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Sample records for hydrated minerals exposed

  1. Hydrous silicate and salt minerals are stable in a hydrated state on the surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.

    Mars Odyssey Neutron spectrometer data provide evidence of heterogeneous near-surface water abundances up to ˜ 10 wt% in near-equatorial regions on Mars. The fact that water ice is unstable in these regions suggests that some of this water may be present in hydrous silicates (smectites or zeolites) or hydrated salts. Zeolites (e.g., clinoptilolite and chabazite) and smectites have been suggested to occur on the martian surface, and Viking, Pathfinder, and MER chemical data support the existence of MgSO4 in altered surface materials. In addition, a variety of sulfate and chloride minerals have been identified in martian meteorite samples. Mg-sulfates exist on Earth in a variety of hydration states, including 7-hydrate (51 wt% water), 6-hydrate (47 wt% water), and monohydrate (13 wt% water), but occurrences on Mars may be very different and may include intermediate hydrates such as 5-, 4-, 3-, and 2-hydrates (43, 37, 31, and 23 wt% water, respectively). Other hydrated sulfates (e.g., gypsum, CaSO4\\cdot 2H2O, 21 wt% water) or hydrated sulfate-chloride salts may also be present based on existing chemical data. Experimental data on the thermodynamics of hydration/dehydration reactions for clinoptilolite, chabazite, and smectite show that they would be partially to completely hydrated at martian surface conditions. Their hydration enthalpies are such that they have the potential to hydrate and dehydrate during diurnal temperature cycles at the martian equator. Similar data are not available for the hydrated Mg sulfates, but controlled-atmosphere X-ray diffraction measurements on the 7-, 6-, and 1-hydrate suggest that the 7-hydrate is not stable at the low partial pressures of water found on Mars. The 6-hydrate becomes amorphous under low-pressure conditions but retains ˜ 18 wt% water; it readily rehydrates when exposed to elevated water-vapor pressure. The potential suite of hydrated silicate and salt minerals is large and requires considerable additional research. However, existing data demonstrate that several of these minerals are reasonable hosts for water molecules under present martian surface conditions. One or several of these minerals may contribute to the subsurface water observed by Mars Odyssey. Some of the hydrated Mg sulfates have such high water concentrations that realistic amounts would be required to account for the observed near-equatorial martian water.

  2. Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Seok-woo

    2012-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyap...

  3. Early hydration of portland cement with crystalline mineral additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents the effects of finely divided crystalline mineral additions (quartz and limestone), commonly known as filler, on the early hydration of portland cements with very different mineralogical composition. The used techniques to study the early hydration of blended cements were conduction calorimeter, hydraulicity (Fratini's test), non-evaporable water and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the stimulation and the dilution effects increase when the percentage of crystalline mineral additions used is increased. Depending on the replacement proportion, the mineralogical cement composition and the type of crystalline addition, at 2 days, the prevalence of the dilution effect or the stimulation effect shows that crystalline mineral additions could act as sites of heat dissipation or heat stimulation, respectively

  4. The effect of natural sand grains and associated mineral changes on methane hydrate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeschen, K. U.; Schicks, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The highest gas hydrate saturations and possible energy resource targets are bound to sandy sediments. However, investigations regarding the influence of natural sand particles on gas hydrate formation are rare and almost missing with regards to the particle size effect of different grain size ranges of sand on the gas hydrate kinetics. Comparative investigations commonly use arbitrary sized sands and clay minerals. In addition, sand grains are often represented using glass beads or pure quartz grains instead of natural samples where additional effects from mineral compositions and coatings might occur. However, understanding the kinetics of hydrate formation in sand forms yet another foundation for a successful scale-up model of the production of natural gas hydrate reservoirs, where reformation of hydrates may occur under non-equilibrium conditions. We investigated the particle size effect of sand on methane hydrate formation kinetics using five different grain size ranges of Ottawa sand, a rather pure quartz sand. Conditions of the static and small-volume experiments were far within the methane hydrate stability (7 MPa/1°C). Pressure and temperature recording as well as microscopic and Raman spectroscopic observations could verify methane hydrate formation and growth. For the chosen experimental setup there is a strong particle size effect on the kinetics of gas hydrate formation. A high concentration of the finest range (< 125?m) has led to an explicitly faster hydrate formation compared to coarser sand or a small fraction of fine particles diluted in coarse sand grains. This is in contrast to the decrease of thermodynamic driving forces in the presence of fine sized particles given equilibrium conditions. The promoting kinetic effect of the mineral surface properties might be related to the impact of the surface area as well as crystal structures, and/or electrical charge since small fractions of natural sands commonly encounter different mineral compositions compared to the coarser, quartz rich sand fraction. Therefore, additional investigations focus on the influence of the different minerals on the hydrate formation process.

  5. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 9 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 13 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 12°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw and 10°C higher at 100% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 7°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 100% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  6. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  7. MODELING OF CATION BINDING IN HYDRATED 2:1 CLAY MINERALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrated 2:1 clay minerals are high-surface area, layered silicates that play a unique role in determining the fate of ionic pollutants in the environment. These minerals, including smectites and vermiculites, make up a major component of many soils. Ionic pollutants, including r...

  8. Effect of pH on carbon dioxide hydrate formation in mixed soil mineral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorena, Rheo B; Lee, Woojin

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the effect of pH on CO2 hydrate formation in the presence of phyllosilicate mixtures. Different pH conditions of phyllosilicate suspensions (Na-montmorillonite-rich and phyllosilicate-rich suspensions) with and without NaCl (3.5%) were prepared and controlled by the addition of an acid or base before the dissolution of CO2. The formation of CO2 hydrates was observed in all phyllosilicate suspensions (30 bar and 273.45 K). The temperature-time plot results showed that hydrate formations were suppressed more in acidic mineral suspensions than in basic suspensions. The fastest hydrate induction time can be observed in Na-montmorillonite-rich and phyllosilicate-rich suspensions with and without NaCl at near neutral conditions (pH 6-8), followed by basic (approximately pH 12.0) and acidic (approximately pH 2.0) pHs. Hydrate induction time can be significantly affected by various chemical species forming under different suspension pHs. The distribution of chemical species in each mineral suspension was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model, PHREEOC, and used for the identification of hydrate formation characteristics in the suspension. Particle-particle and particle-water interactions may possibly contribute to the delay of hydrate formation. NaCl was not an efficient inhibitor but a possible promoter for hydrate formation when pH-dependent solid surfaces were present in the system. PMID:19731696

  9. Formation of carbon dioxide hydrate in soil and soil mineral suspensions with electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorena, Rheo B; Lee, Woojin

    2008-04-15

    We have identified the effects of solid surface (soil, bentonite, kaolinite, nontronite, and pyrite) and electrolyte (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) types on the formation and dissociation of CO2 hydrate in this study. The hydrate formation experiments were conducted by injecting CO2 gas into the soil suspensions with and without electrolytes in a 50 mL pressurized vessel. The formation of CO2 hydrate in deionized water was faster than that in aqueous electrolyte solutions. The addition of soil suspensions accelerated the formation of CO2 hydrate in the electrolyte solutions. The hydrate formation times in the solid suspensions without electrolytes were very similar to that in the deionized water. We did not observe any significant differences between the hydrate dissociation in the solid suspension and that in the deionized water. The pHs of clay mineral suspensions decreased significantly after CO2 hydrate formation and dissociation experiments, while the pH of the soil suspension slightly decreased by less than pH 1 and that of pyrite slightly increased due to the dissolution of CO2 forming carbonic acid. The results obtained from this research could be indirectly applied to the fate of CO2 sequestered into geological formations as well as its storage as a form of CO2 hydrate. PMID:18497119

  10. FINAL REPORT. MODELING OF CATION BINDING IN HYDRATED 2:1 CLAY MINERALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrated 2:1 clay minerals are high surface area, layered silicates that play a unique role in determining the fate of radionuclides in the environment. This project consisted of developing and implementing computer simulation methods for molecular characterization of the swellin...

  11. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. CO2 + N2O mixture gas hydrate formation kinetics and effect of soil minerals on mixture-gas hydrate formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkh-Amgalan, T.; Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 mitigation is one of the most pressing global scientific topics in last 30 years. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHGs) defined by the Kyoto Protocol and its global warming potential (GWP) of one metric ton is equivalent to 310 metric tons of CO2. They have similar physical and chemical properties and therefore, mixture-gas (50% CO2 + 50% N2O) hydrate formation process was studied experimentally and computationally. There were no significant research to reduce N20 gas and we tried to make hydrate to mitigate N20 and CO2 in same time. Mixture gas hydrate formation periods were approximately two times faster than pure N2O hydrate formation kinetic in general. The fastest induction time of mixture-gas hydrate formation observed in Illite and Quartz among various soil mineral suspensions. It was also observed that hydrate formation kinetic was faster with clay mineral suspensions such as Nontronite, Sphalerite and Montmorillonite. Temperature and pressure change were not significant on hydrate formation kinetic; however, induction time can be significantly affected by various chemical species forming under the different suspension pHs. The distribution of chemical species in each mineral suspension was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model, PHREEQC, and used for the identification of hydrate formation characteristics in the suspensions. With the experimental limitations, a study on the molecular scale modeling has a great importance for the prediction of phase behavior of the gas hydrates. We have also performed molecular dynamics computer simulations on N2O and CO2 hydrate structures to estimate the residual free energy of two-phase (hydrate cage and guest molecule) at three different temperature ranges of 260K, 273K, and 280K. The calculation result implies that N2O hydrates are thermodynamically stable at real-world gas hydrate existing condition within given temperature and pressure. This phenomenon proves that mixture-gas could be efficiently applied to CO2 sequestration at potential sites and further investigations must be conducted to identify possible effects frequently found in natural geological environments and geo-environmental conditions at the site affecting the hydrate formation kinetics.

  13. Modeling of Cation Binding in Hydrated 2:1 Clay Minerals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David E.

    2000-09-14

    Hydrated 2:1 clay minerals are high surface area, layered silicates that play a unique role in determining the fate of radionuclides in the environment. This project consisted of developing and implementing computer simulation methods for molecular characterization of the swelling and ion exchange properties of Hydrated 2:1 clay minerals, and the subsequent analysis and theoretical modeling with a view toward improving contaminant transport modeling as well as soil remediation and radionuclide containment strategies. Project results included the (a) development of simulation methods to treat clays under environmentally relevant conditions of variable water vapor pressure; (b) calculation of clay swelling thermodynamics as a function of interlayer ion size and charge (calculated quantities include immersion energies, free energies, and entropies of swelling); and (c) calculation of ion exchange free energies, including contributions from changing interlayer water contents and layer spacing.

  14. CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics enhanced by an organo-mineral complex formed at the montmorillonite-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Daeseung; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2015-01-20

    In this study, we investigated experimentally and computationally the effect of organo-mineral complexes on the nucleation kinetics of CO2 hydrate. These complexes formed via adsorption of zwitter-ionic glycine (Gly-zw) onto the surface of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT). The electrostatic attraction between the ?NH3(+) group of Gly-zw, and the negatively charged Na-MMT surface, provides the thermodynamic driving force for the organo-mineral complexation. We suggest that the complexation of Gly-zw on the Na-MMT surface accelerates CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics by increasing the mineral–water interfacial area (thus increasing the number of effective hydrate-nucleation sites), and also by suppressing the thermal fluctuation of solvated Na(+) (a well-known hydrate formation inhibitor) in the vicinity of the mineral surface by coordinating with the ?COO(–) groups of Gly-zw. We further confirmed that the local density of hydrate-forming molecules (i.e., reactants of CO2 and water) at the mineral surface (regardless of the presence of Gly-zw) becomes greater than that of bulk phase. This is expected to promote the hydrate nucleation kinetics at the surface. Our study sheds new light on CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics in heterogeneous marine environments, and could provide knowledge fundamental to successful CO2 sequestration under seabed sediments. PMID:25532462

  15. Thermodynamics of carbonates and hydrates related to heterogeneous reactions involving mineral aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, James T.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2005-06-01

    Carbonates that are widely present in mineral aerosol may interact with gas-phase species through reactions of the form XCO3 + 2HY + nH2O ? XY2.nH2O + CO2 + H2O (R1), where X = Ca or Mg, Y = NO3 or Cl, and n is the hydration number of the XY2 salt. Laboratory investigations of R1 (X = Ca, Y = NO3) indicate that nitric acid is irreversibly acquired by CaCO3 to form Ca(NO3)2 in idealized environments that do not contain CO2. However, CO2 is present in the atmosphere and could drive R1 in reverse. In the bulk, the XY2 salts are known to exist as stable hydrates, yet an expression for the variation of the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) with temperature (T) for hydrates has not been reported. One goal of this work is to determine the thermodynamically preferred state governed by R1 for tropospheric conditions. A related objective is to derive an equation for predicting DRH(T) for hydrates. Equilibrium concentrations of HCl and HNO3 as functions of RH and T were determined for R1 and compared with ambient measurements from regions where high dust loadings are common. An equation for DRH(T) for hydrates was derived by building on previous work for anhydrous salts. Predictions of DRH(T) for hydrates agree with measurements and indicate that DRH(T) is markedly different for hydrated and anhydrous forms of certain salts. For R1 with stable-hydrated XY2, the forward direction is thermodynamically preferred for tropospheric conditions. These reactions scavenge HCl and HNO3 from the gas phase. For R1 with anhydrous XY2, the forward direction is prohibited under some tropospheric conditions. The behavior of the chemical system in this situation is dependent on solid-phase nucleation kinetics. R1 containing aqueous-ionized CaCl2 can proceed in reverse under some tropospheric conditions, and thereby release HCl into the gas phase. Our work suggests that hydrated states of XY2 should be considered when modeling R1 in low RH situations.

  16. Lung cancer risk among Czech miners exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of underground miners of uranium and other substances are at present the principal source of information on the effects of exposure to radon and its progeny. One of the largest such studies is that of uranium miners in West Bohemia (Jachymov). This study, sometimes referred to as the S cohort, was set up in 1970 by the late Josef Sevc. About ten years later, two further cohorts were delineated by him. One of uranium miners (N) who worked under improved conditions mostly in the Pribram mines, and the second one of burnt clay miners (L) located in the Rakovnik district. Brief characteristics of the cohorts are shown

  17. Hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structures of oxosalt, hydroxide and halogenide hydrates of the MxXy · zH2O composition, which are classified in accord with the value of z/xn ratio, where n is the coordination number of atom M (M = Be, Sr, Sm, Nd, Cd, Gd) are discussed. Two types of cadmium ions with a little bit different invironment are in the structure of CdSO4 · 8/3H2O hydrate; octahedron is the coordinated polyhedron; four types of water molecules non-equivalent crystallographycally are in the structure, and 3/4 of water molecules are bound with cation. Vanadyl sulfate forms hydrates with 1, 3, 5, 6 water molecules; considerable distortion of the coordinated octahedron is observed in these compounds

  18. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid?, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the same period of time. These results indicate that the habitual consumption of AK water may be a valuable nutritional vector for influencing both acid-base balance and hydration status in healthy adults.

  19. Silica-rich deposits and hydrated minerals at Gusev Crater, Mars: Vis-NIR spectral characterization and regional mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.; Cloutis, E. A.; Wang, A.; Ruff, S. W.; Craig, M. A.; Bailey, D. T.; Johnson, J. R.; de Souza, P. A.; Farrand, W. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit has discovered surprisingly high concentrations of amorphous silica in soil and nodular outcrops in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills. In Pancam multispectral observations, we find that an absorption feature at the longest Pancam wavelength (1009 nm) appears to be characteristic of these silica-rich materials; however, spectral analyses of amorphous silica suggest that the ˜1009 nm spectral feature is not a direct reflection of their silica-rich nature. Based on comparisons with spectral databases, we hypothesize that the presence of H 2O or OH, either free (as water ice), adsorbed or bound in a mineral structure, is responsible for the spectral feature observed by Pancam. The Gertrude Weise soil, which is nearly pure opaline silica, may have adsorbed water cold-trapped on mineral grains. The origin of the ˜1009 nm Pancam feature observed in the silica-rich nodular outcrops may result from the presence of additional hydrated minerals (specific sulfates, halides, chlorides, sodium silicates, carbonates or borates). Using the ˜1009 nm feature with other spectral parameters as a "hydration signature" we have mapped the occurrence of hydrated materials along the extent of Spirit's traverse across the Columbia Hills from West Spur to Home Plate (sols 155-1696). We have also mapped this hydration signature across large panoramic images to understand the regional distribution of materials that are spectrally similar to the silica-rich soil and nodular outcrops. Our results suggest that hydrated materials are common in the Columbia Hills.

  20. Supplementation of Acqua Lete® (Bicarbonate Calcic Mineral Water improves hydration status in athletes after short term anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brancaccio Paola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies suggest that mineral waters with high concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate can impact acid–base balance. The purpose of this study was to test the effect on acid–base balance and specific urine gravity, of a bicarbonate calcic mineral water (Acqua Lete® compared to a minimally mineralized water. Methods 88 amateur male athletes underwent two experimental trials with a modified Wingate test: the first was carried out without hydration (Control Test, Test C, n = 88; the second was carried out after one week of controlled hydration (Test with hydration, Test H, n = 88, with 1.5 L/day of a very low mineral content water (Group A, n = 44 or 1.5 L/day of Acqua Lete® (Group B, n = 44. Measure of body temperature, bioimpedance analysis, muscular ultrasound, and urinalysis were taken before (t0, immediately after (t1, 5’ (t2, and 30’ (t3 after exercise. Results Hydration results in a decreased core temperature; muscular ultrasound showed increased muscle thickness after exercise related to content of body water. Regarding urinalysis, in test H, we found in both groups after exercise a significant decrease of specific urine gravity with significantly lower levels in Group B. We also found a significant increase of pH in the same Group B. Conclusions In conclusion all the athletes hydrated with Acqua Lete® showed a positive impact on hydration status after anaerobic exercise with significant decrease of specific urine gravity and a positive effect on pH.

  1. Diagenesis of magnetic minerals in a gas hydrate/cold seep environment off the Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Basavaiah, N.; Badesab, F.K.; Usapkar, A.; Mazumdar, A.; Joshi, R.; Ramprasad, T.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed magnetic measurements of the core (MD161/8) located in the vicinity of Site NGHP-01-10 was carried out, where approx. 128 m of hydrate is confirmed by drilling/coring, to understand the diagenesis of magnetic minerals in a gas hydrates...

  2. The mortality experience of a group of Newfoundland fluorspar miners exposed to Rn progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters has been conducted using two control groups (surface workers and Newfoundland males). Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland and buccal cavity/pharynx were significantly elevated among underground miners. A highly significant relationship was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity/pharynx cancers (n = 6) precluded meaningful analysis of dose-response. Also significantly elevated among underground miners were deaths from silicosis and pneumoconioses. No statistically significant excess was found for any cause of death among surface workers. Using external controls, attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 per working level month per million person-years and 0.89 percent per working level month respectively. Attributable risk coefficients were similar to some, but not all related mining studies. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed attributable risks to non-smokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age at observation whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. Using the risk coefficients from the present study, a miner exposed for 30 years at 4 WLM per year from age 20 has a risk of 7,366 per 100,000 of dying of lung cancer by age 70 using the relative risk model and a risk of 6,371 per 100,000 using the attributable risk model. This compares to 3,740 per 100,000 for a non-exposed male. 85 refs

  3. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-08-04

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled.

  4. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  5. Human Biomonitoring Data from Mercury Exposed Miners in Six Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Areas in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Baeuml

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM areas in many developing countries, mercury (Hg is used to extract gold from ore. Data of 1250 participants from Indonesia, Mongolia, Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe were combined to analyze the relation between exposure in ASGM areas and body burden. Methods: Four groups were selected relating to their intensity of contact with mercury: (i a non-exposed control group; (ii a low exposed group with participants only living in mining areas, but not working as miners; (iii a medium exposed group, miners living in exposed areas and working with mercury without smelting amalgam; and (iv a high exposed group, miners living in exposed areas and smelting amalgam. Results: Compared to the non-exposed control group, participants living and/ or miners working in highly exposed areas have significantly higher concentration of total mercury in urine, hair and blood (p-value < 0.001. The median mercury value in urine in the control group is < 0.2 µg/L. In the high exposed group of amalgam smelters, the median in urine is 12.0 µg/L. The median in blood in the control group is < 0.93 µg/L. The median level in blood of the high exposed group is 7.56 µg/L. The median for mercury in hair samples from the control group is 0.21 µg/g. In the high exposed group the median hair concentration is 2.4 µg/g hair. Mercury levels also differ considerably between the countries, reflecting a diverse background burden due to different fish eating habits and different work place methods. Conclusions: A high percentage of exposed individuals had levels above threshold values. These high levels of mercury are likely to be related with serious health problems.

