia. A similar stratigraphic sequence---smectite-bearing breccias beneath deposits containing minerals indicating a greater degree of alteration---has also been found at nearby exposures at Nili Fossae and Toro Crater, suggesting a widespread sequence of alteration. The two sections of this dissertation provide a global and in-depth view of Martian hydrated silica deposits, thereby broadening and refining our search for past water on Mars.

Smith, Matthew R.

75

The Microstructure of Nankai Trough Methane hydrate sediments by Scanning Electron Microscope  

Science.gov (United States)

The microstructure of Nankai Trough Methane hydrate sediments was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM; JEOL JSM7000F) with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX-detector; JEOL JED2300F). The samples were obtained using Pressure-Temperature Core Sampler (PTCS) that can prevent hydrate dissociation during coring by keeping pressure insitu conditions. Sample that was taken by conventional tools for coring was kept shape by self-prevention nature itself, nevertheless many excellent observations had been reported. Therefore, it was expected that the PTCS core sample was suitable for observing microstructure of methane hydrate occupied in sediments, even though samples were exposed to atmosphere very short time on vessel before storage in liquid nitrogen. In addition, a low-vacuum system and a cryostat sample stage was installed in FE-SEM for observing methane hydrate bearing sediments. The former can make observation until sample chamber pressure is less than 30Pa, and the latter can control temperature from room temperature to 80K. Each sample was trimmed using cryo- system (Gatan Alto2500) at liquid nitrogen temperature and was settled on cryostat sample stage for observation. To compare with images before and after methane hydrate dissociation at the same region, we had made the freezed-dried sample within chamber of FE-SEM under controlling temperature of cryostat sample stage. Sample had been kept observing during drying by a low-vacuum system's work so as to confirm no breakage had been occur. Result of observation, the following were described as microstructural feature of Nankai Trough Methane hydrate bearing sediments, which had been freezed and dried, (1) There are a number of pyrite crystals existing among sand grains, which crystal size are less than 1 micron. (2) Framboidal pyrite can be seen among sand grains. (3) many vacant space can be seen among sand grains ; there are no pyrite and no clay minerals. (4)Pyrite and clay minerals make thin membrane structure around the vacant space. The space occupied by methane hydrate must be blank when hydrate dissociation occur without disturbing microstructure of sediments. This estimation is supported by EDX analysis that carbon detected regions would become vacant spaces by drying. Thus, we concluded that the methane hydrate exists in the vacant space of pore space and is covered with pyrite and clay minerals. These results will become help to understand methane hydrate formation processes in sediments.

Suzuki, K.; Nishimura, O.; Narita, H.

2007-12-01

76

Gas Hydrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas hydrates are solid, similar to the ice and made up of rigid cages of water molecules, that they contain gas molecules, mainly methane, they can be formed and to remain stable to discharges pressures and relatively low temperatures, since present enough quantity of hydrocarbons is. The presence of the Gas Hydrates has been detected in high latitudes under the permafrost (Siberia and Alaska) and under the deep marine in silts of continental margins and elevations of the sea bottom (coast out California, Bearing Sea, Beaufort sea, coast out Newfoundland, Baltimore Canyon, Mexico Gulf and Colombian basin among other) its presence has also been postulated in intracratonics basins like in the Black and Caspio Sea. Gas hydrates have been known from 1810, but only in 1934 the first publication appeared (Hammer Schmidt) in connection with the gas piper line for the hydrates formation. The geologic occurrence is known from 1960 with the discovery for the Russian of Messoyakha Field (Siberia) and in 1972 for Arch-Exxon in the well Eilleen State 2 in Alaska. The quantity of gas present in the gas hydrates postulated in the world is considered that 18 x 1015 m3 could reach (6.5 x 105 American Quintillion cubic feet) the above-mentioned means that there would be more carbon in the gas hydrates than the acquaintance twice or estimated in the reservations of fossil fuels of the world and that this energy source could replace the world necessities until the X XI century. In Colombessities until the X XI century. In Colombia two areas have been postulated with gas hydrates: Colombian basin in the Caribbean Sea and the Panama Basin

77

Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor CH4 hydrate formation and spontaneous conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate in porous media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor and quantify methane hydrate formation and exchange in porous media. Conversion of methane hydrate to carbon dioxide hydrate, when exposed to liquid carbon dioxide at 8.27 MPa and approximately 4 degrees C, was experimentally demonstrated with MRI data and verified by mass balance calculations of consumed volumes of gases and liquids. No detectable dissociation of the hydrate was measured during the exchange process. PMID:19168304

Baldwin, Bernard A; Stevens, Jim; Howard, James J; Graue, Arne; Kvamme, Bjorn; Aspenes, Erick; Ersland, Geir; Husebø, Jarle; Zornes, David R

2009-06-01

78

New french uranium mineral species; Nouvelles especes uraniferes francaises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; {beta} uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the {alpha} uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [French] Dans ce travail, les auteurs etudient les nouveaux mineraux uraniferes francais: parsonsite et renardite, phosphates hydrates de plomb et d'uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrate d'uranium et de plomb uranopilite: sulfate d'uranium hydrate; bayleyite: carbonate d'uranium et de magnesium hydrate; {beta} uranolite: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate. Pour tous ces mineraux, les auteurs donnent les caracteres cristallographiques, optiques, et les analyses chimiques quantitatives. Par contre, les especes suivantes, tres rares dans les gites francais, n'ont pas permis d'effectuer d'analyses quantitatives. Ce sont: l'ianthinite: oxyde uraneux hydrate; l'{alpha} uranotile: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate; le bassetite: phosphate d'uranium et de fer hydrate; la hosphuranylite: phosphate duranium hydrate; la becquerelite: oxyde d'uranium hydrate; la curite: oxyde d'uranium et de plomb hydrate. Enfin, les auteurs presentent a la fin de cette etude un mineral primaire: la brannerite, titanate d'uranium complexe. (auteur)

Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

1952-07-01

79

Aqualite, a new mineral species of the eudialyte group from the Inagli alkaline pluton, Sakha-Yakutia, Russia, and the problem of oxonium in hydrated eudialytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqualite, a new eudialyte-group mineral from hydrothermally altered peralkaline pegmatites of the Inagli alkaline pluton (Sakha-Yakutia, Russia) is described in this paper. Natrolite, microcline, eckermanite, aegirine, batisite, innelite, lorezenite, thorite, and galena are associated minerals. Aqualite occurs as isometric crystals up to 3-cm across. The color is pale pink, with a white streak and vitreous luster. The mineral is transparent. The fracture is conchoidal. The mineral is brittle; no cleavage or parting is observed. The Mohs’ hardness is 4 to 5. The density is 2.58(2) g/cm3 (measured by the volumetric method) and 2.66 g/cm3 (calculated). Aqualite is optically uniaxial (+), ? = 1.569(1) and ? = 1.571(1). The mineral is pleochroic from colorless to pale pink on X and pink on Y, ? light. The mineral is stable in 50% HCl and HNO3 at room temperature. Weight loss after ignition at 500°C is 9.8%. Aqualite is monoclinic, and the space group is R3. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 14.078(3) Å, c = 31.24(1) Å, V = 5362 Å3, and Z = 3. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern [ d, Å ( I)( hkl)] are: 4.39(100)(2005), 2.987(100)(315), 2.850(79)(404), 10.50(44)(003), 6.63(43)(104), 7.06(42)(110), 3.624(41)(027), and 11.43(39)(101). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, H2O determined with the Penfield method) is as follows (wt %): 2.91 Na2O, 1.93 K2O, 11.14 CaO, 1.75 SrO, 2.41 BaO, 0.56 FeO, 0.30 MnO, 0.17 La2O3, 0.54 Ce2O3, 0.36 Nd2O3, 0.34 Al2O3, 52.70 SiO2, 12.33 ZrO2, O.78 TiO2, 0.15 Nb2O5; 1.50 Cl, 9.93 H2O,-O=Cl2 0.34; where the total is 99.46. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Zr + Ti + Al + Nb = 29 apfu is as follows: [(H3O)7.94Na2.74K1.20Sr0.49Ba0.46Fe0.23Mn0.12]?13.18(Ca5.79REE0.19)?5.98 (Zr2.92Ti0.08)?3.0(Si25.57Ti0.21Al0.19Nb0.03)S26.0[O66.46(OH)5.54]?72.0 [(OH)2.77Cl1.23]?4.0. The simplified formula is (H3O)8(Na,K,Sr)5Ca6Zr3Si26O66(OH)9Cl. Aqualite differs from typical eudialyte by the extremely low contents of Na and Fe, with more than 50% Na being replaced with the (H3O)+ group. The presence of oxonium ions is confirmed by IR spectroscopic and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. The mineral is compared with five structurally studied high-oxonium analogues from alkaline plutons of other regions. All of these minerals were formed at a relatively low temperature through the ion-exchange transformation of “protoeudialytes”; the successor minerals inherited the principal structural and compositional features of the precursor minerals. The name aqualite is derived from the Latin aqua in reference to its specific chemical composition. The type material of aqualite is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Khomyakov, A. P.; Nechelyustov, G. N.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.

2007-12-01

80

Can hydrate dissolution experiments predict the fate of a natural hydrate system?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are naturally occurring compounds found in permafrost regions and in oceans. In the natural environment, sufficient temperature and pressure conditions for hydrate formation exist over a significant portion of the ocean. However, in addition to pressure and temperature, the chemical potential of the gas in the hydrate must be equal to the surrounding waters. If the concentration of the gas in surrounding water is under-saturated with respect to the gas in the hydrate, the hydrate will dissolve to drive the system towards chemical equilibrium. This paper presented a dissolution study of exposed hydrate from outcrops at Barkley Canyon, located off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A previous field experiment on synthetic methane hydrate samples had demonstrated that mass transfer controlled dissolution in under-saturated seawater. However, seafloor hydrate outcrops have been shown to have significant longevity compared to expected dissolution rates based upon convective boundary layer diffusion calculations. An in-situ dissolution experiment was performed on two distinct natural hydrate fabrics in order to help resolve this apparent disconnect between the dissolution rates of synthetic and natural hydrate. The paper presented a map of Barkley Canyon and discussed the field measurements and methods for the study. Exposed outcrops of gas hydrates were cored using a specially constructed stainless steel coring device and a hydraulic ram was located inside the corer. Hydrate samples were cored directly using the a manipulator arm and then injected into a sampling cell. The hydrate was then added to an open mesh exposure container, which allowed for exposure to ambient benthic currents with minimal disturbance. As well, in order to observe the slow dissolution of the hydrate in seawater at Barkley Canyon, time-lapse photography was employed. Last, the paper presented the results of the hydrate fabric porosities and hydrate dissolution rates. It was concluded that analysis of time-lapse images of the two hydrate fabrics showed that both dissolved at rates similar to a previous synthetic hydrate experiment, indicating mass transfer control. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Hester, K.C.; Peltzer, E.T.; Dunk, R.M.; Walz, P.M.; Brewer, P.G. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Dendy Sloan, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Hydrate Research

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Catalysts for Enhanced CO2-CH4 Exchange in Natural Gas Hydrates. An experimental feasibility study of exchange enhancement by use of chemical additives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas hydrate is a solid state of gas and water at high pressure and low temperature conditions. Vast energy potential is associated with gas hydrates and extensive on-going research aims at addressing the technical viability of production from hydrate deposits. Two different approaches to produce natural gas from hydrate reservoir have been proposed. Either decompose the hydrate by altering thermodynamic conditions or expose the hydrate to a thermodynamically more stable hydrate former inducin...

Hossainpour, Reza

2013-01-01

82

Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2007-03-15

83

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

84

Estudio de la influencia de los medios con presencia de sulfatos en hormigones con cementos sulforresistentes y adiciones minerales: Parte 2. Hormigones expuestos a sulfato magnésico (MgSO4) / The influence of sulfuric environments on concretes elaborated with sulfate resistant cements and mineral admixtures: Part 2: Concrete exposed to Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo estudia la resistencia de hormigones al ataque de sulfatos provenientes de sulfato magnésico (MgSO4) y compara estos valores con resultados previos de los mismos hormigones atacados con sulfato sódico (Na2SO4). De esta manera se estudia la interacción del catión que acompaña al i [...] on sulfato durante su afectación a la matriz cementícia. Para lo anterior, se diseñaron cuatro dosificaciones empleando cementos sulforresistentes y adiciones minerales (humo de sílice, ceniza volante y escoria de alto horno). Los hormigones se sumergieron, por distintos periodos de tiempo, en disolución de sulfato magnésico (MgSO4) de concentración 1M, para después realizarles ensayos mecánicos y a nivel microestructural. Los valores obtenidos se compararon con los obtenidos en el hormigón de referencia curado en hidróxido cálcico. El hormigón con escoria de alto horno presentó el mejor comportamiento frente a MgSO4, siendo las mezclas de humo de sílice y ceniza volante las más susceptibles. La resistencia del hormigón con escoria se atribuye a las características de los silicatos hidratados formados durante la hidratación, los cuales incorporan aluminio en las cadenas impidiendo su descomposición ante un ataque por magnesio. El medio con sulfato magnésico mostro una mayor agresividad que el medio con sulfato sódico. Abstract in english The present work studies the resistant of the concrete against magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and compare the results with values obtained previously of the same concretes exposed to sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). Thus, it is possible analyze the influence of the cation type. To that end, four different concre [...] te mixes were made with sulfur resistant cement and mineral admixtures (silica fume, fly ash and blast furnace slag). The concretes were submerged for different period in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). After that, different tests were carried out to define mechanical and microstructural properties. The results obtained were compared with reference values of concretes cured in calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. According to the results, the concrete with blast furnace slag presented the best behavior front MgSO4, meanwhile the concretes with silica fume and fly ash were the most susceptible. The resistance of the concrete with blast furnace slag could be attributed to the characteristics of the hydrated silicates formed during the hydration time, which include aluminum in the chemical chain that hinder its chemical decomposition during the attack of magnesium. The magnesium sulfate solution was most aggressive than sodium sulfate solution.

Bernal, Camacho, J; Mahmoud, Abdelkader, S; Reyes, Pozo, E; Monteagudo, Viera, S.

2013-12-01

85

Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH)2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composity further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH)2, Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

86

Mineralogical Study of Hydrated IDPs: X-Ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) comprise up to 50% of all IDPs collected in the stratosphere [1]. Hydrated IDPs are generally believed to be derived from asteroidal sources that have undergone aqueous alteration. However, the high C contents of hydrated IDPs (by 2 to 6X CI levels [2,3]) indicate that they are probably not derived from the same parent bodies sampled by the known chondritic meteorites. Some hydrated IDPs exhibit large deuterium enrichments [4] similar to those observed in anhydrous IDPs. Both anhydrous and hydrated IDPs contain a variety of anhydrous minerals such as silicates, sulfides, oxides, and carbonates. Controversies on hydrated IDPs still exist regarding their formation, history, and relationship to other primitive solar system materials, because of the lack of a systematic series of analysis on individual hydrated IDPs. In this study, we combine our observations of the bulk mineralogy, mineral/ organic chemistry in order to derive a more complete picture of hydrated IDPs.

Nakamura, K.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

2004-01-01

87

Cyclopentane Hydrate for Hydrate Wetting Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Gas hydrates are often found in the systems for production of petroleum, natural gas and water systems, which is highly undesirable. In some systems the hydrates can form rapidly into large plugs and agglomerate in the transportation lines and blockage the systems, especially, in the deep sea and permafrost regions. Generally, hydrates plug agglomeration has been prevented using one of three methods, including anti-agglomeration in which surfactants are ...

Abdulkader, Bashir Mohammed Hissen

2013-01-01

88

Joint analysis of three European nested case-control studies of lung cancer among radon exposed miners: exposure restricted to below 300 WLM.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of lung cancer risk were carried out using restrictions to nested case-control data on uranium miners in the Czech Republic, France, and Germany. With the data restricted to cumulative exposures below 300 working-level-months (WLM) and adjustment for smoking status, the excess relative risk (ERR) per WLM was 0.0174 (95% CI: 0.009-0.035), compared to the estimate of 0.008 (95% CI: 0.004-0.014) using the unrestricted data. Analysis of both the restricted and unrestricted data showed that time since exposure windows had a major effect; the ERR/WLM was six times higher for more recent exposures (5-24 y) than for more distant exposures (25 y or more). Based on a linear model fitted to data on exposures lung cancer at 30 y after exposure was estimated to be 0.021 (95% CI: 0.011-0.040), and the risks decreased by 47% per decade increase in time since exposure. The results from analyzing the joint effects of radon and smoking were consistent with a sub-multiplicative interaction; the ERR WLM was greater for non-smokers compared with current or ex-smokers, although there was no statistically significant variation in the ERR WLM by smoking status. The patterns of risk with radon exposure from the combined European nested case-control miner analysis were generally consistent with those based on the BEIR VI Exposure-Age-Concentration model. Based on conversions from WLM to time weighted averaged radon concentration (expressed per 100 Bq m), the results from this analysis of miner data were in agreement with those from the joint analysis of the European residential radon studies. PMID:23361424

Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R; Tomasek, Ladislav; Kreuzer, Michaela; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Schnelzer, Maria; Grosche, Bernd; Placek, Vit; Heribanova, Alena; Timarche, Margot

2013-03-01

89

The Saturation Level of Methane Hydrate in Natural Sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The accurate estimate of the resource of natural gas hydrate is one of the most important issues in assessing the energy potential of natural gas hydrate, which relies largely on the data precision of hydrate saturation level in the sediments of a reservoir. Occurring in sediment pore has been recognized as the primary occurrence mode of gas hydrate in the Eastern Nankai trough area. It was suggested that the distribution of coarse-grained sands is one of the most important factors controlling the occurrence of natural gas hydrates. This research aimed at elucidating the particle size and clay mineral effects on hydrate saturation in sediments through an experiment approach. The specimens, including sand, silty sand, silt, representing of the main sediment types recovered from the gas hydrate distribution region of the Eastern Nankai Trough, were tested. The obtained results from the experiments clearly indicate a particle size and clay content dependent trend, being low in saturation in fine sediment but high in coarse sediment. These results are generally consistent with NMR logging results for high-saturation samples, but somewhat different for samples with medium or low saturation levels. For a better understanding of the mechanism of these two factors, studies have been carried out to investigate the saturation level of methane hydrate in a series of silica powders and clay. The results obtained indicate that particle size and clay contents are the two key factors determining the saturation level of gas hydrate in sediments: the finer the particle size and/or the higher the clay content, the lower the hydrate saturation. It has been found that fundamentally the effect of particle size or clay mineral on hydrate saturation level can be accredited to specific surface area of sediment. This study was carried out as a part of the research undertaken by The Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21)

Kawasaki, T.; Lu, H.; Fujii, T.; Ripmeester, J. A.

2008-12-01

90

Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH){sub 2} dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH){sub 2}, Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

2000-05-01

91

Gas hydrate and humans  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

Kvenvolden, K.A.

2000-01-01

92

Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO4) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy3+, Eu3+ and Er3 in the bulk of zircon. The Dy3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

93

Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3} in the bulk of zircon. The Dy{sup 3+} is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy{sup 3+} has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia G, N., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Av. Colon y Av. Tollocan, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

2010-07-01

94

Experimental study on sorption of actinides onto hydrated cementitious materials. Effect of alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. In this study, sorption of thorium and neptunium onto hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) was measured. For thorium and neptunium sorption onto hydrated OPC and HFSC, the obtained distribution ratios, R{sub d} values, are very high: > 1E+03 cm{sup 3}g{sup -1}. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cementitious material is changed by alteration in the disposal environment, its sorption ability might be affected. So leaching experiments for OPC and HFSC hydrates were carried out to provide altered cement hydrate samples, followed by sorption experiments of thorium and neptunium onto these to investigate the effect of alteration of cement on sorption. In the leaching experiments, portlandite, which is a constituent mineral of hydrated OPC, was dissolved, and the specific surface area of both OPC and HFSC hydrates was increased by alteration. In the thorium and neptunium sorption experiments, the distribution ratio for altered OPC and HFSC hydrates was higher than freshly cured (unaltered) hydrated cement samples, which appear to be due to the increase of the specific surface area of those. These results show that the alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution of constituent minerals does not cause changes which could decrease the sorption of thorium and neptunium onto hydrated OPC and HFSC. (author)

Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab; Berry, John A.; Williams, S.J.

2000-05-01

95

Experimental study on sorption of actinides onto hydrated cementitious materials. Effect of alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. In this study, sorption of thorium and neptunium onto hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) was measured. For thorium and neptunium sorption onto hydrated OPC and HFSC, the obtained distribution ratios, Rd values, are very high: > 1E+03 cm3g-1. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cementitious material is changed by alteration in the disposal environment, its sorption ability might be affected. So leaching experiments for OPC and HFSC hydrates were carried out to provide altered cement hydrate samples, followed by sorption experiments of thorium and neptunium onto these to investigate the effect of alteration of cement on sorption. In the leaching experiments, portlandite, which is a constituent mineral of hydrated OPC, was dissolved, and the specific surface area of both OPC and HFSC hydrates was increased by alteration. In the thorium and neptunium sorption experiments, the distribution ratio for altered OPC and HFSC hydrates was higher than freshly cured (unaltered) hydrated cement samples, which appear to be due to the increase of the specific surface area of those. These results show that the alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution of constituent minerals does not cause changes which could decrease the sorption of thorium and neptunium onto hydrated OPC and HFSC. (author)

96

Methane hydrate; deep water drilling hazard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane hydrate is a crystallized combination of methane and water that can be found only under certain pressure and temperature conditions. If hydrates are exposed to conditions outside those that ensure their stability, methane explodes into its equivalent gaseous volume. This is a hazard during offshore drilling, but if operators are aware of the possibility of hydrate formation, they can easily avoid this hazard. The hazard is greatest in shallow water if methane hydrates are encountered during the drilling of the conductor pipe before the BOP is installed. Fortunately, the high acoustic impedance of these accumulations makes them easily recognizable. Methane hydrates found in deep water are not as dangerous during drilling operations because of the great pressure; however, there is a hazard if natural gas is introduced to seawater under these conditions. The Macondo Well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico illustrated in a striking way the danger of hydrate formation when methane and water are mixed at 4 degree C and at high pressure.

Kalmanovitch, Norman [Independent Geophysical Consultant Calgary, Alberta (Canada)], email: kalhnd@shaw.ca

2011-07-01

97

Combustion of Methane Hydrate  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and methane release, some of the water from the dissociated zone needs to be drained. The results

Roshandell, Melika

98

Methane Hydrate Field Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

None

2013-12-31

99

Negative hydration of ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenomenon of negative hydration of rather large one-charge ions, including Cs+ and I-, was studied using the methods of computer modeling and cold neutron scattering. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of negative hydration, i. e. increase in water molecules mobility near the ions and boundary conditions of transfer from positive to negative and from negative to hydrophobic hydration. Hypothetical ions, their radii ? 1.1 and 3.3 A, are shown to correspond to the boundaries mentioned

100

Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C–S–H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA–OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

 
 
 
 
101

Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

Le Saout, Gwenn, E-mail: gwenn.le-saout@mines-ales.fr [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hori, Akihiro [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany); Higuchi, Takayuki [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan); Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2013-01-15

102

Formation and evolution of hydrated surface layers of apatites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanocrystalline apatites exhibit a very fragile structured hydrated surface layer which is only observed in aqueous media. This surface layer contains mobile ionic species which can be easily exchanged with ions from the surrounding fluids. Although the precise structure of this surface layer is still unknown, it presents very specific spectroscopic characteristics. The structure of the hydrated surface layer depends on the constitutive mineral ions: ion exchanges of HPO42- ions by CO32- ions...

Eichert, Diane; Combes, Christe?le; Drouet, Christophe; Rey, Christian

2005-01-01

103

Hydration process of nuclear-waste glass: an interim report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aging of simulated nuclear waste glass by contact with a controlled-temperature, humid atmosphere results in the formation of a double hydration layer penetrating the glass, as well as the formation of minerals on the glass surface. The hydration process can be described by Arrhenius behavior between 120 and 2400C. Results suggest that simulated aging reactions are necessary for demonstrating that nuclear waste forms can meet projected Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. 16 figures, 4 tables

104

Hydrated phases and pore solution composition in cement solidified saltstone waste forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mineral phases and pore solution composition of hydrated cement solidified synthetic saltstone waste forms are quantified using thermogravimetric analysis, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Although the synthetic waste contained additional sulfate, the overall chemistry of the system suppressed the formation of sulfate-bearing mineral phases. This was corroborated by the pore solution analysis that indicated very high sulfur concentrations. After one year of hydration, the mineral phases present and the composition of the pore solution are stable, and are generally consistent with expectations based on the hydration of high volume portland cement replacement mixtures. (authors)

105

Hydrated phases and pore solution composition in cementsolidified saltstone waste forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mineral phases and pore solution composition of hydrated cementsolidified synthetic saltstone waste forms are quantified using thermogravimetric analysis, quantitative X-ray powder diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Although the synthetic waste contained additional sulfate, the overall chemistry of the system suppressed the formation of sulfate-bearing mineral phases. This was corroborated by the pore solution analysis that indicated very high sulfur concentrations. After one year of hydration, the mineral phases present and the composition of the pore solution are stable, and are generally consistent with expectations based on the hydration of high volume portland cement replacement mixtures.

Philip J.

2013-07-01

106

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON SEMINAL QUALITY OF BOARS EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS EFEITO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE MINERAIS ORGÂNICOS E INORGÂNICOS NA QUALIDADE DO SÊMEN DE SUÍNOS SUBMETIDOS A ESTRESSE TÉRMICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

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Seasonal high temperatures or inadequate nutrition can decrease reproductive efficiency in boars, especially through a reduction in spermatozoal number / ejaculate and percentage of normal spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic trace mineral supplementation on seminal quality in boars exposed to high environmental temperatures. The experiment was conducted in Southern Brazil, west of Parana State. Boars (2 years of age were divided into three groups to receive: inorganic (GIn, n=4 and organic (GOr, n=4 mineral supplementation and a lactation diet (GCo, n=5. Inorganic and organic diets contained a premix of inorganic and organic trace minerals, respectively, with the same quantity of each trace mineral, based on NRC (NRC, 1998 for boars. The lactation diet was based on NRC for lactating sows and contained a higher level of inorganic trace minerals, protein and metabolic energy. Maximum mean environmental temperatures were higher than the normal thermal comfort temperature for boars (26oC during the experimental period, and were associated with a reduction in semen quality. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. The semen volume of Inorganic and Organic diet groups were higher than Lactation group animals (345.7 ± 92.6 mL and 338.4 ± 67.8 mL versus 302.5 ± 81.4 mL, respectively; P=0.02. Boars in the Organic diet group had higher sperm concentration when compared to the Inorganic diet group (233.5 ± 76.7 X 106 sptz/mL versus 181.2 ± 77.3 X 106 sptz/mL, respectively; P=0.006. Percentage of normal spermatozoa, averaged higher in the Organic group than both Inorganic and Lactation groups (93.31 ± 5.20% versus 78.48 ± 12.15% and 82.59 ± 17.27%, respectively; P=0.00021. High temperatures (>34.5 oC reduced normal spermatozoa number in all groups, but with significant differences only in the Inorganic and Lactation groups (P=0.03. Organic minerals were benefic to seminal quality, reducing some of the heat stress effects in exposed boars.

KEY WORDS: Heat stress, organic minerals, semen, swine.
Estações de elevadas temperaturas ou nutrição inadequada podem influenciar a eficiência reprodutiva de machos suínos, especialmente através da redução no número de espermatozoides ejaculados e da porcentagem de espermatozoides normais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação micromineral orgânica e inorgânica sobre a qualidade do sêmen de suínos expostos à elevada temperatura ambiental. O experimento foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, no oeste do Paraná. Machos de dois anos de idade foram divididos em três grupos para receber: suplementação mineral inorgânica (GIn, n=4, orgânica (GOr, n=4 e uma dieta lactação (GCo, n=5. Dietas inorgânicas e orgânicas continham um premix de microminerais inorgânicos e orgânicos, respectivamente, com a mesma quantidade de cada micromineral, baseado no NRC para machos suínos. A dieta lactação baseou-se no NRC para fêmeas em lactação e continha um nível superior de microminerais inorgânicos, proteínas e energia metabólica. A média de temperatura ambiental máxima foi superior à temperatura normal de conforto térmico para machos suínos (26 ºC durante todo o período experimental, e foi associada com uma redução na qualidade seminal. Os resultados foram expressos como média ± EPM. O volume de sêmen dos grupos de dieta inorgânica e orgânica foi maior do que nos animais do grupo lactação (345,7 ± 92,6 mL e 338,4 ± 67,8 mL contra 302,5 ± 81,4 mL, respectivamente; P=0,02. Machos no grupo de dieta orgânica apresentaram uma maior concentração espermática quando comparados ao grupo de dieta inorgânica (233,5 ± 76,7 X 106 sptz/mL contra 181,2 ± 77,3 X 106 sptz/mL, respectivamente; P=0,006. A porcentagem de espermatozoides normais foi maior no grupo orgânico do que em ambos os grupos inorgânico e lactação (93,31 ± 5,20% contra 78,48 ± 12,15% e 82,59 ± 17,27%, r

Daiane Donin Spessatto

2009-12-01

107

Thermodynamic and structural characteristics of cement minerals at elevated temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have instituted an experimental and including program designed to elucidate the structural and thermodynamic response of cement minerals to elevated temperature. Components of the program involve: (a) synthesis of hydrated Ca-silicates; (b) structural analysis of cement phases induced by heating and dehydration/rehydration; (c) mechanistic and thermodynamic descriptions of the hydration/dehydration behavior of hydrated Ca-silicates as a function of temperature, pressure and relative humidity; (d) study of naturally occurring hydrated Ca-silicates; and (e) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated Ca-silicates

108

Dissolution rates of pure methane hydrate and carbon-dioxide hydrate in undersaturated seawater at 1000-m depth  

Science.gov (United States)

To help constrain models involving the chemical stability and lifetime of gas clathrate hydrates exposed at the seafloor, dissolution rates of pure methane and carbon-dioxide hydrates were measured directly on the seafloor within the nominal pressure-temperature (P/T) range of the gas hydrate stability zone. Other natural boundary conditions included variable flow velocity and undersaturation of seawater with respect to the hydrate-forming species. Four cylindrical test specimens of pure, polycrystalline CH4 and CO2 hydrate were grown and fully compacted in the laboratory, then transferred by pressure vessel to the seafloor (1028 m depth), exposed to the deep ocean environment, and monitored for 27 hours using time-lapse and HDTV cameras. Video analysis showed diameter reductions at rates between 0.94 and 1.20 ??m/s and between 9.0 and 10.6 ?? 10-2 ??m/s for the CO2 and CH4 hydrates, respectively, corresponding to dissolution rates of 4.15 ?? 0.5 mmol CO2/m2s and 0.37 ?? 0.03 mmol CH4/m2s. The ratio of the dissolution rates fits a diffusive boundary layer model that incorporates relative gas solubilities appropriate to the field site, which implies that the kinetics of the dissolution of both hydrates is diffusion-controlled. The observed dissolution of several mm (CH4) or tens of mm (CO2) of hydrate from the sample surfaces per day has major implications for estimating the longevity of natural gas hydrate outcrops as well as for the possible roles of CO2 hydrates in marine carbon sequestration strategies. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

Rehder, G.; Kirby, S. H.; Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.; Peltzer, E. T.; Pinkston, J.; Brewer, P. G.

2004-01-01

109

Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calcium aluminate cement (AC) is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper exam...

Matusinovic?, T.; Dabic?, P.; Ukrainczyk, N.

2011-01-01

110

Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas is placed in a sample, then the sample is flooded with water and cooled [Priest et al., 2009]. We have performed a number of tests in which hydrate was formed and the uniformity of the hydrate formation was examined. These tests have primarily used a variety of modifications of the excess gas method to make the hydrate, although we have also used a version of the excess water technique. Early on, we found difficulties in creating uniform samples with a particular sand/ initial water saturation combination (F-110 Sand, {approx} 35% initial water saturation). In many of our tests we selected this combination intentionally to determine whether we could use a method to make the samples uniform. The following methods were examined: Excess gas, Freeze/thaw/form, Freeze/pressurize/thaw, Excess gas followed by water saturation, Excess water, Sand and kaolinite, Use of a nucleation enhancer (SnoMax), and Use of salt in the water. Below, each method, the underlying hypothesis, and our results are briefly presented, followed by a brief conclusion. Many of the hypotheses investigated are not our own, but were presented to us. Much of the data presented is from x-ray CT scanning our samples. The x-ray CT scanner provides a three-dimensional density map of our samples. From this map and the physics that is occurring in our samples, we are able to gain an understanding of the spatial nature of the processes that occur, and attribute them to the locations where they occur.

Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

2011-04-01

111

Antifreezes act as catalysts for methane hydrate formation from ice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrary to the thermodynamic inhibiting effect of methanol on methane hydrate formation from aqueous phases, hydrate forms quickly at high yield by exposing frozen water-methanol mixtures with methanol concentrations ranging from 0.6-10?wt% to methane gas at pressures from 125?bars at 253?K. Formation rates are some two orders of magnitude greater than those obtained for samples without methanol and conversion of ice is essentially complete. Ammonia has a similar catalytic effect when used in concentrations of 0.3-2.7?wt%. The structure?I methane hydrate formed in this manner was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Steps in the possible mechanism of action of methanol were studied with molecular dynamics simulations of the Ih (0001) basal plane exposed to methanol and methane gas. Simulations show that methanol from a surface aqueous layer slowly migrates into the ice lattice. Methane gas is preferentially adsorbed into the aqueous methanol surface layer. Possible consequences of the catalytic methane hydrate formation on hydrate plug formation in gas pipelines, on large scale energy-efficient gas hydrate formation, and in planetary science are discussed. PMID:25132532

McLaurin, Graham; Shin, Kyuchul; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A

2014-09-22

112

Hydration dependent viscoelastic tensile behavior of cornea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cornea is a protective transparent connective tissue covering the front of the eye. The standard uniaxial tensile experiments are among the most popular techniques for investigating biomechanical properties of the cornea. This experimental method characterizes the stress-strain response of corneal strips immersed in a bathing solution. In the present study, the important roles of corneal hydration on tensile viscoelastic properties were investigated. The thickness was used as a surrogate for hydration and uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on bovine corneal samples with four different average thickness (hydration), i.e., 1100 ?m (4.87 mg water/mg dry tissue), 900 ?m (4.13 mg water/mg dry tissue), 700 ?m (3.20 mg water/mg dry tissue), and 500 ?m (1.95 mg water/mg dry tissue). The samples were immersed in mineral oil in order to prevent their swelling during the experiments. A quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was used to analyze the experimental measurements and determine viscoelastic material constants. It was observed that both maximum and equilibrium (relaxed) stresses were exponentially increased with decreasing tissue thickness (hydration). Furthermore, the QLV model successfully captured the corneal viscoelastic response with an average R (2) value greater than 0.99. Additional experiments were conducted in OBSS in order to confirm that these significant changes in viscoelastic properties were because of corneal hydration and not the bathing solution. The findings of this study suggest that extra care must be taken in interpreting the results of earlier uniaxial tensile testings and their correspondence to the corneal biomechanical properties. PMID:24668183

Hatami-Marbini, Hamed

2014-08-01

113

Hydration and dehydration of Zeolitic Tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science.gov (United States)

Naturally occurring zeolites expand and contract when hydrated or dehydrated. In tuffaceous rock composed largely of such zeolites, the entire rock may swell or contract significantly as the rock becomes saturated or dries out. If such rock is constrained, significant stresses may develop as a result of hydration or dehydration. We present experimental results that substantiate this. In a zeolitized, non-welded tuff from Yucca Mountain, NV, rock permeability governs the swelling rate since the major constituent, clinoptilolite, hydrates as fast as it can be exposed to water. At Yucca Mountain, where a nuclear waste repository is proposed, strata of welded, devitrified tuff overlie non-welded, zeolitic tuff. Should the hydration state of the units change significantly over the repository lifetime, additional stresses on the same order of magnitude as now exist may develop.

Kranz, R. L.; Bish, D. L.; Blacic, J. D.

1989-10-01

114

Hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate cements - Experimental findings and thermodynamic modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcium sulfoaluminate cements (CSA) are a promising low-CO2 alternative to ordinary Portland cements and are as well of interest concerning their use as binder for waste encapsulation. In this study, the hydration of two CSA cements has been investigated experimentally and by thermodynamic modelling between 1 h and 28 days at w/c ratios of 0.72 and 0.80, respectively. The main hydration product of CSA is ettringite, which precipitates together with amorphous Al(OH)3 until the calcium sulfate is consumed after around 1-2 days of hydration. Afterwards, monosulfate is formed. In the presence of belite, straetlingite occurs as an additional hydration product. The pore solution analysis reveals that straetlingite can bind a part of the potassium ions, which are released by the clinker minerals. The microstructure of both cements is quite dense even after 16 h of hydration, with not much pore space available at a sample age of 28 days. The pore solution of both cements is dominated during the first hours of hydration by potassium, sodium, calcium, aluminium and sulfate; the pH is around 10-11. When the calcium sulfate is depleted, the sulfate concentration drops by a factor of 10. This increases pH to around 12.5-12.8. Based on the experimental data, a thermodynamic hydration model for CSA cements based on cement composition, hydration kinetics of clinker phases and calculations of thermodynamic equilibria by geochemical speciation has been established. The modelled phase development with ongoing hydration agrees well with the experimental findings.

115

Hydrated silica on Mars: Combined analysis with near-infrared and thermal-infrared spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrated silica is found in a variety of martian deposits within aqueously altered mineral suites. Its common occurrence is attributed to its ease of formation in different weathering environments. Because of its presence in disparate units, hydrated silica makes a good tracer mineral to compare otherwise dissimilar martian deposits and relate their relative degrees of aqueous alteration. This work combines near-infrared and thermal-infrared spectroscopy to determine the relative degree of crystallinity and bulk SiO2 abundance of surfaces containing hydrated silica. A range of crystalline structures are present, from non-crystalline (hydrated glass) to weakly crystalline (opal) to crystalline (quartz), implying a range in the maturity of these silica deposits. However, bulk SiO2 contents show less diversity, with most martian hydrated silica deposits having SiO2 abundances similar to Surface Type 2 (basaltic andesite or weathered basaltic composition)—a widespread and common surface composition that suggests limited interaction with water. We also find that hydrated silica crystallinity—as a proxy for degree of alteration—is correlated with the geochemistry of the deposit as inferred by its associated minerals: highly crystalline hydrated silica is found with Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates, moderately crystalline hydrated silica is associated with Al-phyllosilicates, and poorly crystalline phases are associated with sulfates. This corroborates previous predictions of the waning of surficial water from the Noachian ? Hesperian and demonstrates the usefulness of hydrated silica as a stand-alone mineral for predicting the degree of alteration of ancient mineral suites.

Smith, Matthew R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Rice, Melissa S.

2013-04-01

116

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

117

Uruguay minerals fuels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

118

A new clathrate hydrate structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of 2H and 129Xe NMR measurements and X-ray and neutron powder diffraction results, the authors report a new hexagonal hydrate structure requiring both large and small guest molecules to stabilize the structure. This hydrate is expected to be isostructural with the hexagonal clathrasil dodecasil-1H. As for the cubic clathrate hydrates, the new hydrate structure may occur naturally. (author)

119

Minerals Yearbook  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

120

Wet hydrate dissolution plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with capacity of 50,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997, for increasing detergent zeolite production from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. Main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production capacity. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution. Wet hydrate dissolution is now fully continuous, which is important for maintaining zeolite production quality, as well as for simplifying production. The wet hydrate production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and dissolving reactors technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting NaOH tanks and dissolving reactors, the capacities of the process equipment was fully utilized.

Stankovi? Mirjana S.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Scanning electron microscopy investigations of laboratory-grown gas clathrate hydrates formed from melting ice, and comparison to natural hydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate grain texture and pore structure development within various compositions of pure sI and sII gas hydrates synthesized in the laboratory, as well as in natural samples retrieved from marine (Gulf of Mexico) and permafrost (NW Canada) settings. Several samples of methane hydrate were also quenched after various extents of partial reaction for assessment of mid-synthesis textural progression. All laboratory-synthesized hydrates were grown under relatively high-temperature and high-pressure conditions from rounded ice grains with geometrically simple pore shapes, yet all resulting samples displayed extensive recrystallization with complex pore geometry. Growth fronts of mesoporous methane hydrate advancing into dense ice reactant were prevalent in those samples quenched after limited reaction below and at the ice point. As temperatures transgress the ice point, grain surfaces continue to develop a discrete "rind" of hydrate, typically 5 to 30 ??m thick. The cores then commonly melt, with rind microfracturing allowing migration of the melt to adjacent grain boundaries where it also forms hydrate. As the reaction continues under progressively warmer conditions, the hydrate product anneals to form dense and relatively pore-free regions of hydrate grains, in which grain size is typically several tens of micrometers. The prevalence of hollow, spheroidal shells of hydrate, coupled with extensive redistribution of reactant and product phases throughout reaction, implies that a diffusion-controlled shrinking-core model is an inappropriate description of sustained hydrate growth from melting ice. Completion of reaction at peak synthesis conditions then produces exceptional faceting and euhedral crystal growth along exposed pore walls. Further recrystallization or regrowth can then accompany even short-term exposure of synthetic hydrates to natural ocean-floor conditions, such that the final textures may closely mimic those observed in natural samples of marine origin. Of particular note, both the mesoporous and highly faceted textures seen at different stages during synthetic hydrate growth were notably absent from all examined hydrates recovered from a natural marine-environment setting.

Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Circone, S.; Durham, W.B.

2004-01-01

122

Ore Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

Perkins, Dexter

123

Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, 17O NMR data on bone and compare them with 17O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate–like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H.; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J.; Reid, David G.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Duer, Melinda J.

2014-01-01

124

Molecular simulations of CO2 and mixed CH4-CO2 hydrates intercalated on smectites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural gas hydrates (NGH) are crystalline compounds consisting of methane molecules encaged in cavities of a hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Gas hydrates have a general formula X?nH2O, where X is the guest molecule within a water cage, and n is the hydration number per guest molecule. The crystal structure sI consists of 46 water molecules per unit cell, forming two dodecahedron (small 512) and six tetradecahedron (large 51262) cages and is formed when small guest molecules such as methane or carbon dioxide are trapped. Considerable amounts of methane hydrates can be found in permafrost regions and sediments of the ocean floor in outer continental margin regions where medium pressures, low temperatures and high methane gas concentration in water can be reached. Gas hydrates are important because hydrate decomposition would cause the methane release into atmosphere causing great impact on Earth's climate. On the other hand, these NGH are seen as a potential major energy resource. The recent increase in anthropogenic CO2 gas released to the atmosphere and its contribution to global warming, makes necessary to investigate new ways of CO2 storage. The possibility of replacing natural gas by CO2 from NGH has been investigated. There are thermodynamic evidences that support the replacement in hydrate at appropriate conditions. The comparison of their hydrate phase equilibrium conditions suggests the occurrence of a transition zone between both hydrate equilibrium curves where CO2 hydrates can exist while CH4 hydrates dissociate into methane gas and water. Any further investigation of the mixed CH4-CO2 gas hydrate properties could lead to major breakthroughs in the fields of unconventional resource production and carbon sequestration. Clay minerals are major constituents of ocean sediments, the study of interactions between these minerals with hydrates on the seafloor can be useful to determine variations on hydrate stability field, and to know the properties and behavior of hydrate-smectite complex. Characterization and better understanding of those deposits are necessary to develop CO2 storage as hydrates by methane replacement. Swelling clays usually contains multiple planes of weakly bonded H2O in the interlayer between the 2:1 (silicate) layers. Koster van Groos et al. (2009) synthesized a smectite-methane hydrate intercalate with d(001)=2.2 nm indicating the presence of one unit cell of methane hydrate crystal intercalated between the 2:1 layers of smectite. Due to the complexity of experimental studies with hydrates, Computational Mineralogy can be very helpful. In this study we compare the behavior of CO2 and mixed CH4-CO2 hydrates intercalated in montmorillonite and beidellite. Our results are in agreement with the d(001)=2.2 nm in both hydrates intercalated as crystal lattice. However, comparing mean square displacement (MSD) profiles from molecular dynamics simulations of H2O molecules in the hydrates, we found that hydrate crystal MSD show a typical solid profile without diffusion, while in the intercalates there is more diffusion of water molecules, hence CO2 and mixed CH4-CO2 hydrate structure is more flexible and stable in the smectite-hydrate complex. Authors are thankful to RNM-3581 CADHYS Project.

Martos-Villa, Rubén; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio; Mata Campo, M. Pilar

2013-04-01

125

Nutrition, Hydration & Health  

Science.gov (United States)

The following resource is a NFL sponsored, National Science Foundation funded program intended to teach students about scientific concepts by using the popular sport of Football. Each lesson is accompanied by an informative and fast paced video. In this lesson, athletic trainers from the Pittsburgh Steelers explain what NFL players must do to stay hydrated and replenish the essential nutrients needed to maintain good health during rigorous practices.

2010-01-01

126

Hydration of lithium ?-alumina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydration reaction of Li ?-alumina has been studied using infrared measurements of large single crystals equilibrated at controlled water vapor pressure (2--80 kPa) and temperature (250--450 0C) conditions. The equilibrium H2O concentrations in the conduction plane can be carried continuously and reversibly up to a saturation limit of about 1.8 H2O per unit cell. Values of the enthalpy and entropy for the hydration reaction at 300--450 0C were determined to be ?H = -102 kJ/mol and ?S = -167 J/mol K. In Li ?-alumina, some of the H2O dissociates to form OH- ions and H+ ions which are bound to lattice oxygen ions; the enthalpy for the dissociation reaction is approx.10 kJ/mol. In addition to OH-, H3O+ and H5O+2 species have been identified from the observed change in the equilibrium concentration with the water vapor pressure. The relative concentrations of the different types of OH- species depend on the sample age. The hydration enthalpy for Na ?-alumina of approx.-84 kJ/mol was determined from a similar study

127

Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

2003-01-01

128

Bacterial Utilization of Gas Hydrate and Inhibition of Crystallization in Chemosynthetic Communities, Northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial association of structure II gas hydrate with lush chemosynthetic communities of tubeworms and other organisms in the upper slope of the Gulf of Mexico is obvious. Several sites in the Green Canyon area are characterized by moderate flux of oil-related gas (methane through pentanes, carbon dioxide) and crude oil, derived from the subsurface petroleum system. Most venting gas bypasses hydrate-rich sediments, as shown by large gas plumes that enter the water column and create natural oil slicks. This low conversion rate is also demonstrated by molecular properties of venting gas that is only slightly depleted in hydrate-forming hydrocarbons. Sea floor experiments suggest crystal nucleation on available mineral particles is a limiting factor. Gas hydrate crystallized from venting gas shows isotopic fractionation consistent with selective bacterial oxidation of methane (heavy carbon and hydrogen) and concomitant production of carbon dioxide (light carbon). Natural gas hydrate is frequently permeable and porous with large internal surface area, offering a favorable substrate for bacterial utilization. Abundant free gas occurs in sediment of chemosynthetic communities even though crystallization of the hydrate is favored thermodynamically. Bacterial oxidation of free hydrocarbon gas and reduction of sulfate occur in sediment at the periphery of buried gas hydrate. No gas hydrate is observed to crystallize on living bacterial mats, tubeworms, or bivalves immersed in gas bubble trains. This observation suggests that the surface chemistry of living organisms in chemosynthetic communities inhibits crystallization of gas hydrate, possibly an adaptive trait to the environment.

Sassen, R.; Milkov, A. V.; Roberts, H. H.

2001-12-01

129

Mineral oils  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

Furby, N. W.

1973-01-01

130

Rapid gas hydrate formation process  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

2013-01-15

131

Hydrate Monitoring using Capacitive Sensors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas hydrates are of particular interest in petroleum industry since their formation during oil-production can be a major risk factor. Gas hydrates can block pipelines, interrupt production, and in worst case even cause bursting flow lines. There are a few strategies available to monitor the hydrocarbon flow in pipelines in order to give an early warning system against hydrate formation. A potential technique is to monitor changes in the dielectric properties of the flow, and relate these to h...

Bayati, Zahra

2013-01-01

132

Evolution of iron speciation during hydration of C4AF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is now well accepted and demonstrated that calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and calcium sulfo aluminate (ettringite, AFm) phases exhibit a good capability to fix metals and metalloids. Unfortunately the role of minor phases and especially calcium-ferric aluminate phase, shorthand C4AF is not well defined. In other systems like in soils or sediments iron phases play a key role in the fixation of pollutant. In cement sorption isotherms, indicated that various metals can be retained by the C4AF hydrated products. Therefore the capabilities of those phase to retain heavy metal should not be neglected. Previous investigations have shown that the minerals formed during the hydration of C4AF are similar to those formed from C3A (pure tri-calcium aluminate) under comparable conditions. Nevertheless no investigation was conducted at the molecular level and there is still a controversy whether Fe substitutes for Al in the hydrated minerals in whole or in part, or if it forms FeOOH clusters scattered throughout the matrix. In this context we have conducted XAS experiments using synchrotron radiation. It was found that the hydration of C4AF forms C3AH6 (hydrogarnet) in which Fe randomly substitutes for Al as well as an amorphous FeOOH phase. Intermediate products like AFm (i.e., an ill organized lamellar phase) are also formed but rapidly evolve to C3AH6; iron does not seem to be incorporated in the AFm structure

133

Evolution of iron speciation during hydration of C4AF.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now well accepted and demonstrated that calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and calcium sulfo aluminate (ettringite, AFm) phases exhibit a good capability to fix metals and metalloids. Unfortunately the role of minor phases and especially calcium-ferric aluminate phase, shorthand C4AF is not well defined. In other systems like in soils or sediments iron phases play a key role in the fixation of pollutant. In cement sorption isotherms, indicated that various metals can be retained by the C4AF hydrated products. Therefore the capabilities of those phase to retain heavy metal should not be neglected. Previous investigations have shown that the minerals formed during the hydration of C4AF are similar to those formed from C3A (pure tri-calcium aluminate) under comparable conditions. Nevertheless no investigation was conducted at the molecular level and there is still a controversy whether Fe substitutes for Al in the hydrated minerals in whole or in part, or if it forms FeOOH clusters scattered throughout the matrix. In this context we have conducted XAS experiments using synchrotron radiation. It was found that the hydration of C4AF forms C3AH6 (hydrogarnet) in which Fe randomly substitutes for Al as well as an amorphous FeOOH phase. Intermediate products like AFm (i.e., an ill organized lamellar phase) are also formed but rapidly evolve to C3AH6; iron does not seem to be incorporated in the AFm structure. PMID:16697177

Rose, J; Bénard, A; El Mrabet, S; Masion, A; Moulin, I; Briois, V; Olivi, L; Bottero, J-Y

2006-01-01

134

76 FR 59667 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of...notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal Advisory...Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide...

2011-09-27

135

75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal Advisory...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2010-03-04

136

New observations and insights into the morphology and growth kinetics of hydrate films.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics of film growth of hydrates of methane, ethane, and methane-ethane mixtures were studied by exposing a single gas bubble to water. The morphologies, lateral growth rates, and thicknesses of the hydrate films were measured for various gas compositions and degrees of subcooling. A variety of hydrate film textures was revealed. The kinetics of two-dimensional film growth was inferred from the lateral growth rate and initial thickness of the hydrate film. A clear relationship between the morphology and film growth kinetics was observed. The shape of the hydrate crystals was found to favour heat or mass transfer and favour further growth of the hydrate film. The quantitative results on the kinetics of film growth showed that for a given degree of subcooling, the initial film thicknesses of the double hydrates were larger than that of pure methane or ethane hydrate, whereas the thickest hydrate film and the lowest lateral growth rate occurred when the methane mole fraction was approximately 0.6. PMID:24549241

Li, Sheng-Li; Sun, Chang-Yu; Liu, Bei; Li, Zhi-Yun; Chen, Guang-Jin; Sum, Amadeu K

2014-01-01

137

Carbon abundances, major element chemistry, and mineralogy of hydrated interplanetary dust particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) comprise a major fraction of the interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere. While much is known about the mineralogy and chemistry of hydrated IDP's, little is known about the C abundance in this class of IDP's, the nature of the C-bearing phases, and how the C abundance is related to other physical properties of hydrated IDP's. Bulk compositional data (including C and O) for 11 hydrated IDP's that were subsequently examined by the transition electron microscopy (TEM) to determine their mineralogy and mineral chemistry are reported. Our analysis indicates that these hydrated IDP's are strongly enriched in C relative to the most C-rich meteorites. The average abundance of C in these hydrated IDP's is 4X CI chondrite values. The bulk compositions (including C and O) of 11 hydrated IDP's were determined by thin-window, energy-dispersive x ray (EDX) spectroscopy of the uncoated IDP's on Be substrates in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a check on our C measurements, one of the IDP's (L2006H5) was embedded in glassy S, and microtome thin sections were prepared and placed onto Be substrates. Thin-film EDX analyses of multiple thin sections of L2006H5 show good agreement with the bulk value determined in the SEM. Following EDX analysis, the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of each IDP was determined by analyzing ultramicrotome thin sections in a TEM equipped with an EDX spectrometer.