  6. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-04-16

    The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system that contains methyl viologen as an internalised electron carrier has been used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally-located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, direct electron transfer from the interior through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The observed rates of conduction through the protein complex were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed in whole cells, demonstrating that direct electron exchange between MtrCAB and Fe(III) oxides is efficient enough to support in-vivo, anaerobic, solid phase iron respiration.

  7. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, that are a continuing cause of concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the U.S. Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of U.S. veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality radio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  8. Phase Field Theory Modeling of CH4 and CO2 Fluxes from Exposed Natural Gas Hydrate Reserviors

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Khuram

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are widely distributed in sediments along continental margins, and harbor enormous amounts of energy. Gas hydrates are crystalline solids which occur when water molecules form a cage like structure around a non-polar or slightly polar (eg. CO2, H2S) molecule. These enclathrated molecules are called guest molecules and obviously have to fit into the cavities in terms of volume. Massive hydrates that outcrop the sea floor have been reported in the Gulf of Mexico (MacDonald,...

  9. Impact of Compound Hydrate Dynamics on Phase Boundary Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osegovic, J. P.; Max, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Compound hydrate reactions are affected by the local concentration of hydrate forming materials (HFM). The relationship between HFM composition and the phase boundary is as significant as temperature and pressure. Selective uptake and sequestration of preferred hydrate formers (PF) has wide ranging implications for the state and potential use of natural hydrate formation, including impact on climate. Rising mineralizing fluids of hydrate formers (such as those that occur on Earth and are postulated to exist elsewhere in the solar system) will sequester PF before methane, resulting in a positive relationship between depth and BTU content as ethane and propane are removed before methane. In industrial settings the role of preferred formers can separate gases. When depressurizing gas hydrate to release the stored gas, the hydrate initial composition will set the decomposition phase boundary because the supporting solution takes on the composition of the hydrate phase. In other settings where hydrate is formed, transported, and then dissociated, similar effects can control the process. The behavior of compound hydrate systems can primarily fit into three categories: 1) In classically closed systems, all the material that can form hydrate is isolated, such as in a sealed laboratory vessel. In such systems, formation and decomposition are reversible processes with observed hysteresis related to mass or heat transfer limitations, or the order and magnitude in which individual hydrate forming gases are taken up from the mixture and subsequently released. 2) Kinetically closed systems are exposed to a solution mass flow across a hydrate mass. These systems can have multiple P-T phase boundaries based on the local conditions at each face of the hydrate mass. A portion of hydrate that is exposed to fresh mineralizing solution will contain more preferred hydrate formers than another portion that is exposed to a partially depleted solution. Examples of kinetically closed systems include pipeline blockages and natural hydrate concentrations associated with upwelling fluids in marine sediments. 3) In open systems, mass can either flow into or out of a system. In such situations compound hydrate will form or decompose to re-establish chemical equilibrium. This is accomplished by 1) loading/consuming a preferred hydrate former to/from the surroundings, 2) lowering/raising the temperature of the system, and 3) increasing the local pressure. Examples of this type of system include hydrate produced for low pressure transport, depressurized or superheated hydrate settings (pipeline remediation or energy recovery), or in an industrial process where formation of compound hydrates may be used to separate and concentrate gases from a mixture. The relationship between composition and the phase boundary is as important as pressure and temperature effects. Composition is less significant for simple hydrates where the hydrate behaves as a one-component mineral, but for compound hydrate, feedback between pressure, temperature, and composition can result in complex system behavior.

  10. Stable isotope fractionation factors of water in hydrated saline mineral-brine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Juske

    1989-10-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors of water between water of crystallization of carnallite, bischofite and tachyhydrite and the mother solutions were determined from the isotopic activity ratios of the mother solutions (? a) in the temperature range of 10-40°C. Deuterium is depleted and 18O enriched in the water of crystallization of all these minerals. No clear temperature dependence can be observed. The published fractionation factors in the literature, which were all determined from the isotopic concentration ratios of the mother solutions (? c) were corrected to ? a using the "salt effect" coefficients. It is proposed that only the ? a values can be applied to the natural settings.

  11. Mutation rates at the glycophorin A and HPRT loci in uranium miners exposed to radon progeny.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanahan, E M; Peterson, D.; Roxby, D; J. Quintana; Morely, A A; Woodward, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To find whether a relation exists between estimated levels of exposure to radon and its progeny and mutations in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) and glycophorin A in a cohort of former uranium miners. METHODS--A cohort study involving a sample of miners from the Radium Hill uranium mine in South Australia, which operated from 1952 to 1961. Radiation exposures underground at Radium Hill were estimated from historical radon gas measures with a job exposure matrix. Wor...

  12. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    OpenAIRE

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system containing a pool of internalized electron carriers was used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilaye...

  13. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This interactive lesson on minerals starts with a definition of minerals and compares crystalline and amorphous minerals. The composition is discussed and a chart shows the relative amounts of elements in minerals. Next, there is a discussion of the characteristics by which minerals are identified including luster, color, streak, hardness, and cleavage and fracture along with special properties such as magnetism. The characteristics of calcite, talc, hematite, magnetite, and galena are then observed.

  14. Natural gas hydrate in sediments imaged by cryogenic SEM: Insights from lab experiments on synthetic hydrates as interpretive guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    In the investigation of natural gas hydrates, distinguishing in situ grain textures and microstructures from artifacts produced during retrieval, storage, and examination can be quite challenging. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the physical states of gas hydrates produced in our lab as well as of those in drill core of hydrate-bearing sediment from marine and Arctic permafrost environments. Here, we compare grain and pore structures observed in samples from the Cascadia margin (courtesy IODP Expedition 311), McKenzie River Delta (Mallik Well 5L-38), and Gulf of Mexico (RSV Marion Dufresne 2002), with those present in hydrocarbon hydrates grown in our laboratory and subjected to controlled P-T conditions. The following trends are apparent for the natural gas hydrates imaged to-date: (1) Samples typically contain massive domains of polycrystalline gas hydrate that in turn contain isolated gas-filled pores that are sometimes lined with euhedral hydrate crystals. Pores are typically 5 50 microns in diameter and occupy roughly 10-30 percent of the domain. Grain sizes, where visible, are commonly 20 to 50 microns. (2) Hydrate grain boundaries, particularly near the exposed sample surface, are often replaced by a nanoporous material. Based on its location and behavior, this material is presumed to be gas-charged porous ice produced by hydrate decomposition along grain surfaces. In some samples, grains are instead bounded by a framework of dense, tabular material embedded within the sample, best revealed upon sublimation of the hydrate. Their composition is yet unknown but may be salt or carbonate-bearing minerals. (3) Where hydrate grows into clayey sediments, the clays typically arrange with platelets subparallel around the pods or veins of hydrate. (4) Domains of nano-to-micro- porous water ice are also seen in all recovered natural samples, presumed to be hydrate decomposition product produced during drill-core retrieval and handling. Based on lab experiments, we believe the initial liquid product is frozen as a result of the local temperature reduction accompanying the endothermic dissociation reaction. The porous texture is then preserved by liquid nitrogen quenching. (5) Samples from both marine and permafrost environments also display closely juxtaposed regions of dense and porous hydrate and ice. Although the close association of these regions remains puzzling, lab tests verify that dense hydrate can exhibit such porous appearance along it's surface after even minor decomposition at cold conditions (below 273 K). In turn, companion experiments show that nanoporous hydrate anneals to a densely crystalline habit at conditions within the hydrate stability region above 273 K, suggesting that nanoporous gas hydrate is not stable at most in situ natural conditions.

  15. Mortality of a cohort of French uranium miners exposed to relatively low radon concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Tirmarche, M; Raphalen, A.; Allin, F.; Chameaud, J; Bredon, P.

    1993-01-01

    A cohort mortality study has been performed on French uranium miners having experienced more than 2 years of underground mining, with first radon exposure between 1946 and 1972. Vital status has been ascertained from the date of entry to the 31 December 1985 for 99% of the members of this cohort; causes of death are identified for 95.5% of the decedents. The different causes of death are compared to the age specific national death rates by indirect standardisation and expressed by standardise...

  16. The effect of water structure and solute hydration on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Putnis, A.

    2012-04-01

    Classical crystal growth theory relates growth and dissolution rates to the degree of supersaturation. However, the solution composition may also affect the growth rate of carbonate minerals, via the Ca2+ to CO32- concentration ratio (e.g. Perdikouri et al., 2009; Stack and Grantham, 2010), ionic strength (e.g. Ruiz-Agudo et al. 2010) or the presence of organic matter (Hoch et al., 2000). For this reason, the influence of these parameters on the kinetics of mineral growth and dissolution has generated a considerable amount of research in the last decade. In particular, effects of both inorganic and organic impurities on mineral growth and dissolution have been frequently reported in the literature. Commonly, water in contact with rock forming minerals, contains significant and variable amounts of ions in solution. The effect of such ions on dissolution and growth rates has been traditionally ascribed to changes in solubility. However, experimental studies performed on different minerals have shown that the dependence of growth or dissolution rates on ionic strength is complex, and that the effect of ionic strength is not independent of the ionic species producing it. Here, we report investigations aimed at addressing the basic hypothesis that mineral growth and dissolution is governed by complex interactions between solvent structure, surface hydration and the ion solvation environment induced by the presence of electrolytes. It is proposed that any factor affecting ion solvation should alter growth and dissolution rates. These results have opened the possibility of a new understanding of very diverse phenomena in geochemistry and demonstrate the need for the inclusion of this "hydration effect" in the development of predictive models that describe crystal growth and dissolution in complex systems, such as those found in nature. Furthermore, we can hypothesise that ion-assisted dehydration of trace and minor element ions could occur in biological systems, thus affecting their incorporation and isotopic fractionation, providing interesting insights into the possible origin of anomalies found in systems used as environmental proxies and the so-called "vital effects".

  17. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. The best way to get the minerals your body needs is by eating a wide variety of foods. In some cases, your doctor may recommend a mineral supplement.

  18. A review of studies of mortality among miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum permissible limit for exposure to radon daughters in Australian uranium mines is 4 Working level months per year. This limit is based on studies of lung cancer among US uranium miners which showed no statistically significant excess incidence of this disease in workers who had a cumulative exposure of less than 120 WLM. More recently published Swedish, Canadian and Czech studies provide higher risk per unit exposure factors than the US studies. The Czech studies show no statistically significant excess incidence of lung cancer below a cumulative exposure of 100 WLM, but the Swedish and Canadian studies suggest that observable increases in lung cancer frequency may in fact occur at low cumulative exposures. All of the studies are open to criticism. The methodology used in the US studies tended to underestimate the number of deaths in the group of miners with low cumulative exposures and to overstate the expected (background) rate of lung cancer development. The other published studies are also subject to errors because of lack of suitable control populations, information regarding previous or subsequent work experience, medical and smoking histories and analyses of deaths from other causes

  19. Models for skin tumour risks in workers exposed to mineral oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvholm, B; Easton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between skin tumours in man and exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been studied in lathe operators exposed to cutting oils. Seven cases of scrotal cancer and 13 cases of senile keratosis and keratoacanthoma were observed. The risk varied as the 1.6th power of duration of exposure for cancer on the scrotum and the 2.4th power for tumours on the hand and forearms. These results accord well with experiments on animals. There was some evidence of an increasing trend in ris...

  20. Results of cytogenetic examinations of miners exposed to radon in ore mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the radon air concentrations and clastogenic effects at three ore mines located in central east Slovakia, the gold mine of Hodrusa-Hamre, talcum mine of Hnusta, and iron ore mine in Nizna Slana are compared with the chromosomal aberrations observed in a control group of healthy men which experienced underground work. A random sample of radon concentration measurements in houses was used for control. Significant differences in counts of aberrations of the chromosomal type in lymphocytes of smoker-miners of Nizna Slana as compared with counts of such aberrations in lymphocytes of a control group of similar age were found. A dependence of chromosomal aberration counts from the underground exposure to radon by multiple regression procedures could not be ascertained. The results indicated that confounding of such dependence by smoking might have taken place

  1. Epidemiologic studies of lung disease among miners exposed to increased levels of radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality of uranium miners from both lung cancer and other respiratory diseases is strongly dependent on exposure to radon daughters, cigarette smoking, and height. Lung cancer among 15 different mining groups was analyzed to determine what factors influence incidence and the induction-latent period. At low exposures or at low exposure rates, alpha radiation is more efficient in inducing lung cancer, producing an upward convex exposure-response curve. The induction-latent period is shortened by an increased age at the start of mining, by cigarette smoking, and by high exposure rates. For follow-up periods of 20 to 25 years, the incidence increases with age at the start of mining, with the magnitude of exposure, and with the amount of cigarette smoking. Instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures to estimate risk at low levels, it might be more appropriate to use cancer rates associated with background radiation as the lowest point on the exposure-response curve

  2. Mars residual north polar cap - Earth-based spectroscopic confirmation of water ice as a major constituent and evidence for hydrated minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Mccord, T. B.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of new earth-based reflectance spectra of the Martian north residual polar cap. The spectra indicate that the composition is at least mostly water ice plus another component with a 'gray' reflectance. The other minerals in the ice cap appear to be hydrated. The data were obtained with a cooled circular variable filter spectrometer on February 20, 1978, using the 2.2-m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It is pointed out that the identification of water ice in the north polar cap alone does not indicate that water makes up all or even most of the bulk of the cap. Kieffer (1970) has shown that a small amount of water will mask the spectral features of CO2.

  3. Dosimetric property of mineral extracted from calamari and exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Roman-Lopez, J.; Cruz, L. Perez; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Chiaravalle, E.; Mangiacotti, M.; Marchesani, G. [Centro di Referenza Nazionale per la Ricerca della Radioattivita nel Settore Zootecnico-Veterinario, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, I-71121 Foggia (Italy)

    2013-07-03

    Dosimetric property of polymineral fraction, quartz mainly, obtained from calamari was investigated. The commercial calamari samples from China and Sud Africa were collected in the markets of Italy. All polymineral debris were extracted and isolated from the whole body of calamari. The surface of the polymineral samples was analyzed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and their chemical composition was determined using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The polymineral was exposed to gamma rays ({sup 60}Co) at different doses (0.5-80 Gy) to determine dosimetric property. Thermoluminescent (TL) glow curves showed two peaks centered at around 98-100 Degree-Sign C and 128-138 Degree-Sign C temperature range. The glow curves have been analyzed by using a deconvolution program. A linear dose response between 0.5 to 20 Gy was observed. The TL response of the samples as a function of the time storage, fading, presented a reduction of about 36-40 % at the end of 24 h. The reproducibility of the TL response after ten cycles of irradiation-readout showed an acceptable standard deviation in dosimetry. The polimineral fraction obtained from calamari shows an interesting dosimetric property and it may be useful for dosimetry in gamma radiation field.

  4. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; ? uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the ? uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author)

  5. Lung function, blood gases, pH and serum electrolytes of small-scale miners exposed to chrome ore dust on the Great Dyke in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osim, E E; Tandayi, M; Chinyanga, H M; Matarira, H T; Mudambo, K K; Musabayane, C T

    1999-09-01

    We measured and compared lung function indices and some blood parameters (gases, electrolytes, glucose, pH, red cell indices) of 54 male small-scale miners (SSM) chronically exposed to chrome ore dust to those of 50 nonmining control subjects (NMC) and 46 large-scale chrome miners (LSM) who had taken internationally recommended precautionary measures (secondary control). The respirable dust level in the SSM environment (6.0 +/- 0.5 mg/m3) was significantly higher (P chrome ore dust in the environment. Associated risk factors appear to be advancing age, prolonged exposure to chrome ore dust and acid base disturbance. PMID:10540303

  6. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty fish is fried in olive oil the quality of the fish oil improves, enhancing the nutritive utilization of iron and other dietary minerals.

  7. Bone mineral density and polymorphisms in metallothionein 1A and 2A in a Chinese population exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) effect on bone varies between individuals. We investigated whether genetic variation in metallothionein (MT)1A and MT2A associated with Cd induced bone loss in this study. A total of 465 persons (311 women and 154 men), living in control, moderately and heavily polluted areas, participated. The participants completed a questionnaire and the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. Samples of urine and blood were collected for determination of Cd in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd). Genotypes for polymorphisms in MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. BCd had a weak association with variant alleles for MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) in female living in the highly polluted group (p = 0.08 and 0.05, respectively). A weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT2A polymorphisms variation (p = 0.06) in female living in the highly polluted group. Only a weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT1A polymorphisms variation in female. Genetic variation in the MT1A and MT2A genes may not associate with bone loss caused by cadmium exposure. - Highlights: ? We investigated the association between metallothionein polymorphisms bone mineral density. ? MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed a weak association with cadmium in blood. ? MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed no association with bone mineral denno association with bone mineral density.

  8. Estudio comparativo de los efectos de Hidrato de Cloral y Etanol en ratas expuestas a Fluoracetato de Sodio / Comparative study of the effects of cloral hydrate and ethanol in rats exposed to sodium fluoracetate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jenni L, Ramírez M; Manuel S, Ramírez S; Elsa Y, Gutiérrez R; Francisco, Mujica.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El fluoroacetato de sodio, es un raticida prohibido en algunos países y permitido en otros, que causa severas intoxicaciones humanas y animales. Actúa por inhibición del ciclo de Krebs e interfiere con la producción de energía, lo cual conduce a disfunción celular irreversible, especialmente en sist [...] ema nervioso central y corazón. El alcohol etílico, debido a su oxidación a acido acético y a su amplia disponibilidad, es uno de los fármacos usados en esta intoxicación, lo que podría causar controversias éticas y legales. La biotransformación del hidrato de cloral a tricloroetanol y a ácido tricloroacético, el efecto anticonvulsivante y su amplio uso en Pediatría, fueron las razones para su evaluación en la intoxicación por fluoroacetato. Se realizó un estudio experimental, para comparar los efectos de hidrato de cloral y alcohol en ratas intoxicadas con fluoroacetato de sodio. El análisis estadístico aplicado fue la prueba de chi cuadrado. Los resultados mostraron que el hidrato de cloral a dosis bajas, permite la sobrevivencia en 100% de los animales expuestos. Se confirmó igualmente la efectividad del alcohol etílico a dosis altas. Este resultado sugiere que el hidrato de cloral puede ser una opción tan útil como el etanol y que podría ser el fármaco de elección en aquellos pacientes que no puedan recibir monoacetin o etanol o porque haya mayor accesibilidad al hidrato de cloral. Abstract in english Sodium fluoroacetate is a banned rodenticide in some countries and allowed in others, which causes severe human and animal poisonings. It acts for inhibition of Krebs's cycle and interferes with energy production leading to irreversible cellular dysfunction, specially in nervous central system and h [...] eart. Ethyl alcohol, because oxidation to acetic acid and to its wide availability, is one of the drugs used in this poisoning, which should can cause ethical and legal controversies. Biotransformation of chloral hydrate to trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid, the anticonvulsant effect and its widespread use in Pediatrics, were the reasons for its evaluation in fluoroacetate poisoning. An experimental study was conducted, to compare effects of chloral hydrate and ethanol in poisoned rats with sodium fluoroacetate. The statistical analysis applied was the chi square test. The results showed that chloral hydrate in low doses allows survival in 100 % of the exposed animals. It also confirms the effectiveness of ethyl alcohol at high doses. This result suggests that chIoral hydrate may be an option as useful as ethanol and could be the choice drug in those patients who could not receive monoacetin or ethanol or because there is greater accessibility to chloral hydrate.

  9. Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50 mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2 mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5 mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0 mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead.

  10. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300?mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4?months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  11. Bone mineral density and polymorphisms in metallothionein 1A and 2A in a Chinese population exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiao [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lei, Lijian [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi 030001 (China); Tian, Liting [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Guoying, E-mail: chx_win@hotmail.com [Department of Bone Metabolism, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jin, Taiyi, E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupation Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Cadmium (Cd) effect on bone varies between individuals. We investigated whether genetic variation in metallothionein (MT)1A and MT2A associated with Cd induced bone loss in this study. A total of 465 persons (311 women and 154 men), living in control, moderately and heavily polluted areas, participated. The participants completed a questionnaire and the bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the proximal radius and ulna. Samples of urine and blood were collected for determination of Cd in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd). Genotypes for polymorphisms in MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) were determined by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. BCd had a weak association with variant alleles for MT1A (rs11076161) and MT2A (rs10636) in female living in the highly polluted group (p = 0.08 and 0.05, respectively). A weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT2A polymorphisms variation (p = 0.06) in female living in the highly polluted group. Only a weak association was found between bone mineral density and MT1A polymorphisms variation in female. Genetic variation in the MT1A and MT2A genes may not associate with bone loss caused by cadmium exposure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the association between metallothionein polymorphisms bone mineral density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed a weak association with cadmium in blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MT1A and MT2A polymorphisms showed no association with bone mineral density.