Keller, L. P.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

1993-01-01

138

Ion hydration under pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pressure dependence of the radial distribution of water oxygen atoms around Rb+ and Br- ions in a diluted RbBr aqueous solution has been investigated by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Br and Rb K edges up to 2.8 GPa, using a large-volume high-pressure setup developed at a third generation synchrotron radiation facility. Dramatic effects in the anion hydration structure, in particular, are observed, indicating that upon increasing pressure water undergoes a structural transformation which involves considerable molecular reorientation

139

Occurrences of possible hydrated sulfates in the southern high latitudes of Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrated sulfate minerals record the history of water and habitable environments on Mars, yet prior studies of them have neglected a vast region surrounding the planet's south pole. Some of the few sulfates reported there are localized to putative ancient volcanoes that may have erupted under an ice sheet, possibly forming sulfates via hydrothermal alteration. Alternatively, sulfates may have formed more recently from sunlight causing minor melting of polar ices and the weathering of embedded dust particles, a process thought to explain the sulfates found near Mars' north pole. To test these hypotheses, we searched for southern high-latitude sulfates using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), focusing on regions that include putative volcanoes or geologically similar landforms. In 217 targeted images, we used spectral parameters to identify regions of interest from which we extracted spectra. The spectra were then visually compared to laboratory spectra to identify possible hydrated mineral constituents. In this paper, we present spectra from 16 of the images and statistics derived from the full set of 217, along with spectra from one mapping tile. We find that hydrated sulfates are found throughout the southern high latitudes suggesting a ubiquitous process for hydrated mineral formation and/or the relocation of hydrated minerals due to a long history of impacts, aeolian transport, weathering and periglacial processes.

Ackiss, Sheridan E.; Wray, J. J.

2014-11-01

140

Novel observations on the massive Barkley Canyon hydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the early results of an August 2006 expedition to the massive exposed hydrates found at 850m depth in Barkley Canyon, off-shore Vancouver Island. We used the ROV Tiburon to explore, image, and sample the site, and also to carry out a series of novel experimental techniques and measurements in situ. We used the DORISS II laser Raman spectrometer for direct real time in situ measurement of hydrate composition and structure. The DORISS II system was equipped with highly modified pressure compensated optical fibers, resulting in far less signal loss than in earlier versions. This resulted in identification of gases including methane, ethane, propane, and isobutane in the Structure II hydrate simply by holding the probe head in the vehicle arm, pointing, and focusing the beam with a moveable internal stage. The site revealed white, easily cored, non-fluorescent hydrate underlying much harder yellow oil stained hydrate with significant fluorescence. Raman spectra were obtained of both hydrate types. A newly built small coring system was used to obtain specimens of well defined shape, which were inserted into a mesh chamber for time lapse video imaging to determine dissolution rates. Pressurized and non-pressurized cores were also obtained for cross- calibration in the on-shore laboratory using Raman, NMR, and XRD. A first attempt at an in situ CH4-CO2 hydrate conversion experiment was made by inserting buoyant cored specimens into a glass walled chamber, introducing ~ 2 liter liquid CO2, and placing the unit on a flat plate to seal the system and prevent large scale loss of dissolved CO2 to the surrounding ocean. We collaborated with MBARI's AUV mapping team, who obtained high resolution bathymetry, side scan, and sub-sea floor acoustic images of the site.

Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Kirkwood, W. J.; Dunk, R. M.; Walz, P.; Hester, K.; Sloan, E. D.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Crowding induced collective hydration of biological macromolecules over extended distances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy reveals picosecond protein and hydration dynamics of crowded hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) labeled with a metal-carbonyl vibrational probe covalently attached to a solvent accessible His residue. HEWL is systematically crowded alternatively with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or excess lysozyme in order to distinguish the chemically inert polymer from the complex electrostatic profile of the protein crowder. The results are threefold: (1) A sharp dynamical jamming-like transition is observed in the picosecond protein and hydration dynamics that is attributed to an independent-to-collective hydration transition induced by macromolecular crowding that slows the hydration dynamics up to an order of magnitude relative to bulk water. (2) The interprotein distance at which the transition occurs suggests collective hydration of proteins over distances of 30-40 Å. (3) Comparing the crowding effects of PEG400 to our previously reported experiments using glycerol exposes fundamental differences between small and macromolecular crowding agents. PMID:24341684

King, John T; Arthur, Evan J; Brooks, Charles L; Kubarych, Kevin J

2014-01-01

142

Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is characterized by basal silt- to sand-rich clay dominated stratigraphic units. The upper most debris flow at Site UBGH2-5 extends into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone and IR core scans indicate that this section contains some amount of gas hydrate. The UBGH2 LWD and coring program also confirmed the occurrence of numerous volcaniclastic and siliciclastic sand reservoirs that were deposited as part of local to basin-wide turbidite events. Gas hydrate saturations within the turbidite sands ranged between 60-80 percent. In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Joint Industry Project (JIP) drilled seven wells at three sites, finding gas hydrate at high concentration in sands in four wells, with suspected gas hydrate at low to moderate saturations in two other wells. In the northern GOM, high sedimentation rates in conjunction with salt tectonism, has promoted the formation of complex seafloor topography. As a result, coarse-grained deposition can occur as gravity-driven sedimentation traversing the slope within intra-slope "ponded" accommodation spaces.

Collett, T. S.

2012-12-01

143

Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2012-07-01

144

Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

Sposito Garrison

2002-09-01

145

Moessbauer study of hydrated iron sulfates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrated iron sulfates amarantite Fe(SO sub(4))(OH).3H sub(2)O, copiapite (Mg,Al)Fe sup(3+) sub(4)(SO sub(4)) sub(6)(OH) sub(2).20H sub(2)O and ungemachite K sub(3)Na sub(9)Fe(SO sub(4)) sub(6)(OH) sub(3).9H sub(2)O were studied by Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in connection with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the dehydration on the hyperfine parameters at the Fe sites was investigated. For amarantite, the Moessbauer spectrum remained practically unchanged, while the Fe sup(3+) quadrupole splittings for copiapite and ungemachite increased. The Fe sup(2+) quadrupole splitting of ungemachite was also unchanged. We have found out the anisotropy of the recoiless absorption probability for the sup(57)Fe Moessbauer gamma ray in amarantite. The three minerals were found to be highly hygroscopic after the dehydration consequent of the DSC measurements. (author)

146

Mystery Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

Morgan, Susan

147

Sulfate Mineral Formation from Acid-weathered Phyllosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Phyllosilicates on Mars are common in Noachian terrains whereas sulfates are found in the younger Hesperian terrains and suggest alteration under more acidic conditions. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been exposed to the prevailing acidic conditions during the Hesperian. The purpose of this project is to characterize the effects of acid-weathering on phyllosilicates to better understand the aqueous history of Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, and saponite were exposed to H2SO4 solutions at water-rock (WR) ratios of 50 and 25.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all three acid-treated minerals showed progressive collapse of the phyllosilicate basal spacing with increasing acid concentration. Bassanite formed as an intermediate phase in weathered nontronite and montmorillonite from extracted interlayer Ca. The octahedral cation determined which sulfate formed at high acid concentration: rhomboclase from nontronite, alunogen from montmorillonite, hexahydrite and kieserite from saponite. Gypsum and anhydrite also formed as intermediate phases in nontronite treated at WR=25, showing a change in sulfate hydration state with changing acid concentration (i.e. water activity). Scanning electron microscopy analyses detected phases not identified by XRD. Al-sulfate was found in nontronite weathered at WR=25 and Ca-sulfate in weathered saponite. Near-infrared reflectance spectra of the weathered samples showed decreasing intensity of the hydration/hydroxylation bands and a change or disappearance of metal-OH bands indicating dehydration and dissociation of the interlayers and octahedral layers, respectively, with increased acid weathering.Sulfate mineral formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates may explain the presence of phyllosilicates and sulfates in close proximity to each other on Mars, such as in Gale Crater. The CheMin XRD instrument on Curiosity may find evidence for acid-weathered phyllosilicates in Mt. Sharp by comparing the 001 and 02l peak positions of phyllosilicate deposits to those from phyllosilicates associated with sulfates.

Craig, Patricia; Ming, Douglas; Rampe, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

148

Ianthinite: A rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Ianthinite is the only known uranyl oxide hydrate mineral that contains both U6 + and U4 + . For the first time, we report ianthinite from India (at Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh), which is hosted in basement granitoids. The mineral occurs in the form of tiny grains, encrustations and coatings in intimate association with uraninite and uranophane. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveals that d-spacings of the investigated ianthinite are in close agreement with the corresponding values given for ianthinite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) card no. 12-272. The crystallographic parameters of the studied ianthinite are: ao = 11.3 (1) Å, bo = 7.19 (3) Å and co = 30.46 (8) Å, with a unit cell volume of 2474 (27) Å3. The association of investigated ianthinite with uraninite suggests that the former has formed due to oxidation of the latter. Since a major part of the uraninite was exposed to oxidizing meteoric water, much of it has been transformed into hydrous uranium oxide (ianthinite) and very little part remained unaltered as uranium oxide (uraninite). Absence of schoepite in the investigated ianthinite suggests that after its formation it (ianthinite) was not exposed to oxygen/oxidizing meteoric water. As the oxidation was partial and short lived, some amount of primary uraninite is also preserved.

Singh, Yamuna; Viswanathan, R.; Parashar, K. K.; Srivastava, S. K.; Ramesh Babu, P. V.; Parihar, P. S.

2014-02-01

149

Observations of Hydrated Minerals on Asteroids: Pushing Back the Frontiers  

Science.gov (United States)

The three accomplishments during this grant include: 1) Travel to 2004 Division of Planetary Science (of American Astronomical Society) Conference in Louisville, KY and presentation of Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of Vesta in the 1-4 micron region, abstract 28.07. 2) Remote observations using the IRTF on 20-21 June 2004 and 28-3 1 August 2004, and reduction of data as described in the grant proposal and descoping document. These observations confirm the presence of two different band shapes among C-class asteroid spectra in the 3-micron region. This allowed a revision of the known distribution of Ceres- and Pallas-type objects. 3) Remote observations using the IRTF on 7-10 August 2004. These observations of Vesta were presented, and the manuscript will be submitted to Icarus in June.

2005-01-01

150

Adsorption and heterocoagulation of nonionic surfactants and latex particles on cement hydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adsorption of nonionic surfactants of the alkyl-phenol-poly(ethylene oxide) family and of acrylic latex particles on several anhydrous (but hydrating) or fully hydrated mineral phases of Portland cement was studied. No or negligible adsorption of the surfactant was observed. This was assigned to the ionized character of the surface silanol groups in calcium-silicate-hydrates and to the strongly ionic character of the OH groups in calcium hydroxide and in the calcium-sulfoaluminate-hydrates, which prevents the formation of surface-ethoxy hydrogen bonds. In contrast, provided they are properly stabilized by the surfactant, the latex particles form a loose monolayer on the surface of hydrating tricalcium silicate particles. The attractive interaction between the positive mineral surface and the negative latex surface appears to be the driving force for adsorption. In line with this, adsorption is reduced by sulfate anions, which adsorb specifically onto the silicate surface. Compared to tricalcium silicate, portlandite and gypsum interact only marginally with the latex particles. Our results show that the stability of the nonionic surfactant/latex/cement systems is essentially controlled by the latex colloidal stability and the latex-cement interactions, the surfactant having little direct interaction, if any, with the mineral surfaces. PMID:15567373

Merlin, Fabrice; Guitouni, Hicham; Mouhoubi, Hayette; Mariot, Sandrine; Vallée, Franck; Van Damme, Henri

2005-01-01

151

Effect of organic matters on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium conditions in Na-montmorillonite clay  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of gas hydrates provides an attractive idea for storing greenhouse gases in a long-term stable geological formation. Since the phase equilibrium conditions of gas hydrates indicate the stability of hydrates, estimation of the phase equilibrium conditions of gas hydrates in marine geological conditions is necessary. In this study, we have identified the effects of organic matters (glycine, glucose, and urea) and solid surface (montmorillonite (MMT)) on the three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium conditions of CO2 hydrate. CO2 phase equilibrium experiments were conducted using 0.5mol% organic matter solutions with and without 10g soil mineral were experimentally conducted. Addition of organic matters shifted the phase equilibrium conditions of CO2 hydrate to the higher pressure or lower pressure region because of higher competition of water molecules due to the dissolved organic matters. Presence of MMT also leaded to the higher equilibrium pressure due to the interaction of cations with water molecules. By addition of organic matters to the clay suspension, the hydrate phase equilibrium conditions were less inhibited compared to those of MMT and organic matters independently. The diminished magnitudes by addition of organic matters to the clay suspension (MMT > MMT+urea > MMT+glycine > MMT+glucose > DIW) were different to the order of inhibition degree without MMT (Glucose > glycine > urea > DIW). X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ion chromatography (IC) analysis were conducted to support the hypothesis that the organic matters interact with cations in MMT interlayer space, and leads to the less inhibition of phase equilibrium conditions. The present study provides basic information for the formation and dissociation of CO2 hydrates in the geological formation when sequestering CO2 as a form of CO2 hydrate.

Park, T.; Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

2013-12-01

152

Hydration in soccer: a review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. Th...

2003-01-01

153

Perspectives on Hydrate Thermal Conductivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this review, the intriguing, anomalous behaviour of hydrate thermal conductivity will be described, and progress in performing experimental measurements will be described briefly. However particular attention shall be devoted to recent advances in the development of detailed theoretical understandings of mechanisms of thermal conduction in clathrate hydrates, and on how information gleaned from molecular simulation has contributed to mechanistic theoretical models.

Niall J. English

2010-12-01

154

Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C3S, C2S) and aluminates (C3A, C4AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm-1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXD) that characterize how additives affect both the hydrated microstructure development and the original grain size. In particular, SPs alter the morphology of the hydrated phases, which no longer grow with the classic fibrillar structure on the grain surface, but nucleate in solution as globular structures. All this information converges in a quantitative, and at molecular level, description of the mechanisms involved in the setting process of one of the materials most widely used by human beings.

Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

2006-09-01

155

Oxidants from Pulverized Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

Joel Hurowitz (previously at State University of New York at Stony Brook and now at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Nick Tosca, Scott McLennan, and Martin Schoonen (SUNY at Stony Brook) studied the production of hydrogen peroxide from freshly pulverized minerals in solution. Their experiments focused on olivine, augite, and labradorite; silicate minerals of basaltic planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, that are exposed to the intense crushing and grinding of impact cratering processes. The hydrogen peroxide produced in the experiments was enough to adequately explain the oxidizing nature of Martian regolith first determined by the Viking Landers and the results suggest, for the first time, that mechanically activated mineral surfaces may be an important part of the overall explanation for the Viking Lander biology experiment results. Hurowitz and coauthors further showed that when the pulverized minerals are heat-treated to high temperature under vacuum (to cause dehydroxylation) there is almost a 20 times increase in hydrogen peroxide production, a result which may be highly relevant to lunar dust. These careful studies demonstrate the importance of and concern about reactive dusts on planetary surfaces from two standpoints: the health of astronauts on surface maneuvers who may inadvertently breath it and the viability of possible Martian organic species to survive in such a corrosive, antiseptic surface environment.

Martel, L. M. V.

2007-06-01

156

Mechanism of gypsum hydration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an hypothesis that the mechanism o f gypsum hydration and dehydration is performed through two simultaneous phenomena. In this study we try to clear up this phenomenon using chlorides as accelerators or a mixture of ethanol-methanol as retarders to carry out the gypsum setting. Natural Mexican gypsum samples and a hemihydrate prepared in the laboratory are used. The following analytical techniques are used: MO, DRX, DTA, TG and DTG. In agreement with the obtained results, it can be concluded: that colloid formation depends on the action of accelerators or retarders and the crystals are a consequence of the quantity of hemihydrate formed.

En el mecanismo de hidratación y deshidratación del yeso existe la hipótesis de que éste se efectúa por dos fenómenos simultáneos. Este estudio intenta esclarecer estos fenómenos, empleando: cloruros como aceleradores o mezcla etanol-metanol como retardadores para efectuar el fraguado del yeso. Se emplean muestras de yeso de origen natural mexicano y hemihydrate preparado en laboratorio; se utilizan técnicas analíticas: MO, DRX, DTA, TG y DTG. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se puede deducir: que la formación del coloide depende de la acción de los agentes aceleradores o retardadores y que los cristales son consecuencia de la cantidad de hemihidrato formado.

Pacheco, G.

1991-06-01

157

Biological mineralizations based on calcium phosphates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mineral fractions of bones and teeth are non-stoichiometric apatite crystals. Their morphology, dimensions, composition and reactivity are adapted to their biological function. Bone apatites are made of very reactive nanocrystals possessing, on their surface, a structured hydrated layer responsible for their biological properties. This unstable layer becomes progressively and unavoidably transformed into a relatively inert apatite lattice. In spite of very different time periods, the laws...

Cazalbou, Sophie; Eichert, Diane; Drouet, Christophe; Combes, Christe?le; Rey, Christian

2004-01-01

158

Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

2011-01-01

159

Characterization of Methane Hydrate Growth from Aqueous Solution by Raman Spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

We observed the growth of methane hydrate from aqueous solution in fused silica capillaries near room temperature (RT) in two different experiments. In the first, we sealed methane together with ~2 wt% Na2SO4 solution in a fused silica capillary (0.3x0.3 mm cross-section with 0.05x0.05 mm cavity, and ~6 cm long), using the method of Chou et al. (2008, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 2517). The hydrate, liquid, and vapor coexist at ~23 °C and ~36.5 MPa. The behavior of two methane bubbles, one of which was enclosed by a hydrate crystal and the other near a small hydrate crystal, was monitored. These two bubbles are the only methane sources near the hydrate crystals. The system was slowly cooled to RT (~21 °C), and images were recorded continuously for a period of ~1.5 hours, together with temperature and time information. The images show the exposed bubble decreased in size, while both of the hydrate crystals increased in size, which was caused by the transfer of methane in solution. According to our previous report (Fig. 8 of Lu et al., 2008, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 412), the concentrations of methane in the solution near the exposed bubble are higher than those near the hydrate crystals. Most of the dissolved methane, transferred down the concentration gradient, was consumed and encaged in the nearby crystal, with only a small fraction of methane being consumed by the more distant crystal. Eventually, the exposed vapor bubble was totally consumed, but the bubble shielded by the hydrate crystal remained. This shows hydrate can grow from dissolved methane in the solution far away from free gas. In the 2nd experiment, we sealed methane, together with pure H2O and glass beads (0.04 to 0.07 mm in dia.), in a fused silica capillary (0.3 mm OD, 0.1 mm ID, and ~6 cm long) using the method cited above. We separated the vapor phase from the solution and glass beads by centrifuging the sealed capsule, then imposed a T gradient to the sample by cooling the solution end of the capsule to ~0 °C. It is difficult to recognize the nucleation and growth of hydrate crystals under a microscope, but Raman spectroscopy was used to identify and map the distribution of hydrate crystals along the capsule. Near the original vapor-aqueous phase boundary (V-A B), Raman signals show 100% methane hydrate. However, the lack of dissolved methane in the solution further away from the V-A B limited the growth of hydrate, as indicated by the increase in water/hydrate ratio when the Raman spectrum, which combines signals from both water and hydrate, was collected further away from the V-A B. We are investigating other possible ways to map the distribution of hydrate crystals around the glass beads, including x-ray computed tomography, to understand the nature of methane hydrate crystals that grow around grains in marine sediments from pore water. These observations will improve our ability to interpret the geophysical responses (e.g., electric and acoustic signals) obtained from hydrate-bearing sediments in the field.

Chou, I.; Lu, W.; Yuan, S.; Li, J.; Burruss, R. C.

2009-12-01

160

Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The storage capacity of H2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

 
 
 
 
161

Ab initio thermodynamic model for magnesium carbonates and hydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first-principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogues of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite, which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation. PMID:24679248

Chaka, Anne M; Felmy, Andrew R

2014-09-01

162

Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.

Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2014-03-28

163

Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao do padrao de mortalidade de uma coorte de mineiros expostos ao radonio em uma mineracao subterranea de carvao, Parana, Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer.

Veiga, Lene H.S.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Koifman, Sergio

2005-07-01

164

Study of radio-restoration by various mineral salts and silice wich products (Tuf and Pouzzolane) of rice embryos (oryza-sativa L, Cigalon variety) exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutagenic treatments produce a large number of mutants per unit time and are used for plant improvement. However these treatments cause damage to cells. To counteract this radio-induced damage 2 methods are being tried: - Protection, which consists in the supply of an active product before application of mutagenic agents; - Restoration, which tries to repair the damage after mutagenic treatment. This work is devoted to restoration processes. Technique for the isolation and culture on a suitable nutrient of rice embryos (oryza sativa L, Cigalon variety) separated from non-irradiated caryopses were developed first. By separating out the embryo in this way it is possible to study in vitro the interactions between the embryo and the rest of the caryopsis (albumin + pericarp). The effects of radiations on embryos from caryopses exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays were measured next, then the action of certain inorganic elements contained in the caryopsis tissues was analysed. On the basis of the first results obtained the differences in response between plantlets from embryos irradiated or otherwise treated or not either by zinc sulphate or by very silice-rich volcanic products (Tuf and Pouzzolane), were examined by chemical analysis techniques. These tests have allowed the detection of ionic changes induced by irradiation during the different stages of plant development and led to a better estimate of the radio-restoration mechanisms brought about by the various chemical compounds used

165

Laser-radiation scattering by cement in the process of hydration: simulation of the dynamics and experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses simulation of speckle-field dynamics during coherent light scattering by a cement surface in the process of hydration. Cement particles are represented by the spheres whose sizes and reflection indices are changing during the hydration process. The study of intensity fluctuations of scattered coherent radiation is a suitable technique for the analysis of both fast and slow processes of mineral binder hydration and formation of polycrystalline structures in the process of hardening. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:22505102

Gorsky, M P; Maksimyak, P P; Maksimyak, A P

2012-04-01

166

Mechanical, Thermal and Electromagnetic Properties of Hydrate-Bearing Clay, Silt, and Sand at Various Confining Pressures  

Science.gov (United States)

With sponsorship from the ChevronTexaco JIP, we have since 2002 conducted exhaustive laboratory experiments that provide critical results to inform interpretation of field- and lab-based analyses of natural methane hydrates. Specifically, we have measured the mechanical, thermal and electromagnetic properties of sediments containing different amounts of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and subjected to different effective confining stress. The use of THF allows us to control the concentration of hydrate in pore space; this is an important advantage for evaluating the impact of hydrate concentrations on the properties of hydrate bearing sediments. For these experiments, we formed gas hydrate in kaolin clay (specific surface S_a=36 m2 g-1), precipitated and crushed silt (S_a=6 and 0.11 m2 g-1, respectively), and sand (S_a=0.019 m2 g-1) to test the impact of specific surface, porosity, and grain size on the measured physical properties. The mechanical measurements show that, while the small strain shear stiffness of uncemented sediments is controlled by the effective stress, the stiffness becomes strongly dependent on hydrate concentration once hydrate formation promotes increased interparticle coordination. At intermediate and large strain, the normally consolidated sediments display strain-hardening behavior in the absence of hydrate. When hydrate is present, the quasi-elastic behavior extends to higher axial strains, and the stress-strain response becomes less sensitive to confining pressure. The failure mode is also affected by the presence of hydrates: Specimens with 50% or 100% hydrate-filled porosity develop vertical fractures when tested at low confinement (0.03 MPa), and an approximate tenfold increase in confining pressure is required for the development of shear planes. Thermal conductivity results reflect a complex interplay of particle size, effective stress, hydrate concentration, and hydrate formation effects that have not have been fully recognized in previous studies of thermal conductivity in hydrate-bearing sediments. Our results clearly indicate that, with or without hydrate, the thermal conductivity of sediments is controlled by interparticle contact conduction so that thermal conductivity increases with increasing effective stress not only due to higher mineral volume fraction, but also due to increased interparticle coordination and contact force. The increase or even decrease in thermal conductivity with hydrate formation depends on sediment type, effective stress, and hydrate volume fraction. In particular, there may be a loss in conduction once hydrate has formed, and this phenomenon is more likely in coarse-grained sediments or sediments subjected to low effective stress due to mineral-mineral contact loss that results from volume expansion during hydrate formation. The real permittivity measured at high radio-frequencies reflects the orientational polarization of free water. On the other hand, the imaginary part of effective electrical conductivity is determined by the volume fraction of electrolyte and its electrical conductivity. Therefore, both measurements closely track the decrease in volumetric free water content during consolidation and subsequent hydrate formation.

Santamarina, J.; Yun, T.; Lee, J.; Martin, A.; Francisca, F.; Ruppel, C.

2005-12-01

167

Physical property changes in hydrate-bearing sediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed, at least briefly, to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine the effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes, and speeds of the original and depressurized/repressurized samples are compared. X-ray computed tomography images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands owing to the depressurizaton/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

Waite, W. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Winters, W. J.; Mason, D. H.

2008-07-01

168

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

169

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

170

New Results on Hydration in M-Type Asteroids  

Science.gov (United States)

The M-type asteroids are a taxonomic group considered to be a candidate source of iron meteorites due to spectral and albedo similarities; however, because the spectra of M-type asteroids lack strong diagnostic absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR), their composition is difficult to constrain. High-resolution NIR spectroscopy and radar studies have shown that a metallic interpretation is unlikely to be valid for the majority of M-types. Many show weak absorption features attributed to mafic silicates (Hardersen et al. 2005, 2011; Ockert-Bell et al. 2010; Fornasier et al. 2010). Radar results show evidence for elevated metal content on the surfaces of most M-type asteroids, but few are likely to be entirely metal (Shepard et al. 2010). Surprisingly, spectrophotometric studies in the 3-?m region have indicated that hydrated minerals are relatively common among the M-type population, confounding interpretations of M-types as highly thermally processed (Rivkin et al. 1995, 2000). The shape of the 3-?m band, diagnostic of hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, is relevant to an asteroid’s thermal history (Rivkin et al. 2002, Takir & Emery 2012). To characterize this region, we have conducted a 2 – 4 ?m spectroscopic study of six M-type asteroids using SpeX at NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility. In its LXD mode, SpeX allows us to investigate the 3-?m band at spectral resolutions unavailable during previously published studies. We report the presence of a 3-?m feature on all six asteroids, indicating hydrated minerals on the asteroids’ surfaces. We have also detected rotational variability of the 3-?m feature in asteroid (216) Kleopatra, which, interestingly, had been interpreted as “dry” in previous work (Rivkin et al. 2000). On all of our target asteroids, the 3-?m band depths are asteroid composition.

Landsman, Zoe A.; Campins, Humberto; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Emery, Joshua P.; Lorenzi, Vania

2014-11-01

171

Hydrated Interfacial Ions and Electrons  

Science.gov (United States)

Charged particles such as hydrated ions and transient hydrated electrons, the simplest anionic reducing agents in water, and the special hydronium and hydroxide ions at water interfaces play an important role in many fields of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, radiation chemistry, and biology, as well as biochemistry. This article focuses on these species near hydrophobic interfaces of water, such as the air or vacuum interface of water or water protein/membrane interfaces. Ions at interfaces as well as solvated electrons have been reviewed frequently during the past decade. Although all species have been known for some time with seemingly familiar features, recently the picture in all cases became increasingly diffuse rather than clearer. The current account gives a critical state-of-the art overview of what is known and what remains to be understood and investigated about hydrated interfacial ions and electrons.