  12. Mortality and cancer incidence in a small cohort of miners exposed to low levels of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the continuing controversy over the effects on humans of low-level ionizing radiation, overall mortality and cancer incidence among miners from a magnetite mine was investigated. The study comprises 332 underground miners. The average concentration of Rn progeny is presently 0.10-0.15 working levels (WL). Included in the study were those employed for more than 36 months in the period 1940-1960, who were still alive in 1953. The follow-up period covers 1953-1980. Mortality was equal to estimated values based on age-specific national figures. The observed/expected ratio for lung cancer incidence was 1.1. Comparison was also made to 190 miners from a mine with negligible radiation (less than 0.02 WL). The same mortality was observed, but this mine showed a ratio for lung cancer incidence of 2.2. The study population is too small to repudiate the hypothesis of increased health risk after exposure to low levels of alpha radiation

  13. X-ray micro-analysis of the mineralization patterns in developing enamel in hamster tooth germs exposed to fluoride in vitro during the secretory phase of amelogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing enamel from three-day-old hamster first maxillary (M1) molar tooth germs exposed to fluoride (F-) in vitro was analyzed for its mineral content by means of the energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis technique. The aim of this study was to obtain semi-quantitative data on the F(-)-induced hypermineralization patterns in the enamel and to confirm that the increase in electron density observed in micrographs of F(-)-treated enamel is indeed due to an increase in mineral content in the fluorotic enamel. The tooth germs were explanted during the early stages of secretory amelogenesis and initially cultured for 24 hr in the presence of 10 ppm F- in the culture medium. The germs were then cultured for another 24 hr without F-. In order to compare the ultrastructural results directly with the microprobe data, we used the same specimens for both investigations. The net calcium counts (measurement minus background counts) in the analyses were used as a measure of the mineral content in the enamel. The aprismatic pre-exposure enamel, deposited in vivo before the onset of culture, was the most hypermineralized region in the fluorotic enamel, i.e., it contained the highest amount of calcium measured. The degree of the F(-)-induced hypermineralization gradually decreased (but was not abolished) in the more mature regions of the enamel. The unmineralized enamel matrix secreted during the initial F- treatment in vitro mineralized during the subsequent culture without F-d during the subsequent culture without F-. The calcium content in this enamel layer was in the same order of magnitude as that recorded for the newly deposited enamel in control tooth germs cultured without F-

  14. Epidemiological study of radon-exposed mineral mine workers in north east Bavaria including chromosome dosimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    360 hard-rock miners were examined for breathing organ health, working conditions, smoking habits, and partly for chromosome aberrations (115 persons, 100 cells each). Long-time exposure at diameter 1 to 4 WL Rn-daughters and/or occasional >= 1000 pCi Rn/l air increased rates of S2-type aberrations (x 3,4; P 2-rates. From dose estimations, bronchial radiation conditions appear as bronchitis cofactor; lymphocyte but not lymph node dose fairly fits S2-rate after 20 years' exposure. (orig.)

  15. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    2007-01-01

    surrounded by a cage of water molecules. Thus it is similar to ice, except that the crystalline structure is stabilized by the guest gas molecule within the cage of water molecules. Many gases have molecular sizes suitable to form hydrate, including... methane hydrate, has been recognized worldwide, where pressure and temperature conditions stabilize the hydrate structure. It is present in oceanic sediments along continental margins and in polar continental settings. It has been identified from...

  16. CO2 Injection in Hydrate Bearing Sandstone with Excess Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hågenvik, Christian

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that methane can be produced from gas hydrates by exposing it to carbon dioxide. Since CO2 is the preferred hydrate former below 10 °C it will spontaneously replace CH4 as the guest molecule in the hydrate without introducing heat. This production method is beneficial because it offers long term storage of CO2 with the added benefit of produced methane without dissociating the hydrate. Previous experimental research on production from gas hydrates by CO2 injec...

  17. CHANGES IN LEVELS OF ANTIOXIDANT MINERALS AND VITAMINS IN WISTAR MALE RATS EXPOSED TO METHIONINE CONTAINING ACETAMINOPHEN FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Francis A. A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of toxic and subtoxic doses of acetaminophen on antioxidant vitamins and minerals in male Wistar rats. Five groups served as the test groups and received different doses of the acetaminophenmethionine formulation in ratio 9:1. The sixth group served as the control and received only the vehicle: physiologic saline. At the end of 24 hours of exposure, blood was obtained from each rat through retro-orbital bleeding, the levels of antioxidant vitamins and minerals were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometric technique. Results showed that at 100 mg/kg BW level of exposure, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium were significantly increased (p0.05 compared with controls. At both 350 and 1000 mgkg BW levels of exposure, all these antioxidant indices were significantly decreased (p0.05 at 350 mgkg BW (body weight level of exposure compared with the control group. The animals in 3000 mgkg BW and 5000 mgkg groups suffered 40% and 100% mortality respectively by the end of the 24th hour. This study therefore showed that acetaminophenmethionine formulation in the ratio of 9:1 may cause alteration of vital elements and biomolecules not only at toxic levels but also at tolerable level of 100 mgkg BW.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus markers among malaria-exposed gold miners in Brazilian Amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco José Dutra, Souto; Cor Jésus Fernandes, Fontes; Ana Maria Coimbra, Gaspar.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C virus markers were assessed during a survey on malaria in gold mine camps in southern Brazilian Amazon in order to identify risk factors associated to these viral diseases. The study comprised 520 subjects, most of them were gold miners. Missing subjects totaled 49 (8.6%). Among th [...] ese 520, 82.9% had HBV markers and 7.1% were HBsAg positive. Previous hospitalization, surgery, sexually transmitted diseases and incarceration were quite common among surveyed people, but there is no association between total HBV markers and these factors. On other hand, HBsAg was independently associated to history of sexually transmitted diseases and history of surgery after adjustment. The most frequent HBsAg subtypes identified, adw2 (59%), predominates in populations of Northeast Brazil. The most surveyed people were immigrants coming from that area suggesting that immigrants carried HBV themselves to the study area. Immunoblot (RIBA) confirmed-anti-HCV were found in 2.1%. The only variable associated to anti-HCV in multivariate analysis was illicit intravenous drug. Lack of HCV infection in subjects with such a high HBV markers prevalence reinforces the opinion that HCV is transmitted by restricted routes when compared to HBV. Furthermore, gold miners in Amazon may be considered as a risk group for HBV infection, but not for HCV.

  19. Effect of the Curcumin Supplementation on the Regional Bone Mineral Density of Femur and Tibial Bones in Young Rats Exposed to Lead Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabidi Roshan Valiollah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Recent studies have shown that lead causes oxidative stress in bones by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, the effects of 8-week curcumin supplementation on the regional bone mineral density of femur and tibial bones in rats exposed to lead acetate was investigated. Materials and Method: Fifty days aged Wistar rats were randomly assigned to baseline, sham-operate, lead acetate and curcumin + lead (curcumin groups. Lead and/or curcumin groups received 20 mg/kg lead acetate peritoneally for 8 weeks (3 days/week. In addition, the curcumin group received 30 mg/kg curcumin solution for 3 days-a-week for 8 weeks. The femur and tibial BMD were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA methods. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and SPSS 17. Results: MDA and lead levels were significantly lower in the curcumin group compared with lead-exposed and baseline groups. In addition, BMD and TAC levels was significantly higher in the curcumin group compared with lead-treated and baseline groups. Conclusion: These results show that environmental exposure to lead may be a risk factor for skeletal diseases. Furthermore, the curcumin supplementation possibly has inhibitory effects on lead-induced loss of femur and tibial BMD. Sci Med J 2011; 10(3:295-307

  20. Evaluation of the mortality standard of a miners cohort exposed to radon in an underground coal mining, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to to evaluate the possible health effects on workers in a underground coal mining that were exposed to radon and its decay products without the knowledge of the exposure risk. We established a historical cohort of workers in this mining which included 2856 workers, 1946 underground workers and 910 surface workers, and was carried out a retrospective tracking of mortality in this cohort between 1979 and 2002. Through multiple strategies for monitoring, involving several national institutions, was possible to trace the vital status of 92% of the cohort and 100% of the causes of deaths. The results showed that employees of underground coal mining in Parana had a risk of mortality from lung cancer higher than might be expected to the male population of the state of Parana, observing an increase in risk with the time of underground service. However, this increase in mortality from lung cancer was not observed for surface workers. Among several carcinogenic agents present in the mine environment, radon gas and its decay products can be identified as the major cause for this increase in risk of lung cancer for these workers, once other epidemiological studies in coal mining, which have no risk of exposure to radon, do not present an increased of mortality risk from lung cancer

  1. Mineral density and biomechanical properties of bone tissue from male Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) exposed to organochlorine contaminants and emaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Wolkers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact from dietary OC (organochlorine) exposure and restricted feeding (emaciation) on bone mineral density (BMD; g hydroxy-apatite cm(-2)) in femoral, vertebrate, skull and baculum osteoid tissue from farmed Arctic blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus). For femur, also biomechanical properties during bending (displacement [mm], load [N], energy absorption [J] and stiffness [N/mm]) were measured. Sixteen foxes (EXP) were fed a wet food containing 7.7% OC-polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber in two periods of body fat deposition (Aug-Dec) and two periods of body fat mobilisation (Jan-July) in which the food contained less energy and only 2% blubber. SigmaOC food concentration in the food containing 7.7% whale blubber was 309 ng/g wet mass. This corresponded to a SigmaOC exposure of ca. 17 microg/kg body mass/d and a responding SigmaOC residue in subcutaneous adipose tissue of ca. 1700 ng/g live mass in the 8 EXP fat foxes euthanized after 16 months. A control group (CON) composed of 15 foxes were fed equal daily caloric amounts of clean pork (Sus scrofa) fat. After 16 months, 8 EXP and 7 CON foxes were euthanized (mean body mass=9.25 kg) while the remaining 8 EXP and 8 CON foxes were given restricted food rations for 6 months resulting in a body weight reduction (mean body mass=5.46 kg). The results showed that only BMD(skull) vs. BMD(vertebrae) were significantly correlated (R=0.68; p=0.03; n=10) probably due to a similar composition of trabecular and cortical osteoid tissue. No difference in any of the BMD measurements or femoral biomechanical properties was found between EXP and CON foxes although BMD baculum was 1.6-folds lower in the EXP group. However, lean summer foxes had significantly lower femoral biomechanical properties measured as displacement (mm), energy absorption (J) and time (s) biomechanical properties than fat winter foxes (all p<0.004). This indicates lower stiffness and softer bones from fasting which is in agreement with previous studies. Further, it should be kept in mind when studying bone tissues in Arctic mammals also in order to avoid confounding effects from body condition.

  2. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor CH4 hydrate formation and spontaneous conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Bernard A; Stevens, Jim; Howard, James J; Graue, Arne; Kvamme, Bjorn; Aspenes, Erick; Ersland, Geir; Husebø, Jarle; Zornes, David R

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor and quantify methane hydrate formation and exchange in porous media. Conversion of methane hydrate to carbon dioxide hydrate, when exposed to liquid carbon dioxide at 8.27 MPa and approximately 4 degrees C, was experimentally demonstrated with MRI data and verified by mass balance calculations of consumed volumes of gases and liquids. No detectable dissociation of the hydrate was measured during the exchange process. PMID:19168304

  3. Gas Hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas hydrates are solid, similar to the ice and made up of rigid cages of water molecules, that they contain gas molecules, mainly methane, they can be formed and to remain stable to discharges pressures and relatively low temperatures, since present enough quantity of hydrocarbons is. The presence of the Gas Hydrates has been detected in high latitudes under the permafrost (Siberia and Alaska) and under the deep marine in silts of continental margins and elevations of the sea bottom (coast out California, Bearing Sea, Beaufort sea, coast out Newfoundland, Baltimore Canyon, Mexico Gulf and Colombian basin among other) its presence has also been postulated in intracratonics basins like in the Black and Caspio Sea. Gas hydrates have been known from 1810, but only in 1934 the first publication appeared (Hammer Schmidt) in connection with the gas piper line for the hydrates formation. The geologic occurrence is known from 1960 with the discovery for the Russian of Messoyakha Field (Siberia) and in 1972 for Arch-Exxon in the well Eilleen State 2 in Alaska. The quantity of gas present in the gas hydrates postulated in the world is considered that 18 x 1015 m3 could reach (6.5 x 105 American Quintillion cubic feet) the above-mentioned means that there would be more carbon in the gas hydrates than the acquaintance twice or estimated in the reservations of fossil fuels of the world and that this energy source could replace the world necessities until the X XI century. In Colombessities until the X XI century. In Colombia two areas have been postulated with gas hydrates: Colombian basin in the Caribbean Sea and the Panama Basin

  4. Mapping Hydrated Materials with MER Pancam and MSL Mastcam: Results from Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, and Plans for Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites using multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) observations from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam). Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm). The hydration signature is based on a strongly negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2?1 + ?3 H2O combination band and/or the 3vOH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms. Here we present the ways we have used this hydration signature, in combination with observations of morphology and texture, to remotely identify candidate hydrated materials in Pancam observations. At Gusev Crater, we find that the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater. We also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. This hydration signature can similarly be used to map hydrated materials at the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site, Gale Crater. The MSL Mast Camera (Mastcam) is a two-instrument suite of fixed-focal length (FFL) cameras, one with a 15-degree field of view (FOV) and the other with a 5.1-degree FOV. Mastcam's narrowband filters cover 9 unique wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared (band centers near 440, 525, 675, 750, 800, 865, 905, 935, and 1035 nm), and are distributed between the two FFL cameras. Full-filter multispectral observations of the region of overlap between the two cameras can be used for our hydration signature mapping. Mastcam's longest-wavelength filter should be able to detect hydrated and/or hydroxylated minerals with strong absorptions between ~990 and ~1080 nm; because of the width of this IR filter, Mastcam will be sensitive to more H2O and/or OH-bearing species than Pancam. Here we summarize the minerals Mastcam should be able to detect if present at Gale Crater, and our plans for hydration signature mapping with MSL.

  5. Hydration of small peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Thomas; Liu, Dengfeng; Bowers, Michael T.

    2005-02-01

    The results for the sequential hydration of small peptides (reviewed and put in perspective with other work published in the literature where appropriate. Our findings are based on hydration equilibrium measurements in a high-pressure drift cell inserted into an electrospray mass spectrometer and on calculations employing molecular mechanics and density functional theory methods. It is found that the ionic functional groups typically present in peptides, the ammonium, guanidinium, and carboxylate groups, are the primary target of water molecules binding to peptides. Whereas the water-guanidinium binding energy is fairly constant at 9 +/- 1 kcal/mol, the water binding energy of an ammonium group ranges from 7 to 15 kcal/mol depending on how exposed the ammonium group is. A five-residue peptide containing an ammonium group is in favorable cases large enough to fully self-solvate the charge, but a pentapeptide containing a guanidinium group is too small to efficiently shield the charge of this much larger ionic group. The water-carboxylate interaction amounts to 13 kcal/mol with smaller values for a shielded carboxylate group. Both water bound to water in a second solvation shell and charge remote water molecules on the surface of the peptide are bound by 7-8 kcal/mol. The presence of several ionic groups in multiply charged peptides increases the number of favorable hydration sites, but does not enhance the water-peptide binding energy significantly. Water binding energies measured for the first four water molecules bound to protonated bradykinin do not show the declining trend typically observed for other peptides but are constant at 10 kcal/mol, a result consistent with a molecule containing a salt bridge with several good hydration sites. Questions regarding peptide structural changes as a function of number of solvating water molecules are discussed. Not much is known at present about the effect of individual water molecules on the conformation of peptides and on the stability of peptide zwitterions.

  6. Catalysts for Enhanced CO2-CH4 Exchange in Natural Gas Hydrates. An experimental feasibility study of exchange enhancement by use of chemical additives

    OpenAIRE

    Hossainpour, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid state of gas and water at high pressure and low temperature conditions. Vast energy potential is associated with gas hydrates and extensive on-going research aims at addressing the technical viability of production from hydrate deposits. Two different approaches to produce natural gas from hydrate reservoir have been proposed. Either decompose the hydrate by altering thermodynamic conditions or expose the hydrate to a thermodynamically more stable hydrate former inducin...

  7. Hydration Solution for Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has ordered an intravenous hydration solution for injection. Hydration solution is used for patients who cannot or should not get fluids through drinking and eating. The hydration solution will ...

  8. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  9. An Inversion Algorithm for Gas Hydrate Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, S.; Priest, J. A.; Gei, D.; Minshull, T.; Best, A.; Carcione, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The presence of gas hydrate in oceanic sediments increases the velocity and attenuation of the composite medium. The effects of hydrate saturation on compressional and shear wave velocities and their attenuations are different. These effects depend on the sediment microstructure, composition, the level of hydrate saturation and also the mode of hydrate formation in the pore space (inclusions vs connected). Using these parameters, we predict the velocities and attenuations of the sediments without hydrate, and thereby quantify hydrate saturation as deviation from these predicted velocities and attenuation factors. The influence of different parameters used and the variation of the predicted velocities and attenuations with frequency are studies using field and laboratory based datasets. Based on these studies we have developed an inversion algorithm to predict the gas hydrate saturation from velocities (Vp and Vs) and attenuation factors (Qp-1 and Qs-1) using porosity and physical parameters of the minerals constituting the sediment. Uncertainties in the estimates of hydrate saturation were quantified by testing the method on different datasets with accurately known parameters and corresponding estimated uncertainties. The algorithm will give hydrate saturation along with uncertainty. Using velocities and attenuation factors, the present method can predict the hydrate saturation accurately. The uncertainty in hydrate saturation is estimated to be less than 5% in usual situations. The method is applied to velocity sections estimated from OBS and multi-channel seismic data from the Storegga slide area, offshore Norway and offshore Svalbard. The method is also tested on velocity and attenuation measurements at seismic frequencies using a resonant column apparatus.

  10. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fund...

  11. Estudio de la influencia de los medios con presencia de sulfatos en hormigones con cementos sulforresistentes y adiciones minerales: Parte 2. Hormigones expuestos a sulfato magnésico (MgSO4) / The influence of sulfuric environments on concretes elaborated with sulfate resistant cements and mineral admixtures: Part 2: Concrete exposed to Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernal, Camacho, J; Mahmoud, Abdelkader, S; Reyes, Pozo, E; Monteagudo, Viera, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo estudia la resistencia de hormigones al ataque de sulfatos provenientes de sulfato magnésico (MgSO4) y compara estos valores con resultados previos de los mismos hormigones atacados con sulfato sódico (Na2SO4). De esta manera se estudia la interacción del catión que acompaña al i [...] on sulfato durante su afectación a la matriz cementícia. Para lo anterior, se diseñaron cuatro dosificaciones empleando cementos sulforresistentes y adiciones minerales (humo de sílice, ceniza volante y escoria de alto horno). Los hormigones se sumergieron, por distintos periodos de tiempo, en disolución de sulfato magnésico (MgSO4) de concentración 1M, para después realizarles ensayos mecánicos y a nivel microestructural. Los valores obtenidos se compararon con los obtenidos en el hormigón de referencia curado en hidróxido cálcico. El hormigón con escoria de alto horno presentó el mejor comportamiento frente a MgSO4, siendo las mezclas de humo de sílice y ceniza volante las más susceptibles. La resistencia del hormigón con escoria se atribuye a las características de los silicatos hidratados formados durante la hidratación, los cuales incorporan aluminio en las cadenas impidiendo su descomposición ante un ataque por magnesio. El medio con sulfato magnésico mostro una mayor agresividad que el medio con sulfato sódico. Abstract in english The present work studies the resistant of the concrete against magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and compare the results with values obtained previously of the same concretes exposed to sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). Thus, it is possible analyze the influence of the cation type. To that end, four different concre [...] te mixes were made with sulfur resistant cement and mineral admixtures (silica fume, fly ash and blast furnace slag). The concretes were submerged for different period in magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). After that, different tests were carried out to define mechanical and microstructural properties. The results obtained were compared with reference values of concretes cured in calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. According to the results, the concrete with blast furnace slag presented the best behavior front MgSO4, meanwhile the concretes with silica fume and fly ash were the most susceptible. The resistance of the concrete with blast furnace slag could be attributed to the characteristics of the hydrated silicates formed during the hydration time, which include aluminum in the chemical chain that hinder its chemical decomposition during the attack of magnesium. The magnesium sulfate solution was most aggressive than sodium sulfate solution.

  12. Clathrate hydrates in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Keith C; Brewer, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO2. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves. PMID:21141039

  13. Measuring In situ Dissolved Methane Concentrations in Gas Hydrate-Rich Systems. Part 2: Investigating Mechanisms Controlling Hydrate Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. M.; Lapham, L.; Riedel, M.; Chanton, J.