Abel, Bernd

2013-04-01

172

Spin depolarization in muonium by hydrated electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The missing fraction of muon polarization in water is shown to originate from encounters between muonium and hydrated electrons. This takes place at about 1 ns after the primary events in which muonium and hydrated electrons are born

173

Spectroscopic Determination of Optimal Hydration Time of Zircon Surface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los minerales que son inmersos en solución acuosa, desarrollan una carga eléctrica, producida por la aparición de la disociación anfotérica de los grupos hidroxilo formados en superficie. Esta propiedad es específica para cada mineral y la determinación del tiempo de hidratación es fundamental para [...] realizar posteriores estudios de sorción en la interfase sólido/líquido. En este estudio se determinó el tiempo óptimo de hidratación del circón (ZrSiO4), comparando la técnica clásica por titulación potenciométrica con la técnica de fluorescencia a diferentes tiempos. La técnica de fluorescencia fue desarrollada gracias a las impurezas de tierras raras que son contenidas en cantidades traza en los minerales de circón. El análisis por activación neutrónica mostró que las impurezas contenidas en este lote de circón eran principalmente el Dy3+, Eu3+ y el Er3+. El Dy3+ tiene una buena respuesta fluorescente que se incrementa con las moléculas de agua a medida que este elemento se hidrata. Los resultados mostraron que el método potenciométrico es largo y tedioso, pues se requiere un lote por cada tiempo en estudio y toma alrededor de 2 h el análisis, en tanto que el método espectroscópico requiere de una sola muestra que se analiza puntualmente pasado el tiempo requerido, esto sólo toma 5 min, después del cual se continua con el proceso de hidratación. Ámbos métodos mostraron que la superficie del circón requiere de 16 h para alcanzar el tiempo óptimo de hidratación. Abstract in english When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops an electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific [...] for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO4) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and reliable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy3+, Eu3+ and Er³ in the bulk of zircon. The Dy3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 min from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16h optimal hydration time.

Eduardo, Ordóñez-Regil; Genoveva, García-Rosales; Nidia, García-González.

2010-09-01

174

Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles ? ? 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (? = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range ?adh phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

Kandu?, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

2014-08-01

175

Nature of hydrated sodium polyvanadates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the methods of IR spectroscopy, EPR and NMR hydrated hexa- and dodecavanadates of sodium and products of their dehydration are studied. Geometric parameters of water molecules are determined. It is established that the compounds studied contain two types of water molecules, which condition the stage character of dehydration. Complete dehydration of dodecavanadate (t > 280 deg) results in irreversible structural changes with the formation of bronze Na2V6O15 (?). In hexavanadate after removal of zeolite water hydrated bronze is formed. Further rebuilding is accompanied by formation of oxide vanadium bronze Nasub(2+2x)Vsub(6)Osub(16)

176

Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation on hydrated and air dried rye grass seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a comparative study of the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of hydrated and air dried seeds during the first weeks of primary growth. Four groups of seeds were used in the study: 1) hydrated sweet corn, 2) air dried sweet corn, 3) hydrated rye grass, and 4) air dried rye grass. Each group was then further subdivided and exposed to various levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 irradiator, except for the control samples of the four groups which received no radiation above background level. All seeds samples were then planted, allowed to grow for approximately 12 days, and harvested. Growth of both shoot and root of each seed was recorded for data analysis according to specific groups. Analyses of data from this study shows that the mean growth of air dried seeds when exposed to gamma radiation prior to planting

177

The nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate  

Science.gov (United States)

The nanostructure of C-S-H, the principle binding phase of hydrated cements in concrete, is examined through classical and spectroscopic methods such as solubility, 29Si MAS NMR, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). A more comprehensive understanding of the nanostructure is proposed. The central finding of this thesis is that variations in Ca/Si ratio, silicate structure, and Ca-OH content of C-S-H are systematically related to previously undiscovered variations in solubility in the CaO-SiO2-H 2O system at room temperature. These relationships show how C-S-H resembles disordered forms of the calcium silicate hydrate minerals 1.4-nm tobermorite [Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·8H 2O] and jennite [Ca9(Si6O18)(OH) 6·8H2O]. For example, in solids lacking Ca-OH groups, the structure resembles a purely tobermorite-like structure, which, when equilibrated in aqueous solutions saturated in Ca(OH)2, has a Ca/Si ratio of 1.5 and a minimum mean silicate chain length of 2; with increasing Ca-OH contents, the structure becomes increasingly jennite-like while showing higher Ca/Si ratios and higher mean chain lengths at saturation in Ca(OH)2. These relationships appear to reconcile the broad variations in the literature. 29Si NMR on concrete specimens aged 43--96 years show that the mean silicate chain length of C-S-H gel ultimately converges to a value of 5. With supporting evidence from chemical analysis and from high Ca-OH contents measured by INS, it is concluded that C-S-H gel formed in Ca3SiO5 pastes eventually equilibrates to a purely jennite-like structure. A Ca/Si ratio of 1.2 in C-S-H gel marks the composition at which Ca-OH groups are eliminated (or introduced) and below which spontaneous silicate polymerization occurs. Leaching studies on cement pastes show that when C-S-H is decalcified below Ca/Si ˜ 1.2, the induced silicate polymerization occurring in situ leads to macroscopic polymerization shrinkage. Cement pastes blended with high contents of mineral additions may be more susceptible to this mechanism. SANS measurements on leached Ca3SiO5 and cement pastes show dramatic variations in surface area with Ca/Si ratio. These variations are attributed to transformations between low- and high-density morphologies of C-S-H.

Chen, Jeffrey J.

178

Adiabatic compressibility of hydrated complexes of electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rigorous method to determine the adiabatic compressibility of a solvent has been considered. Using the given approach a thermodynamically valid equation was obtained to determine the hydration numbers and adiabatic compressibility of hydrated complexes. Hydration parameters were determined for the chlorides of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium, and the sulphates of sodium and magnesium.

179

Buildings exposed to fire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW)

180

Indústria mineral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobr [...] e o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia). A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo. Abstract in english THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a tho [...] rough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia, China, CIS and India). The issue of strategic minerals is also discussed, giving emphasis to the concerns raised by the U.S. Department of State. Finally, three possible scenarios pointing to the future behavior of the mineral industry of Brazil are highlighted, and the government is solicited to give special consideration to our mineral resources.

Iran F., Machado.

 
 
 
 
181

Mineral fibres and health  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l{sup -1}, which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

Hoskins, J.A

2001-07-01

182

Mineral fibres and health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l-1, which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. T, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

183

Developments in geophysical well log acquisition and interpretation in gas hydrate saturated reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is difficult to obtain precise values for the petrophysical parameters of gas hydrate resources using traditional well logging and seismic survey tools. This paper presented a review of geophysical log measurement tools for hydrate-saturated reservoirs. The review included outlines of new technologies tested and used at the Mallik gas hydrate production research program in the Mackenzie Delta as well as from field studies conducted in the Nankai trough. Technologies included nuclear spectroscopy; magnetic resonance; epithermal and thermal neutron; and borehole imaging and sonic measurements. Nuclear elemental spectroscopy was used to develop an understanding of mineralogy in the study areas in order to estimate the clay mineral fraction and correct resistivity-based saturations. Magnetic resonance measurements were used to estimate reservoir porosity and hydrate saturation levels. Neutron porosity tools are used to measure a formation's hydrogen index. Examples of corrections made using nuclear spectroscopy logs were included. Permeability estimates in the hydrate-saturated rock were used to establish intrinsic permeability upper and lower bounds. Acoustic borehole measurements were used to calibrate surface seismic velocities to depth. The technology is now also being used for sonic dispersion analysis for estimating wellbore and far-field formation parameters. Continuing development of the technologies is expected to enhance methane hydrate resource assessment and production. 29 refs., 8 figs.

Murray, D. [Schlumberger Oilfield Services, Beijing (China); Fujii, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan); Dallimore, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

2008-07-01

184

Characterization of methane hydrate host sediments using synchrotron-computed microtomography (CMT)  

Science.gov (United States)

The hydrate-sediment interaction is an important aspect of gas hydrate studies that needs further examination. We describe here the applicability of the computed microtomography (CMT) technique that utilizes an intense X-ray synchrotron source to characterize sediment samples, two at various depths from the Blake Ridge area (a well-known hydrate-prone region) and one from Georges Bank, that once contained methane trapped as hydrates. Detailed results of the tomographic analysis performed on the deepest sample (667??m) from Blake Ridge are presented as 2-D and 3-D images which show several mineral constituents, the internal grain/pore microstructure, and, following segmentation into pore and grain space, a visualization of the connecting pathways through the pore-space of the sediment. Various parameters obtained from the analysis of the CMT data are presented for all three sediment samples. The micro-scale porosity values showed decreasing trend with increasing depth for all three samples that is consistent with the previously reported bulk porosity data. The 3-D morphology, pore-space pathways, porosity, and permeability values are also reported for all three samples. The application of CMT is now being expanded to the laboratory-formed samples of hydrate in sediments as well as field samples of methane hydrate bearing sediments.

Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Prodanovic, M.; Mahajan, D.

2007-01-01

185

Physical properties of gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are naturally occurring, solid crystalline compounds (clathrates) that encapsulate gas molecules inside the lattices of hydrogen bonded water molecules within a specific temperature-pressure stability zone. Estimates of the total quantity of available methane gas in natural occurring hydrates are based on twice the energy content of known conventional fossil fuels reservoirs. Accurate and reliable in-situ quantification techniques are essential in determining the economic viability of this potential energy yield, which is dependent upon several factors such as sensitivity of the temperature-pressure stability zone, sediment type, porosity, permeability, concentration/abundance of free gas, spatial distribution in pore spaces, specific cage occupancy, and the influence of inhibitors. Various techniques like acoustic P and S waves, time domain reflectometry, and electrical resistance have been used to analyze the quantity and spatial distribution of the gas hydrate samples. These techniques were reviewed and the results obtained in the course of gas hydrate research were presented. 34 refs., 8 figs.

Kliner, J.T.R.; Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

186

Thermal conductivity of tetrahydrofuran hydrate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thermal conductivity of tetrahydrofuran hydrate has been measured in the temperature region 2 – 220 K by the steady-state potentiometric method. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity exhibits behavior typical of amorphous substances. It is shown that above 100 K the mean free path of the phonons is considerably smaller than the lattice parameter and is no longer dependent on temperature.

Krivchikova, A. I.; Manzheliia, V. G.; Korolyuka, O. A.; Gorodilova, B. Ya; Romantsovaa, O. O.

2004-01-01

187

Thermal properties of methane gas hydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas hydrates are crystalline solids in which molecules of a “guest” species occupy and stabilize cages formed by water molecules. Similar to ice in appearance (fig. 1), gas hydrates are stable at high pressures and temperatures above freezing (0°C). Methane is the most common naturally occurring hydrate guest species. Methane hydrates, also called simply “gas hydrates,” are extremely concentrated stores of methane and are found in shallow permafrost and continental margin sediments worldwide. Brought to sea-level conditions, methane hydrate breaks down and releases up to 160 times its own volume in methane gas. The methane stored in gas hydrates is of interest and concern to policy makers as a potential alternative energy resource and as a potent greenhouse gas that could be released from sediments to the atmosphere and ocean during global warming. In continental margin settings, methane release from gas hydrates also is a potential geohazard and could cause submarine landslides that endanger offshore infrastructure. Gas hydrate stability is sensitive to temperature changes. To understand methane release from gas hydrate, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a laboratory investigation of pure methane hydrate thermal properties at conditions relevant to accumulations of naturally occurring methane hydrate. Prior to this work, thermal properties for gas hydrates generally were measured on analog systems such as ice and non-methane hydrates or at temperatures below freezing; these conditions limit direct comparisons to methane hydrates in marine and permafrost sediment. Three thermal properties, defined succinctly by Briaud and Chaouch (1997), are estimated from the experiments described here: - Thermal conductivity, ?: if ? is high, heat travels easily through the material. - Thermal diffusivity, ?: if ? is high, it takes little time for the temperature to rise in the material. - Specific heat, cp: if cp is high, it takes a great deal of heat to raise the temperature of the material.

Waite, William F.

2007-01-01

188

Mineral bioprocessing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

Torma, A.E.

1993-05-01

189

A reaction-diffusion model for the hydration/setting of cement  

CERN Document Server

We propose a heterogeneous reaction-diffusion model for the hydration and setting of cement. The model is based on diffusional ion transport and on cement specific chemical dissolution/precipitation reactions under spatial heterogeneous solid/liquid conditions. We simulate the spatial and temporal evolution of precipitated micro structures starting from initial random configurations of anhydrous cement particles. Though the simulations have been performed for two dimensional systems, we are able to reproduce qualitatively basic features of the cement hydration problem. The proposed model is also applicable to general water/mineral systems.

Tzschichholz, F; Zanni, H

1995-01-01

190

Degrading permafrost and gas hydrate under the Beaufort Shelf and marine gas hydrate on the adjacent continental slope  

Science.gov (United States)

The sub-seafloor under the Arctic Shelf is arguably the part of the Earth that is undergoing the most dramatic warming. In the southern Beaufort Sea, the shelf area was terrestrially exposed during much of the Quaternary period when sea level was ~120m lower than present. As a consequence, many areas are underlain by >600m of ice-bonded permafrost that conditions the geothermal regime such that the base of the methane hydrate stability can be >1000m deep. Marine transgression has imposed a change in mean annual surface temperature from -15°C or lower during periods of terrestrial exposure, to mean annual sea bottom temperatures near 0°C. The thermal disturbance caused by transgression is still influencing the upper km of subsurface sediments. Decomposition of gas hydrate is inferred to be occurring at the base and the top of the gas hydrate stability zone. As gas hydrate and permafrost intervals degrade, a range of processes occur that are somewhat unique to this setting. Decomposition of gas hydrate at depth can cause sediment weakening, generate excess pore water pressure, and form free gas. Similarly, thawing permafrost can cause thaw consolidation, liberate trapped gas bubbles in ice bonded permafrost. Understanding the connection between deep subsurface processes generated by transgression, surficial sediment processes near the seafloor, and gas flux into the ocean and atmosphere is important to assessing geohazard and environmental conditions in this setting. In contrast, conditions for marine gas hydrate formation occur on the adjacent continental slope below ~270m water depths. In this paper, we present field observations of gas venting from three geologically distinct environments in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, two on the shelf and one on the slope. A complimentary paper by Dallimore et al reviews the geothermal changes conditioning this environment. Vigorous methane venting is occurring over Pingo-Like-Features (PLF) on the mid-shelf. Diffuse venting of methane is occurring over a large area along the shelf edge. The methane gas emanating from both shelf features have stable isotopic compositions that indicate they are microbial in origin and are radiocarbon dead and thus sourced from geologic deposits. The PLF vents are believed to be sourced from the top of the gas hydrate stability field, while the gas emanating along the shelf edge can be from either permafrost or gas hydrate decomposition. Gas venting from both these shelf edge environments is consistent with heating associated with the last transgression. On the continental slope 3 circular topographic features up to 1 km in diameter occur in 290-790 m water depth. Data will be presented that show these are coincident with gas chimneys connected to geologic structures at depth. Water column flares, vigorous methane release and pore water freshening in cores suggest these are active vent sites and contain near seafloor marine gas hydrate. In this one area where both permafrost and marine gas hydrate occur in close proximity there is a remarkable coalescence of geologic features that are potentially related to climatically induced gas hydrate or permafrost decomposition.

Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Blasco, S.; Melling, H.; Lundsten, E.; Vagle, S.; Collett, T. S.

2011-12-01

191

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-01-01

192

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-06-01

193

Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)4: PO4?P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

2014-01-01

194

Gas Hydrate Reservoir Characterization at Hydrate Ridge Using PS Converted Waves From Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of marine gas hydrates using seismic methods has been a major focus in marine geophysics for the last decade. Amplitude variation with offset (AVO) methods using multichannel streamer (MCS) or ocean bottom hydrophone (OBH) data are capable of yielding rough estimates of the hydrate and free gas volumes in the sediments, but lacking shear wave information they fail to determine the elastic parameters and rock-physical properties of the subsurface accurately. Thus, additional shear wave data had to be collected by OBS or ocean bottom cable (OBC) acquisitions. In September 2000, an OBS data set consisting of six stations was acquired at northern Hydrate Ridge in the vicinity of ODP site 892 as part of the HYDGAS project, giving us the opportunity to study the hydrate environment in an integrated approach using PS converted wave data together with p wave (OBH/SCS/MCS) and borehole log data. OBS processing included component rotation, trace interpolation, wavefield downward continuation / migration and amplitude modeling. Identification of the different phases and determination of the conversion points and shear wave velocities was achieved by forward modeling and ?(vs/vp)-scans. Several different models including a low-velocity gas layer below the BSR and faults are tested with PS conversions at all possible layer boundaries and multiples to assign the observed reflections to specific ray paths. A strong conversion directly at the seafloor might be enabled by an increase in the shear modulus due to outcropping gas hydrate or exposed carbonate crusts. By examining the amplitude behaviour of the different shear wave phases the determined conversion points and values for ? are confirmed for the relevant sediment layers. Additionally, constraints for the prevailing rock-physics model can be derived. The presented work shows the advantages of an analysis of PS converted wave data acquired by OBS measurements in determining the elastic properties of gas hydrate bearing sediments. In conclusion, it can be stated that the success in quantifying hydrate and free gas lies in the integration of all available data including seismic surface data (MCS and SCS), seabottom data (OBH/OBS) and borehole data.

Petersen, J.; Papenberg, C.; Klaeschen, D.

2002-12-01

195

Lung Cancer in uranium miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36?61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

196

Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

Andreassen, K.

1995-12-31

197

Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

1983-12-01

198

Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn

2009-11-01

199

Rocks and Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

Richrigby

2010-02-23

200

Uranium minerals in Chattanooga shale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chattanooga shale samples from DeKalb County, Tennessee, were studied with an electron microprobe. Preliminary results show that uranium in concentrations up to 130 ppM is not dispersed uniformly within the kerogen or inorganic matrix. Distinct uranium minerals, such as uraninite, apatite, and titanium bearing oxides, ranging in size from 3 to 180 ?m, are evident on shale surface exposed by polishing. 10 figures

 
 
 
 
201

Stratigraphic mapping of hydrated phases in Western Ius Chasma, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent mapping with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) has revealed a wide range of hydrated minerals throughout Valles Marineris. Noctis Labyrinthus has interbedded polyhydrated and monohydrated sulfates, with occasional beds of nontronite (Weitz et al. 2010, Thollot et al. 2012). Tithonium Chasma has interbedded poly- and monohydrated sulfates (Murchie et al. 2012); Juventae has poly- and monohydrated sulfates and an anhydrous ferric hydroxysulfate-bearing material (Bishop et al. 2009); and Melas and Eastern Candor contain layers of poly- and monohydrated sulfates (e.g., Roach et al. 2009). Though each chasm displays its own mineralogy, in general, the eastern valles tend to be dominated by layered sequences with sulfates; whereas, the far western valles (Noctis Labyrinthus) has far more mineral phases, possibly due to a wider variety of past environments or processes affecting the area. Ius Chasma, which is situated between Noctis Labyrinthus and the eastern valles and chasmata, also displays a complex mineralogy, with polyhydrated sulfates, Fe/Mg smectites, hydrated silica, and kieserite (e.g. Roach et al. 2010). Here, we present mapping of recently acquired CRISM observations over Ius Chasma, combining the recent CRISM cubes with topographic terrains produced using High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data from the Mars Express spacecraft. Stratigraphic columns are produced along the length of Ius Chasma, and compared to stratigraphic columns produced throughout the Valles Marineris

Cull, S.; McGuire, P. C.; Gross, C.; Dumke, A.

2013-12-01

202

Hydrated Silica at Mawrth Vallis and Implications for Past Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrated silica has been identified in many outcrops in the Mawrth Vallis region [1-3] often mixed with Al-bearing phyllosilicates such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. To determine which form of hydrated silica could be mixed with the Al-phyllosilicates at Mawrth Vallis, spectra of intimate mineral mixtures were measured in the lab and compared to CRISM spectra (figure 1). The mixtures considered were: kaolinite-opal-A, kaolinite-montmorillonite, montmorillonite-obsidian, montmorillonite-hydrated silica (opal), and glass-illite-smectite. The best spectral matches with Martian data from our lab experiments are mixtures of montmorillonite and obsidian having 20 to 50 % montmorillonite or mixtures of kaolinite and montmorillonite with 25 to 50 % kaolinite. The spectra of clay mixtures with opal and of hydrothermally altered glass-illite-smectite did not represent as well the Martian spectra observed in this region. This suggests that a cryptocrystalline (obsidian) or crystalline form of hydrated silica is present at Mawrth Vallis rather than an amorphous form (opal-A) which has been identified elsewhere on Mars [e.g. 4]. References: [1] Bishop, J. L. et al. (2008) Science, 321, 830-833. [2] McKeown, N. K. et al. (2009) JGR- Planets, 114, E00D10. [3] Noe Dobrea, E. Z. et al. (2010) JGR- Planets, 115, E00D19. [4] Milliken, R. E. et al. (2008) Geology, 36, 847-850. Figure 1 (left) Spectra of montmorillonite-obsidian mixtures compared to CRISM spectra from FRT0000848D. (right) Spectra of kaolinite-montmorillonite and kaolinite-SiOH (opal-A) mixtures compared to CRISM spectra from HRL000043EC and FRT0000848D.

McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Cuadros, J.; Hillier, S.; Parente, M.

2010-12-01

203

Progress in understanding the structure and thermodynamics of calcium silicate hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A program has been designed to support the prediction of cement degradation and the chemistry of water in contact with cement, over extended periods of time (e.g., 10,000 y). This multidisciplinary experimental and computer modeling investigation is intended to characterize the structural and thermodynamic properties of crystalline phases found in cement at elevated temperature. Many of these crystalline phases my be hydrated. The hydration state of these phases must be known to the interpret experimentally obtained thermodynamic data, to evaluate the stability of hydrated phases and to estimate long-term water availability, such as would be required for prediction of the radioactive-waste repository`s lifetime. The parts of the program associated with assessing and predicting dehydration/ rehydration behavior are described in this paper. (1) identification of phases present in standardized grout mixtures exposed to elevated temperatures; (2) mechanistic and thermodynamic analysis of the hydration/ dehydration behavior of hydrated calcium silicates as a function of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity; and (3) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated calcium silicates.

Meike, A.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Onofrei, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

1994-02-01

204

Progress in understanding the structure and thermodynamics of calcium silicate hydrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large quantities of cementitious materials may be used in constructing a potential nuclear-waste repository. A program has been designed to support the prediction of cement degradation and the chemistry of water in contact with cement, over extended periods of time (e.g., 10,000 y). This multidisciplinary experimental and computer modeling investigation is intended to characterize the structural and thermodynamic properties of crystalline phases found in cement at elevated temperatures. Many of these crystalline phases may be hydrated. The hydration state of these phases must be known to the interpret experimentally obtained thermodynamic data, to evaluate the stability of hydrated phases, and to estimate long-term water availability, such as would be required for prediction of the radioactive-waste repository's lifetime. The parts of the program associated with assessing and predicting dehydration/rehydration behavior are described in this paper: (1) identification of phases present in standardized grout mixtures exposed to elevated temperatures; (2) mechanistic and thermodynamic analysis of the hydration/dehydration behavior of hydrated calcium silicates as a function of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity; and (3) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated calcium silicates

205

The Exchange Reaction Between Methane Hydrate and Carbon Dioxide: An Oceanic Feasibility Test  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate offers, in principle, a way of sequestering CO2, with the additional recovery of CH4 gas as an energy source. We report results from the first in-situ oceanic experiment on this reaction, carried out in August 2006 at the massive thermogenic hydrate mounds in 850 m water depth, Barkley Canyon, offshore from Vancouver Island (48° 18.642' N, 126° 3.903' W), using MBARI's ROV Tiburon deployed from the R/V Western Flyer. Two small cores (10 cm length, 4 cm diameter) of white hydrate were collected from exposed outcrops using an ROV operated tool and hydraulically ejected into a glass walled, closed top, reaction chamber. Approximately 2 L of liquid CO2 were dispensed into the chamber, and the chamber transferred to an aluminium base plate to seal the system. Under ambient conditions (P = 870 dbar, T = 4.0 °C, S = 34.2), the densities of natural gas hydrate and liquid CO2 are closely matched and less than that of seawater, where the hydrate cores floated at the top of the chamber fully immersed within the buoyant liquid CO2. Over the following ~48 hours, the system was inspected periodically with the ROV HDTV camera prior to examination with the sea-going laser Raman spectrometer, DORISS II. For this, the chamber was transferred to a Precision Underwater Positioner (PUP) that enabled focusing of the laser beam with sub- mm precision. Our choice of where to focus the laser was based upon the need to explore all phases the cored natural gas hydrate, liquid CO2, any created CO2 hydrate, and any liberated CH4 gas. The natural gas hydrate was composed primarily of CH4, with minor amounts of C2H6 and C3H8, indicating the presence of Structure II hydrate. To date, laboratory experiments have focused on the reaction between pure Structure I CH4 hydrate and CO2 vapour, where the difference in free energy between the CH4 and CO2 hydrate states provides a thermodynamic argument in favour of conversion. However for a Structure II hydrate with a complex guest gas composition immersed in liquid CO2 there are multiple pathways for the reaction to proceed. If the hydrate cage occupancy is 100% then we suspect on thermodynamic grounds that the reaction may proceed slowly; nevertheless if cage occupancy is <100%, and/or a mixture of Structure I and II is present, then substitution could occur rapidly. In addition, dissolution of the natural gas hydrate in the unsaturated liquid CO2 will liberate water molecules that are then available to form CO2 hydrate. Obviously, grain size and porosity (surface area) will have profound effects on reaction rate and extent. We also note that the solubility of CH4 in CO2 is significant, and we may not expect liberation of a free CH4 gas phase until the saturation condition has been met. Given the complexity of this system, the only way to know what will occur is to do the experiment. Indeed, spectra were obtained of a commingled CO2 and CH4 hydrate. The CO2 fermi-diad peaks in the hydrate phase are distinguishable from the liquid, and are shifted to lower wavenumbers by ~~3 cm-1. We also observed the presence of dissolved CH4 within the liquid CO2, and free CH4 gas in a small but visually identifiable bubble layer at the top of the chamber. The initial success of this pilot study bodes well for future investigations both in the laboratory and in ROV based experiments.

Dunk, R. M.; Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Hester, K. C.; Sloan, E. D.

2006-12-01

206

Radon risk in ore miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding of such dependence by smoking which in this study showed to be a risk could not be neglected

207

Sequence dependent hydration of DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transitions between the different helical conformations of DNA depend on the base sequence and the ambient conditions such as humidity and counter-ion concentration. In this study energy minimization techniques have been used to locate water molecule sites around nucleotides especially those which form hydrogen bonds between two or more nucleotide atoms and thus form solvent mediated bridges. We have studied several sequences and find that those which are known not to exist in the low hydration 'A' form have very similar number of bridging sites in both 'A' and 'B' conformations. Those sequences which are found in the 'A' conformation have considerably more bridging sites in this low hydration form than in the 'B' conformation. Sequence related solvent effects for a given conformation have also been analysed. PMID:2088494

Vovelle, F; Goodfellow, J M

1990-12-01

208

Dipolar response of hydrated proteins  

CERN Document Server

The paper presents an analytical theory and numerical simulations of the dipolar response of hydrated proteins. The effective dielectric constant of the solvated protein, representing the average dipole moment induced at the protein by a uniform external field, shows a remarkable variation among the proteins studied by numerical simulations. It changes from 0.5 for ubiquitin to 640 for cytochrome c. The former value implies a negative dipolar susceptibility of ubiquitin, that is a dia-electric dipolar response and negative dielectrophoresis. It means that a protein carrying an average dipole of ~240 D is expected to repel from the region of a stronger electric field. This outcome is the result of a negative cross-correlation between the protein and water dipoles, compensating for the positive variance of the protein dipole in the overall dipolar susceptibility. This phenomenon can be characterized as overscreening of protein's dipole by the hydration shell. In contrast to the neutral ubiquitin, charged protei...

Matyushov, Dmitry V

2011-01-01

209

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the primary objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey/Russian Ministry of Geology (VNIGRI) cooperative research agreement is the assessment of the resource potential of the known onshore Arctic gas-hydrate accumulations. Geologic similarities between the Russian Messoyakha gas hydrate field located in the West Siberian basin and the Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River gas-hydrate accumulations suggest that the Alaskan gas hydrates may also be a producible source natural gas. Long-term production from the gas-hydrate part of the Messoyakha field has been achieved by a simple depressurization scheme. Both the Messoyakha and Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River gas-hydrate accumulations occur in similar sequences of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoir rocks. The presence of a significant volume of free gas trapped below both the Messoyakha and Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River gas-hydrate accumulation is very important to the consideration of potential production characteristics of gas hydrates in Alaska. Free gas below the Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River gas hydrates suggests that the depressurization production scheme used in the Messoyakha field may work in northern Alaska. The most striking difference between the Messoyakha and Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River gas-hydrate/free-gas occurrences is the size of the accumulations. The total mapped area of the gas-hydrate occurrences in the Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River area is about 650 mi[sup 2], whereas the Messoyakha field covers an area of only about 90 mi[sup 2]. This difference in field size accounts for the vast difference in the estimated gas volumes in the Messoyakha (2.8 trillion ft[sup 3]) vs. Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk river (44 trillion ft[sup 3]) gas-hydrate accumulations, which suggests that the ultimate natural gas production capacity of the Prudhoe Bay/Kuparuk River gas-hydrate occurrences will be much greater than the historical production from the Messoyakha field.

Collett, T.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-01

210

The chemical composition of mineral trioxide aggregate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is composed of Portland cement, with 4:1 addition of bismuth oxide added so that the material can be detected on a radiograph. The cement is made up of calcium, silicon and aluminium. The main constituent phases are tricalcium and dicalcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. There are two commercial forms of MTA, namely the grey and the white. The difference between the grey and the white materials is the presence of iron in the grey material, which makes up the phase tetracalcium alumino-ferrite. This phase is absent in white MTA. Hydration of MTA occurs in two stages. The initial reaction between tricalcium aluminate and water in the presence of calcium sulphate results in the production of ettringite. Tricalcium and dicalcium silicate react with water to produce calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide, which is leached out of the cement with time.

Camilleri Josette

2008-01-01

211

Phyllosilicate and hydrated silica detections in the knobby terrains of Acidalia Planitia, northern plains, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

we report detections of Fe/Mg phyllosilicates and hydrated silica in discrete stratigraphic units within the knobby terrains of Acidalia Planitia made using data acquired by Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. Fe/Mg phyllosilicates are detected in knobs that were eroded during southward retreat of the dichotomy boundary. A second later unit, now eroded to steep-sided platforms embaying the knobs, contains hydrated silica, which may have formed via localized vapor weathering, thin-film leaching, or transient water that resulted in surface alteration. These are then overlain by smooth plains with small cones, hypothesized to be mud volcanoes which previous studies have shown to have no hydrated minerals. In spite of Acidalia's location within the putative northern ocean, collectively, the data record a history of aqueous processes much like that in the southern highlands with progressively less intensive aqueous chemical alteration from the Noachian to Amazonian.

Pan, L.; Ehlmann, B. L.

2014-03-01

212

A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

213

A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Kinrade, Stephen D., E-mail: stephen.kinrade@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

2013-06-15

214

Early hydration of cementitious systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Underground job sites such as tunnels and mines rely on the quality of recently sprayed concrete to secure freshly excavated zones. Rapid setting and early high strength development are required for safety as well as for the rapid progression of the construction site. This is ensured by the addition of accelerating admixtures. These admixtures are of various chemical formulations and have different impacts on the early hydration kinetics. It is therefore important to understand their impact o...

Juilland, Patrick

2009-01-01

215

Molecular Structure of Acyclovir hydrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Acyclovir hydrate is used in the treatment of shingles and herpes simplex virus and as well as other types of herpes viral infections. This may help people co-infected with HIV and herpes simplex live longer. High dose acyclovir is used to treat hairy leukoplakia, a viral infection which usually shows up on both sides of the tongue. Possible side effects of this therapeutic substance are stomach pain, headache, nausea and/or hair-loss.

2002-09-12

216

Ocean circulation promotes methane release from gas hydrate outcrops at the NEPTUNE Canada Barkley Canyon node  

Science.gov (United States)

The NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory network enables non-destructive, controlled experiments and time-series observations with mobile robots on gas hydrates and benthic community structure on a small plateau of about 1 km2 at a water depth of 870 m in Barkley Canyon, about 100 km offshore Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A mobile Internet operated vehicle was used as an instrument platform to monitor and study up to 2000 m2 of sediment surface in real-time. In 2010 the first mission of the robot was to investigate the importance of oscillatory deep ocean currents on methane release at continental margins. Previously, other experimental studies have indicated that methane release from gas hydrate outcrops is diffusion-controlled and should be much higher than seepage from buried hydrate in semipermeable sediments. Our results show that periods of enhanced bottom currents associated with diurnal shelf waves, internal semidiurnal tides, and also wind-generated near-inertial motions can modulate methane seepage. Flow dependent destruction of gas hydrates within the hydrate stability field is possible from enhanced bottom currents when hydrates are not covered by either seafloor biota or sediments. The calculated seepage varied between 40-400 ?mol CH4 m-2 s-1. This is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than dissolution rates of buried hydrates through permeable sediments and well within the experimentally derived range for exposed gas hydrates under different hydrodynamic boundary conditions. We conclude that submarine canyons which display high hydrodynamic activity can become key areas of enhanced seepage as a result of emerging weather patterns due to climate change.

Thomsen, Laurenz; Barnes, Christopher; Best, Mairi; Chapman, Ross; Pirenne, Benoît; Thomson, Richard; Vogt, Joachim

2012-08-01

217

DISTINCTIVE FINE-SCALE MORPHOLOGY OF HYDRATE RIDGE  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m) collected using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) reveals in unprecedented detail the fine-scale morphology of the ridge crests on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon. An inertial navigation system combined with a doppler velocity sonar allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids with 150 m line spacing at 3 knots while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the bottom. The data were collected on two 17.5-hour-long dives, one covering a 4.3 x 1.9 km area on the southern crest of Hydrate Ridge (769 to 930 m water depths) and the other covering a 5.2 x 2 km area on the northern crest of Hydrate Ridge (584 to 985 m water depths). These surveys cover the seafloor associated with gas hydrate research boreholes at ODP Sites 891 and 1245 to 1250). The southern crest of Hydrate Ridge is an area being considered for a cable-connected seafloor observatory. The surface of southern Hydrate Ridge is generally smooth except for two approximately circular patches with maximum diameters of 350 m and 500 m associated with a distinctive hummocky topography. The geometric relationships indicate that the edges of these patches are surrounded with small apparently erosional scarps and thus the strata exposed within the patches are stratigraphically lower than the surrounding smooth seafloor. The fine scale-topography within these patches is characterized by a highly irregular surface formed by small, sometimes circular ~0.5 m deep pits, local highs and lows separated by ~0.5 high ledges that could be formed by irregularly eroded bedding surfaces. Similar shapes also occur at larger scales. For example, a previously described feature called the “pinnacle” is a ~15 m topographic high in the center of one of these hummocky patches. The surface of northern Hydrate Ridge has similar patches of hummocky topography. However, the patches are more numerous, associated with greater relief, elongated in a NE-SW direction, and up to 1400 m long. Again, these patches appear to consist of more resistant strata that have been exposed by erosion. One crater-like feature is roughly circular with a raised rim surrounding a 40 m deep depression that is 300 m in diameter. A ridge extends over 600 m to the SW from the SW flank of this depression. This ridge has a trough near its crest that suggests it is an open crack associated with seafloor expansion formed when seafloor was up-lifted to form the ridge. Previous ROV and manned submersible dives indicate that methane-derived carbonates, chemosynthetic biological communities and near seafloor gas hydrate occurrences are associated with the patches of seafloor we now know are characterized by the distinctive hummocky topography. Apparently, these distinctive textures and seafloor features are produced by processes which are focused at methane-rich seafloor sites; however, previously available survey tools have not had the resolution to adequately image these features.

Conlin, D.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Ussler, W.; Lundsten, E.; Thompson, D.

2009-12-01

218

Energy landscape of clathrate hydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Clathrate hydrates are nanoporous crystalline materials made of a network of hydrogen-bonded water molecules (forming host cages) that is stabilized by the presence of foreign (generally hydrophobic) guest molecules. The natural existence of large quantities of hydrocarbon hydrates in deep oceans and permafrost is certainly at the origin of numerous applications in the broad areas of energy and environmental sciences and technologies (e.g. gas storage). At a fundamental level, their nanostructuration confers on these materials specific properties (e.g. their "glass-like" thermal conductivity) for which the host-guest interactions play a key role. These interactions occur on broad timescale and thus require the use of multi-technique approach in which neutron scattering brings unvaluable information. This work reviews the dynamical properties of clathrate hydrates, ranging from intramolecular vibrations to Brownian relaxations; it illustrates the contribution of neutron scattering in the understanding of the underlying factors governing chemical-physics properties specific to these nanoporous systems.

Desmedt, A.; Bedouret, L.; Pefoute, E.; Pouvreau, M.; Say-Liang-Fat, S.; Alvarez, M.

2012-11-01

219

Lectures held at the congress on ``Gas hydrates: problem substance / resource``, organised by the GDMK Division for ``Exploration and Extraction`` and the Institute for Mineral Oil and Natural Gas Research, in Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Harz) on 6/7 November 1997. Author`s manuscripts; Vortraege der Veranstaltung ``Gashydrate: Problemstoff/Resource`` des GDMK-Fachbereichs `Aufsuchung und Gewinnung` und dem Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung am 06. und 07. November 1997 in Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Harz). Autorenmanuskripte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following topics are dealt with in detail: the chemical and physical properties of gas hydrates as derivable from their phase behaviour; the significance and occurrence of gas hydrates in offshore areas; gas hydrates and permafrost in continental northern West Siberia; information on HYACE, a research project of the European Union on test drilling for gas hydrates in offshore areas; sediment-mechanical criteria of gas hydrate formation in deep-sea sediments; gas hydrate formation in gas cavern storages; the use of hydrate inhibitors in operating natural gas storages; and the inhibition of gas hydrates with kinetic inhibitors. Eight abstracts were abstracted individually for the Energy Database. (MSK) [Deutsch] Folgende Themen werden detailliert behandelt: die chemischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften von Gashydraten,welche aus dem Phasenverhalten der Gashydrate herzuleiten sind; zur Bedeutung und Vorkommen von Gashydraten im Offshore-Bereich; Gashydrate und Permafrost im kontinentalen noerdlichen Westsibirien; Informationen zu HYACE, einem Forschungsprojekt der Europaeischen Union zu Probebohrungen nach Gashydraten im Offshore-Bereich; sedimentmechanische Kriterien bei der Gashydratbildung in Tiefseesedimenten; die Gashydratbildung in Gaskavernenspeichern; der Einsatz von Hydratinhibitoren beim Betrieb von Erdgasspeichern sowie die Inhibierung von Gashydraten mit kinetischen Inhibitoren. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden acht Beitraege einzeln aufgenommen.

NONE

1997-12-31

220

Hydrogen (H2) Storage in Clathrate Hydrates  

CERN Document Server

Structure, stability and reactivity of clathrate hydrates with or without hydrogen encapsulation are studied using standard density functional calculations. Conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors and the associated electronic structure principles are used to explain the hydrogen storage properties of clathrate hydrates. Different thermodynamic quantities associated with H2-trapping are also computed. The stability of the H2-clathrate hydrate complexes increases upon the subsequent addition of hydrogen molecules to the clathrate hydrates. The efficacy of trapping of hydrogen molecules inside the cages of clathrate hydrates depends upon the cavity sizes and shapes of the clathrate hydrates. Computational studies reveal that 512 and 51262 structures are able to accommodate up to two H2 molecules whereas 51268 can accommodate up to six hydrogen molecules.

Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar; Mondal, Sukanta

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties. PMID:22432618

Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T

2011-01-01

222

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

1991-06-01

223

Pressurization effects on methane hydrate dissociation  

Science.gov (United States)

Elucidating the mechanisms of self-preservation and control of dissociation of gas hydrates is crucial for developing technologies facilitating high-stability and long-term storage of natural gas using gas hydrate crystals. Direct measurements of the dissociation behavior of pressurized and nonpressurized methane hydrate grains in a temperature ramping test were conducted. We revealed that a pressurized process is effective for enhancing self-preservation and that it is useful to store methane gas while maintaining a submillimeter-sized hydrate material under high temperature conditions.

Kida, Masato; Watanabe, Mizuho; Jin, Yusuke; Nagao, Jiro

2014-01-01

224

Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01

225

Some aspects of hydrate formation and wetting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental observations of gas hydrate formation have shown that, in the initial nucleation and crystallization process, water-oil emulsions may be generated, destabilized or even inverted. These phenomena are consistent with the effects of particles on emulsions. In this work we relate experimental observations of hydrate formation to the phenomenon of wettability. It is shown that details of hydrate wetting are important for both the morphology and the kinetics of the formed hydrates. For the cases of hydrate lenses and spheres, it is shown that the various wetting states can be illustrated and analyzed by using wetting diagrams. Metastability is a function of the surface energies of the hydrate formation, i.e., the wetting state, and it is shown that in some cases metastability vanishes, and thus hydrates nucleates instantly at all positive driving forces. The magnitude of buoyancy and turbulence forces acting on a hydrate sphere are compared to the capillary force and it is concluded that capillary energy dominates when the hydrate spheres is less than 1 mm. PMID:18295775

Fotland, P; Askvik, K M

2008-05-01

226

Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

2008-01-01

227

Observation of Sintering of Clathrate Hydrates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates have recently received attention as novel storage and transportation materials for natural gases or hydrogen. These hydrates are treated as powders or particles, and moderate storage temperatures (around 253 K are set for economic reasons. Thus, it is necessary to consider the sintering of hydrate particles for their easy handling because the hydrates have a framework similar to that of ice, even though their sintering would require guest molecules in addition to water molecules. We observed the sintering process of clathrate hydrates to estimate the rate of sintering. Spherical tetrahydrofuran (THF hydrate particles were used in observations of sintering under a microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a time-lapse video recorder. We found that THF hydrate particles stored at temperatures below the equilibrium condition sintered like ice particles. The sintering part was confirmed to be not ice, but THF hydrate, by increasing the temperature above 273 K after each experiment. The sintering rate was lower than that of ice particles under the normal vapor condition at the same temperature. However, it became of the same order when the atmosphere of the sample was saturated with THF vapor. This indicates that the sintering rate of THF hydrate was controlled by the transportation of guest molecules through the vapor phase accompanied with water molecules.

Kazutoshi Gohara

2010-12-01

228

Gas hydrate resources of northern Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediments of outer continental margins. While methane, propane and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The production history of the Russian Messoyakha gas hydrate field demonstrates that gas hydrates are an immediate source of natural gas that can be produced by conventional methods. This gas hydrate resource assessment for Alaska is based on a `play analysis` scheme, in which geological factors controlling the accumulation of gas hydrates are independently evaluated. Two gas hydrate plays were identified and assessed at the 0.50 and 0.05 probability levels. Based on this assessment, the mean in-place hydrate resource estimate for northern Alaska is calculated to be 16.7 trillion cubic meters of gas (590 trillion cubic feet), almost seven times larger than the estimated total remaining recoverable natural gas resources in the entire United States. Although the estimates show a high degree of uncertainty, they do indicate the potential for enormous quantities of natural gas stored as gas hydrates. 33 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

Collett, T. S. [Colorado Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-09-01

229

Natural gas production from Arctic gas hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas hydrates of the Messoyakha field in the West Siberian basin of Russia and those of the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area on the North Slope of Alaska occur within a similar series of interbedded Cretaceous and Tertiary sandstone and siltstone reservoirs. Geochemical analyses of gaseous well-cuttings and production gases suggest that these two hydrate accumulations contain a mixture of thermogenic methane migrated from a deep source and shallow, microbial methane that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or was first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. Studies of well logs and seismic data have documented a large free-gas accumulation trapped stratigraphically downdip of the gas hydrates in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area. The presence of a gas-hydrate/free-gas contact in the Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk River area is analogous to that in the Messoyakha gas-hydrate/free-gas accumulation, from which approximately 5.17x10[sup 9] cubic meters (183 billion cubic feet) of gas have been produced from the hydrates alone. The apparent geologic similarities between these two accumulations suggest that the gas-hydrated-depressurization production method used in the Messoyakha field may have direct application in northern Alaska. 30 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Collett, T.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-01-01

230

Application of empirical hydration distribution functions around polar atoms for assessing hydration structures of proteins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Empirical distribution functions of water molecules in protein hydration are made. ? The functions measure how hydrogen-bond geometry in hydration deviate from ideal. ? The functions assess experimentally identified hydration structures of protein. - Abstract: To quantitatively characterize hydrogen-bond geometry in local hydration structures of proteins, we constructed a set of empirical hydration distribution functions (EHDFs) around polar protein atoms in the main and side chains of 11 types of hydrophilic amino acids (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113 (2009) 11274). The functions are the ensemble average of possible hydration patterns around the polar atoms, and describe the anisotropic deviations from ideal hydrogen bond geometry. In addition, we defined probability distribution function of hydration water molecules (PDFH) over the hydrophilic surface of a protein as the sum of EHDFs of solvent accessible polar protein atoms. The functions envelop most of hydration sites identified in crystal structures of proteins (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114 (2010) 4652). Here we propose the application of EHDFs and PDFHs for assessing crystallographically identified hydration structures of proteins. First, hydration water molecules are classified with respect to the geometry in hydrogen bonds in referring EHDFs. Difference Fourier electron density map weighted by PDFH of protein is proposed to identify easily density peaks as candidates of hydration water molecules. A computer program implementing those ideas was developed and used for assessing hydration structures of proteins

231

Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

2011-01-01

232

Which, if any, hydrates will crystallise? Predicting hydrate formation of two dihydroxybenzoic acids†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study of two dihydroxybenzoic acid isomers shows that computational methods can be used to predict hydrate formation, the compound : water ratio and hydrate crystal structures. The calculations also help identify a novel hydrate found in the solid form screening that validates this study.

Braun, Doris E.; Karamertzanis, Panagiotis G.; Price, Sarah L.

2011-01-01

233

Methane hydrates as potential energy resource: Part 2 - Methane production processes from gas hydrates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three processes have been proposed for dissociation of methane hydrates: thermal stimulation, depressurization, and inhibitor injection. The obvious production approaches involve depressurization, heating and their combinations. The depressurization method is lowering the pressure inside the well and encouraging the methane hydrate to dissociate. Its objective is to lower the pressure in the free-gas zone immediately beneath the hydrate stability zone, causing the hydrate at the base of the hydrate stability zone to decompose. The thermal stimulation method is applied to the hydrate stability zone to raise its temperature, causing the hydrate to decompose. In this method, a source of heat provided directly in the form of injected steam or hot water or another heated liquid, or indirectly via electric or sonic means. This causes methane hydrate to decompose and generates methane gas. The methane gas mixes with the hot water and returns to the surface, where the gas and hot water are separated. The chemical inhibition method seeks to displace the natural-gas hydrate equilibrium condition beyond the hydrate stability zone's thermo-dynamic conditions through injection of a liquid inhibitor chemical adjacent to the hydrate. In this method, inhibitor such as methanol is injected from surface down to methane hydrate-bearing layers. The thermal stimulation method is quite expensive. The chemical inhibitor injection method is also expensive. The depressurization method may prove useful to apply more than one production.

234

Effects of different mineral admixtures on the properties of fresh concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer. PMID:24701196

Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Ayub, Tehmina; Shafiq, Nasir

2014-01-01

235

Empirical force fields for complex hydrated calcio-silicate layered materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of empirical force fields is now a standard approach in predicting the properties of hydrated oxides which are omnipresent in both natural and engineering applications. Transferability of force fields to analogous hydrated oxides without rigorous investigations may result in misleading property predictions. Herein, we focus on two common empirical force fields, the simple point charge ClayFF potential and the core-shell potential to study tobermorite minerals, the most prominent family of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates that are complex hydrated oxides. We benchmark the predictive capabilities of these force fields against first principles results. While the structural information seem to be in close agreement with DFT results, we find that for higher order properties such as elastic constants, the core-shell potential quantitatively improves upon the simple point charge model, and shows a larger degree of transferability to complex materials. In return, to remedy the deficiencies of the simple point charge potential for hydrated calcio-silicates, we suggest using both structural data and elasticity data for potential calibration, a new force field potential, CSH-FF. This re-parameterized version of ClayFF is then applied to simulating an atomistic model of cement (Pellenq et al., PNAS, 2009). We demonstrate that this force field improves the predictive capabilities of ClayFF, being considerably less computational intensive than the core-shell model. PMID:21069228

Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2011-01-21

236

Hydrated calcareous oil-shale ash as potential filter media for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The P-retention in hydrated calcareous ash sediment from oil-shale burning thermal power plants in Estonia was studied. Batch experiments indicate good (up to 65 mg P g(-1)) P-binding capacity of the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment, with a removal effectiveness of 67-85%. The high phosphorus sorption potential of hydrated oil-shale ash is considered to be due to the high content of reactive Ca-minerals, of which ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and portlandite Ca(OH)2 are the most important. The equilibrium dissolution of ettringite provides free calcium ions that act as stable nuclei for phosphate precipitation. The precipitation mechanism of phosphorus removal in hydrated ash plateau sediment is suggested by Ca-phosphate formation in batch experiments at different P-loadings. Treatment with a P-containing solution causes partial-to-complete dissolution of ettringite and portlandite, and precipitation of Ca-carbonate and Ca-phosphate phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)-EDS studies. Thus, the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment can be considered as a potential filtration material for P removal in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. PMID:17959214

Kaasik, Ago; Vohla, Christina; Mõtlep, Riho; Mander, Ulo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

2008-02-01

237

The hydration phenomenon in natural rubber latex gloves and its effect on electronic glove monitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

A physical model is presented to explain the phenomenon of hydration in natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves and to account for the observed decrease in electrical resistance of these gloves when exposed to normal saline solution. Microporosity in the rubber is attributed to failure of all latex particles making up a typical glove to completely coalesce with each other and form a continuous film free of interstitial voids. Native proteins and chemicals used in the manufacturing process are suspected of inhibiting coalescence and causing allergic reactions to some wearers after repeated uses. The effect of hydration on the performance of electronic glove monitors is discussed. Glove monitors that can distinguish between hydration and holes are considered to be the most reliable. PMID:10155140

Williams, R E

1994-01-01

238

Hydration in soccer: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatiza [...] tion; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

Cristiano Ralo, Monteiro; Isabela, Guerra; Turíbio Leite de, Barros.

2003-08-01

239

Hydration in soccer: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatiza [...] tion; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

Cristiano Ralo, Monteiro; Isabela, Guerra; Turíbio Leite de, Barros.

240

Hydration in soccer: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

Cristiano Ralo Monteiro

2003-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Formation rate of natural gas hydrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the capacity and in scale-up of the hydrate production process, the upstream gas supply systems and the downstream separator must be increased in proportion to the reactor capacity. (Author)

Mork, Marit

2002-07-01

242

Constraining clay hydration state and its role in active fault systems  

Science.gov (United States)

understand the role of hydrated clay minerals in active fault systems, a humidity chamber connected to an X-ray diffractometer was used to determine the adsorption of water onto and/or into the crystal structure of smectite. This new type of analysis was carried out under specific temperature and humidity conditions, using powdered clay size fractions (clay swelling at shallow conditions. Air-dried samples show a discrete smectite phase that swells after traditional ethylene glycolation to an interlayer distance of 1.5 and 1.7 nm. Using the humidity chamber, however, the samples show a shorter interlayer distance, between 1.09 and 1.54 nm. Based on our analysis, we show that (i) ethylene glycol overestimates the size of the interlayer space, and therefore water content, so is a crude maximum only; (ii) interlayer swelling occurs in smectite clay minerals at all temperatures between 25 and 95°C; and (iii) particle orientation increases with increasing humidity, indicating a higher mobility of smectite from interlayer hydration. Detailed characterization of the hydration state of smectite under original conditions is critical for understanding of clay-fluid interaction, the mechanical behavior during fault displacements, and fluid budgets at depth. We propose that humidity chamber experiments should be the new standard procedure to constrain swelling characteristics of natural and synthetic clay minerals.

Schleicher, Anja M.; Hofmann, Heiko; Pluijm, Ben A.

2013-04-01

243

Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid transitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additional quantitative evidence for the contributions of cavities to the dynamics of proteins. Only mature amyloid fibrils that form from unfolded proteins are very resistant to pressure treatment.

K. Heremans

2005-08-01

244

Hydration behaviour of polyhydroxylated fullerenes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have performed semi-empirical as well as density functional theory calculations in order to analyse the hydration properties of both bare C60 and highly hydroxylated C60(OH)26 fullerenes. In all of our calculations, a total of 42 and 98 water molecules are always surrounding our here-considered carbon nanostructures. We found different wetting properties as a function of the chemical composition and structure of the OH-molecular over-layer covering the fullerene surface. In the case of bare C60, water adsorption reveals that the H2O species are not uniformly arranged around the carbon network but rather forms water droplets of different sizes, clearly revealing the hydrophobic nature of the C60 structure. In contrast, in the polyhydroxylated C60(OH)26 fullerenes, the degree of wetting is strongly influenced by the precise location of the hydroxyl groups. We found that different adsorbed configurations for the OH-molecular coating can lead to the formation of partially hydrated or completely covered C60(OH)26 compounds, a result that could be used to synthesize fullerene materials with different degrees of wettability. By comparing the relative stability of our hydroxylated structures in both bare and hydrated conditions we obtain that the energy ordering of the C60(OH)26 isomers can change in the presence of water. The radial distribution function of our hydrated fullerenes reveals that water near these kinds of surfaces is densely packed. In fact, by counting the number of H2O molecules which are adsorbed, by means of hydrogen bonds, to the surface of our more stable C60(OH)26 isomer, we found that it varies in the range of 5-10, in good agreement with experiments. Finally, by comparing the calculated optical absorption spectra of various C60(OH)26 structures in the presence and absence of water molecules, we note that only slight variations in the position and intensity of the electronic excitations are found, indicating that their vacuum optical properties are more or less preserved in aqueous environments.