    2010-12-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, twenty times more infrared-active than CO2, and an important energy source. For these reasons, methane hydrate, one of the largest potential reservoirs of methane on earth, is of considerable interest to scientists and industry alike. In particular, questions relating to the stability of methane hydrate are becoming more important as concern about the release of methane into overlying ocean (and eventually the atmosphere) and interest in the recovery of methane from this resource increase. Three primary factors control hydrate stability: pressure (P), temperature (T), and the gas concentration in the surrounding environment. Pressure and temperature govern the stability of the hydrate structure. When hydrate is exposed to P/T regimes outside of the stability zone (HSZ), the hydrate decomposes by dissociation, a relatively fast process resulting in the release of gaseous phase methane (CH4(g)). However, if the P/T regime is within the HSZ, but the concentration of the guest gas (typically CH4) in the surroundings is below saturation, the hydrate will decompose by dissolution resulting in a phase change between hydrate and the dissolved gas phase (CH4(aq)). OsmoSamplers were deployed at a methane hydrate outcrop in Barkley Canyon, Northern Cascadia Margin, collecting porewater samples in a gradient at 1cm increments away from the hydrate surface. Methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the porewater samples were measured at 6-day resolution over a period of 9 months. At three centimeters from the hydrate face, methane concentrations were significantly lower than predicted saturation for conditions at this site. Curiously, in situ observations of natural hydrate dissolution are up to two orders of magnitude lower than predicted diffusion-controlled dissolution based on surrounding methane concentrations. Since diffusion of methane away from the hydrate surface has been implicated as the dominant control of hydrate dissolution, natural components may act to increase the diffusive boundary layer, thereby slowing dissolution in observed natural systems. Potential dissolution inhibiting components include oils or microbial biofilms which may “armor” (increase the diffusive boundary layer thickness) the hydrate surface slowing dissolution. We hypothesized that the presence of mixed-gas hydrates may be stabilizing these structures. To test this, we used laboratory measurements of methane concentration gradients near artificial hydrate to evaluate the dissolution rates of mixed-gas hydrate and pure methane hydrate. Our second hypothesis was that the presence of microbial biofilms or oil may be slowing methane hydrate dissolution in natural environments by increasing the boundary layer. We will present the results of our mixed-gas and methane hydrate dissolution rate observations and report on experiments examining the influence of protective oils on artificial hydrate stability.

  14. Influence of supplementary vitamins and minerals on lipid peroxidation and redox state in heart, kidney and liver of rats exposed to fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, J; Biloklytska, H F

    2009-01-01

    The effect of fluoride (F) and supplementary vitamins and minerals on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and redox state (RS) in heart, kidney and liver of 40 (4 groups of 10) male Wistar rats were studied. One group of rats was left untreated as control, group 1 was received 5 mg/l NaF in their drinking water, group 2 was received 5 mg/l NaF in their drinking water plus vitamins (A, C, and D) in their diet, and group 3 was received 5 mg/l NaF in their drinking water plus vitamins (A, C, and D) and minerals (Mg-, Mn-, Zn-sulfate, and Na-citrate) in their diet. In comparison with the group 2, 3 and controls, elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the group 1 indicated an increase in LPO product. In addition, unsteady ratios of oxidized to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) reflected significant alterations in the RS status. These results demonstrate that the combination of vitamins and minerals supplementation proved to restore MDA content and establish steady RS status that has not been previously reported. PMID:20201392

  15. The hydratation of tertiary acetylene glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book author received as a result of hydratation of acetylene glycerin substituted oxi tetra hydro peronylidene-oxi tetra hydro-?-piron from (X L V) til (L I) exposed to chemical transformation in such reactions as dehydration and others

  16. Mapping Hydration with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam Instruments: Recent Results from Opportunity at Endeavour Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S.; Bell, James F., III; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Farrand, William H.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rice, James W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Squyres, Steven W.; Wang, Alian

    2013-04-01

    Using the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments, we have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites with multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) images. Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm) [1-2]. The hydration signature is based on a negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm [3] that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2?1 + ?3 H2O combination band and/or the 3?OH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms [4]. The hydration signature is sensitive to many - but not all - hydrated minerals, including silica, gypsum and water ice. At Gusev Crater, the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site [4]. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater [5], in addition to light-toned veins composed of calcium sulfate at Cape York on the rim of Endeavour Crater [6]. Recently, Opportunity has completed a traverse loop at Matijevic Hill at the southern end of Cape York and has encountered numerous small, light-toned, fracture-filling veins that may be indicative of fluid flow. Spectra of these veins are also consistent with hydrated materials, as are spectra of "Whitewater Lake" outcrops at Matijevic Hill, which may contain phyllosilicate minerals [7-8]. Here we also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. For example, the Pancam calibration model assumes that the calibration target behaves as a Lambertian scatterer, an assumption that, for the specific calibration target materials used on the rovers, is increasingly incorrect as incidence angles get closer to 90° or at strongly forward scattering geometries [2]. We have a acquired a series of Pancam observations at the Whitewater Lake outcrop at varying incidence and emission angles to quantify the effects of phase angle on the 934 to 1009 nm spectral slope that defines the hydration signature. These results will allow for more robust hydration detections and better estimates of relative hydrated mineral abundances in future Pancam observations. [1] J.F. Bell III et al. (2003) JGR, v108, E12; [2] J.F. Bell III et al. (2006) JGR, v111, E02S03; [3] A. Wang et al. (2008) JGR, v113, E12; [4] M.S. Rice et al. (2010) Icarus, v205, 375; [5] R.E. Arvidson et al. (2011) JGR, v116, E7; [6] S.W. Squyres et al. (2012) Science, v336, 6081; [7] S.W. Squyres et al. (2013) LPSC 44th; [8] R.E. Arvidson et al. (2013) LPSC 44th.

  17. Thermoluminescence characterization of isolated minerals to identify oranges exposed to ?-ray, e-beam, and X-ray for quarantine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of irradiated fruits is of paramount importance to address the limitation of irradiation technology because of varying national and international regulations. Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was carried out to identify oranges irradiated with ?-ray, electron beam and X-ray. Non-irradiated samples exhibited background TL signals, but all the irradiated samples showed defined TL glow curves characterized by a prominent peak at 158-163 deg C. Characterizations of the irradiated standard minerals showed that feldspars were the major contributors to the TL emission and stable TL signals revealed a successful detection of irradiated oranges even after a prolonged storage. (author)

  18. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO4) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy3+, Eu3+ and Er3 in the bulk of zircon. The Dy3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h howed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  19. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia G, N., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Av. Colon y Av. Tollocan, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3} in the bulk of zircon. The Dy{sup 3+} is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy{sup 3+} has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  20. Methane hydrate; deep water drilling hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmanovitch, Norman [Independent Geophysical Consultant Calgary, Alberta (Canada)], email: kalhnd@shaw.ca

    2011-07-01

    Methane hydrate is a crystallized combination of methane and water that can be found only under certain pressure and temperature conditions. If hydrates are exposed to conditions outside those that ensure their stability, methane explodes into its equivalent gaseous volume. This is a hazard during offshore drilling, but if operators are aware of the possibility of hydrate formation, they can easily avoid this hazard. The hazard is greatest in shallow water if methane hydrates are encountered during the drilling of the conductor pipe before the BOP is installed. Fortunately, the high acoustic impedance of these accumulations makes them easily recognizable. Methane hydrates found in deep water are not as dangerous during drilling operations because of the great pressure; however, there is a hazard if natural gas is introduced to seawater under these conditions. The Macondo Well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico illustrated in a striking way the danger of hydrate formation when methane and water are mixed at 4 degree C and at high pressure.

  1. Mechanical properties of sand, silt, and clay containing tetrahydrofuran hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, T.S.; Santamarina, C.J.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to large strains has relevance for the stability of the seafloor and submarine slopes, drilling and coring operations, and the analysis of certain small-strain properties of these sediments (for example, seismic velocities). This study reports on the results of comprehensive axial compression triaxial tests conducted at up to 1 MPa confining pressure on sand, crushed silt, precipitated silt, and clay specimens with closely controlled concentrations of synthetic hydrate. The results show that the stress-strain behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments is a complex function of particle size, confining pressure, and hydrate concentration. The mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments at low hydrate concentration (probably 50% of pore space), the behavior becomes more independent of stress because the hydrates control both stiffness and strength and possibly the dilative tendency of sediments by effectively increasing interparticle coordination, cementing particles together, and filling the pore space. The cementation contribution to the shear strength of hydrate-bearing sediments decreases with increasing specific surface of soil minerals. The lower the effective confining stress, the greater the impact of hydrate formation on normalized strength.

  2. The Behavior of Hydrated Na-Mg Sulfate Phases Under Mars-Relevant Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, K.; Bish, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing inventory of hydrous evaporite and silicate minerals has been identified from orbital and lander data on Mars. Several hydrous sulfate minerals are thought to be present on Mars, based on spectral, chemical, and geomorphic observations (e.g., CRISM, OMEGA, and Mars Exploration Rover results). We are examining the behavior of hydrous minerals on Mars and their potential participation in the H2O cycle to augment and complement these data. With limited liquid water stability on the martian surface, hydration and dehydration of hydrous minerals with changes in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) during a Mars day can have a significant influence on the bioavailability of water and potentially on atmospheric H2O. This research focused on the Na2MgSO4nH2O system, predicted by King et al. (2004) to occur on Mars. Phases in this system were also predicted by Clark et al. (1981), based on the concentration of Mg on Mars' surface. They proposed that Mg would be more stable in the form of a double salt, as a result of solubilities in the MgSO4nH2O system. Our experiments included blödite, konyaite, a decahydrate, and potential new phases. Blödite (Na2MgSO44H2O) was analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) under controlled RH-T conditions to investigate its behavior and to understand mineral reactions. Crystal structures and phase abundances were determined using Rietveld methods. When blödite was allowed to deliquesce (RH>80%) and then exposed to low temperatures (Tphase. This new phase was first observed at -10°C (47-78% RH), it formed within minutes, and it persisted on decreasing T to at least -30°C. In an attempt to produce only this phase, a second set of experiments was performed by storing blödite (either dry or in mush form) at -10°C for several days. These experiments produced a mixture of mirabilite (Na2SO410H2O; 56 wt% H2O) and a hydrous MgSO4 phase, either meridianiite (11H2O; 62 wt% H2O) or epsomite (7H2O; 51 wt% H2O), depending on RH conditions. We also observed circumstantial evidence for amorphous sodium sulfate under lower-RH conditions in association with epsomite. This separation occurred for dry and wet blodite, implying that time is the key factor in determining the low-T assemblage. The result of the first experiment was apparently a metastable phase, based on its rapid formation and its ultimate transformation to a two-phase mixture. Meridianiite and mirabilite, and likely the new hydrate, contain more H2O by weight than the highest known hydrate of Na2MgSO4 (the decahydrate, 41 wt% H2O). Depending on the abundance of water, Na-Mg sulfate solutions have the potential to precipitate several different highly hydrated phases, all of which undergo dehydration/hydration reactions on heating/cooling. Thus, these phases add to the list of hydrated phases on the martian surface that can participate in the H2O cycle and contribute to the mineral H2O storage inventory.

  3. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and methane release, some of the water from the dissociated zone needs to be drained. The results

  4. Hydration process of nuclear-waste glass: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging of simulated nuclear waste glass by contact with a controlled-temperature, humid atmosphere results in the formation of a double hydration layer penetrating the glass, as well as the formation of minerals on the glass surface. The hydration process can be described by Arrhenius behavior between 120 and 2400C. Results suggest that simulated aging reactions are necessary for demonstrating that nuclear waste forms can meet projected Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. 16 figures, 4 tables

  5. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  6. Life Origination Hydrate hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis): CH4-hydrate matrix as a necessary condition for life origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyshevich, E. A.; Ostrovskii, V. E.

    2012-09-01

    The Life Origination Hydrate hypothesis (LOHhypothesis) presents a mechanism of living matter origination from simple mineral substances within natural underground or underseabed methane-hydrate matrixes with no external energy. The mechanism is well-founded chemically, thermodynamically, and logically and is applicable to any celestial body where the corresponding temperature and mineralogical conditions are maintained at a constant level for a rather long time.

  7. Origins of hydration lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4–1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  8. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  9. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  10. Influence of hydrating agents on MgO hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Matabola, Kgabo P.; Van der Merwe, Elizabet Margaretha; Christien A. Strydom; Labuschagne, Frederick J.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of different hydrating agents on the pH of the hydrating solutions, rate of hydration of MgO to Mg(OH)2 and product surface area was studied as a function of temperature of hydration. Hydrating agents used were aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride, magnesium acetate, magnesium nitrate, nitric acid, acetic acid, magnesium chloride, sodium acetate and hydrochloric acid and distilled water as control. RESULTS: There was not a significant difference in the hydration be...

  11. EFFECT OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON SEMINAL QUALITY OF BOARS EXPOSED TO HEAT STRESS EFEITO DA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE MINERAIS ORGÂNICOS E INORGÂNICOS NA QUALIDADE DO SÊMEN DE SUÍNOS SUBMETIDOS A ESTRESSE TÉRMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Donin Spessatto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Seasonal high temperatures or inadequate nutrition can decrease reproductive efficiency in boars, especially through a reduction in spermatozoal number / ejaculate and percentage of normal spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic trace mineral supplementation on seminal quality in boars exposed to high environmental temperatures. The experiment was conducted in Southern Brazil, west of Parana State. Boars (2 years of age were divided into three groups to receive: inorganic (GIn, n=4 and organic (GOr, n=4 mineral supplementation and a lactation diet (GCo, n=5. Inorganic and organic diets contained a premix of inorganic and organic trace minerals, respectively, with the same quantity of each trace mineral, based on NRC (NRC, 1998 for boars. The lactation diet was based on NRC for lactating sows and contained a higher level of inorganic trace minerals, protein and metabolic energy. Maximum mean environmental temperatures were higher than the normal thermal comfort temperature for boars (26oC during the experimental period, and were associated with a reduction in semen quality. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. The semen volume of Inorganic and Organic diet groups were higher than Lactation group animals (345.7 ± 92.6 mL and 338.4 ± 67.8 mL versus 302.5 ± 81.4 mL, respectively; P=0.02. Boars in the Organic diet group had higher sperm concentration when compared to the Inorganic diet group (233.5 ± 76.7 X 106 sptz/mL versus 181.2 ± 77.3 X 106 sptz/mL, respectively; P=0.006. Percentage of normal spermatozoa, averaged higher in the Organic group than both Inorganic and Lactation groups (93.31 ± 5.20% versus 78.48 ± 12.15% and 82.59 ± 17.27%, respectively; P=0.00021. High temperatures (>34.5 oC reduced normal spermatozoa number in all groups, but with significant differences only in the Inorganic and Lactation groups (P=0.03. Organic minerals were benefic to seminal quality, reducing some of the heat stress effects in exposed boars.

    KEY WORDS: Heat stress, organic minerals, semen, swine.
    Estações de elevadas temperaturas ou nutrição inadequada podem influenciar a eficiência reprodutiva de machos suínos, especialmente através da redução no número de espermatozoides ejaculados e da porcentagem de espermatozoides normais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação micromineral orgânica e inorgânica sobre a qualidade do sêmen de suínos expostos à elevada temperatura ambiental. O experimento foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, no oeste do Paraná. Machos de dois anos de idade foram divididos em três grupos para receber: suplementação mineral inorgânica (GIn, n=4, orgânica (GOr, n=4 e uma dieta lactação (GCo, n=5. Dietas inorgânicas e orgânicas continham um premix de microminerais inorgânicos e orgânicos, respectivamente, com a mesma quantidade de cada micromineral, baseado no NRC para machos suínos. A dieta lactação baseou-se no NRC para fêmeas em lactação e continha um nível superior de microminerais inorgânicos, proteínas e energia metabólica. A média de temperatura ambiental máxima foi superior à temperatura normal de conforto térmico para machos suínos (26 ºC durante todo o período experimental, e foi associada com uma redução na qualidade seminal. Os resultados foram expressos como média ± EPM. O volume de sêmen dos grupos de dieta inorgânica e orgânica foi maior do que nos animais do grupo lactação (345,7 ± 92,6 mL e 338,4 ± 67,8 mL contra 302,5 ± 81,4 mL, respectivamente; P=0,02. Machos no grupo de dieta orgânica apresentaram uma maior concentração espermática quando comparados ao grupo de dieta inorgânica (233,5 ± 76,7 X 106 sptz/mL contra 181,2 ± 77,3 X 106 sptz/mL, respectivamente; P=0,006. A porcentagem de espermatozoides normais foi maior no grupo orgânico do que em ambos os grupos inorgânico e lactação (93,31 ± 5,20% contra 78,48 ± 12,15% e 82,59 ± 17,27%, r

  12. Spectral reflectance properties (0.4-2.5 ?m) of secondary Fe-oxide, Fe-hydroxide, and Fe-sulphate-hydrate minerals associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.; Williams, D.E.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Piatak, N.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra of 15 mineral species commonly associated with sulphide-bearing mine wastes show diagnostic absorption bands related to electronic processes involving ferric and/or ferrous iron, and to vibrational processes involving water and hydroxyl. Many of these absorption bands are relatively broad and overlapping; however, spectral analysis methods, including continuum removal and derivative analysis, permit most of the minerals to be distinguished. Key spectral differences between the minerals are illustrated in a series of plots showing major absorption band centres and other spectral feature positions. Because secondary iron minerals are sensitive indicators of pH, Eh, relative humidity, and other environmental conditions, spectral mapping of mineral distributions promises to have important application to mine waste remediation studies.

  13. Reflectance spectra of hydrated sulfates, phosphates and perchlorates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.; Lane, M. D.; Dyar, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Reflectance spectra of hydrated sulfates, phosphates, and perchlorates have multiple strong absorptions in the VNIR region. These bands are important for identification of hydrated salt minerals on Mars using CRISM and OMEGA data. Detecting specific minerals or mineral classes in this group provides constraints on the geochemical environments during their formation. Orbital detections of hydrated salt minerals by CRISM on Mars can support characterization of minerals on the surface by the MER and MSL rovers and the Phoenix lander. VNIR SPECTRAL CHARACTER OF HYDRATED SALTS Many spectral features are diagnostic of specific minerals, but others are common to all of these hydrated salts. Monohydrated sulfate spectra have strong bands near 2.1 and 2.4 ?m, while polyhydrated sulfate spectra generally exhibit a band near 1.92-1.98 ?m and a drop in reflectance near 2.4 ?m. Phosphates appear to exhibit spectral properties similar to sulfates with features near 1.4-1.5 and 1.92-1.98 ?m for hydrated samples. Several OH-bearing minerals exhibit features near 2.2 ?m that could be confused with the band near 2.2 ?m that is commonly attributed to Al/Si-OH bearing clays/silica on Mars. Perchlorate spectra have three dominant bands near 1.43-1.47, 1.93-2.0, and 2.41-2.44 ?m depending on the type of cation present. Spectra are shown from 0.4-2.65 ?m for selected sulfates (Figure 1) and phosphates/perchlorates (Figure 2) as this region is predominantly used by CRISM for identification of minerals. Figure 1. Spectra of selected hydrated sulfates: coquimbite, (Fe3+)2(SO4)3?9H2O, butlerite, Fe3+SO4(OH)?2H2O, rozenite, Fe2+SO4?4H2O, and szomolnokite, Fe2+SO4?H2O. Figure 2. Spectra of selected perchlorates and phosphates: wavellite, Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3?5H2O, and baricite, (Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2?H2O.

  14. New Simulator for Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvamme, B.; Qorbani Nashaqi, K.; Jemai, K.; Vafaei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to Gibbs phase rule and combination of first and second law of thermodynamics, hydrate in nature cannot be in equilibrium since they come from different parent phases. In this system hydrate formation and dissociation is affected by local variables such as pressure, temperature and composition with mass and energy transport restrictions. Available simulators have attempted to model hydrate phase transition as an equilibrium reaction. Although those which treated the processes of formation and dissociation as kinetics used model of Kim and Bishnoi based on laboratory PVT experiment, and consequently hard to accept up scaling to real reservoirs condition. Additionally, they merely check equilibrium in terms of pressure and temperature projections and disregard thermodynamic requirements for equilibrium especially along axes of concentrations in phases. Non-equilibrium analysis of hydrate involves putting aside all the phase transitions which are not possible and use kinetic evaluation to measure phase transitions progress in each grid block for each time step. This procedure is Similar to geochemical reservoir simulators logic. As a result RetrasoCodeBright has been chosen as hydrate reservoir simulator and our work involves extension of this code. RetrasoCodeBright (RCB) is able to handle competing processes of formation and dissociation of hydrates as pseudo reactions at each node and each time step according to the temperature, pressure and concentration. Hydrates can therefore be implemented into the structure as pseudo minerals, with appropriate kinetic models. In order to implement competing nature of phase transition kinetics of hydrate formation, we use classical nucleation theory based on Kvamme et al. as a simplified model inside RCB and use advanced theories to fit parameters for the model (PFT). Hydrate formation and dissociation can directly be observed through porosity changes in the specific areas of the porous media. In this work which is in progress, we are going to inject CO2 gas inside the methane-hydrate reservoir and consider different competing reactions which might happen.

  15. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fundamental engineering properties as defined by Marshall properties , index of retained strength , indirect tensile strength , permanent deformation characteristics , and fatigue resistance .A typical dense graded mixture employed in construction of surface course pavement in Iraq in accordance with SCRB specifications was used .The materials used in this study included mineral aggregate materials (coarse and fine sizes were originally obtained from Najaf Sea quarries and two grades of asphalt cements produced from Daurah refinery which are D47 and D66 . The physical properties , stiffness modulus and chemical composition are evaluated for the recovered asphalt cement from prepared asphalt mixes containing various filler types .The paper results indicated that the addition of hydrated lime as mineral filler improved the permanent deformation characteristics and fatigue life and the use of hydrated lime will decrease the moisture susceptibility of the asphalt mixtures.

  16. Mechanical and electromagnetic properties of northern Gulf of Mexico sediments with and without THF hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2008-01-01

    Using an oedometer cell instrumented to measure the evolution of electromagnetic properties, small strain stiffness, and temperature, we conducted consolidation tests on sediments recovered during drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico at the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon sites as part of the 2005 Chevron Joint Industry Project on Methane Hydrates. The tested specimens include both unremolded specimens (as recovered from the original core liner) and remolded sediments both without gas hydrate and with pore fluid exchanged to attain 100% synthetic (tetrahydrofuran) hydrate saturation at any stage of loading. Test results demonstrate the extent to which the electromagnetic and mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing marine sediments are governed by the vertical effective stress, stress history, porosity, hydrate saturation, fabric, ionic concentration of the pore fluid, and temperature. We also show how permittivity and electrical conductivity data can be used to estimate the evolution of hydrate volume fraction during formation. The gradual evolution of geophysical properties during hydrate formation probably reflects the slow increase in ionic concentration in the pore fluid due to ion exclusion in closed systems and the gradual decrease in average pore size in which the hydrate forms. During hydrate formation, the increase in S-wave velocity is delayed with respect to the decrease in permittivity, consistent with hydrate formation on mineral surfaces and subsequent crystal growth toward the pore space. No significant decementation/debonding occurred in 100% THF hydrate-saturated sediments during unloading, hence the probability of sampling hydrate-bearing sediments without disturbing the original sediment fabric is greatest for samples in which the gas hydrate is primarily responsible for maintaining the sediment fabric and for which the time between core retrieval and restoration of in situ effective stress in the laboratory is minimized. In evaluating the impact of core retrieval on specimen properties, it is also important to consider how far removed hydrate-bearing samples are from hydrate stability conditions. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  18. Authigenic Gypsum in Gas-Hydrate Associated Sediments from the East Coast of India (Bay of Bengal)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kocherla, M.

    2013-01-01

    Authigenic gypsum crystals, along with pyrite and carbonate mineralization, predominantly calcites were noticed in distinct intervals in a 32 m long piston core, collected in the gas hydrate-bearing sediments in the northern portion of the Krishna...

  19. Observations of pore-scale growth patterns of carbon dioxide hydrate using X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Xuan Hien; Yun, Tae Sup; Muhunthan, Balasingam; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    Natural and artificial gas hydrates with internal pores of nano to centimeters and weak grain-cementation have been widely reported, while the detailed formation process of grain-cementing hydrates remains poorly identified. Pore-scale morphology of carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrate formed in a partially brine-saturated porous medium was investigated via X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray CMT). Emphasis is placed on the pore-scale growth patterns of gas hydrate, including the growth of dendritic hydrate crystals on preformed hydrate and water-wetted grains, porous nature of the hydrate phase, volume expansion of more than 200% during the water-to-hydrate phase transformation, preference of unfrozen water wetting hydrophilic minerals, and the relevance to a weak cementation effect on macroscale physical properties. The presented pore-scale morphology and growth patterns of gas hydrate are expected in natural sediment settings where free gas is available for hydrate formation, such as active gas vents, gas seeps, mud volcanoes, permafrost gas hydrate provinces, and CO2 injected formation for the sake of geologic carbon storage; and in laboratory hydrate samples synthesized from partially brine-saturated sediments or formed from water-gas interfaces.

  20. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H.; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J.; Reid, David G.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, 17O NMR data on bone and compare them with 17O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate–like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  1. Hydrated sulfates on Mars's surface: water cycle and S isotope tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracas, R.; Bobocioiu, E.

    2014-12-01

    We study a range of hydrated sulfate minerals from first-principles calculations based on density-functional and density-functional perturbation theory. We report the results extensively on the WURM website (http://wurm.info, Caracas and Bobcioiu, 2011). We find that hydration has a more pronounced effect on the spectroscopic properties than cation replacement. The Raman spectra of all phases present clear SO4 features that are easily identifiable. We use this to show one can use the vibrational spectroscopic information as an identification tool in a remote environment, like the Martian surface. Based on the computed vibrational results we analyze the S isotope partitioning. We observe that in general hydration favors enrichment in the lighter S isotope 32S with respect to the heavier 34S, which is accumulated in the less hydrous structures. Thus we show for the first time that the signature of 34S/32S partitioning could be observed by in situ spectroscopy on the surface of Mars. Finally we compute hydration energies. For example, in the hydrated magnesium sulfate series we find that epsomite and meridianiite with, respectively 7 and 11 water molecules per MgSO4 unit are particularly stable with respect to other individual or combinations of hydration states (Bobocioiu and Caracas, 2014). This can be related to the diurnal cycle of hydration and dehydration and hence it can improve the modeling of the water circulation on Mars. References: E. Bobocioiu, R. Caracas (2014) Stability and spectroscopy of Mg sulfate minerals. Role of hydration on sulfur isotope partitioning. Amer. Mineral., 99, 1216-1220. R. Caracas, E. Bobocioiu (2011) The WURM project - a freely available web-based repository of computed physical data for minerals. Amer. Mineral. 96, 437-444.

  2. Minerals Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the Minerals Yearbook Web site, the US Geological Survey Minerals Information Team's mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate information on the domestic and international supply of and demand for minerals and mineral materials essential to the US economy and national security. The yearbook reviews the mineral and material industries of the United States and foreign countries, contains statistical data on materials and minerals, and includes information on economic and technical trends and development. Volume I contains metals and minerals information, volume II US area reports, and volume III international reports. A lot of data is presented in the various documents; thankfully, the site is organized well and easy to navigate.

  3. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Vermiculite, a hydrated magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate mineral, has a range of uses that take advantage of its fire resistance, good insulating properties, high liquid absorption capacity, inertness and low density. Most applications for vermiculite use an exfoliated (heat-expanded) form of the mineral. In general, coarser grades of vermiculite are used as loose fill insulation and in horticulture. Finer grades are used in wallboard and plasters and for animal feeds and fertilizers.

  4. Ore Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter Perkins

    This three part lab introduces sulfides and other ore minerals. Part one - Ore Minerals: Students fill in a table giving the metal, formula, and mineral group of several ore minerals. Part two - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of ore minerals and record their physical properties, composition, habit, occurence, economic value, and use and answer questions about color, luster, density, transparency, and availability. Part three - Famous Digs: Students answer a series of questions related to famous ore deposits.

  5. Markers of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, S M

    2000-03-01

    This paper reviews the literature, describes and discusses methods by which whole body hydration status can be determined in humans. A method of determining whether or not an individual is hypohydrated is of particular significance in an exercise situation as even moderate levels of hypohydration have a negative impact on exercise performance. Inspection of the published literature indicates that a number of methods have been used to determine hydration status. Body mass changes, urinary indices (volume, colour, protein content, specific gravity and osmolality), blood borne indices (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, plasma osmolality and sodium concentration, plasma testosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol and atrial natiuretic peptide), bioelectrical impedance analysis, and pulse rate and systolic blood pressure response to postural change are discussed. The urinary measures of colour, specific gravity and osmolality are more sensitive at indicating moderate levels of hypohydration than are blood measurements of hematocrit and serum osmolality and sodium concentration. Currently no "gold standard" hydration status marker exists, particularly for the relatively moderate levels of hypohydration that frequently occur in an exercise situation. The choice of marker for any particular situation will be influenced by the sensitivity and accuracy with which hydration status needs to be established together with the technical and time requirements and expense involved. PMID:10822913

  6. Effect of CO2 hydrate formation on seismic wave velocities of fine-grained sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Cho, Gye-Chun; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk

    2013-06-01

    study examines the effect of gas hydrate formation on seismic wave velocities of fine-grained sediments. Synthesis of gas hydrates in fine-grained sediments has proved to be challenging, and how hydrate formation would affect the seismic wave velocities and stiffness of clay-rich sediments has not yet been fully understood. In this study, CO2 hydrate was synthesized in remolded and partially water-saturated clayey silt sediments that were originally cored from a hydrate occurrence region in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea. After achieving excess water conditions, compressional wave and shear wave velocities were measured for different hydrate saturations and under different vertical effective stresses. The results reveal that the compressional wave velocity VP and shear wave velocity VS increase, and the stress-dependency of VP and VS decreases as the hydrate saturation SH increases from 0% to ~60%. In particular, the VS-SH trend lies between the grain-cementing model and the load-bearing model, suggesting that gas hydrate formation in clayey silt sediments causes weak cementation from a hydrate saturation less than ~28%. The weak cementation in fine-grained sediments can be explained by the breakage of hydrate bonds that are cementing grains during sediment compression and/or the innate weakness in bonding between hydrate crystals and fine mineral grains owing to the presence of unfrozen water films on clay mineral surfaces. In addition, it is found that at low SH, the cementation effect on VP is masked by the high stiffness of pore-filling phases, but it becomes pronounced at SH greater than 47%.

  7. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  8. Micromechanical cohesion force between gas hydrate particles measured under high pressure and low temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Ram; Sum, Amadeu K

    2015-04-01

    To prevent hydrate plugging conditions in the transportation of oil/gas in multiphase flowlines, one of the key processes to control is the agglomeration/deposition of hydrate particles, which are determined by the cohesive/adhesive forces. Previous studies reporting measurements of the cohesive/adhesive force between hydrate particles used cyclopentane hydrate particles in a low-pressure micromechanical force apparatus. In this study, we report the cohesive forces of particles measured in a new high-pressure micromechanical force (MMF) apparatus for ice particles, mixed (methane/ethane, 74.7:25.3) hydrate particles (Structure II), and carbon dioxide hydrate particles (Structure I). The cohesive forces are measured as a function of the contact time, contact force, temperature, and pressure, and determined from pull-off measurements. For the measurements performed of the gas hydrate particles in the gas phase, the determined cohesive force is about 30-35 mN/m, about 8 times higher than the cohesive force of CyC5 hydrates in the liquid CyC5, which is about 4.3 mN/m. We show from our results that the hydrate structure (sI with CO2 hydrates and sII with CH4/C2H6 hydrates) has no influence on the cohesive force. These results are important in the deposition of a gas-dominated system, where the hydrate particles formed in the liquid phase can then stick to the hydrate deposited in the wall exposed to the gas phase. PMID:25785915

  9. Experimental Study of Self-Preservation Mechanisms and Relict Gas Hydrates Formation in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Istomin, Vladimir; Buhanov, Boris; Guryeva, Olga; Takeya, Satoshi; Hachikubo, Akihiro

    2010-05-01

    Natural gas hydrates are formed under appropriate thermodynamic conditions in bottom sediments of seas and oceans as well as in permafrost regions. Hydrate stability zone in permafrost starts at depth 200-250m and spreads to under-permafrost layers till depth 800-1500 m. It was established the possibility of methane hydrates existence in metastable state (so called 'relict gas hydrates') in layers of frozen sediments above stability zone (up to 200-250 m). The metastable hydrates may exist in permafrost at negative (on Celsius) temperatures for a long time due to the self-preservation effect (very low hydrate decomposition due to ice covering of hydrate particles). Presence of relict gas hydrates in the permafrost of the Arctic zone can significantly increase its energy resources. On the other hand relict gas hydrates at shallow depth in the permafrost can be a serious geological hazard at natural or technogeneous degradation of the permafrost. Large quantity of methane (greenhouse gas) can be thrown out to the atmosphere when hydrates are decomposed. Moreover, some technical problems (blow out of gas or sediments, fires) can take place while drilling and exploitation of production wells in the Arctic regions. Previously we already discussed the mechanisms of bulk hydrate decomposition process for different gases at atmospheric pressure and negative temperatures. We find that some gases (nitrogen, methane, natural gases, carbon dioxide) show self-preservation effect, but some gases (propane, i-butane, etc.) do not show. Sometime self-preservation process may be considered as stochastic. Theoretical estimations show that the 'good preservation' of hydrate particles include the appearance of metastable (supercooled) liquid water at the initial stage of decomposition and then water freezing and ice film formation. If decomposition process proceed directly to ice and gas (without appearance of intermediate phase of liquid water), the preservation of hydrate particles is not so good. As for hydrate decomposition in porous media it still need in additional experimental studies. A complex of special experiments has been carried out to study frozen hydrate-bearing sediments under non-equilibrium conditions. It included artificial saturation of freezing sediments by methane or carbon dioxide hydrates, research of gas- and hydrate-content of frozen hydrate-bearing sediments when gas pressure was reduced below equilibrium pressure and fixed (at different levels, up to 0.1 MPa), estimation of change in thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments under non-equilibrium conditions. We used sediments of different composition and structure, including core samples recovered from gas-showing horizons of frozen sediments in Yamburg, Bovanenkovo and Zapoliarnoe gas-condensate field. Experimental research of hydrate decomposition in frozen sediments when pressure is reduced below equilibrium value allowed revealing some features of the self-preservation effect in sediments at negative (on Celsius) temperatures. It was shown, that the self-preservation of gas hydrates in frozen sediments depends on many factors, such as thermodynamic conditions, ice content, phase composition, gas permeability, composition of organo-mineral matrix, salinity, structure-textural peculiarities of hydrate-bearing sediments, including micro-morphology of hydrates. Freezing of residual pore water (not transformed to hydrate) plays the important role in self-preservation of hydrates. Ice occurrence provides the increase of hydrate stability and their initial preservation in porous media. Research was supported by RFBR (Grant No. 09-05-92102-YaF).

  10. Hydrate Monitoring using Capacitive Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bayati, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are of particular interest in petroleum industry since their formation during oil-production can be a major risk factor. Gas hydrates can block pipelines, interrupt production, and in worst case even cause bursting flow lines. There are a few strategies available to monitor the hydrocarbon flow in pipelines in order to give an early warning system against hydrate formation. A potential technique is to monitor changes in the dielectric properties of the flow, and relate these to h...

  11. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO3 systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Teng, H Henry

    2013-10-29

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1-x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates' crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1-x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1-x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg(2+) and CO3(2-) to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing "dolomite problem" in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes. PMID:24127571

  12. Hydration studies of Bentonite clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Reshma R.; Erwin Desa, J. A.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Bentonite clay when hydrated increases its volume several fold to form a pliable mass. X-ray diffraction showed that as hydration increases, the crystalline peaks due to kaolinite, calcite and quartz are gradually replaced by an amorphous background while the crystalline reflections of montmorillonite remain. Hydration is known to occur through the inclusion of the hydroxyl radical within the layered structure of the clay. Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data on the dry and hydrated clay confirm the water uptake as found from the level of incoherent scattering at higher values of Q.

  13. Occurrences of possible hydrated sulfates in the southern high latitudes of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiss, Sheridan E.; Wray, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals record the history of water and habitable environments on Mars, yet prior studies of them have neglected a vast region surrounding the planet's south pole. Some of the few sulfates reported there are localized to putative ancient volcanoes that may have erupted under an ice sheet, possibly forming sulfates via hydrothermal alteration. Alternatively, sulfates may have formed more recently from sunlight causing minor melting of polar ices and the weathering of embedded dust particles, a process thought to explain the sulfates found near Mars' north pole. To test these hypotheses, we searched for southern high-latitude sulfates using the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), focusing on regions that include putative volcanoes or geologically similar landforms. In 217 targeted images, we used spectral parameters to identify regions of interest from which we extracted spectra. The spectra were then visually compared to laboratory spectra to identify possible hydrated mineral constituents. In this paper, we present spectra from 16 of the images and statistics derived from the full set of 217, along with spectra from one mapping tile. We find that hydrated sulfates are found throughout the southern high latitudes suggesting a ubiquitous process for hydrated mineral formation and/or the relocation of hydrated minerals due to a long history of impacts, aeolian transport, weathering and periglacial processes.

  14. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and diagenesis on mars from phyllosilicate mineral assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, B.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Murchie, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    The enhanced spatial and spectral resolution provided by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has led to the discovery of numerous hydrated silicate minerals on Mars, particularly in the ancient, cratered crust comprising the southern highlands. Phases recently identified using visible/near-infrared spectra include: smectite, chlorite, prehnite, high-charge phyllosilicates (illite or muscovite), the zeolite analcime, opaline silica, and serpentine. Some mineral assemblages represent the products of aqueous alteration at elevated temperatures. Geologic occurrences of these mineral assemblages are described using examples from west of the Isidis basin near the Nili Fossae and with reference to differences in implied temperature, fluid composition, and starting materials during alteration. The alteration minerals are not distributed homogeneously. Rather, certain craters host distinctive alteration assemblages: (1) prehnite-chlorite-silica, (2) analcime-silica-Fe,Mg-smectite-chlorite, (3) chlorite-illite (muscovite), and (4) serpentine, which furthermore has been found in bedrock units. These assemblages contrast with the prevalence of solely Fe,Mg-smectites in most phyllosilicate-bearing terrains on Mars, and they represent materials altered at depth then exposed by cratering. Of the minerals found to date, prehnite provides the clearest evidence for subsurface, hydrothermal/metamorphic alteration, as it forms only under highly restricted conditions (T = 200 400??C). Multiple mechanisms exist for forming the other individual minerals; however, the most likely formation mechanisms for the characteristic mineralogic assemblages observed are, for (1) and (2), low- grade metamorphism or hydrothermal (400??C has not been found.

  15. Mapping Minerals at a Potential Mars Analog Site on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D. P.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wang, A.; Sobron, P.; Zheng, M. P.

    2009-03-01

    A new mineral facies map of lacustrine deposits from the cold, arid Qaidam Basin, China shows hydrated sulfates, carbonates, chlorides and phyllosilicates. This area may offer insight into the history of evaporite deposits identified on Mars.

  16. Perspectives on Hydrate Thermal Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    English, Niall J.; Tse, John S.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the intriguing, anomalous behaviour of hydrate thermal conductivity will be described, and progress in performing experimental measurements will be described briefly. However particular attention shall be devoted to recent advances in the development of detailed theoretical understandings of mechanisms of thermal conduction in clathrate hydrates, and on how information gleaned from molecular simulation has contributed to mechanistic theoretical models.

  17. Stability of hydrous minerals on the martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, David L.; William Carey, J.; Vaniman, David T.; Chipera, Steve J.

    2003-07-01

    The presence of water-bearing minerals on Mars has long been discussed, but little or no data exist showing that minerals such as smectites and zeolites may be present on the surface in a hydrated state (i.e., that they could contain H 2O molecules in their interlayer or extra-framework sites, respectively). We have analyzed experimental thermodynamic and X-ray powder diffraction data for smectite and the most common terrestrial zeolite, clinoptilolite, to evaluate the state of hydration of these minerals under martian surface conditions. Thermodynamic data for clinoptilolite show that water molecules in its extra-framework sites are held very strongly, with enthalpies of dehydration for Ca-clinoptilolite up to three times greater than that for liquid water. Using these data, we calculated the Gibbs free energy of hydration of clinoptilolite and smectite as a function of temperature and pressure. The calculations demonstrate that these minerals would indeed be hydrated under the very low- P (H 2O) conditions existing on Mars, a reflection of their high affinities for H 2O. These calculations assuming the partial pressure of H 2O and the temperature range expected on Mars suggest that, if present on the surface, zeolites and Ca-smectites could also play a role in affecting the diurnal variations in martian atmospheric H 2O because their calculated water contents vary considerably over daily martian temperature ranges. The open crystal structure of clinoptilolite and existing hydration and kinetic data suggest that hydration/dehydration are not kinetically limited. Based on these calculations, it is possible that hydrated zeolites and clay minerals may explain some of the recent observations of significant amounts of hydrogen not attributable to water ice at martian mid-latitudes.