245

South Africa's mineral industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

246

Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a biologically catalyzed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was modeled and evaluated at an industrial scale. A yeast display system in Saccharomyces cerevisae was used to screen several carbonic anhydrase isoforms and mineralization peptides for their impact on CO2 hydration, CaCO3 mineralization, and particle settling rate. Enhanced rates for each of these steps in the CaCO3 mineralization process were confirmed using quantitative techniques in lab-scale measurements. The effect of these enhanced rates on the CO2 capture cost in an industrial scale CO2 mineralization process using coal fly ash as the CaO source was evaluated. The model predicts a process using bCA2- yeast and fly ash is ~10% more cost effective per ton of CO2 captured than a process with no biological molecules, a savings not realized by wild-type yeast and high-temperature stable recombinant CA2 alone or in combination. The levelized cost of electricity for a power plant using this process was calculated and scenarios in which this process compares favorably to CO2 capture by MEA absorption process are presented. PMID:25289021

Barbero, Roberto; Carnelli, Lino; Simon, Anna; Kao, Albert; Monforte, Alessandra d'Arminio; Ricco, Moreno; Bianchi, Daniele; Belcher, Angela

2014-01-01

247

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2009-09-22

248

Effect of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem associated with black cotton and lateritic soils because of the swelling-shrinkage property of their constituent clay minerals were investigated. Samples of black cotton lateritic soils were collected from different parts of Kenya. The samples were analysed for their mineral compositions and later treated with hydrated lime in order to eliminate the swelling shrinkage behaviour. The samples were subsequently tested for their engineering properties in a soil mechanics laboratory using shear box and Casagrande apparatus. It was found that the chemical treatment of the soils with hydrated lime removes their plastic property and improves their shear strength. (author)

249

A new geotechnical gas hydrates research laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates encapsulate natural gas molecules in a very compact form, as ice-like compounds composed of water molecules. Permafrost environments and offshore areas contain vast quantities of gas hydrates within soil and rock. This paper describes the role played by gas hydrates in submarine slope instability, their potential as a sustainable energy source, and their effects on global climate change. A new state-of-the-art laboratory located at the University of Calgary, which was developed to study the geomechanical behaviour of gas hydrate-sediment mixtures, was also presented. A specialized high pressure low temperature triaxial apparatus capable of performing a suite of tests on gas hydrate-sediment mixtures is housed in this laboratory. Extensive renovations were required in order to enable the use of methane gas to simulate natural hydrate formation conditions. The laboratory is specifically designed to examine the properties and behaviour of reconstituted gas hydrate-sediment mixtures and natural gas hydrate core samples. 26 refs., 9 figs.

Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

250

Evaluation of hydration indexes in kale leaves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydration indexes are practical variables for quantifying plant water stress and can be useful for agronomic purposes. Three adapted hydration indexes based on relative water content, volumetric hydration, and leaf turgor pressure were evaluated in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) leaf segment [...] s. Relative water content and volumetric hydration were measured in leaf segments after a water infiltration procedure with the aim of filling its large intercellular volumes (@18%v/v). The infiltration was done using a hydrostatic weighing procedure and with the aid of vacuum to fully hydrate the leaf segments. These two relative indexes were proportional to the transpiration-induced leaf water loss. The third index, turgor pressure, was measured with a Wiltmeter® instrument. Similarly, the turgor pressure was proportional to the leaf water loss, and it decreased from @310kPa in recently harvested leaves to zero in dehydrated leaves, after a total water loss of @23%. Turgor pressure was correlated with the other two hydration indexes using approximations of leaf volumetric elastic modules. Similar estimates were obtained because the decline between turgor pressure and the natural logarithm of these relative leaf hydration indexes was numerically similar (@900kPa). However, the volumetric hydration index seemed to be more suitable as a model, not only for being more concise but also because it showed a clearer biomechanical representation of the leaf water deficit effects.

Adonai G., Calbo; Marcos D., Ferreira.

251

Hydrate Kinetics Study and Exhibition Display Preparation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article conducted survey of the literature, concerning hydrate formation. The author took part in empirical data acquisition, processing and analysis at the exhibition display of Institute of the Earth Cryosphere of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, worked out and launched experimental assembly for propane hydrate formation kinetics study at Tyumen State University laboratory?

Alexey S. Ermolaev

2011-10-01

252

Hydrate Kinetics Study and Exhibition Display Preparation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article conducted survey of the literature, concerning hydrate formation. The author took part in empirical data acquisition, processing and analysis at the exhibition display of Institute of the Earth Cryosphere of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, worked out and launched experimental assembly for propane hydrate formation kinetics study at Tyumen State University laboratory?

Ermolaev, Alexey S.

2011-01-01

253

Overview of gas hydrates in submarine slopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds consisting of hydrogen-bonded water molecules that form a rigid crystal lattice stabilized by encaged gas molecules. Their stability is confined to low-temperature, high-pressure regimes such as those found in permafrost regions and under the seafloor on continental slopes. In-situ natural gas hydrate deposits are typically located in marine sediments at temperatures of 5 to 10 degrees C. The critical factors influencing hydrate formation and stability are pressure, temperature, gas composition, volume of bulk free water, salinity, gas availability, sediment type, and the presence of catalysts or inhibitors. Circumstantial evidence suggests that large submarine landslides along the continental margins can be triggered by the weakening of hydrate bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation results in loss of solid material, production of free gas, and increased fluid pressures, all which have the effect of reducing sediment strength. These underwater landslides have the potential to destroy offshore equipment, jeopardize safety of personnel, and generate tsunamis. This paper presented recent results and advances on the intersection of gas hydrates and submarine slope stability, with particular reference to the role of gas hydrates in triggering or propagating submarine mass movements. It was concluded that the cause of slope failures is not fully understood because of the complexities of gas hydrates and their interactions with the host sediment, combined with the high cost of laboratory and field investigations. 35 refs., 2 figs.

Grozic, J.L.H. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2009-07-01

254

Bone Mineral “Quality”: Differing Characteristics of Calcified Microsphere Populations at the Osteoporotic and Osteoarthritic Femoral Articulation Front  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mineral front consists of large populations of organically enshrouded calcified microspheres (filamentous clusters about 1 micron in diameter and associated smaller numbers of variably dense nanospheres, 30 - 40 nm in diameter. The discrete objects persist and modulate in maturity, and may constitute a variable “qualitative” factor in the skeletal inorganic phase, exemplified by the biomechanically contrasting pathologies of osteoporosis (OP; fracture, low stress condition and osteoarthritis (OA; non fracture, high stress condition. The aim was to compare the articulation front material for morphological and trace element diversity using fresh female femoral head discards (from Dewsbury District Hospital NHS Mid-Yorkshire Trust. These were prepared for histology of the cartilage/bone interface region by immersion in hydrazine hydrate to expose the anorganic mineral topography for microscopy and FEGSEM microanalysis. 1 Mineral microsphere morphology (compared to animals as arbitrary controls suggested that calcified microspheres from OP (n = 19 tended to be small (0.5 - 0.7 microns, smooth and compacted; those from OA (n = 19 were large (0.5 - 4.0 microns, uneven and irregularly dispersed. Respective calcified nanospheres from OP were similarly smaller (30 - 50 nm than those from OA (>100 nm. In subchondral bone a proportion of the filamentous microspheres had fused into a fine-textured phase in OP and a coarse-textured phase in OA. 2 Trace element analysis (compared to positive porcine Si and Mg and other peaks suggested a diminution with mineral maturity, and also with age effecting OP and OA similarly, with minor differences detected between them. It was concluded that calcified objects constituting the inorganic phase vary regionally with age and in fracture and nonfracture, being diminished in size (not number in weak OP and enlarged (compared to porcine control in stronger OA, with Si or Mg “doping” diminishing with time, perhaps influencing their individual bioactivity and matrix dynamics.

Kathryn M. Linton

2014-07-01

255

Effect of Zeolite for Methane Hydrate Formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methane hydrate is formed by physical binding between water molecules and gases such as methane, ethane, propane, or carbon dioxide, etc., which are captured in the cavities of water molecules under the specific temperature and pressure. More than 99% of naturally produced methane hydrate consists of methane, and is widely dispersed in the continental slope and continental Shelf of the Pacific and the Atlantic, the Antarctica, etc. The reserve of fossil fuel is 500 billion carbon ton and the reserve of methane is 360 million carbon ton. The reserve of gas hydrate is more than 1 trillion carbon ton, which is twice the fossil fuel. Therefore, natural gas hydrate as a kind of gas hydrate is expected to replace fossil fuel as new energy source of 21st century. Also 1 m3 hydrate of pure methane can be decomposed to the maximum of 216 m3 methane at standard condition. If these characteristics of hydrate are reversely utilized, the natural gas is fixed into water in the form of hydrate solid. Therefore, the hydrate is considered to be a great way to transport and store natural gas in large quantity. Especially the transportation cost is known to be 18?25% less than that of the liquefied transportation. However, when natural gas hydrate is artificially formed, its reaction time may be too long and the gas consumption in water becomes relatively low, because the reaction rate between water and gas is low. Therefore, for the practical purpose in the application, the present investigation is focused on the rapid production of hydrates and on the increases of gas consumption by adding natural zeolite into pure water. The results of the study show that the equilibrium pressure in natural zeolite is more lower than that in distilled water, and methane hydrate could be formed rapidly during pressurization, if the subcooling is maintained at 8K or above in distilled water and 6.5K or above in natural zeolite, respectively. Also, the amount of consumed gas volume in natural zeolite is more higher than in distilled water at the same experimental conditions. Also, when the natural zeolite of 0.01 wt% was added to distilled water, the amount of consumed gas was about four times higher than that in distilled water and the hydrate formation time decreased at the low subcooling temperature. Therefore, it is found that natural zeolite acts as a catalyst in hydrate formation

256

Hydration Dynamics of Aqueous Nitrate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aqueous nitrate, NO3(-)(aq), was studied by 2D-IR, UV-IR, and UV-UV time-resolved spectroscopies in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the purpose of determining the hydration dynamics around the anion. In water, the D3h symmetry of NO3(-) is broken, and the degeneracy of the asymmetric-stretch modes is lifted. This provides a very sensitive probe of the ion-water interactions. The 2D-IR measurements reveal excitation exchange between the two nondegenerate asymmetric-stretch vibrations on a 300-fs time scale concomitant with fast anisotropy decay of the diagonal-peak signals. The MD simulations show that this is caused by jumps of the transition dipole orientations related to fluctuations of the hydrogen bonds connecting the nitrate ion to the nearest water molecules. Reorientation of the ion, which is associated with the hydrogen-bond breaking, was monitored by time-resolved UV-IR and UV-UV spectroscopy, revealing a 2-ps time constant. These time scales are very similar to those reported for isotope-labeled water, suggesting that NO3(-)(aq) has a labile hydration shell.

ThØgersen, Jan; Réhault, Julien

2013-01-01

257

Vibrational lifetimes of hydrated phospholipids  

Science.gov (United States)

Large-scale ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations have been carried out to compute, at human-body temperature, the vibrational modes and lifetimes of pure and hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipids. The projected atomic vibrations calculated from the spectral energy density are used to compute the vibrational modes and the lifetimes. All the normal modes of the pure and hydrated DPPC and their frequencies are identified. The computed lifetimes incorporate the full anharmonicity of the atomic interactions. The vibrational modes of the water molecules close to the head group of DPPC are active (possess large projected spectrum amplitudes) in the frequency range 0.5-55 THz, with a peak at 2.80 THz in the energy spectrum. The computed lifetimes for the high-frequency modes agree well with the recent data measured at room temperature where high-order phonon scattering is not negligible. The computed lifetimes of the low-frequency modes can be tested using the current experimental capabilities. Moreover, the approach may be applied to other lipids and biomolecules, in order to predict their vibrational dispersion relations, and to study the dynamics of vibrational energy transfer.

Jadidi, Tayebeh; Anvari, Mehrnaz; Mashaghi, Alireza; Sahimi, Muhammad; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza

2013-04-01

258

Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

259

Methane hydrates in the Chilean continental margin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In the coming years the worldwide energetic resources based on hydrocarbons will diminish, and methane hydrates can become an alternative source, given its huge deposits. Chile does not have great amounts of energetic resources; however, during the cruise C-2901 on board the R/V CONRAD in 1998, seis [...] mic profiles that took place in the Chilean continental margin between 35º and 45ºS show the presence of methane hydrates through BSR analysis. The following parameters for the hydrate layer can be assumed: Thickness = 100 m, Longitude E-W = 20 km, Latitude N-S = 1000 km, hydrate concentration in the sediments = 10%, and 160 m³ of gas per m³ of hydrate. With these figures, the volume of estimated gas is 3.2 x 10(13) m³.

Esteban, Morales G..

2003-08-15

260

Compound Natural Gas Hydrate: A Natural System for Separation of Hydrate-Forming Gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural processes that separate materials from a mixture may exert a major influence on the development of the atmospheres and surfaces of planets, moons, and other planetary bodies. Natural distillation and gravity separation, amongst others, are well known means of differentiating materials through liquid-gas partitioning. One of the least known attributes of clathrate (gas) hydrates is their potential effect on the evolution of planetary system oceans and atmospheres. Gas hydrates separate gases from mixtures of gases by concentrating preferred hydrate-forming materials (HFM) guests within the water-molecule cage structure of crystalline hydrate. Different HFMs have very different fields of stability. When multiple hydrate formers are present, a preference series based on their selective uptake exists. Compound hydrate, which is formed from two or more species of HFM, extract preferred HFM from a mixture in very different proportions to their relative percentages of the original mixture. These compound hydrates can have different formation and dissociation conditions depending on the evolution of the environment. That is, the phase boundary of the compound hydrate that is required for dissociation lies along a lower pressure - higher temperature course. Compound hydrates respond to variations in temperature, pressure, and HFM composition. On Earth, the primary naturally occurring hydrate of interest to global climate modeling is methane hydrate. Oceanic hydrate on Earth is the largest store of carbon in the biosphere that is immediately reactive to environmental change, and is capable of releasing large amounts of methane into the atmosphere over a short geological time span. Hydrate formation is essentially metastable and is very sensitive to environmental change and to gas flux. Where natural variations in temperature and pressure varies so that hydrate will form and dissociate in some cyclical manner, such as in oceans where sea level is capable of rising and falling, and which warms and cools, and in atmospheres in which temperature swings take place, the compound hydrate system can both sequester and release HFM selectively. When there is strong gas flux hydrate will tend to form; when gas flux falls below a certain level, hydrate may either dissolve or dissociate. On other bodies in the solar system, such as on Titan, ethane, propane, nitrogen, noble gases, and other HFMs may be selectively withdrawn from gas and liquid phases and sequestered within hydrate, or selectively released when climate swings occur, which can cause positive or negative feedback to atmospheric composition and greenhouse intensity. Where carbon-based biosphere conditions exist, the hydrate system will interact with it in the same manner as it does on Earth.

Max, M. D.; Osegovic, J. P.

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

262

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

2004-06-01

263

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

2004-07-01

264

Seven industrial hydrate flow assurance lessons from 1993-2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is the hydrate component of a study commissioned by the DeepStar Consortium of energy companies, to determine the decade's (1993-2003) flow assurance lessons learned in deepwater, with regard to hydrates, waxes, and asphaltenes. The work provides an experiential state-of-the-art industrial practice, via interviews with 45 senior flow assurance engineers and publications. Of the 20 lessons learned in the study, the below seven relate directly to hydrates: 1) Hydrate avoidance is enabled by satisfactory equilibria prediction 2) Traditional hydrate inhibitor limits show new inhibitor needs 3) In moving from hydrate avoidance to risk management, kinetics are key 4) Hydrate field experience defines three causes of hydrate plugs 5) Hydrate plug location and length detection needs improvement 6) Models enable prediction of hydrate plug remediation 7) Oil flowline data on hydrate plugs are needed for baseline models The work discusses the above seven lessons with implications for research. (Author)

Sloan, E. Dendy

2005-07-01

265

Physical property changes in hydrate-bearing sediment samples due to depressurization/repressurization  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical property measurements on cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed to non-in situ conditions at least briefly during recovery. In situ temperature and effective stress are difficult to maintain during core recovery, but pressure-coring systems such as the HYACINTH, Fugro, and IODP PCS can maintain in situ hydrostatic pressure during core retrieval. To simulate effects of transferring pressure-core samples to storage vessels, the USGS conducted physical property measurements on Ottawa sand samples containing methane gas and gas hydrate before and after samples were depressurized out of, then repressurized back into, the gas hydrate stability field. For measurements made along a sample's cylindrical axis, compressional and shear wave speed, shear strength, and thermal conductivity increased 10 to 30 percent following a 5 minute excursion from the gas hydrate stability field. Experiments were conducted in unsaturated sand in the presence of methane gas, and increases in measured physical property values resulting from the repressurization cycle can be attributed to a redistribution of water and gas hydrate within the sample. Redistribution of water and re-formation of gas hydrate is inferred from X- Ray Computed Tomography of a cylindrical hydrate-bearing Ottawa sand sample similar to the USGS samples. During the excursion from the gas hydrate stability field, images collected at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory demonstrate gas hydrate dissociates first at the outer surface, where heat is efficiently transferred from a temperature-controlled bath. Upon repressurizing to stable conditions, gas hydrate remaining near the sample's central axis draws water away from the outer part of the sediment sample, and new gas hydrate grows most rapidly close along the central axis, where the original gas hydrate never dissociated during depressurization. These results can be compared to those obtained by Georgia Tech on water-saturated, natural sediment cores collected in the Gulf of Mexico. Pressure cores that never experienced a depressurization cycle and were analyzed in the Georgia Tech Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC) yielded significantly higher seismic velocities than conventional cores recovered at the same depth and tested at atmospheric pressure. This effect was observed even though the cores did not contain gas hydrate, attesting to the importance of maintaining pressure if the goal is to constrain in situ physical properties. A second set of measurements at Georgia Tech focused on natural samples with pore space 100 percent saturated with synthetic hydrate at low confining pressures. These samples also produced seismic velocities closer to those obtained from borehole logs, but this effect is sediment-dependent, and therefore difficult to correlate with in situ properties. Though laboratory facilities continue to provide insight via controlled studies of model systems, confidently characterizing in situ mechanical and thermal properties of hydrate-bearing material will require emphasis not on repressurized samples, but on cores that have never experienced a depressurization cycle. The consequences of releasing effective stress during pressure coring is unknown, and currently under investigation.

Waite, W. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Santamarina, J. C.; Winters, W. J.; Yun, T.; Mason, D. H.; Ruppel, C. D.

2006-12-01

266

HEPATOCARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORAL HYDRATE, 2-CHLOROACETALDEHYDE, AND DICHLOROACETIC ACID IN THE MALE B6C3F1 MOUSE  

Science.gov (United States)

Chloral hydrate (CH) and 2-chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) have been identified as chlorination by-products in drinking water. oth chemicals are genotoxic, but their carcinogenic potential had not been adequately tested. hese bioassays were conducted using male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1 ...

267

Cement minerals at elevated temperature: Thermodynamic and structural characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large quantities of cementitious materials may be used in the construction of a potential nuclear waste repository. Temperatures in the emplacement drifts may reach over 200 C owing to decay heat from radioactive waste for various ''extended-dry'' repository scenarios. Despite its potential significance, the mineralogic response of cement to elevated temperature is not well known. The chemistry of fluid introduced to the repository from cementitious materials can also have a significant impact on repository performance. The masses of water associated with the use of cementitious materials such as shotcrete, which includes both structural and pore water, can be sizable. Pore water may be driven out by heating, and structural water may be released through phase dehydration. An experimental and modeling program has been designed to elucidate the structural and thermodynamic response of cement minerals to elevated temperature. The components of the program include: (a) synthesis of hydrated Ca-silicates; (b) structural analysis of cement phases during heating and dehydration/rehydration; (c) mechanistic and thermodynamic descriptions of the hydration/dehydration behavior of hydrated Ca-silicates as a function of temperature, pressure and relative humidity; (d) study of naturally occurring hydrated Ca-silicates; and (e) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated Ca-silicates

268

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31

269

Clathrate hydrate tuning for technological purposes  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas hydrates are being increasingly considered as convenient media for gas storage and transportation as the knowledge of their properties increases, in particular as relates to methane and hydrogen. Clathrate hydrates may also represent a feasible sequestration technology for carbon dioxide, due to a well defined P/T range of stability, and several research programs are addressing this possibility. Though the understanding of the molecular structure and supramolecular interactions which are responsible of most properties of hydrates have been elucitated in recent years, the underlying theoretical physico-chemical framework is still poor, especially as relates to the role of "conditioners" (inhibitors and promoters) from the molecular/supramolecular point of view. In the present communication we show some results from our research approach which is mainly focused on the supramolecular properties of clathrate hydrate systems - and their conditioners - as a way to get access to a controlled modulation of the formation, dissociation and stabilization of gas hydrates. In particular, this communication will deal with: (a) a novel, compact apparatus for studying the main parameters of formation and dissociation of gas hydrates in a one-pot experiment, which can be easily and rapidly carried out on board of a drilling ship;[1] (b) the effects of amphiphile molecules (surfactants) as inhibitors or promoters of gas hydrate formation;[2] (c) a novel nanotechnology for a reliable and quick production of hydrogen hydrates, and its application to fuel cells;[3,4] and (d) the development of a clathrate hydrate tecnology for the sequestration and geological storage of man-made CO2, possibly with concomitant recovery of natural gas from NG hydrate fields. Furthermore, the feasibility of catalyzing the reduction of carbon dioxide to energy-rich species by hydrates is being investigated. [1] Di Profio, P., Germani, R., Savelli, G., International Patent Application PCT/IT2006/000274 [2] Di Profio P., Arca S., Germani R., Savelli G., 2005, "Surfactant promoting effects on clathrate hydrate formation: are micelles really involved?", Chem. Eng. Sci., 60, pp. 4141-4145 [3] Di Profio P., Arca S., Germani R., Savelli G., 2006, "Novel Nanostructured Media for Gas Storage and Transport: Clathrate Hydrates of Methane and Hydrogen", J. Fuel Cell Sci. & Tech., February 2007, vol. 4. [4] Di Profio, P., Germani, R., Savelli, G., EP07010346.

di Profio, Pietro; Germani, Raimondo; Savelli, Gianfranco

2010-05-01

270

Introduction to Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity can be used as the introduction for a unit on mineral or crystal structure. It requires the students to create shapes cooperatively and put them together. This is analogous to individual crystals forming or to minerals forming. They will understand that minerals are made up of structures in certain patterns, and that these structures determine some of the properties of the minerals.

271

Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

2013-01-01

272

Association Between Crystalline Gray Hematite and Hydrated Units in Capri Chasma, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

We have mapped out the distribution, identified associated hydrated units, and proposed modes of formation for crystalline, gray hematite in Capri Chasma. HiRISE and CRISM images corresponding to the highest and largest abundances of gray hematite as measured by TES were analyzed for this study. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from HiRISE stereo pairs were used in a few locations to determine stratigraphic relationships between the hematite and other geologic units. In general, we find the gray hematite correlates to dark mantles situated on low-lying plains where there are nearby sulfate outcrops. A location with one of the highest abundances of hematite is situated on plains adjacent to kieserite outcrops. The dark hematite-bearing plains have spectra with a weak 1.93 ?m absorption and HiRISE images reveal small exposures of light-toned material beneath the hematite-bearing darker mantle. There are also several light-toned layered units with mineralogies that include opal, Fe/Mg-smectite, and an unidentified mineral exhibiting a 2.22/2.27 ?m doublet. These units are exposed within small hills located both inside and outside the hematite-bearing plains, and are unlikely to be the source of any hematite based upon their spatial distribution. Another location with a large occurrence of gray hematite is situated along the southern wall and floor of a ~30 km diameter, 2.5 km deep impact crater on the northern edge of the interior layered deposit within Capri Chasma. Multiple units are exposed along the crater wall, including a lower layered kieserite unit, followed by a layered mix of polyhydrated sulfates (PHS) and monohydrated sulfates, a layered PHS, a thick sequence of upper kieserite generally lacking layering, and finally an upper PHS. Covering many of these units are surficial mantles, including kiesereite-bearing dunes, spectrally bland eolian material, and a dark mantle with features centered at 1.05, 1.93, and 2.4 ?m, consistent with a mixture of hematite and PHS. The source of the crystalline hematite is likely grains that are weathering out of kieserite outcrops and collecting along the plains or lower slopes, presumably as soil lags. However, erosion of light-toned PHS material seen along portions of the chasma floor could also be the source of some hematite grains, particularly hematite locations that are several kms from the central interior layered deposit.

Weitz, C. M.; Lane, M. D.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Roach, L.; Knudson, A. T.

2011-12-01

273

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium in Low Grade Minerals and Ores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following method is intended for the determination of microgram quantities of thorium in samples of minerals and ores. The mineral sample is decomposed by repeated sintering with sodium peroxide. After digestion with water thorium peroxide hydrate is recovered by centrifugation and dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Thorium is determined spectrophotometrically with naphtarson after its separation from metals forming chloro complexes which are adsorbed on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Interferences from a few different ions have been studied. The time required for the analysis of one sample is about 4 hours, when analysing 12 samples simultaneously

Arnfelt, A.L.; Edmundsson, I.

1960-08-15

274

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium in Low Grade Minerals and Ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following method is intended for the determination of microgram quantities of thorium in samples of minerals and ores. The mineral sample is decomposed by repeated sintering with sodium peroxide. After digestion with water thorium peroxide hydrate is recovered by centrifugation and dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Thorium is determined spectrophotometrically with naphtarson after its separation from metals forming chloro complexes which are adsorbed on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Interferences from a few different ions have been studied. The time required for the analysis of one sample is about 4 hours, when analysing 12 samples simultaneously

275

Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was included because of the extensive data collected in a producible hydrate accumulation. To date, such a location had not been studied in the oceanic environment. The project worked closely with ongoing projects (e.g. GOM JIP and offshore India) that are actively investigating potentially economic hydrate accumulations in marine settings. The overall approach was fivefold: (1) collect key data concerning hydrocarbon fluxes which is currently missing at all locations to be included in the study, (2) use this and existing data to build numerical models that can explain gas hydrate variance at all four locations, (3) simulate how natural gas could be produced from each location with different production strategies, (4) collect new sediment property data at these locations that are required for constraining fluxes, production simulations and assessing sediment stability, and (5) develop a method for remotely quantifying heterogeneities in gas hydrate and free gas distributions. While we generally restricted our efforts to the locations where key parameters can be measured or constrained, our ultimate aim was to make our efforts universally applicable to any hydrate accumulation.