  18. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sposito Garrison

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  19. Ianthinite: a rare hydrous uranium oxide mineral from Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianthinite is the only known uranyl oxide hydrate mineral that contains both U6+ and U4+. For the first time, we report ianthinite from India (at Akkavaram, Andhra Pradesh), which is hosted in basement granitoids. The mineral occurs in the form of tiny grains, encrustations and coatings in intimate association with uraninite and uranophane. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveals that d-spacings of the investigated ianthinite are in close agreement with the corresponding values given for ianthinite standard in International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) card no. 12-272. The crystallographic parameters of the studied ianthinite are: ao = 11?3 (1)Å , bo = 7?19 (3) Å and co = 30?46 (8) Å, with a unit cell volume of 2474 (27) ?3. The association of investigated ianthinite with uraninite suggests that the former has formed due to oxidation of the latter. Since a major part of the uraninite was exposed to oxidizing meteoric water, much of it has been transformed into hydrous uranium oxide (ianthinite) and very little part remained unaltered as uranium oxide (uraninite). Absence of schoepite in the investigated ianthinite suggests that after its formation it (ianthinite) was not exposed to oxygen/oxidizing meteoric water. As the oxidation was partial and short lived, some amount of primary uraninite is also preserved. (author)

  20. Solubility and structure of calcium silicate hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poorly crystalline calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phases that form near room temperature, which include the technically important C-S-H gel phase formed during the hydration of Portland cement, have a broad similarity to the crystalline minerals tobermorite and jennite, but are characterized by extensive atomic imperfections and structural variations at the nanometer scale. Relationships between the aqueous solubility and chemical structure are reported for specimens formed by different preparation methods and with a broad range of compositions. Both new and previously published data show that these phases generate a family of solubility curves in the CaO-SiO2-H2O system at room temperature. As demonstrated by 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR data and by charge balance calculations, the observed solubility differences arise from systematic variations in Ca/Si ratio, silicate structure, and Ca-OH content. Based on this evidence, the solubility curves are interpreted as representing a spectrum of metastable phases whose structures range from purely tobermorite-like to largely jennite-like. These findings give an improved understanding of the structure of these phases and reconcile some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the structure of C-S-H at high Ca/Si ratios

  1. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  2. Window contamination on Expose-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  3. Mineral Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners search for various kinds of items made from minerals around their home or school, including toothpaste, wall paint, kitty litter, and bricks. The PDF contains a check off list as well as recommended sites for more information on minerals.

  4. Mystery Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Morgan

    In this activity, students will discover that minerals have specific characteristics that help to identify them. They will learn that minerals are formed by inorganic processes, are crystalline solids with an internal orderly arrangement of atoms, have specific chemical compositions, and have specific physical and chemical characteristics. They will also learn that minerals are commonly identified by the physical properties they possess, such as hardness, color, crystal shape, specific gravity, and streak. In addition, they will discover some other useful properties such as reaction with hydrochloric acid or a characteristic taste. They should also understand that color is not always a useful property for identifying minerals because it can vary. The students will also develop listening and observational skills and learn the uses of a few common minerals.

  5. Structural studies of gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of recent structural work focusing on the gas hydrates of methane and carbon dioxide is given. Both the crystal structure and the microstructure are considered. We report on the pressure-dependent molecular structure of methane clathrate hydrate using laboratory-made hydrogenous and deuterated samples investigated by neutron and hard-X-ray synchrotron diffraction experiments. The isothermal compressibilities are determined for hydrogenated and deuterated CH4 hydrate, and isotopic differences between both compounds are established for the first time. The cage filling of carbon dioxide and methane hydrate is determined and compared with predictions from statistical thermodynamic theory. In the case of small cages in methane hydrate, experimental results and predictions do not agree. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveals the meso- to macro-porous nature of gas hydrates formed with an excess of free gas. Furthermore, in situ measurements of the formation kinetics of porous hydrates are reported in which differences between methane and carbon dioxide are established quantitatively and the transient existence of a type II carbon dioxide structure is found. (author)

  6. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at concentrations higher than chemical surfactants. PMID:18671355

  7. Molecular and dissociation studies of natural gas hydrates collected from different oceanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, C.; Charlou, J.; Donval, J.; Focsa, C.; Chazallon, B.

    2007-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur globally in marine sediments or in permafrost regions when specific conditions of high pressure, low temperature and sufficiently methane concentration are combined to initiate their formation and stabilize their structure. As well as they appear attractive for gas industry, natural gas hydrates can have an important impact in continental slope stability or climate change. Therefore, it is important to focus our attention on structural evolution and thermodynamical stability of these natural minerals. For this, high-resolution powder X-ray synchrotron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques are efficient and powerful tools to determine the hydrate structures. We performed a first physical characterization of two intact natural gas hydrates from the Congo-Angola and the Nigerian margin by X-ray synchrotron diffraction. The collected samples exhibit a preponderance of structure I (sI) (cubic lattice with space group Pm n). The Rietveld refinement of lattice parameters for the type I structure gives values intermediate between lattice constant of less pure methane specimens and pure artificial methane hydrates. This indicates that lattice constant can be affected by the presence of encaged CO2, H2S and other gas molecules, even in small amount. Thermal expansion is also presented for Congo-Angola hydrate in the temperature range 90-200 K and coefficients are comparable with values reported for synthetic hydrates at low temperature, whereas they tend to approach ice thermal expansion coefficient at higher temperature. In a second step, we performed a physical characterization by Raman spectroscopy of natural gas hydrates recovered from Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (Norwegian Margin) during the Vicking cruise (HERMES project, 2006). These samples exhibit as well a preponderance of structure I (sI) embedded in ice originating from frozen pore water and hydrate dissociation during recovery. The dissociation temperature (Td) of these hydrates is investigated by Raman spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure from 77 K to 260 K. Td shows to depend on the size of the hydrate particles. It is found to increase as the particle size increases. These results are consistent with previous data reported by Takeya et al. (2005). A "multi-layer" dissociation mechanism can be established for large hydrate particles thanks to the high spatial resolution of the micro-Raman technique. This effect will be discussed in the context of the stability of hydrates in natural environments. Takeya et al. (2005), Particle size effect of CH4 hydrate for self-preservation, Chem. Eng. Sci., 60, 1383-1387.

  8. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C3S, C2S) and aluminates (C3A, C4AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm-1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading Ps interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXD) that characterize how additives affect both the hydrated microstructure development and the original grain size. In particular, SPs alter the morphology of the hydrated phases, which no longer grow with the classic fibrillar structure on the grain surface, but nucleate in solution as globular structures. All this information converges in a quantitative, and at molecular level, description of the mechanisms involved in the setting process of one of the materials most widely used by human beings

  9. Characterization of Methane Hydrate Growth from Aqueous Solution by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.; Lu, W.; Yuan, S.; Li, J.; Burruss, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    We observed the growth of methane hydrate from aqueous solution in fused silica capillaries near room temperature (RT) in two different experiments. In the first, we sealed methane together with ~2 wt% Na2SO4 solution in a fused silica capillary (0.3x0.3 mm cross-section with 0.05x0.05 mm cavity, and ~6 cm long), using the method of Chou et al. (2008, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 2517). The hydrate, liquid, and vapor coexist at ~23 °C and ~36.5 MPa. The behavior of two methane bubbles, one of which was enclosed by a hydrate crystal and the other near a small hydrate crystal, was monitored. These two bubbles are the only methane sources near the hydrate crystals. The system was slowly cooled to RT (~21 °C), and images were recorded continuously for a period of ~1.5 hours, together with temperature and time information. The images show the exposed bubble decreased in size, while both of the hydrate crystals increased in size, which was caused by the transfer of methane in solution. According to our previous report (Fig. 8 of Lu et al., 2008, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 412), the concentrations of methane in the solution near the exposed bubble are higher than those near the hydrate crystals. Most of the dissolved methane, transferred down the concentration gradient, was consumed and encaged in the nearby crystal, with only a small fraction of methane being consumed by the more distant crystal. Eventually, the exposed vapor bubble was totally consumed, but the bubble shielded by the hydrate crystal remained. This shows hydrate can grow from dissolved methane in the solution far away from free gas. In the 2nd experiment, we sealed methane, together with pure H2O and glass beads (0.04 to 0.07 mm in dia.), in a fused silica capillary (0.3 mm OD, 0.1 mm ID, and ~6 cm long) using the method cited above. We separated the vapor phase from the solution and glass beads by centrifuging the sealed capsule, then imposed a T gradient to the sample by cooling the solution end of the capsule to ~0 °C. It is difficult to recognize the nucleation and growth of hydrate crystals under a microscope, but Raman spectroscopy was used to identify and map the distribution of hydrate crystals along the capsule. Near the original vapor-aqueous phase boundary (V-A B), Raman signals show 100% methane hydrate. However, the lack of dissolved methane in the solution further away from the V-A B limited the growth of hydrate, as indicated by the increase in water/hydrate ratio when the Raman spectrum, which combines signals from both water and hydrate, was collected further away from the V-A B. We are investigating other possible ways to map the distribution of hydrate crystals around the glass beads, including x-ray computed tomography, to understand the nature of methane hydrate crystals that grow around grains in marine sediments from pore water. These observations will improve our ability to interpret the geophysical responses (e.g., electric and acoustic signals) obtained from hydrate-bearing sediments in the field.

  10. A review of arctic gas hydrates as a source of methane in global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric concentrations of methane are currently increasing at rates of about one percent per year, leading to a concern that methane, a greenhouse gas, will become an increasingly significant factor in global warming. One potential source of enormous volumes of methane is natural gas hydrates. Gas hydrates are stable only within certain ranges of temperature and pressure; outside these ranges, the cages break down and the gas molecules escape. The Arctic is particularly well endowed with gas hydrates because conditions for their occurrence are met in three distinct regions: (1) offshore in sediments of the outer continental margin, at water depths between about 400 and 2,800 m, where the base of the zone of gas hydrate stability ranges from about 300 to 700 m below the sea floor; (2) onshore in areas of continuous permafrost, where the zone of gas hydrate stability ranges in subsurface depth from about 200 to 1,200 m; and (3) on the nearshore continental shelf, where relict permafrost has persisted since times of lower sea level when the present shelf was exposed to cold subaerial temperatures. Because gas hydrates occur close to the earth's surface in these three regions, they are affected by surficial changes in pressure and temperature, and thus destabilized gas hydrates may be sources of atmospheric methane. Under the present climatic regime, the gas hydrates of the nearshore continental shelf may be the most vulnerable to change. The time needed for thermal ce to change. The time needed for thermal change to destabilize gas hydrates in this region is measured in thousands or tens of thousands of years. Because the latest major Arctic marine transgression may have been in progress for about 27,000 years, some gas hydrates associated with nearshore permafrost probably have already become unstable, releasing methane to the atmosphere

  11. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  12. Impacts of Hydrate Pore Habit on Physical Properties of Hydrate Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Y.; Dai, S.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate bearing sediments, to a large extent, are governed by the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. For sediments containing the same amount of hydrates, their overall physical properties may vary several orders of magnitude depending on hydrate pore habit. We investigate the interplay among hydrate formation methods, hydrate pore habits, and fundamental physical properties of hydrate bearing sediments. We have developed a new method to synthesize noncementing hydrate in sands, a multi-properties characterization chamber to test the hydrate bearing sediments, and pore network models to simulate fluid flow processes in hydrate bearing sediments. We have found that (1) the growth pattern of hydrate crystal in the pore spaces of water saturated sediments is dominated by the relative magnitude of the capillary force (between hydrate crystal and pore fluid) and the skeleton force, which will result in pore-filling or grain-displacing type of hydrate pore character; (2) the existing capillary tube models of water permeability in hydrate bearing sediments are sensitive to pore geometry and hydrate pore habit; and (3) preliminary CT results suggest that hydrate nucleation in partially water saturated sands tends to agglomerate in patches, rather than in an uniformly-distributed contact-cementing morphology. Additional CT results with a small amount of fines (5wt%) and visualization via micro-CT of hydrate pore habits in sediments using different hydrate formation methods will be discussed.

  13. Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and its influence on the rheology, zeta potential, and microstructure of various cement and hydrate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Anatol; Winnefeld, Frank; Holzer, Lorenz; Pakusch, Joachim; Becker, Stefan; Gauckler, Ludwig

    2008-07-15

    In this study the influence of polycarboxylate-based polyelectrolytes on the particle interaction among tricalcium silicate (C(3)S, main clinker phase), calcium silicate hydrates (CSH), and calcium aluminate sulfate hydrates (ettringite) (main hydration phases) has been examined. These phases are the constituents of major concern during early hydration of cement suspensions. The results of zeta potential measurements on single mineral phase experiments show that the phases C(3)S and CSH are positively charged in synthetic pore solution (liquid phase of hydrating cement suspension), whereas the ettringite is negatively charged. Due to these opposite charges, ettringite crystals should coagulate with CSH phases and/or deposit on surfaces of the much larger C(3)S clinker particles. This behavior was proven by cryo-microscopic analysis of high-pressure frozen cement suspensions, which illustrates the consequences of colloidal mechanisms on the microstructure of early cement suspensions. Furthermore, it is shown that the polyelectrolytes have a much higher adsorption affinity to ettringite surfaces (hydrate phase) compared to silicate surfaces. However, the results from rheology experiments reveal that the presence of polyelectrolytes has a strong impact on the suspension properties of all investigated mineral phases by decreasing yield stress and plastic viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that the ettringite is the dominant mineral phase in terms of the state of dispersion which includes particle-particle and particle-polyelectrolyte interaction in the bulk cement system. PMID:18502439

  14. Mechanical, Thermal and Electromagnetic Properties of Hydrate-Bearing Clay, Silt, and Sand at Various Confining Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, J.; Yun, T.; Lee, J.; Martin, A.; Francisca, F.; Ruppel, C.

    2005-12-01

    With sponsorship from the ChevronTexaco JIP, we have since 2002 conducted exhaustive laboratory experiments that provide critical results to inform interpretation of field- and lab-based analyses of natural methane hydrates. Specifically, we have measured the mechanical, thermal and electromagnetic properties of sediments containing different amounts of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and subjected to different effective confining stress. The use of THF allows us to control the concentration of hydrate in pore space; this is an important advantage for evaluating the impact of hydrate concentrations on the properties of hydrate bearing sediments. For these experiments, we formed gas hydrate in kaolin clay (specific surface S_a=36 m2 g-1), precipitated and crushed silt (S_a=6 and 0.11 m2 g-1, respectively), and sand (S_a=0.019 m2 g-1) to test the impact of specific surface, porosity, and grain size on the measured physical properties. The mechanical measurements show that, while the small strain shear stiffness of uncemented sediments is controlled by the effective stress, the stiffness becomes strongly dependent on hydrate concentration once hydrate formation promotes increased interparticle coordination. At intermediate and large strain, the normally consolidated sediments display strain-hardening behavior in the absence of hydrate. When hydrate is present, the quasi-elastic behavior extends to higher axial strains, and the stress-strain response becomes less sensitive to confining pressure. The failure mode is also affected by the presence of hydrates: Specimens with 50% or 100% hydrate-filled porosity develop vertical fractures when tested at low confinement (0.03 MPa), and an approximate tenfold increase in confining pressure is required for the development of shear planes. Thermal conductivity results reflect a complex interplay of particle size, effective stress, hydrate concentration, and hydrate formation effects that have not have been fully recognized in previous studies of thermal conductivity in hydrate-bearing sediments. Our results clearly indicate that, with or without hydrate, the thermal conductivity of sediments is controlled by interparticle contact conduction so that thermal conductivity increases with increasing effective stress not only due to higher mineral volume fraction, but also due to increased interparticle coordination and contact force. The increase or even decrease in thermal conductivity with hydrate formation depends on sediment type, effective stress, and hydrate volume fraction. In particular, there may be a loss in conduction once hydrate has formed, and this phenomenon is more likely in coarse-grained sediments or sediments subjected to low effective stress due to mineral-mineral contact loss that results from volume expansion during hydrate formation. The real permittivity measured at high radio-frequencies reflects the orientational polarization of free water. On the other hand, the imaginary part of effective electrical conductivity is determined by the volume fraction of electrolyte and its electrical conductivity. Therefore, both measurements closely track the decrease in volumetric free water content during consolidation and subsequent hydrate formation.

  15. Anomalous porosity preservation and preferential accumulation of gas hydrate in the Andaman accretionary wedge, NGHP-01 site 17A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Kelly K.; Johnson, Joel E.; Torres, Marta E.; Hong, WeiLi; Giosan, Liviu; Solomon, E.; Kastner, Miriam; Cawthern, Thomas; Long, Philip E.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to well established properties that control the presence or absence of the hydrate stability zone, such as pressure, temperature, and salinity, additional parameters appear to influence the concentration of gas hydrate in host sediments. The stratigraphic record at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean, illustrates the need to better understand the role pore-scale phenomena play in the distribution and presence of marine gas hydrates in a variety of subsurface settings. In this paper we integrate field-generated datasets with newly acquired sedimentology, physical property, imaging and geochemical data with mineral saturation and ion activity products of key mineral phases such as amorphous silica and calcite, to document the presence and nature of secondary precipitates that contributed to anomalous porosity preservation at Site 17A in the Andaman Sea. This study demonstrates the importance of grain-scale subsurface heterogeneities in controlling the occurrence and distribution of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations in marine sediments, and document the importance that increased permeability and enhanced porosity play in supporting gas concentrations sufficient to support gas hydrate formation. The grain scale relationships between porosity, permeability, and gas hydrate saturation documented at Site 17A likely offer insights into what may control the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrate in other sedimentary settings.

  16. 64 FR 31624 - United States of America v. Imetal, DBK Minerals, Inc., English China Clays, plc, and English...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-11

    ...Water-Washed Kaolin Kaolin is a clay consisting of a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate, ususlly found as the mineral kaolinite. The clay is mined in open pit quarries, and processed using crushing and grinding equipment. Water-washed kaolin...

  17. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearing sediment due to depressurization and subsequent repressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Winters, W. J.; Mason, D. H.

    2008-07-01

    Physical property measurements of sediment cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed, at least briefly, to non-in situ conditions during recovery. To examine the effects of a brief excursion from the gas-hydrate stability field, as can occur when pressure cores are transferred to pressurized storage vessels, we measured physical properties on laboratory-formed sand packs containing methane hydrate and methane pore gas. After depressurizing samples to atmospheric pressure, we repressurized them into the methane-hydrate stability field and remeasured their physical properties. Thermal conductivity, shear strength, acoustic compressional and shear wave amplitudes, and speeds of the original and depressurized/repressurized samples are compared. X-ray computed tomography images track how the gas-hydrate distribution changes in the hydrate-cemented sands owing to the depressurizaton/repressurization process. Because depressurization-induced property changes can be substantial and are not easily predicted, particularly in water-saturated, hydrate-bearing sediment, maintaining pressure and temperature conditions throughout the core recovery and measurement process is critical for using laboratory measurements to estimate in situ properties.

  18. Use of Hydration Inhibitors to Improve Bond Durability of Aluminum Adhesive Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. D.; Ahearn, J. S.; Matienzo, L. J.; Venables, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is conducted of the mechanisms by which nitrilotris methylene phosphonic acid (NTMP) and related compounds are adsorbed onto oxidized aluminum surfaces to inhibit hydration and increase the durability of adhesive bonds formed with inhibitor-treated panels. P - O - Al bonds are identified as the basis of adsorption, and it is found that water initially adsorbed onto the etched aluminum surfaces is displaced by the NTMP. The hydration of the NTMP-treated surfaces occurs in three stages, namely the reverisble physisorption of water, the slow dissolution of NTMP followed by rapid hydration of the freshly exposed Al2O3 to AlOOH and further hydration of the surface to Al(OH)3. Five properties of an ideal inhibitor are identified.