George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

2011-12-31

276

Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

2009-12-09

277

Mechanisms for thermal conduction in hydrogen hydrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate thermal conduction mechanisms via the Green-Kubo approach for (type II) hydrogen hydrate, at 0.05 kbar and between 30 and 250 K, for both lightly filled H(2) hydrates (1s4l) and for more densely filled H(2) systems (2s4l), in which four H(2) molecules are present in the large cavities, with respective single- and double-occupation of the small cages. The TIP4P water model was used in conjunction with a fully atomistic hydrogen potential along with long-range Ewald electrostatics. It was found that substantially less damping in guest-host energy transfer is present in hydrogen hydrate as is observed in common type I clathrates (e.g., methane hydrate), but more akin in to previous results for type II and H methane hydrate polymorphs. This gives rise to larger thermal conductivities relative to common type I hydrates, and also larger than type II and H methane hydrate polymorphs, and a more crystal-like temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity. PMID:22299885

English, Niall J; Gorman, Paul D; MacElroy, J M D

2012-01-28

278

Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of our DOE-funded proposal to characterize gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico using marine electromagnetic methods, a collaboration between SIO, LLNL, and USGS with the goal of measuring the electrical properties of lab-created methane (CH4) hydrate and sediment mixtures was formed. We examined samples with known characteristics to better relate electrical properties measured in the field to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns. Here we discuss first-ever electrical conductivity (?) measurements on unmixed CH4 hydrate (Du Frane et al., 2011): 6 x 10-5 S/m at 5 °C, which is ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater. This difference allows electromagnetic (EM) techniques to distinguish highly resistive gas hydrate deposits from conductive water saturated sediments in EM field surveys. More recently, we performed measurements on CH4 hydrate mixed with sediment and we also discuss those initial findings here. Our results on samples free of liquid water are important for predicting conductivity of sediments with pores highly saturated with gas hydrate, and are an essential starting point for comprehensive mixing models.

Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Stern, Laura A.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Constable, Steven; Roberts, Jeffery J.

2011-01-01

279

Basics of development of gas hydrate deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas hydrate deposits could possibly be an important energy resource during this century. However, many problems associated with producing these deposits must first be solved. The industry must develop new technologies to produce the gas, to forecast possible tectonic cataclysms in regions of gas hydrate accumulations, and to prevent damage to the environment. These global issues must be addressed by every company or country who wants to produce gas hydrate deposits. Cooperative research between industry and universities can lead to technology breakthroughs in coming years. This paper reviews the Messoyakha field and the Blake Ridge and Nankai areas to explain a methodology for estimating how much gas might be producible from gas hydrate deposits (GHDs) under various conditions. The Messoyakha field is located on land, while the Blake Ridge and Nankai areas are offshore. Messoyakha is the first and the only GHD where gas production from hydrates has reached commercial flow rates. The Blake Ridge GHD has been studied for 20 years and 11 wells have been drilled to collect gas-hydrate samples. The potential resources of gas (gas in place) from Blake Ridge is estimated at 37.7Oe10{sup 12} m{sup 3} (1.330 Tcf) in hydrate form and 19.3Oe10{sup 12}m{sup 3} (681 Bcf) [5] in free gas. To estimate how much of the potential resource can be produced we need a thorough understanding of both the geologic and the thermodynamic characteristics of the formations. (Author)

Makogon, Yuri F.; Holditch, Stephen A.; Makogon, Taras Y.

2005-07-01

280

Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid t [...] ransitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additional quantitative evidence for the contributions of cavities to the dynamics of proteins. Only mature amyloid fibrils that form from unfolded proteins are very resistant to pressure treatment.

K., Heremans.

1157-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the basement rocks but also very good indicators of the fO{sub 2} and pH paleo-conditions at which the formation of the U-ore bodies took place. (author)

Gaboreau, St

2005-07-01

282

The relation between hydration and mechanical behavior of bovine cornea in tension.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cornea is a transparent soft tissue covering the front of the eye. The biomechanical properties of the cornea have been commonly investigated by uniaxial tensile and inflation testing methods. The cornea like many other hydrated tissue swells when immersed in an ionic solution. Previous studies on hydrated tissues have shown that mechanical properties and hydration are closely related. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of thickness (hydration) variation due to swelling/dehydration on non-linear stress-strain response of the bovine cornea. Corneal strips were first air-dried and then soaked in a bathing solution until they reached an average thickness ranging from 0.3mm to 1.1mm. Based on their thickness, the samples were divided into different groups and uniaxial tests were performed to measure tensile properties. All experiments were done in mineral oil to prevent any hydration gain or loss during the tests. It was observed that swollen corneas had softer tensile properties in comparison with dehydrated ones. In particular, there was a significant difference between elastic tangent modulus of different groups (P<0.05). It was also shown that tensile behavior of bovine strips at any thickness within the range of 0.4-1.1mm can be obtained from a single experiment conducted on samples with known thickness (hydration). The findings of the present study confirm that mechanical properties obtained from uniaxial tensile experiments are strongly dependent on thickness (water amount) of samples; therefore, careful attention must be taken in interpreting previous studies which did not fully control the thickness of specimens. PMID:24814185

Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Rahimi, Abdolrasol

2014-08-01

283

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by Maurer Technology, Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. We plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. We also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. We are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. We hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, our goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

2004-03-01

284

Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

D. Archer

2007-07-01

285

Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

D. Archer

2007-04-01

286

Minerals 4 Kids  

Science.gov (United States)

Minerals 4 Kids contains four Web-based activities offered for K-12 Education by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA). These activities are entitled: Minerals in Your House, Mineral Groups, Mineral Properties, and All About Crystals. Also included are links to Mineral Games, the Rock Cycle diagram that leads to descriptions of the three rock types, and Ask-A-Mineralogist that enables the user to submit a mineralogical question. Many of these activities are linked to other mineralogy-related Web sites. Minerals in Your House is designed to introduce the concept of how minerals are present in common household items found in the bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen. Mineral Groups introduces mineral classification according to chemical composition. The learner can explore each of the seven major chemical groups and several minor chemical groups. Mineral Properties introduces learners to the physical properties of minerals such as hardness, cleavage, streak, color, luster, specific gravity, as well as other miscellaneous properties (i.e., magnetic, effervescence, striations, etc.). Mineral Properties, additionally, contains a five-step Mineral Identification process that uses the physical properties to narrow down a mineral's identity that, ultimately, leads to a Mineral Identification Chart. All About Crystals enables the learner to become familiar with symmetry, crystal symmetry, crystal chemistry, and crystal forms. This activity includes online 3-D models, an activity that enables the user to draw and explore symmetry patterns, a variety of detailed descriptions with figures, and an extensive vocabulary

Mcmillan, Nancy

287

Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

288

Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation.

Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

1999-07-19

289

Clathrate hydrates in cometary nuclei and porosity  

Science.gov (United States)

Possible mechanisms of formation and decomposition of CO2-clathrate hydrate in cometary nuclei are discussed. As far as it is known, this is the only clathrate hydrate which is unstable at low temperatures. Calculation shows that, in accord with other evidence, neither volume nor grain boundary diffusion in the clathrate lattice can be responsible for the rate of these reactions and that a surface mechanism with the attendant sensitivity to pressure must play a crucial role. Density changes accompanying CO2-clathrate decomposition and formation can lead to microporosity and enhanced brittleness or even to fracture of cometary nuclei at low temperatures. Other clathrate hydrates and mixed clathrates are also discussed.

Smoluchowski, R.

1988-01-01

290

Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

Ruppel, Carolyn

2007-01-01

291

On the electrolytic generation of hydrated electron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the electrolytic generation of hydrated electron in oxygenated as well as oxygen-free solutions at different pH were undertaken. Since sup(-e)aq is known to react rapidly with O2 yielding the transient O2- ion, the latter was looked for through its interaction with phosphite ions resulting in their oxidation near the cathode. It appears from the results that in electrolytic processes, the primary electron (esup(-)sub(cathode)) probably reacts directly with reactive solutes like oxygen, bypassing the hydration step. Data obtained in oxygen-free solutions, however, support the possible formation of hydrated electron at least in alkaline solutions. (author)

292

Rotifers colonising sediments with shallow gas hydrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rotifers, one of the smallest metazoans, are only seldom found in marine environments. Surprisingly, we discovered high abundances of at least two new species of rotifers settling in anoxic and highly sulphidic sediments associated with shallow gas hydrates (GH) at the southern crest of Hydrate Ridge off Oregon, NE Pacific, in a water depth of about 780 m. At basins adjacent to Hydrate Ridge, 1,285-2,304 m deep, we found rotifers co-occurring with the sulphide-oxidising bacteria Thioploca sp. PMID:12835839

Sommer, Stefan; Gutzmann, Erik; Ahlrichs, Wilko; Pfannkuche, Olaf

2003-06-01

293

Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO<...

Archer, D.

2007-01-01

294

Glass powder blended cement hydration modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of waste materials in construction is among the most attractive options to consume these materials without affecting the environment. Glass is among these types of potential waste materials. In this research, waste glass in powder form, i.e. glass powder (GP) is examined for potential use in enhancing the characteristics of concrete on the basis that it is a pozzolanic material. The experimental and the theoretical components of the work are carried out primarily to prove that glass powder belongs to the "family" of the pozzolanic materials. The chemical and physical properties of the hydrated activated glass powder and the hydrated glass powder cement on the microstructure level have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The work presented in this thesis consists of two main phases. The first phase contains experimental investigations of the reaction of glass powder with calcium hydroxide (CH) and water. In addition, it includes experiments that are aimed at determining the consumption of water and CH with time. The reactivity, degree of hydration, and nature of the pore solution of the glass powder-blended cement pastes and the effect of adding different ratios of glass powder on cement hydration is also investigated. The experiments proved that glass powder has a pozzolanic effect on cement hydration; hence it enhances the chemical and physical properties of cement paste. Based on the experimental test results, it is recommended to use a glass powder-to-cement ratio (GP/C) of 10% as an optimum ratio to achieve the best hydration and best properties of the paste. Two different chemical formulas for the produced GP C-S-H gel due to the pure GP and GP-CH pozzolanic reaction hydration are proposed. For the pure GP hydration, the produced GP C-S-H gel has a calcium-to-silica ratio (C/S) of 0.164, water-to-silica ratio (H/S) of 1.3 and sodium/silica ratio (N/S) of 0.18. However, for the GP-CH hydration, the produced GP C-S-H gel has a C/S ratio of 1.17, H/S ratio of 2.5 and N/S ratio of 0.18. In the second phase of this research, theoretical models are built using a modified version of an existing cement hydration modelling code, "CEMHYD3D", to simulate the chemical reaction of the activated glass powder hydration and glass powder in cement. The modified model, which is referred to as the "MOD-model" is further used to predict the types, compositions and quantities of reaction products. Furthermore, the glass powder hydration data, which is obtained experimentally, is incorporated into the MOD-model to determine the effect of adding glass powder to the paste on the process of cement hydration and resulting paste properties. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results are made to evaluate the developed models. The MOD-model predictions have been validated using the experimental results, and were further used to investigate various properties of the hydrated glass powder cement paste. These properties include, for example, CH content of the paste, porosity, hydration degree of the glass powder and conventional C-S-H and GP CS-H contents. The results show that the MOD-model is capable of accurately simulating the hydration process of glass powder-blended cement paste and can be used to predict various properties of the hydrating paste.

Saeed, Huda

295

Modeling Natural Gas Productivity Recovery from a Hydrate Reservoir Well  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hydrocarbon deposits have stimulated worldwide efforts to understand gas production from hydrate dissociation in hydrate reservoirs well. This paper deals with the potential of gas hydrates as a source of energy which is widely available in permafrost and oceanic sediments. It discusses methods for gas production from natural gas hydrates. Authors provide a detailed methodology used to model gas productivity recovery from hydrate reservoir well. The mathematical modelling of gas dissociation from hydrate reservoir as a tool for evaluating the potential of gas hydrates for natural gas production. The simulation results show that the process of natural gas production in a hydrate reservoir is a sensitive function of reservoir temperature and hydrate zone permeability. The model couples nth order decomposition kinetics with gas flow through porous media. The models provide a simple and useful tool for hydrate reservoir analysis.

Bin Dou

2013-04-01

296

Hydrate-phobic surfaces: fundamental studies in clathrate hydrate adhesion reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clathrate hydrate formation and subsequent plugging of deep-sea oil and gas pipelines represent a significant bottleneck for deep-sea oil and gas operations. Current methods for hydrate mitigation are expensive and energy intensive, comprising chemical, thermal, or flow management techniques. In this paper, we present an alternate approach of using functionalized coatings to reduce hydrate adhesion to surfaces, ideally to a low enough level that hydrodynamic shear stresses can detach deposits...

Smith, J. David; Meuler, Adam J.; Bralower, Harrison L.; Venkatesan, Rama; Subramanian, Sivakumar; Cohen, Robert E.; Mckinley, Gareth H.; Varanasi, Kripa K.

2011-01-01

297

High heat production granites of southwest England and their associated mineralization: a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of the exposed granites in Cornwall, Devon and the Scilly Isles and their geochemistry and mineralogy are described. The mineralization sequence, and the convective water circulation resulting from the presence of radioactive minerals are discussed. It is suggest that kaolinization and the redistribution of minerals are continuing because of the deep source of heat. (UK)

298

Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strätlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V. V.; Bortolozzi, G.

2010-06-01

299

Clathrate Smoking Gun Hypothesis: Ocean Gas Hydrate Melting Causes Cracking of Upper Continental Margin Slopes Creating Major Gas Release Pathways  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the potential for large releases of methane from the upper continental margin by hydrate dissociation, geophysical investigations have not included the critical part of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) outcrop. If these HSZ outcrop areas at the shelf edge and upper continental slope are exposing dynamic "hydrate reservoirs", then it potential to affect the Earth's climate by releasing methane to the ocean and atmosphere has to be considered. Our investigations on the high latitude Norwegian Margin show the instability of methane hydrates driven mainly by ocean warming and not of sea level change. Widespread cracks and faults at the outcrop zone of the HSZ point towards a relation to dissociating hydrates causing cracking of outer shelf and upper continental slope sediments in the shallow geosphere. Such recognition of cracks on the outer shelf will become important in the evaluation of methane releases as a powerful contributer to the Greenhouse Warming associated with millenia-scale climate change. Our geophysical observations will be discussed in context with ocean warming and hydrate melting scenarios during the Holocene.

Mienert, J.; Buenz, S.; Vanneste, M.; Andreassen, K.

2003-04-01

300

Establishment of new equipment for testing low dosage hydrate inhibitors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas hydrate formation posses a notorious concern for the oil and gas industry, and it only gets bigger because of that the never-ending pursuit of oil and gas compels the industry into deeper and colder waters. Here gas hydrate can from and agglomerate into plugs, jeopardizing pipelines and process equipments. Therefore a variety of methods have been developed to inhibit gas hydrate formation, one of them being to utilize low dosage hydrate inhibitors, which consists of kinetic hydrate inhibi...

Dirdal, Erik Gisle

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine.

Poole, T.S.; Wakeley, L.D.; Young, C.L. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Structures Lab.

1994-03-01

302

Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine

303

ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

2013-06-30

304

Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

Jeffrey Savidge

2008-10-31

305

HYDRATION AND ACETYLATION OF LIMONENE: SUPPORTED HETEROPOLYACIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The limonene hydration and acetylation in liquid phase catalyzed by phosphotungstic and phosphomolybdic acid bulk and supported on silica and titanium dioxide were studied. The reaction was performed in a batch reactor in acetic acid at 40°C, with magnetic stirring of the reaction mixture. Reaction [...] products were analyzed by gaseous chromatography with FID detector using a capillary column for separation of products. The identification of compounds was made with pattern terpenes and by gaseous chromatography with mass spectrometry. All catalysts tested result to be active in the hydration and acetylation reaction of limonene. Catalysts based on phophotungstic acid (HPW) produce larger amount of hydration and acetylation products than phosphomolybdic acid (HPMo) catalyst. Hydration products increase faster than isomerization products when the reaction time is increased. The structure of heteropolyacids and the presence of acid sites Bronsted and Lewis were determined by FTIR

MARIA CECILIA, AVILA; NORA A, COMELLI; NORBERTO H, FIRPO; ESTHER N, PONZI; MARTA I, PONZI.

306

Towards Commercial Gas Production from Hydrate Deposits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last decade global natural gas consumption has steadily increased since many industrialized countries are substituting natural gas for coal to generate electricity. There is also significant industrialization and economic growth of the heavily populated Asian countries of India and China. The general consensus is that there are vast quantities of natural gas trapped in hydrate deposits in geological systems, and this has resulted in the emerging importance of hydrates as a potential energy resource and an accompanying proliferation of recent studies on the technical and economic feasibility of gas production from hydrates. There are then the associated environmental concerns. This study reviews the state of knowledge with respect to natural gas hydrates and outlines remaining challenges and knowledge gaps.

Richard Dawe

2011-01-01

307

Separation of water through gas hydrate formation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products

Thomsen, Kaj

2009-01-01

308

Vibrational dynamics of hydration water in amylose  

CERN Document Server

We present a study of the dynamical properties of hydration water associated with amylose helices, based on low-temperature vibrational spectra collected using the TOSCA inelastic spectrometer at ISIS. The structural constraints of the polysaccharidic chains favour the formation of a high-density structure for water, which has been suggested by Imberty and Perez on the basis of conformational analysis. According to this model, hydration water can only enter the pores formed by six adjacent helices and completely fills the pores at a hydration level of about 0.27-g water/g dry amylose. Our measurements show that the dynamical behaviour of hydration water is similar to that observed in high-density amorphous ice. (orig.)

Cavatorta, F; Albanese, G; Angelini, N

2002-01-01

309

Gold(I)-Catalyzed Hydration of Allenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex catalyzes the intermolecular hydration of allenes to form allylic alcohols in modest yield with selective delivery of water to the terminal carbon atoms of the allenyl moiety.

Zhang, Zhibin; Du Lee, Seong; Fisher, Aaron S.; Widenhoefer, Ross A.

2009-01-01

310

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a drilling hazard by the oil and gas industry for years. Drilling engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous problems, including drilling kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates as a potential energy source agree that the resource potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained from physical samples taken from actual hydrate-bearing rocks. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The project team drilled and continuously cored the Hot Ice No. 1 well on Anadarko-leased acreage beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and used for determining physical characteristics of hydrates and surrounding rock. After the well was logged, a 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was recorded to calibrate the shallow geologic section with seismic data and to investigate techniques to better resolve lateral subsurface variations of potential hydrate-bearing strata. Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. deployed their 80 level 3C clamped borehole seismic receiver array in the wellbore to record samples every 25 ft. Seismic vibrators were successively positioned at 1185 different surface positions in a circular pattern around the wellbore. This technique generated a 3D image of the subsurface. Correlations were generated of these seismic data with cores, logging, and other well data. Unfortunately, the Hot Ice No. 1 well did not encounter hydrates in the reservoir sands, although brine-saturated sands containing minor amounts of methane were encountered within the hydrate stability zone (HSZ). Synthetic seismograms created from well log data were in agreement with reflectivity data measured by the 3D VSP survey. Modeled synthetic seismograms indicated a detectable seismic response would be expected in the presence of hydrate-bearing sands. Such a response was detected in the 3D VSP data at locations up-dip to the west of the Hot Ice No. 1 wellbore. Results of this project suggest that the presence of hydrate-bearing strata may not be related as simply to HSZ thickness as previously thought. Geological complications of reservoir facies distribution within fluvial-deltaic environments will require sophisticated detection technologies to assess the locations of recoverable volumes of methane contained in hydrates. High-resolution surface seismic data and more rigorous well log data analysis offer the best near-term potential. The hydrate resource potential is huge, but better tools are needed to accurately assess their location, distribution and economic recoverability.

Donn McGuire; Thomas Williams; Bjorn Paulsson; Alexander Goertz

2005-02-01

311

Hydration swelling effects on time-dependent deformation of zeolitized tuff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long-duration creep deformation experiments were performed on zeolitized tuffs from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, at temperatures of 35 degrees-75 degrees C, confining pressure of 5 MPa, and water pore pressure of 0.1 MPa. The test samples were initially loaded to a relatively small fraction of the uniaxial compressive failure stress, and allowed to creep; then the stress was increased periodically until creep failure occurred. The strain versus time creep curves exhibit the classical phenomenological phases of primary, secondary, and tertiary creep analogous to those for ductile metals, although the tuffs deform by dilational microcracking and fail by brittle fracture. Mechanical open-quotes steady stateclose quotes or secondary creep strain rates as low as 1 x 10-10 s-1 were observed in the tests. Tertiary creep axial failure strains averaged about 6 x 10-3. The early, water saturation phases of the tests are characterized by large hydration swelling strains associated with water absorption by the zeolite minerals in the tuffs. The hydration was often incomplete after one month of immersion, and slow, continued hydration affected the creep curves so that the samples appeared to lengthen against axial differential stresses as high as 55 MPa. This strong chemical-mechanical coupling suggests that in situ hydration state changes could generate stresses of similar magnitude. 18 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

312

Extensive hydrated silica materials in western Hellas Basin, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-infrared spectral data indicate the presence of hydrated, poorly crystalline silica where high bulk silica contents have been previously identified in Hellas Basin. No other aqueous phases are identified in these regions and the deposits may be nearly pure. The silica-bearing surfaces are sporadically exposed along a 650 km stretch of the western basin rim within a limited elevation range and display a variety of surface textures suggesting that the materials have been reworked, but not transported large distances. The high abundances and lack of associated aqueous phases indicate that high water to rock ratios were present in the region during the Noachian period but without elevated temperatures or for durations necessary for quartz diagenesis. The silica-bearing materials may have formed via direct precipitation from silica saturated groundwater sources, although other formation mechanisms are also plausible.

Bandfield, Joshua L.; Amador, Elena S.; Thomas, Nancy H.

2013-11-01

313

Methane hydrate resource assessment of the outer continental shelf : in-place Gulf of Mexico results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is division of the United States (U.S.) Department of the Interior. Its mandate is to manage natural gas, oil, and other mineral resources on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). The MMS launched a project in order to provide an assessment of the natural gas hydrate resource potential across the entire OCS, including the Alaskan, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific margins. The purpose of this ongoing project is to provide a probabilistic evaluation of in-place, technically recoverable, and economically recoverable gas hydrate resources. This paper provided an overview of the project, including a preliminary assessment of in-place gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. The paper described the probabilistic model that was built on a mass balance approach to assessment. The model provided a high degree of spatial resolution and supported detailed mapping. The model produced a Monte Carlo distribution of in-place resources that ranged from 314 trillion to 974 trillion cubic meters (TCM) with a mean value of 607 TCM. The paper also provided a link to the full report which included the model methodology, underlying assumptions, and input datasets. Additional work on the development of a technically recoverable model component is currently underway. 1 fig.

Frye, M. [Minerals Mangement Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Grace, J. [Earth Science Associates, Long Beach, CA (United States); Hunt, J.; Shedd, W. [Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA (United States); Kaufman, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Boston, MA (United States); Schuenemeyer, J. [Southwest Statistical Consulting, Cortez, CO (United States)

2008-07-01

314

Thermogenic vent gas and gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico slope: Is gas hydrate decomposition significant?  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of vent gas and gas hydrate on the Gulf of Mexico slope were collected by research submersible (˜540 m water depth) and by piston coring (˜1060 1070 m water depth). Although gas hydrate that crops out is transiently unstable, the larger volume of structure II gas hydrate in the gulf is stable or increasing in volume because gas from the subsurface petroleum system is venting prolifically within the gas hydrate stability zone. Vent gas from gas hydrate shows no meaningful molecular evidence of gas hydrate decomposition. Gas hydrate fabrics, mainly vein fillings, are typical of ongoing crystallization. Once crystallized, most hydrocarbons are protected from bacteria within the crystal lattice of gas hydrate. A leaky petroleum system is proposed to be the main source of thermogenic greenhouse gases in the central gulf. Stable gas hydrate sequesters large volumes of greenhouse gases, suggesting that gas hydrate may not be a significant factor in models of climate change at present.

Sassen, Roger; Sweet, Stephen T.; Milkov, Alexei V.; Defreitas, Debra A.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C., II

2001-02-01

315

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports. Documenting the results of this effort are key to extracting lessons learned and maximizing the industry's benefits for future hydrate exploitation.

Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

2005-02-01

316

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored a well (the Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports. Documenting the results of this effort are key to extracting lessons learned and maximizing the industry's benefits for future hydrate exploitation. In addition to the Final Report, several companion Topical Reports are being published.

Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

2004-11-01

317

Isotope fractionation during natural gas hydrate formation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the task of pursuing the origin of hydrate-bound gas, isotope analysis is a well established tool of prediction. The carbon isotope values of methane, ethane, propane and i-butane will strongly indicate the source to either be microbial, thermogenic or of mixed origin. This is due to kinetic fractionation during microbial activity. In microbial CO2 reduction, the microbes tend to reduce ?12C molecules preferentially to ?13C. This leads to light methane and ethane in the gas from microbial activity compared to methane and ethane of thermogenic origin. Recently, isotopically light methane and ethane from hydrate-bond gas from the pockmark field of Nyegga (Norwegian Sea) has been reported. The gas has migrated from a free gas system beneath the base of gas hydrate stability and reached the seafloor through a chimney structured migration feature. The free gas layer is thought to be supported by deeper sources, and polygonal faulting that is known to lay on top of petroleum reservoirs supports speculations that the free gas layer contains thermogenic gas. The isotopic evidence classifies the hydrate gas as fractionated by microbial activity, while the composition and geological setting tell tales of a thermogenic source. This conundrum has led to the speculation upon a fractionation of carbon isotope through hydrate formation. With an experimental setup consisting of a cooling incubator and a pressure cell with controlled torque stirring, hydrates can form under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. The gas hydrates are formed with excess of gas making it possible to sample both the excess gas and hydrate gas. The gas is 99.5 % methane,

Nesheim Vaular, Espen; Corak, Djurdjica; Barth, Tanja

2010-05-01

318

Concentration dependence of ionic hydration numbers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isothermal compressibility data of 23 aqueous electrolyte solutions at 25 °C from the literature are used to calculate their hydration numbers, which diminish as the concentration increases. Their limit at very high concentration is near the "number of adsorption sites" of water molecules on the ions, obtained by the BET method. On the contrary, hydration numbers obtained from ultrasound speed measurements yielding isentropic compressibilities cannot be valid, being much too large at infinite dilution. PMID:25121925

Marcus, Yizhak

2014-09-01

319

Thermal Conductivity of Methane-Hydrate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thermal conductivity of the methane hydrate CH4 (5.75 H2O) was measured in the interval 2-140 K using the steady-state technique. The thermal conductivity corresponding to a homogeneous substance was calculated from the measured effective thermal conductivity obtained in the experiment. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is typical for the thermal conductivity of amorphous solids. It is shown that after separation of the hydrate into ice and methane, ...

Krivchikov, A. I.; Gorodilov, B. Ya; Korolyuk, O. A.; Manzhelii, V. G.; Conrad, H.; Press, W.