  19. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The storage capacity of H2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  20. Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E. (Chevron); Latham, T. (Chevron); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Hunt, J. (Minerals Management Service); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger); Boswell, R.M. (NETL); Rose, K.K. (NETL); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Hutchinson, D. (USGS); Collett, T. (USGS); Dugan, B. (Rice University); Wood, W. (Naval Research Laboratory)

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand-prone sedimentary section that rises stratigraphically across the base of the gas hydrate stability zone and that has seismic indicators of gas hydrate. Copyright 2008, Offshore Technology Conference

  1. Study of radio-restoration by various mineral salts and silice wich products (Tuf and Pouzzolane) of rice embryos (oryza-sativa L, Cigalon variety) exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatments produce a large number of mutants per unit time and are used for plant improvement. However these treatments cause damage to cells. To counteract this radio-induced damage 2 methods are being tried: - Protection, which consists in the supply of an active product before application of mutagenic agents; - Restoration, which tries to repair the damage after mutagenic treatment. This work is devoted to restoration processes. Technique for the isolation and culture on a suitable nutrient of rice embryos (oryza sativa L, Cigalon variety) separated from non-irradiated caryopses were developed first. By separating out the embryo in this way it is possible to study in vitro the interactions between the embryo and the rest of the caryopsis (albumin + pericarp). The effects of radiations on embryos from caryopses exposed to cobalt 60 gamma rays were measured next, then the action of certain inorganic elements contained in the caryopsis tissues was analysed. On the basis of the first results obtained the differences in response between plantlets from embryos irradiated or otherwise treated or not either by zinc sulphate or by very silice-rich volcanic products (Tuf and Pouzzolane), were examined by chemical analysis techniques. These tests have allowed the detection of ionic changes induced by irradiation during the different stages of plant development and led to a better estimate of the radio-restoration mechanisms brought about by the various chemical compounds used

  2. Spectroscopic Determination of Optimal Hydration Time of Zircon Surface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Ordóñez-Regil; Genoveva, García-Rosales; Nidia, García-González.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales que son inmersos en solución acuosa, desarrollan una carga eléctrica, producida por la aparición de la disociación anfotérica de los grupos hidroxilo formados en superficie. Esta propiedad es específica para cada mineral y la determinación del tiempo de hidratación es fundamental para [...] realizar posteriores estudios de sorción en la interfase sólido/líquido. En este estudio se determinó el tiempo óptimo de hidratación del circón (ZrSiO4), comparando la técnica clásica por titulación potenciométrica con la técnica de fluorescencia a diferentes tiempos. La técnica de fluorescencia fue desarrollada gracias a las impurezas de tierras raras que son contenidas en cantidades traza en los minerales de circón. El análisis por activación neutrónica mostró que las impurezas contenidas en este lote de circón eran principalmente el Dy3+, Eu3+ y el Er3+. El Dy3+ tiene una buena respuesta fluorescente que se incrementa con las moléculas de agua a medida que este elemento se hidrata. Los resultados mostraron que el método potenciométrico es largo y tedioso, pues se requiere un lote por cada tiempo en estudio y toma alrededor de 2 h el análisis, en tanto que el método espectroscópico requiere de una sola muestra que se analiza puntualmente pasado el tiempo requerido, esto sólo toma 5 min, después del cual se continua con el proceso de hidratación. Ámbos métodos mostraron que la superficie del circón requiere de 16 h para alcanzar el tiempo óptimo de hidratación. Abstract in english When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops an electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific [...] for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO4) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and reliable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy3+, Eu3+ and Er³ in the bulk of zircon. The Dy3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 min from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16h optimal hydration time.

  3. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW)

  4. Economic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the economic minerals of Greenland. A subdivision of Greenland into seven main geological divisions is used based on the regional mapping by the Geological Survey of Greenland. Each division, which represents a major tectonic or geological province, is described and its economic potential considered. (B.P.)

  5. Polymorphs and Hydrates of Acyclovir

    OpenAIRE

    Lutker, Katie M.; Quin?ones, Rosalynn; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Matzger, Adam J.

    2010-01-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) has been commonly used as an antiviral for decades. Although the crystal structure of the commercial form, a 3:2 ACV/water solvate, has been known since 1980s, investigation into the structure of anhydrous ACV has been limited. Here, we report the characterization of four anhydrous forms of ACV and a new hydrate in addition to the known hydrate. Two of the anhydrous forms appear as small needles and are stable to air exposure, whereas the third form is morphologically similar ...

  6. Characterization of methane hydrate host sediments using synchrotron-computed microtomography (CMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Prodanovic, M.; Mahajan, D.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrate-sediment interaction is an important aspect of gas hydrate studies that needs further examination. We describe here the applicability of the computed microtomography (CMT) technique that utilizes an intense X-ray synchrotron source to characterize sediment samples, two at various depths from the Blake Ridge area (a well-known hydrate-prone region) and one from Georges Bank, that once contained methane trapped as hydrates. Detailed results of the tomographic analysis performed on the deepest sample (667??m) from Blake Ridge are presented as 2-D and 3-D images which show several mineral constituents, the internal grain/pore microstructure, and, following segmentation into pore and grain space, a visualization of the connecting pathways through the pore-space of the sediment. Various parameters obtained from the analysis of the CMT data are presented for all three sediment samples. The micro-scale porosity values showed decreasing trend with increasing depth for all three samples that is consistent with the previously reported bulk porosity data. The 3-D morphology, pore-space pathways, porosity, and permeability values are also reported for all three samples. The application of CMT is now being expanded to the laboratory-formed samples of hydrate in sediments as well as field samples of methane hydrate bearing sediments.

  7. Phenomenological model of phase transformations of gas hydrates in porous media: Visco-plastic consolidated skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekov, O. Ya.; Konyukhov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    We develop a phenomenological model to describe the behavior of natural porous media saturated with phases that can experience phase transformations which result in changes of the strength, rheology, and transport properties of the medium. A porous medium saturated with gas hydrates cementing the grains of a mineral skeleton is an example of such behavior. On a decrease in pressure or increase in temperature, hydrates in such a medium dissociate into gas and water. The resulting fluid acts as a lubricant between the skeleton grains: the elastic response is changed by the viscous response, and the processes of consolidation and multiphase filtration in the deforming skeleton are initiated.

  8. Exploration of gas hydrates geophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Naresh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Gas Hydrates treats various geophysical techniques in order to quantify the gas hydrate reserves and their impact on environment.  Written for non-specialists from different fields of science, this volume presents the state-of-the-art in gas hydrate exploration.

  9. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l-1, which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. T, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  10. Experimental method for determination of the residual equilibrium water content in hydrate-saturated natural sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvilin, E.; Guryeva, O. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geology; Istomin, V. [Novatek, Moscow (Russian Federation); Safonov, S. [Schlumberger Moscow Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The effects of porous media on hydrate stability was investigated, with particular reference to residual pore water which corresponds to a minimal possible amount of water in the sediment that is in thermodynamic equilibrium with both gas and the bulk hydrate phase. This pore water is defined as non-clathrated water by analogy to unfrozen water used in geocryological science. The amount of non-clathrated water depends on pressure, temperature, type of sediment, and gas hydrate former. The presence of residual pore water influences the thermodynamic properties of hydrate-saturated samples. The study considered the possibility of using sorption methods to study hydrate equilibrium when hydrate does not form at all in pore medium. This study was the first to propose using the contact-absorption technique to determine the non-clathrated water content in sediments. The equilibrium pore-water content was determined in a porous medium in the presence of a three-phase equilibrium, notably pore water-gas-bulk gas hydrate. The suggested method made it possible to determine equilibrium water content over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. The equilibrium water content was measured in an initially air-dried sediment plate that was placed in close contact with an ice plate under isothermal, hydrate-forming gas pressure conditions. This method was used to measure the non-clathrated water content in kaolinite clay in equilibrium with methane hydrate and carbon dioxide hydrate at a temperature of -7.5 degrees C in a range of gas pressures from 0.1 to 8.7 MPa for methane and from 0.1 to 2.5 MPa for carbon dioxide. At the fixed temperature, the non-clathrated water in hydrate-containing sediments decreased sharply as the gas pressure increased. The study showed that the non-clathrated water content in sediments depends on the temperature, the mineral structure of the sediment, and the hydrate-forming gas. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Effects of Different Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of Fresh Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaqat Ullah Khan; Muhammad Fadhil Nuruddin; Tehmina Ayub; Nasir Shafiq

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized i...

  12. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)?: PO??P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

  13. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ... of them each day. What Do Vitamins and Minerals Do? Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system, ...

  14. Thermal conductivity of tetrahydrofuran hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Krivchikova, A. I.; Manzheliia, V. G.; Korolyuka, O. A.; Gorodilova, B. Ya.; Romantsovaa, O. O.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of tetrahydrofuran hydrate has been measured in the temperature region 2 – 220 K by the steady-state potentiometric method. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity exhibits behavior typical of amorphous substances. It is shown that above 100 K the mean free path of the phonons is considerably smaller than the lattice parameter and is no longer dependent on temperature.

  15. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  16. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    2007-01-01

    processes. Submarine hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust and its activity on the ocean floor are fundamental processes controlling the transfer of energy and material from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere. Thermally induced circulation... flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control...

  17. Regulation of airway mucosal hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Derek; Gosling, Martin; Danahay, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Ion channels control the hydration status of the airway epithelium through apical anion secretion and cation absorption, which is accompanied by osmotically obligated water. The key channels in this process are the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is principally responsible for Cl(-) secretion by airway epithelial cells, and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), which is responsible for the absorption of Na ions. In CF, defective CFTR-mediated Cl(-) secretion and an accompanying upregulation in ENaC-mediated Na absorption results in a reduction in airway surface liquid volume, leading to poorly hydrated mucus and impaired mucociliary clearance. Restoration of normal airway hydration by modulation of ion channel activity represents an important therapeutic strategy for CF. CFTR corrector and potentiator compounds are being developed with the aim of recovering normal Cl(-) secretion. Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are expressed by the respiratory epithelia and are reported to be functionally upregulated in CF and offer a 'surrogate' pathway for Cl(-) secretion. TMEM16A has recently been described as a CaCC in the airway epithelium and, as such, represents an alternative target for restoring Cl(-) secretion in CF. An alternative therapeutic strategy for CF is to inhibit ENaC, thereby blocking excessive Na absorption. This can be achieved by direct blockade of ENaC or inhibition of the channel-activating proteases (CAPs), whose activity regulates ENaC function. This review will describe the regulation of airway mucosal hydration by ion channels and the efforts currently underway to restore normal mucosal hydration in disease patients by modulating the function of these channels. PMID:22111616

  18. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    richrigby

    2010-02-23

    Rock Cycle Mineralogy 4 Kids Mineralogy 4 kids : rockin Internet site : the best place to learn about rocks and minerals Rock Cycle Map Rocks and Minerals Rocks and Minerals Pictures Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Rocks and Minerals Slide Show Earth Science Earth Science Uses for Minerals Metamorphic Rock Forming Sedimentary Rocks Observation ...

  20. Structure and composition of gas hydrate in sediment recovered from the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well, determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripmeester, J.; Moudrakovski, I.L.; Dutrisac, R.; Wilson, L.D. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences; Lu, H. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Terrain Sciences Div.; Wright, F.; Dallimore, S.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre, Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Various diagnostic techniques were applied to drill core recovered from the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well to characterize the gas hydrate at depths between 898 and 1107 m. The diagnostic techniques included powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results from PXRD showed that the gas hydrate is composed of structure I hydrates. The typical lattice constants were provided. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra at 173 K showed the characteristic pattern for structure I hydrates for methane distributed over the two cages for structure I hydrates. The mineral content was reflected along variable line widths. The presence of methane found in the 2 structure I hydrate cages was also evident in the Raman spectra. The hydration numbers according to the solid-solution theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw was estimated using NMR and Raman spectra that revealed the occupancy ratios for methane in the small and large cages. The hydration numbers ranging form 6.1 to 6.3 were found to be in agreement with those for pure gas hydrate.

  1. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding of such dependence by smoking which in this study showed to be a risk could not be neglected

  2. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

  4. Gas hydrate resources of northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large amounts of natural gas, composed mainly of methane, can occur in arctic sedimentary basins in the form of gas hydrates under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Gas hydrates are solids, composed of rigid cages of water molecules that trap molecules of gas. These substances are regarded as a potential unconventional source of natural gas because of their enormous gas-storage capacity. Most published gas hydrate resource estimates are highly simplified and based on limited geological data. The gas hydrate resource assessment for northern Alaska presented in this paper is based on a "play analysis" scheme, in which geological factors controlling the accumulation and preservation of gas hydrates are individually evaluated and risked for each hydrate play. This resource assessment identified two gas hydrate plays; the in-place gas resources within the gas hydrates of northern Alaska are estimated to range from 6.7 to 66.8 trillion cubic metres of gas (236 to 2,357 trillion cubic feet of gas), at the 0.50 and 0.05 probability levels respectively. The mean in-place hydrate resource estimate for northern Alaska is calculated to be 16.7 trillion cubic metres of gas (590 trillion cubic feet of gas). If this assessment is valid, the amount of natural gas stored as gas hydrates in northern Alaska could be almost seven times larger then the estimated total remaining recoverable conventional natural gas resources in the entire United States.

  5. Ice formation during gas hydrate decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, A.; Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Much interest and research has been devoted towards the mathematical modelling of gas production from hydrate reservoirs. The 3 general techniques that can be used to recover gas from hydrate reservoirs include depressurization, thermal stimulation and inhibitor injection. All are based on breaking the stability conditions of hydrate, leading to the generation of gas. Although depressurization can be used to produce gas from hydrate reservoirs, ice formation can result in plugging. This study investigated the conditions in which ice or hydrate may form during process of hydrate decomposition. It also examined the effect of ice formation on permeability reduction. A 3-D four components simulator was developed to model hydrate decomposition and formation along with ice formation and fusion. The model incorporated energy balance, fluid flow and kinetics of the hydrate decomposition along with the ability to predict the formation of ice particles. The endothermic decomposition of hydrate particles and the Joule-Thomson effect were the two mechanisms of cooling that were investigated. This study showed that ice will not form if the bottomhole pressure is kept above the equilibrium pressure that corresponds to the freezing temperature. This point defined as the quadruple point is where methane equilibrium line and water freezing line intersect. It was concluded that ice formation may boost hydrate decomposition or gas production because it makes additional heat available in the media. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Dipolar response of hydrated proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical theory and numerical simulations of the dipolar response of hydrated proteins. The effective dielectric constant of the solvated protein, representing the average dipole moment induced at the protein by a uniform external field, shows a remarkable variation among the proteins studied by numerical simulations. It changes from 0.5 for ubiquitin to 640 for cytochrome c. The former value implies a negative dipolar susceptibility of ubiquitin, that is a dia-electric dipolar response and negative dielectrophoresis. It means that a protein carrying an average dipole of ~240 D is expected to repel from the region of a stronger electric field. This outcome is the result of a negative cross-correlation between the protein and water dipoles, compensating for the positive variance of the protein dipole in the overall dipolar susceptibility. This phenomenon can be characterized as overscreening of protein's dipole by the hydration shell. In contrast to the neutral ubiquitin, charged protei...

  7. Effects of different mineral admixtures on the properties of fresh concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Nuruddin, Muhammad Fadhil; Ayub, Tehmina; Shafiq, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer. PMID:24701196

  8. Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Heremans K.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid transitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additio...

  9. Gas hydrates : fuel of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osadetz, K.G.; Dallimore, S.R.; Mosher, D.C.; Wright, F. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Earth Sciences Sector

    2005-07-01

    The demand for natural gas is increasing at a time when the supply from established basins is declining. Gas hydrates, which have an energy content comparable to bitumen and tar sands, can be considered as an inexpensive energy source for economic growth and competitiveness, particularly for Aboriginal communities. Gas hydrates are also cleaner fuels than natural gas. This paper provides details of gas hydrate properties and occurrences as well as a summary of Canadian gas hydrate resources and activities. Characteristics of initial reservoir performance simulations were also presented. The depths and temperatures where gas hydrates are stable were presented and various modes of gas hydrate occurrence were examined. It was noted that gas hydrates were the largest global sink for organic carbon. Japan's commitment to production has led international gas hydrate research. Details of Japan's research programs were provided, including plans for commercialization of marine gas hydrates on the Pacific margin. Seismic reflection in the Nova Scotia margin was reviewed, along with Canadian Arctic gas hydrates. A map of recently estimated methane resources from gas hydrates was presented. Details of the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Research Well Consortium were presented. Designed on a 3 well experimental design, the Mallik wells have recovered the best gas hydrate samples in the world. Details of pressure reduction and active heating production testing procedures were presented. It was noted that more information is needed to produce gas hydrates economically. Various methods of production include reservoir modelling effects and reservoir depressurization. It was concluded that development and calibration of hydrate simulation models require ongoing effort and that operating issues could be resolved with existing technologies. However, innovations in technology are needed to maximize rates and recoveries. Onshore gas hydrate developments could be economical, but costs must be lowered if combined with conventional developments. Economic analysis of some accumulations may respond more like a utility than a standard petroleum play. Natural Resources Canada hopes to lead a full-scale gas hydrates production test within the next 5 years. tabs, figs.

  10. Study of Formation Mechanisms of Gas Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Sheng; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates, which had been found in subsurface geological environments of deep-sea sediments and permafrost regions, are solid crystalline compounds of gas molecules and water. The estimated energy resources of hydrates are at least twice of that of the conventional fossil fuel in the world. Gas hydrates have a great opportunity to become a dominating future energy. In the past years, many laboratory experiments had been conducted to study chemical and thermodynamic characteristics of gas hydrates in order to investigate the formation and dissociation mechanisms of hydrates. However, it is difficult to observe the formation and dissociation of hydrates in a porous media from a physical experiment directly. The purpose of this study was to model the dynamic formation mechanisms of gas hydrate in porous media by reservoir simulation. Two models were designed for this study: 1) a closed-system static model with separated gas and water zones; this model was a hydrate equilibrium model to investigate the behavior of the formation of hydrates near the initial gas-water contact; and 2) an open-system dynamic model with a continuous bottom-up gas flow; this model simulated the behavior of gas migration and studied the formation of hydrates from flowed gas and static formation water in porous media. A phase behavior module was developed in this study for reservoir simulator to model the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of hydrates. The thermodynamic equilibriums and chemical reactions were coupled with the phase behavior module to have functions modelling the formation and dissociation of hydrates from/to water and gas. The simulation models used in this study were validated from the code-comparison project proposed by the NETL. According to the modelling results of the closed-system static model, we found that predominated location for the formation of hydrates was below the gas-water contact (or at the top of water zone). The maximum hydrate saturation observed was located just below the gas-water contact. The open-system dynamic model showed that the hydrates were basically uniformly distributed in a homogeneous porous media at a constant gas migration rate. However, if the gas migration rate was extremely low, the hydrates will tend to concentrate at the bottom of water zone (i.e. at the first contact of the water and the flowed gas) and finally blocked the vertical flow of gas. The models we designed can be scaled up to a field scale, and the research findings from this study can be contributed to the dispersion analysis of an in-situ hydrate reservoir.

  11. Experimental investigation of smectite hydration from the simulation of 001 X-ray diffraction lines. Implications for the characterization of mineralogical modifications of the 'argilite' from the Meuse - Haute Marne site as a result of a thermal perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural modifications affecting the reactive mineral constituents of the clay barriers (smectite) and possibly resulting from the thermal pulse related to nuclear waste storage are essentially limited to the amount and location of the layer charge deficit. These modifications likely impact the hydration properties of these minerals, and a specific methodology has thus been developed to describe, using simulation of X-ray diffraction profiles (001 reflections), these hydration properties and specifically the heterogeneity resulting from the inter-stratification of different layer types, each exhibiting a specific hydration state. The detailed study of the hydration properties of a low-charge montmorillonite (octahedral charge) has shown that the affinity of the interlayer cation for water rules the hydration state and the thickness of hydrated smectite layers. If the layer charge is increased, the transition between the different hydration states is shifted, following a water desorption isotherm, towards lower relative humidities. In addition, the hydration of studied beidellites (tetrahedral charge) was shown to be more heterogeneous than that of montmorillonites. The developed methodology also allowed describing the structural modifications resulting from a chemical perturbation (chlorinated anionic background, pH). Finally, the link between the thickness of elementary layers and the amount of interlayer water molecules has been evidenced. A new structure model has also been determined for these interlayer species allowing an improved description of their positional distribution in bi-hydrated interlayers. (author)

  12. Finite difference modelling of scattered hydrates and its implications in gas-hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Gas-hydrates have drawn considerable attention in the scientific community due to their importance as an alternative energy source. One of the best tools for hydrate exploration is conventional 2D reflection seismics, which records the base...