2004-01-01

320

Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The compressive strengths and structures of composites of aluminosilicate geopolymer with the synthetic cement minerals C3S, ?-C2S, C3A and commercial OPC were investigated. All the composites showed lower strengths than the geopolymer and OPC paste alone. X-ray diffraction, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and SEM/EDS observations indicate that hydration of the cement minerals and OPC is hindered in the presence of geopolymer, even though sufficient water was present in the mix for hydration to occur. In the absence of SEM evidence for the formation of an impervious layer around the cement mineral grains, the poor strength development is suggested to be due to the retarded development of C-S-H because of the preferential removal from the system of available Si because geopolymer formation is more rapid than the hydration of the cement minerals. This possibility is supported by experiments in which the rate of geopolymer formation is retarded by the substitution of potassium for sodium, by the reduction of the alkali content of the geopolymer paste or by the addition of borate. In all these cases the strength of the OPC-geopolymer composite was increased, particularly by the combination of the borate additive with the potassium geopolymer, producing an OPC-geopolymer composite stronger than hydrated OPC paste alone.

 
 
 
 
321

Method of purifying uranium tetrafluoride hydrate and preparing uranium (vi) peroxide hydrate using a fluoride complexing agent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of preparing uranium (VI) peroxide hydrate from uranium tetrafluoride hydrate, comprising the steps of digesting uranium tetrafluoride hydrate in an aqueous acid in the presence of a fluoride complexing agent to produce an aqueous uranium solution, adjusting the aqueous uranium solution to a ph between about 1 to about 3, filtering the aqueous uranium solution to remove undissolved material, reacting the aqueous uranium solution with peroxide to precipitate uranium (VI) peroxide hydrate, and separating the precipitated uranium (VI) peroxide hydrate

322

Clathrate hydrates in the solar system  

Science.gov (United States)

Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds in which an expanded ice lattice forms cages that contain gas molecules. There are two principal hydrate structures. Structure I, with a 12 A cubic unit cell, contains 46 water molecules and 8 cages of two types, giving an ideal formula (for CH4) of CH4.5.75H2O. The actual formula contains somewhat more water as the cages are not completely filled. Other examples that form Structure I hydrates are C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO2, SO2, OCS, Xe, H2S. Structure II, with a 17 A cubic unit cell, contains 136 water molecules, and 8 large and 16 small cages. The ideal formula for CHCl3 is CHCL3.17H2O. Other examples of Structure II hydrates include C3H8, C2H5Cl, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran. Small molecules such as Ar, Kr and probably N2 and O2 also form a Structure II hydrate. The small molecules occupy both the large and small cages, giving an ideal formula of Ar.5.67H2O. The conditions of pressure and temperature for hydrate formation are discussed.

Miller, S. L.

1985-01-01

323

Exploration of gas hydrates. Geophysical techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas hydrates are ice-like crystalline substances that form a rigid cage of water molecules and entrap hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gas by hydrogen bonding. Natural gas hydrate is primarily composed of water and methane. These are solid, crystalline, ice-like substances found in permafrost areas and deepwater basins around the world. They naturally occur in the pore space of marine sediments, where appropriate high pressure and low temperature conditions exist in an adequate supply of gas (mainly methane). Gas hydrates are considered as a potential non conventional energy resource. Methane hydrates are also recognized as, an influence on offshore platform stability, a major factor in climate change contributing to global warming and a significant contribution to the ocean carbon cycle. The proposed book treats various geophysical techniques in order to quantify the gas hydrate reserves and their impact on environment. The primary goal of this book is to provide the state of art for gas hydrate exploration. The target audiences for this book are non-specialist from different branches of science, graduate students and researchers. (orig.)

Thakur, Naresh Kumar [National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad (India); Rajput, Sanjeev [CSIRO Petroleum Resoureces ARRC, Perth (Australia)

2011-07-01

324

Electrical properties of polycrystalline methane hydrate  

Science.gov (United States)

Electromagnetic (EM) remote-sensing techniques are demonstrated to be sensitive to gas hydrate concentration and distribution and complement other resource assessment techniques, particularly seismic methods. To fully utilize EM results requires knowledge of the electrical properties of individual phases and mixing relations, yet little is known about the electrical properties of gas hydrates. We developed a pressure cell to synthesize gas hydrate while simultaneously measuring in situ frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (?). Synthesis of methane (CH4) hydrate was verified by thermal monitoring and by post run cryogenic scanning electron microscope imaging. Impedance spectra (20 Hz to 2 MHz) were collected before and after synthesis of polycrystalline CH4 hydrate from polycrystalline ice and used to calculate ?. We determined the ? of CH4 hydrate to be 5 × 10?5 S/m at 0°C with activation energy (Ea) of 30.6 kJ/mol (?15 to 15°C). After dissociation back into ice, ? measurements of samples increased by a factor of ~4 and Ea increased by ~50%, similar to the starting ice samples.

Du Frane, W. L.; Stern, L.A.; Weitemeyer, K.A.; Constable, S.; Pinkston, J.C.; Roberts, J.J.

2011-01-01

325

Global Inventory of Methane Hydrate: How Large is the Threat? (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane hydrate is a dark horse in the science of climate change. The volume of methane sequestered in marine sediments is large enough to pose a potential threat, yet the expected contribution to future warming is not known. Part of the uncertainty lies in the poorly understood details of methane release from hydrate. Slow, diffusive loss of methane probably results in oxidation by sulfate and precipitation to CaCO3 in the sediments, with little effect on climate. Conversely, a direct release of methane into the atmosphere is liable to have strong and immediate consequences. Progress in narrowing the possibilities requires a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for methane release. Improvements are also needed in our estimates of the hydrate inventory, as this sets a limit on the possible response. Several recent estimates of the hydrate inventory have been constructed using mechanistic models. Many of the model parameters (e.g. sedimentation rate and sea floor temperature) can be estimated globally, while others (e.g. vertical fluid flow) are not well known. Available observations can be used to estimate the poorly known parameters, but it is reasonable to question whether the results from a limited number of sites are representative of other locations. Fluid flow is a case in point because most hydrate locations are associated with upward flow. On the other hand, simple models of sediment compaction predict downward flow relative to the sea floor, which acts to impede hydrate formation. A variety of mechanisms can produce upward flow, including time-dependent sedimentation, seafloor topography, subsurface fractures, dehydration of clay minerals and gradual burial of methane hydrate below the stability zone. Each of these mechanisms makes specific predictions for the magnitude of flow and the proportion of sea floor that is likely to be affected. We assess the role of fluid flow on the present-day inventory and show that the current estimates for passive margins are probably too large. Adapting these models to the warm period that preceded the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) suggests that the inventory was not large enough to explain the sudden warming or the associated isotopic excursion. Exceptional circumstances might overturn these conclusions, but the attendant uncertainties raise reasonable questions about the role of methane hydrate in the PETM.

Buffett, B. A.; Frederick, J. M.

2010-12-01

326

GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically and thermally; (7) Design, construction, and successful deployment of an in situ pore-water sampling device; (8) Improvements to the original Raman spectrometer (methane sensor); (9) Laboratory demonstration of the impact of bacterially-produced surfactants' rates of hydrate formation; (10) Construction and sea floor emplacement and testing--with both watergun and ship noise sources--of the prototypal vertical line array (VLA); (11) Initiation of studies of spatial controls on hydrates; (12) Compilation and analyses of seismic data, including mapping of surface anomalies; (13) Additional field verification (bottom samples recovered), in support of the site selection effort; (14) Collection and preliminary analyses of gas hydrates from new sites that exhibit variant structures; (15) Initial shear wave tests carried out in shallow water; (16) Isolation of microbes for potential medicinal products development; (17) Preliminary modeling of occurrences of gas hydrates.

J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

2004-11-01

327

Experimental investigation of smectite hydration from the simulation of 001 X-ray diffraction lines. Implications for the characterization of mineralogical modifications of the 'argilite' from the Meuse - Haute Marne site as a result of a thermal perturbation; Etude experimentale de l'hydratation des smectites par simulation des raies OOl de diffraction des rayons X. Implications pour l'etude d'une perturbation thermique sur la mineralogie de l'argilite du site Meuse-Haute Marne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structural modifications affecting the reactive mineral constituents of the clay barriers (smectite) and possibly resulting from the thermal pulse related to nuclear waste storage are essentially limited to the amount and location of the layer charge deficit. These modifications likely impact the hydration properties of these minerals, and a specific methodology has thus been developed to describe, using simulation of X-ray diffraction profiles (001 reflections), these hydration properties and specifically the heterogeneity resulting from the inter-stratification of different layer types, each exhibiting a specific hydration state. The detailed study of the hydration properties of a low-charge montmorillonite (octahedral charge) has shown that the affinity of the interlayer cation for water rules the hydration state and the thickness of hydrated smectite layers. If the layer charge is increased, the transition between the different hydration states is shifted, following a water desorption isotherm, towards lower relative humidities. In addition, the hydration of studied beidellites (tetrahedral charge) was shown to be more heterogeneous than that of montmorillonites. The developed methodology also allowed describing the structural modifications resulting from a chemical perturbation (chlorinated anionic background, pH). Finally, the link between the thickness of elementary layers and the amount of interlayer water molecules has been evidenced. A new structure model has also been determined for these interlayer species allowing an improved description of their positional distribution in bi-hydrated interlayers. (author)

Ferrage, E

2004-10-15

328

21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution...

2010-04-01

329

Vitamins and Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

... and zinc. A basic program of vitamin and mineral supplementation should be safe. This would include the following, all taken according to directions on the bottle: A multiple vitamin/mineral (without extra iron), An antioxidant supplement with several ...

330

Cancer of the lung in uranium miners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is due to cigarette smoking and high radon daughter product exposure in uranium mines. The incidence of oat cell cancer was very high (75 to 80%) when the miners were exposed to high levels of radiation (WLM). Exposure to these two carcinogens causes squamous cell metaplasia which is also due to upper respiratory inflammatory disease. The squamous metaplasia is not distinguishable as to cause, but when due to carcinogen, these cells persist over a longer period of time and become progressively more and more atypical until invasive neoplasia develops. This is the latent period and lasts about 10 to 15 years

331

Assesment of uranium ore mining impact on the health of occupationally exposed personnel and surrounding communities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

compared to 27.4 years and 29.2 years in case of non ferrous and coal miners, respectively; cumulate exposure to radon and its descendants was 345 WLM for uranium miners as compared to 66 WLM and 58 WLM in case of non ferrous and coal miners, respectively. Also, the cancer incidence in smokers exposed to radon and its descendant was found to be increased as compared with smokers in control population. Measures for reducing the radiation effects are proposed. (authors)

332

Sedimentary and Related Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

Perkins, Dexter

333

EVOLUCIÓN MINERALÓGICA DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND DURANTE EL PROCESO DE HIDRATACIÓN / MINERALOGICAL EVOLUTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT DURING HYDRATION PROCESS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evolución mineralógica del cemento Pórtland tipo I durante el proceso de hidratación, usando las técnicas de caracterización de materiales difracción de rayos X (DRX) y microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM), con el fin de entender los cambios que se dan en los minerales anhidros de [...] l cemento (alita, belita, celita y felita entre otros) durante su transformación en las fase estables hidratadas (tobermorita, ortlandita, etringita, etc.). Se encontró que, en general, el proceso de hidratación ocurre de manera diferente en cada mineral ya sea por la velocidad de reacción, o por los cambios cristalinos experimentados por éstos durante la transformación de fase anhidra a hidratada. Se pudo apreciar la formación de tobermorita gel (CSH), portlandita y etringita primaria. Además, como cambia la apariencia de la pasta a medida que avanza la hidratación. Abstract in english An investigation about mineralogical evolution during hydration process of the portland cement was carried out in this work using techniques of materials characterization, such as X ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the behaviour shown by the differe [...] nt minerals of the cement (alite, belite, celite and felite) and their transformation in the stables hydrate phases (tobermorite, portlandite, ettringite) It was found that, in general, the hydration process happens in a different way in each mineral either because of the reaction speed, or the crystalline changes experienced by them in the transformation from the anhydrous to the hydrated phase. The tobermorite gel (CSH), portlandite and ettringitre formation and the changing in appearance of the paste during the hydration advances, could be appreciated.

MANUEL ALEJANDRO, GIRALDO M..

2006-03-01

334

EVOLUCIÓN MINERALÓGICA DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND DURANTE EL PROCESO DE HIDRATACIÓN / MINERALOGICAL EVOLUTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT DURING HYDRATION PROCESS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta la evolución mineralógica del cemento Pórtland tipo I durante el proceso de hidratación, usando las técnicas de caracterización de materiales difracción de rayos X (DRX) y microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM), con el fin de entender los cambios que se dan en los minerales anhidros de [...] l cemento (alita, belita, celita y felita entre otros) durante su transformación en las fase estables hidratadas (tobermorita, ortlandita, etringita, etc.). Se encontró que, en general, el proceso de hidratación ocurre de manera diferente en cada mineral ya sea por la velocidad de reacción, o por los cambios cristalinos experimentados por éstos durante la transformación de fase anhidra a hidratada. Se pudo apreciar la formación de tobermorita gel (CSH), portlandita y etringita primaria. Además, como cambia la apariencia de la pasta a medida que avanza la hidratación. Abstract in english An investigation about mineralogical evolution during hydration process of the portland cement was carried out in this work using techniques of materials characterization, such as X ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the behaviour shown by the differe [...] nt minerals of the cement (alite, belite, celite and felite) and their transformation in the stables hydrate phases (tobermorite, portlandite, ettringite) It was found that, in general, the hydration process happens in a different way in each mineral either because of the reaction speed, or the crystalline changes experienced by them in the transformation from the anhydrous to the hydrated phase. The tobermorite gel (CSH), portlandite and ettringitre formation and the changing in appearance of the paste during the hydration advances, could be appreciated.

MANUEL ALEJANDRO, GIRALDO M..

335

Examination of Portland cement paste hydrated in the presence of malic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When malic acid (MA) solutions are added to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), rapid heat evolution takes place, but the hydration is retarded considerably at all the MA concentrations. To understand the mechanism of retardation, UV-visible and IR spectral studies were made and the results have revealed that some interaction occurs between MA and certain constituents of OPC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies have proved the formation of a new reaction product due to interaction between MA and some of the mineral phases of Portland cement. The retardation of the hydration of Portland cement may be attributed to the formation of this new compound

336

Vitamins and Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

... inorganic elements that come from the soil and water and are absorbed by plants or eaten by animals. Your body needs larger amounts of some minerals, such as calcium, to grow and stay healthy. Other minerals like chromium, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc are called trace minerals because ...

337

Minerals in our Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

This downloadable poster (36 in. by 60 in.) describes how minerals are used in household substances and objects, listed by name, with numbers corresponding to locations in a typical house. For example, in the kitchen, appliances contain steel and copper, clay minerals are found in china, and table salt contains the mineral halite.

338

Influence of humidity and temperature on the dehydration of Mg-carbonate minerals: Implications for optimizing stability of CO2 storage in minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of magnesite [MgCO3] is widely acknowledged as the primary goal of carbon mineralization because its thermodynamic stability and slow dissolution kinetics enable long-term storage of CO2. However, magnesite formation is kinetically inhibited at Earth's surface conditions, under which formation of metastable hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals is favored instead. Increasing attention is being paid to carbon mineralization strategies that generate hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals because they may be produced at low temperature and low pressure without considerable investment of energy. Highly hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals, such as lansfordite [MgCO3.5H2O] and nesquehonite [MgCO3.3H2O], are also known to decompose in the dry state to more durable and less hydrous phases, such as hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.4H2O], which ultimately may convert to stable magnesite within 10s to 100s of years. However, relatively little is known about the conditions required to promote hydromagnesite and magnesite production via this mechanism. The hydration states of many low-temperature minerals (e.g., sulfates, zeolites and smectites) are strongly dependent on temperature and atmospheric relative humidity (RH). Thus, we have undertaken a systematic study of hydrated Mg-carbonate mineral transformations under a range of temperatures and RH appropriate for carbonate mineral production and long-term storage of these minerals in near-surface environments. Samples of synthetic lansfordite, nesquehonite, dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.5H2O], and hydromagnesite were stored under various conditions of RH (2% to 100%) and temperature (-25 C to 75 C) for a period of at least seven months in order to examine their stability. Our experiments demonstrate that atmospheric RH and temperature are major controls on the stability of hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals. Additionally, the decomposition of these phases is marked by slow kinetics and path dependence. Decomposition of nesquehonite and lansfordite at higher temperature and low RH can also produce poorly ordered and amorphous phases, which may complicate or frustrate monitoring and carbon accounting using crystallographic techniques such as X-ray diffraction. The most significant trends observed for all Mg-carbonate minerals studied are the enhanced stability of highly hydrated phases at low RH and the relatively rapid decomposition of higher hydrates to hydromagnesite at higher RH and temperature. Finally, relatively stable hydromagnesite is more readily produced by decomposition of lansfordite and nesquehonite than from compositionally similar dypingite at high RH. Thus, it may be energetically advantageous to trap and store CO2 within nesquehonite, which forms readily at ambient temperatures, and subsequently to optimize storage conditions to promote its decomposition to more durable hydromagnesite.

Wilson, S. A.; Power, I. M.; Morgan, B.; Madsen, I. C.

2013-12-01

339

Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both up-flow and down-flow of fluid at rates that range between 0.5 to 214 cm/yr and 2-162 cm/yr, respectively. The fluid flow system at the mound and background sites are coupled having opposite polarities that oscillate episodically between 14 days to {approx}4 months. Stability calculations suggest that despite bottom water temperature fluctuations, of up to {approx}3 C, the Bush Hill gas hydrate mound is presently stable, as also corroborated by the time-lapse video camera images that did not detect change in the gas hydrate mound. As long as methane (and other hydrocarbon) continues advecting at the observed rates the mound would remain stable. The {_}{sup 13}C-DIC data suggest that crude oil instead of methane serves as the primary electron-donor and metabolic substrate for anaerobic sulfate reduction. The oil-dominated environment at Bush Hill shields some of the methane bubbles from being oxidized both anaerobically in the sediment and aerobically in the water column. Consequently, the methane flux across the seafloor is higher at Bush hill than at non-oil rich seafloor gas hydrate regions, such as at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia. The methane flux across the ocean/atmosphere interface is as well higher. Modeling the methane flux across this interface at three bubble plumes provides values that range from 180-2000 {_}mol/m{sup 2} day; extrapolating it over the Gulf of Mexico basin utilizing satellite data is in progress.

Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

2006-03-03

340

[Chloral hydrate: a hypnotic best forgotten?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesised by Justin Liebig in 1832 chloral hydrate is one of the oldest synthetic agents. Since 1869 it has been in use for hypnotic or sedative purposes. Chloral hydrate was used a lot from the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. Since then chloral hydrate has been less frequently in use as a hypnotic. In the 1990's, the principal use of chloral hydrate in pediatrics was the sedation of children for minor surgery during dental or diagnostic procedures. In general practice, it is an analgesia found in topical preparations. It was known as safe and easy to use. Now it is shown to be potentially dangerous (risk of death in case of intoxication) and there is doubt about genotoxicity and carcinogenecity. The pharmacological property was known in 1948 when Butler discovered the principal active metabolite, trichloroethanol. The gastro-intestinal tract rapidly absorbs chloral hydrate after oral or rectal use. The sedative and hypnotic effects appear in 20 to 60 minutes. The main metabolites [trichloroethanol (TCE) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)] are formed by hepatocytes and erythrocytes. The half-life of chloral hydrate is short (a few minutes), the half lives of the metabolics are longer, 8 to 12 hours for TCE and 67 hours for TCA. The affinity for lipids is high. It is eliminated principally by the kidneys. Its mechanism of action is unknown. It is a depressor of the SNC, and the sedation is attributed to chloral hydrate and the hypnotic effect to TCE. The interactions appear with: alcohol, anticoagulants, amitriptyline and furosemide. The use of flumazenil (a gaba antagonist), in case of intoxication, indicates a possible action of GABA. The posology is usually between 0.5 to 2 g per day. Chloral hydrate is taken during meals to prevent gastric irritation. The main side effects are digestive, cardiologic (risk of rhythm disorder), dermatologic, neuropsychiatric (withdrawn, delusions, hallucination, dependence) and ophthalmologic. Death occurs after absorption of doses of around 10 g of hydrate chloral, some cases were reported with 5 g. The use of hydrate chloral is contra-indicated in cases of gastric ulcers, hepatic insufficiency, porphyry, respiratory insufficiency, association with anticoagulants and hyper sensibility. Nowadays should we be using chloral hydrate in cases of insomnia in adult and older people? A recent preclinical working group of the French Agency for evaluation of medicinal products reassessed the benefit/risk ratio of chloral hydrate. Many references are found about genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in recent literature. In France, since the end of 2000, chloral hydrate has been withdrawn from many medications for external use in dermatology and in stomatology. Chloral hydrate can be used as a pediatric sedative only once in a lifetime. The psychiatric indication for insomnia is no longer justified and especially in older people. PMID:12091779

Gauillard, J; Cheref, S; Vacherontrystram, M N; Martin, J C

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Effects of CO2 hydrate on deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study, conducted with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), is the first to investigate potential effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrates on benthic microfossils, specifically oraminifera. The experiment was conducted in September 2003 aboard the R/V Western Flier using the ROV Tiburon. Experimental (CO2 exposed) and control cores were collected at 3600m and stained to distinguish live (stained) from dead (unstained) individuals. Foraminifera are ideal for these investigations because of differing test composition (calcareous and agglutinated) and thickness, and diverse epifaunal and infaunal depth preferences. The effects of the CO2 on assemblages have been tracked both vertically (10cm depth) and horizontally, and between live and dead individuals. Increased mortality and dissolution of calcareous forms resulted from exposure to CO2 hydrate. Preliminary results suggest several major effects on surface sediment assemblages: 1) total number of foraminifera in a sample decreases; 2) foraminiferal diversity decreases in both stained and unstained specimens. The number of planktonic and hyaline calcareous tests declines greatly, with milliolids being more resistant to dissolution when stained; and 3) percentage of stained (live) forms is higher. Down-core trends (up to 10cm) indicate: 1) percent agglutinated forms decline and calcareous forms increasingly dominate; 2) agglutinated diversity decreases with depth; and 3) assemblages become increasingly similar with depth to those in control cores not subjected to CO2 hydrate. These results imply almost complete initial mortality and dissolution upon CO2 hydrate emplacement in the corrals. (Author)

342

Hydration sequence of swelling clays: Evolutions of specific surface area and hydration energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to identify the key steps and the driving force for the hydration process of swelling clays, the water adsorption isotherms and enthalpies were measured on mono-ionic montmorillonite samples saturated with alkali or calcium ions, and on bi-ionic samples saturated with a sodium-calcium mixture. The specific surface area evolution along the hydration process was determined using a recent interpretation of the experimental adsorption isotherms of swelling solids. Results are interpreted in structural terms. Compared with additional data from sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA), the results confirm experimentally that the hydration of Li- and Na-montmorillonite is mainly a cation-controlled process, in contrast with the hydration of Cs samples in which the cation contribution to hydration is negligible, as we have already demonstrated using electrostatic calculations or conductivity measurements. (authors)

Salles, F.; Douillard, J.M. [Univ Montpellier 2, CNRS, AIME and PMDP, Inst Charles Gerhardt, UMR 5253, F-34095 Montpellier 5 (France); Salles, F.; Bildstein, O.; Jullien, M. [CEA Cadarache, Lab Modelisat Transferts Environm, SMTM, DEN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Denoyel, R.; Beurroies, I. [Univ Aix Marseille 1, CNRS, Ctr St Jerome, Equipe Matdiv, LCP, F-13397 Marseille 20 (France); Denoyel, R.; Beurroies, I. [Univ Aix Marseille 2, CNRS, Ctr St Jerome, Equipe Matdiv, LCP, F-13397 Marseille 20 (France); Univ Aix Marseille 3, CNRS, Ctr St Jerome, Equipe Matdiv, LCP, F-13397 Marseille 20 (France); Van Damme, H. [ESPCI Paris Tech, UPMC, CNRS, UMR 7615, F-75231 Paris 05 (France)

2009-05-15

343

Hydration sequence of swelling clays: evolutions of specific surface area and hydration energy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify the key steps and the driving force for the hydration process of swelling clays, the water adsorption isotherms and enthalpies were measured on monoionic montmorillonite samples saturated with alkali or calcium ions, and on bi-ionic samples saturated with a sodium-calcium mixture. The specific surface area evolution along the hydration process was determined using a recent interpretation of the experimental adsorption isotherms of swelling solids. Results are interpreted in structural terms. Compared with additional data from sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA), the results confirm experimentally that the hydration of Li- and Na-montmorillonite is mainly a cation-controlled process, in contrast with the hydration of Cs samples in which the cation contribution to hydration is negligible, as we have already demonstrated using electrostatic calculations or conductivity measurements. PMID:19303602

Salles, Fabrice; Douillard, Jean-Marc; Denoyel, Renaud; Bildstein, Olivier; Jullien, Michel; Beurroies, Isabelle; Van Damme, Henri

2009-05-15

344

Hydration sequence of swelling clays: Evolutions of specific surface area and hydration energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to identify the key steps and the driving force for the hydration process of swelling clays, the water adsorption isotherms and enthalpies were measured on mono-ionic montmorillonite samples saturated with alkali or calcium ions, and on bi-ionic samples saturated with a sodium-calcium mixture. The specific surface area evolution along the hydration process was determined using a recent interpretation of the experimental adsorption isotherms of swelling solids. Results are interpreted in structural terms. Compared with additional data from sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA), the results confirm experimentally that the hydration of Li- and Na-montmorillonite is mainly a cation-controlled process, in contrast with the hydration of Cs samples in which the cation contribution to hydration is negligible, as we have already demonstrated using electrostatic calculations or conductivity measurements. (authors)

345

Hydrate Equilibrium Measurement of Single CO2 and CH4 Hydrates Using Micro DSC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the simple gas hydrate equilibrium conditions of methane and carbon dioxide in water were measured by using high pressure micro DSC (why is the advantage. The technique was chosen because it is economic, fast and accurate. In this study, the methane hydrate equilibrium conditions were measured at pressure between 35-112 bar and temperature between 276-288 K. In addition, the carbon dioxide hydrate equilibrium conditions were measured at pressure between 15-37 bar and temperature between 274-282.5 K. The measured data was compared to the available literature data and the AADT % between the measured data and predicted model was calculated. Good agreements were obtained between the measured and literature data. The AADT% between the measured data and predicted models is less than 0.07% for CH4 hydrate and 0.15% for CO2 hydrate.

O. Nashed

2014-01-01

346

Thermodynamic modeling for clathrate hydrates of ozone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We present a phase-equilibrium model for ozone-containing clathrate hydrates. • We determine intermolecular potential parameters for O3. • There is good agreement between the developed model and the experimental data. • The results show the capability of O3 as a guest substance for clathrate hydrates. • We perform parametric studies for O3 storage capacity with various thermodynamic conditions. -- Abstract: We report a theoretical study to predict the phase-equilibrium properties of ozone-containing clathrate hydrates based on the statistical thermodynamics model developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw. The Patel–Teja–Valderrama equation of state is employed for an accurate estimation of the properties of gas phase ozone. We determined the three parameters of the Kihara intermolecular potential for ozone as a = 6.815 · 10?2 nm, ? = 2.9909 · 10?1 nm, and ? · kB?1 = 184.00 K. An infinite set of ?–? parameters for ozone were determined, reproducing the experimental phase equilibrium pressure–temperature data of