  13. Lectures held at the congress on ``Gas hydrates: problem substance / resource``, organised by the GDMK Division for ``Exploration and Extraction`` and the Institute for Mineral Oil and Natural Gas Research, in Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Harz) on 6/7 November 1997. Author`s manuscripts; Vortraege der Veranstaltung ``Gashydrate: Problemstoff/Resource`` des GDMK-Fachbereichs `Aufsuchung und Gewinnung` und dem Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung am 06. und 07. November 1997 in Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Harz). Autorenmanuskripte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The following topics are dealt with in detail: the chemical and physical properties of gas hydrates as derivable from their phase behaviour; the significance and occurrence of gas hydrates in offshore areas; gas hydrates and permafrost in continental northern West Siberia; information on HYACE, a research project of the European Union on test drilling for gas hydrates in offshore areas; sediment-mechanical criteria of gas hydrate formation in deep-sea sediments; gas hydrate formation in gas cavern storages; the use of hydrate inhibitors in operating natural gas storages; and the inhibition of gas hydrates with kinetic inhibitors. Eight abstracts were abstracted individually for the Energy Database. (MSK) [Deutsch] Folgende Themen werden detailliert behandelt: die chemischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften von Gashydraten,welche aus dem Phasenverhalten der Gashydrate herzuleiten sind; zur Bedeutung und Vorkommen von Gashydraten im Offshore-Bereich; Gashydrate und Permafrost im kontinentalen noerdlichen Westsibirien; Informationen zu HYACE, einem Forschungsprojekt der Europaeischen Union zu Probebohrungen nach Gashydraten im Offshore-Bereich; sedimentmechanische Kriterien bei der Gashydratbildung in Tiefseesedimenten; die Gashydratbildung in Gaskavernenspeichern; der Einsatz von Hydratinhibitoren beim Betrieb von Erdgasspeichern sowie die Inhibierung von Gashydraten mit kinetischen Inhibitoren. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden acht Beitraege einzeln aufgenommen.

  14. Simulation of geomechanical effects of CO2 injection in cold aquifers with possibility of hydrate formation

    OpenAIRE

    Kvamme, Bjørn; Jemai, Khaled; Chejara, Ashok; Vafaei, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    The injection of CO2 in saline aquifers can have a significant impact on the geochemistry and the geo-mechanics of the reservoirs. Due to this injection, minerals will dissociate in regions with low pH or precipitate in regions with high pH, which imply changes on the stability of the reservoir. Some of the reservoirs in North Sea, and in the Barents Sea, have very low seafloor temperatures. In addition to mineral reactions, CO2 hydrate formation is also a potential local effect with imp...

  15. HYDRATION OF GELATIN IN SOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, M

    1927-05-20

    1. It was shown that the high viscosity of gelatin solutions as well as the character of the osmotic pressure-concentration curves indicates that gelatin is hydrated even at temperatures as high as 50 degrees C. 2. The degree of hydration of gelatin was determined by means of viscosity measurements through the application of the formula See PDF for Equation. 3. When the concentration of gelatin was corrected for the volume of water of hydration as obtained from the viscosity measurements, the relation between the osmotic pressure of various concentrations of gelatin and the corrected concentrations became linear, thus making it possible to determine the apparent molecular weight of gelatin through the application of van't Hoff's law. The molecular weight of gelatin at 35 degrees C. proved to be 61,500. 4. A study was made of the mechanism of hydration of gelatin and it was shown that the experimental data agree with the theory that the hydration of gelatin is a pure osmotic pressure phenomenon brought about by the presence in gelatin of a number of insoluble micellae containing a definite amount of a soluble ingredient of gelatin. As long as there is a difference in the osmotic pressure between the inside of the micellae and the outside gelatin solution the micellae swell until an equilibrium is established at which the osmotic pressure inside of the micellae is balanced by the total osmotic pressure of the gelatin solution and by the elasticity pressure of the micellae. 5. On addition of HCl to isoelectric gelatin the total activity of ions inside of the micellae is greater than in the outside solution due to a greater concentration of protein in the micellae. This brings about a further swelling of the micellae until a Donnan equilibrium is established in the ion distribution accompanied by an equilibrium in the osmotic pressure. Through the application of the theory developed here it was possible actually to calculate the osmotic pressure difference between the inside of the micellae and the outside solution which was brought about by the difference in the ion distribution. 6. According to the same theory the effect of pH on viscosity of gelatin should diminish with increase in concentration of gelatin, since the difference in the concentration of the protein inside and outside of the micellae also decreases. This was confirmed experimentally. At concentrations above 8 gm. per 100 gm. of H(2)O there is very little difference in the viscosity of gelatin of various pH as compared with that of isoelectric gelatin. PMID:19872362

  16. Cohort study of mortality of vermiculite miners exposed to tremolite.

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdonald, J. C.; Mcdonald, A. D.; Armstrong, B.; Sebastien, P.

    1986-01-01

    A cohort of 406 men employed before 1963 for at least one year in a vermiculite mine in Montana was followed up until July 1983. The vermiculite ore as fed to the mill contained 4-6% of amphibole fibre in the tremolite series. Vital status was established in all but one of the 406 and death certificates were obtained and coded for 163 of the 165 men who died. Compared with white men in the United States, the cohort experienced excess mortality from all causes (SMR 1.17), respiratory cancer (S...

  17. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Common Mineral Constituents of Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Joah; Bufkin*, James; Alsleben, Helge; Ameena, Fnu; Quarles, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    Recent investigation of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening in Barnett Shale samples have shown a small intensity of positronium (Ps) formation. The samples studied have XRF information on 35 elements, XRD information on mineral constituents, and chemical information on total organic carbon (TOC). It is not known where Ps is formed in the shale. Previous research has shown that Ps is not formed in quartz-rich sandstone, calcite-rich limestone or dolomite-rich rocks, which contain minerals that also constitute a significant part of most shale samples. No information about Ps formation in clay minerals, which are often dominant in shale, has been available. The purpose of the present study is to determine which clay minerals form Ps. Twenty-five different common rock-forming minerals have been studied. Hydration of some of the minerals has also been varied. As a result of this work, a better idea of where Ps is formed in the shale samples has been obtained, but there still remains some uncertainty regarding the hydration in the shale and the possibility of direct Ps formation in the organic carbon itself.. Participant in the summer 2014 TCU REU program in Physics and Astronomy funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1358770.

  18. Mapping hydration dynamics around a protein surface

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luyuan; Wang, Lijuan; Kao, Ya-ting; Qiu, Weihong; Yang, Yi; Okobiah, Oghaghare; Zhong, Dongping

    2007-01-01

    Protein surface hydration is fundamental to its structure and activity. We report here the direct mapping of global hydration dynamics around a protein in its native and molten globular states, using a tryptophan scan by site-specific mutations. With 16 tryptophan mutants and in 29 different positions and states, we observed two robust, distinct water dynamics in the hydration layer on a few (?1–8 ps) and tens to hundreds of picoseconds (?20–200 ps), representing the initial local rel...

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. ...locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. ...locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness...

  20. Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

    2008-01-01

    Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

  1. Application of empirical hydration distribution functions around polar atoms for assessing hydration structures of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Empirical distribution functions of water molecules in protein hydration are made. ? The functions measure how hydrogen-bond geometry in hydration deviate from ideal. ? The functions assess experimentally identified hydration structures of protein. - Abstract: To quantitatively characterize hydrogen-bond geometry in local hydration structures of proteins, we constructed a set of empirical hydration distribution functions (EHDFs) around polar protein atoms in the main and side chains of 11 types of hydrophilic amino acids (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113 (2009) 11274). The functions are the ensemble average of possible hydration patterns around the polar atoms, and describe the anisotropic deviations from ideal hydrogen bond geometry. In addition, we defined probability distribution function of hydration water molecules (PDFH) over the hydrophilic surface of a protein as the sum of EHDFs of solvent accessible polar protein atoms. The functions envelop most of hydration sites identified in crystal structures of proteins (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114 (2010) 4652). Here we propose the application of EHDFs and PDFHs for assessing crystallographically identified hydration structures of proteins. First, hydration water molecules are classified with respect to the geometry in hydrogen bonds in referring EHDFs. Difference Fourier electron density map weighted by PDFH of protein is proposed to identify easily density peaks as candidates of hydration water molecules. A computer program implementing those ideas was developed and used for assessing hydration structures of proteins

  2. The conversion process of hydrocarbon hydrates into CO2 hydrates and vice versa: thermodynamic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicks, J M; Luzi, M; Beeskow-Strauch, B

    2011-11-24

    Microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used for in situ investigations of the CO(2)-hydrocarbon exchange process in gas hydrates and its driving forces. The study comprises the exposure of simple structure I CH(4) hydrate and mixed structure II CH(4)-C(2)H(6) and CH(4)-C(3)H(8) hydrates to gaseous CO(2) as well as the reverse reaction, i.e., the conversion of CO(2)-rich structure I hydrate into structure II mixed hydrate. In the case of CH(4)-C(3)H(8) hydrates, a conversion in the presence of gaseous CO(2) from a supposedly more stable structure II hydrate to a less stable structure I CO(2)-rich hydrate was observed. PXRD data show that the reverse process requires longer initiation times, and structural changes seem to be less complete. Generally, the exchange process can be described as a decomposition and reformation process, in terms of a rearrangement of molecules, and is primarily induced by the chemical potential gradient between hydrate phase and the provided gas phase. The results show furthermore the dependency of the conversion rate on the surface area of the hydrate phase, the thermodynamic stability of the original and resulting hydrate phase, as well as the mobility of guest molecules and formation kinetics of the resulting hydrate phase. PMID:21928801

  3. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

    2011-01-01

    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  4. Methane hydrates as potential energy resource: Part 2 - Methane production processes from gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three processes have been proposed for dissociation of methane hydrates: thermal stimulation, depressurization, and inhibitor injection. The obvious production approaches involve depressurization, heating and their combinations. The depressurization method is lowering the pressure inside the well and encouraging the methane hydrate to dissociate. Its objective is to lower the pressure in the free-gas zone immediately beneath the hydrate stability zone, causing the hydrate at the base of the hydrate stability zone to decompose. The thermal stimulation method is applied to the hydrate stability zone to raise its temperature, causing the hydrate to decompose. In this method, a source of heat provided directly in the form of injected steam or hot water or another heated liquid, or indirectly via electric or sonic means. This causes methane hydrate to decompose and generates methane gas. The methane gas mixes with the hot water and returns to the surface, where the gas and hot water are separated. The chemical inhibition method seeks to displace the natural-gas hydrate equilibrium condition beyond the hydrate stability zone's thermo-dynamic conditions through injection of a liquid inhibitor chemical adjacent to the hydrate. In this method, inhibitor such as methanol is injected from surface down to methane hydrate-bearing layers. The thermal stimulation method is quite expensive. The chemical inhibitor injection method is also expensive. The depressurization method may pronsive. The depressurization method may prove useful to apply more than one production.

  5. Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Grum, Darja Kobal; Kobal, Alfred B.; Arneri?, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Osredkar, Joško

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearso...

  6. Quick Assessment of Potential Hydrate Promoters for Rapid Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Chi Y.; Somasundaran, P.; Lee, Jae W.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrate technology has advanced to greater proportions: implementing the high latent heats as refrigerant, safe carbon capture as carbon sequestration in hydrates, purifying rare gases in hydrates, and safe efficient transport of energy using rapid hydrate formation. These account for only a small amount of the fundamental understanding of gas hydrates and the use of such a novel technology. A quick and broad analysis of novel hydrate promoters is needed to assess the potential of other promo...

  7. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  8. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  9. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the capacity and in scale-up of the hydrate production process, the upstream gas supply systems and the downstream separator must be increased in proportion to the reactor capacity. (Author)

  10. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  11. Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heremans

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid transitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additional quantitative evidence for the contributions of cavities to the dynamics of proteins. Only mature amyloid fibrils that form from unfolded proteins are very resistant to pressure treatment.

  12. Protein dynamics: hydration and cavities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K., Heremans.

    1157-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-pressure behavior of proteins seems to be unique among the biological macromolecules. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic data show the typical elliptical stability diagram. This may be extended by assuming that the unfolded state gives rise to volume and enthalpy-driven liquid-liquid t [...] ransitions. A molecular interpretation follows from the temperature and the pressure dependence of the hydration and cavities. We suggest that positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide additional quantitative evidence for the contributions of cavities to the dynamics of proteins. Only mature amyloid fibrils that form from unfolded proteins are very resistant to pressure treatment.

  13. Hydration behaviour of polyhydroxylated fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zavala, J. G.; Barajas-Barraza, R. E.; Padilla-Osuna, I.; Guirado-López, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed semi-empirical as well as density functional theory calculations in order to analyse the hydration properties of both bare C60 and highly hydroxylated C60(OH)26 fullerenes. In all of our calculations, a total of 42 and 98 water molecules are always surrounding our here-considered carbon nanostructures. We found different wetting properties as a function of the chemical composition and structure of the OH-molecular over-layer covering the fullerene surface. In the case of bare C60, water adsorption reveals that the H2O species are not uniformly arranged around the carbon network but rather forms water droplets of different sizes, clearly revealing the hydrophobic nature of the C60 structure. In contrast, in the polyhydroxylated C60(OH)26 fullerenes, the degree of wetting is strongly influenced by the precise location of the hydroxyl groups. We found that different adsorbed configurations for the OH-molecular coating can lead to the formation of partially hydrated or completely covered C60(OH)26 compounds, a result that could be used to synthesize fullerene materials with different degrees of wettability. By comparing the relative stability of our hydroxylated structures in both bare and hydrated conditions we obtain that the energy ordering of the C60(OH)26 isomers can change in the presence of water. The radial distribution function of our hydrated fullerenes reveals that water near these kinds of surfaces is densely packed. In fact, by counting the number of H2O molecules which are adsorbed, by means of hydrogen bonds, to the surface of our more stable C60(OH)26 isomer, we found that it varies in the range of 5-10, in good agreement with experiments. Finally, by comparing the calculated optical absorption spectra of various C60(OH)26 structures in the presence and absence of water molecules, we note that only slight variations in the position and intensity of the electronic excitations are found, indicating that their vacuum optical properties are more or less preserved in aqueous environments.

  14. Analysis of mixed-layer clay mineral structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W.F.

    1953-01-01

    Among the enormously abundant natural occurrences of clay minerals, many examples are encountered in which no single specific crystallization scheme extends through a single ultimate grain. The characterization of such assemblages becomes an analysis of the distribution of matter within such grains, rather than the simple identification of mineral species. It having become established that the particular coordination complex typified by mica is a common component of many natural subcrystalline assemblages, the opportunity is afforded to analyze scattering from random associations of these complexes with other structural units. Successful analyses have been made of mixed hydration states of montmorillonite, of montmorillonite with mica, of vermiculite with mica, and of montmorillonite with chlorite, all of which are variants of the mica complex, and of halloysite with hydrated halloysite.

  15. High-resolution isotope geochemistry of the gas hydrate-free gas transition in the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, A.; Clark, I.D.; Middlestead, P. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Dallimore, S.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre, Sidney, BC (Canada); Matsumoto, R. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science

    2005-07-01

    Drill core was collected from the gas hydrate-free gas transition zone in the Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well. High-resolution subsampling methods were used along with vacuum distillation of pore water to examine the mechanisms involved during gas hydrate formation, the decomposition in the sediment, and the geochemical signature that it imparts to pore waters. Concentration and isotope data was obtained on a fine scale to determine whether a salt-exclusion profile is preserved after formation, and whether concentrations are influenced by vertical diffusion or lateral migration. Results of geochemical analysis suggest a precursor pore water of about 50 per cent seawater and low {delta}{sup 18}O freshwater. The inverse correlation can be attributed to pore-water freshening during gas hydrate decomposition. Below the transition, excess chloride and low {delta}{sup 18}O values indicate downward diffusion of solutes following gas hydrate formation. Low {delta}{sup 18}O freshwater is glacial meltwater infiltrating along permeable sediment units during periods of glaciation and low sea level. The presence of readily oxidized sulphide minerals from sulphate reduction prior to gas hydrate growth has been determined through sulphate anomalies.

  16. Diffusion of CO2 During Hydrate Formation and Dissolution; A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to measure the rate of diffusion of CO2 through hydrate films. Hydrate films were created in a capillary tube, and the growth of the hydrate film was measured. Difficulties were encountered in creating hydrate repeatedly, and some non-uniform growth of the films was observed. Sufficient observations were obtained to demonstrate that hydrate growth occurs preferentially on the hydrate/water side of the interface, rather than at the hydrate/CO2 interface. Diffusion coefficients were estimated from observations of the rate of growth of the hydrate film along with estimates of the solubility of CO2 in water and of the concentration gradient across the hydrate layer. The experimental observations indicate that hydrate formation occurs much more rapidly at the hydrate water interface than at the hydrate/CO2 interface. Any growth of hydrate at the CO2/hydrate interface was too slow to be observed at the time scale of the experiments. That observation is consistent with the idea that CO2 can move more easily through the hydrate, presumably by hopping between hydrate cages, than water can move through the hydrate, presumably by lattice hopping. Estimated diffusion coefficients were in the range 1-3E-06 cm2/sec. Those values are about an order of magnitude lower than the diffusion coefficient for CO2 in liquid water, but four orders of magnitude larger than the value for diffusion of CO2 in a solid. The rate of diffusion through the hydrate controls bf diffusion through the hydrate controls both the creation of new hydrate at the hydrate/water interface and the rate at which CO2 dissolves in the liquid water and diffuses away from the hydrate layer. Formation of a hydrate layer reduces the rate at which CO2 dissolves in liquid water

  17. Physical property changes in hydrate-bearing sediment samples due to depressurization/repressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W. F.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Santamarina, J. C.; Winters, W. J.; Yun, T.; Mason, D. H.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Physical property measurements on cores containing natural gas hydrate are typically performed on material exposed to non-in situ conditions at least briefly during recovery. In situ temperature and effective stress are difficult to maintain during core recovery, but pressure-coring systems such as the HYACINTH, Fugro, and IODP PCS can maintain in situ hydrostatic pressure during core retrieval. To simulate effects of transferring pressure-core samples to storage vessels, the USGS conducted physical property measurements on Ottawa sand samples containing methane gas and gas hydrate before and after samples were depressurized out of, then repressurized back into, the gas hydrate stability field. For measurements made along a sample's cylindrical axis, compressional and shear wave speed, shear strength, and thermal conductivity increased 10 to 30 percent following a 5 minute excursion from the gas hydrate stability field. Experiments were conducted in unsaturated sand in the presence of methane gas, and increases in measured physical property values resulting from the repressurization cycle can be attributed to a redistribution of water and gas hydrate within the sample. Redistribution of water and re-formation of gas hydrate is inferred from X- Ray Computed Tomography of a cylindrical hydrate-bearing Ottawa sand sample similar to the USGS samples. During the excursion from the gas hydrate stability field, images collected at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory demonstrate gas hydrate dissociates first at the outer surface, where heat is efficiently transferred from a temperature-controlled bath. Upon repressurizing to stable conditions, gas hydrate remaining near the sample's central axis draws water away from the outer part of the sediment sample, and new gas hydrate grows most rapidly close along the central axis, where the original gas hydrate never dissociated during depressurization. These results can be compared to those obtained by Georgia Tech on water-saturated, natural sediment cores collected in the Gulf of Mexico. Pressure cores that never experienced a depressurization cycle and were analyzed in the Georgia Tech Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC) yielded significantly higher seismic velocities than conventional cores recovered at the same depth and tested at atmospheric pressure. This effect was observed even though the cores did not contain gas hydrate, attesting to the importance of maintaining pressure if the goal is to constrain in situ physical properties. A second set of measurements at Georgia Tech focused on natural samples with pore space 100 percent saturated with synthetic hydrate at low confining pressures. These samples also produced seismic velocities closer to those obtained from borehole logs, but this effect is sediment-dependent, and therefore difficult to correlate with in situ properties. Though laboratory facilities continue to provide insight via controlled studies of model systems, confidently characterizing in situ mechanical and thermal properties of hydrate-bearing material will require emphasis not on repressurized samples, but on cores that have never experienced a depressurization cycle. The consequences of releasing effective stress during pressure coring is unknown, and currently under investigation.

  18. Evaluation of hydration indexes in kale leaves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adonai G., Calbo; Marcos D., Ferreira.

    Full Text Available Hydration indexes are practical variables for quantifying plant water stress and can be useful for agronomic purposes. Three adapted hydration indexes based on relative water content, volumetric hydration, and leaf turgor pressure were evaluated in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) leaf segment [...] s. Relative water content and volumetric hydration were measured in leaf segments after a water infiltration procedure with the aim of filling its large intercellular volumes (@18%v/v). The infiltration was done using a hydrostatic weighing procedure and with the aid of vacuum to fully hydrate the leaf segments. These two relative indexes were proportional to the transpiration-induced leaf water loss. The third index, turgor pressure, was measured with a Wiltmeter® instrument. Similarly, the turgor pressure was proportional to the leaf water loss, and it decreased from @310kPa in recently harvested leaves to zero in dehydrated leaves, after a total water loss of @23%. Turgor pressure was correlated with the other two hydration indexes using approximations of leaf volumetric elastic modules. Similar estimates were obtained because the decline between turgor pressure and the natural logarithm of these relative leaf hydration indexes was numerically similar (@900kPa). However, the volumetric hydration index seemed to be more suitable as a model, not only for being more concise but also because it showed a clearer biomechanical representation of the leaf water deficit effects.

  19. Hydrate Kinetics Study and Exhibition Display Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Ermolaev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article conducted survey of the literature, concerning hydrate formation. The author took part in empirical data acquisition, processing and analysis at the exhibition display of Institute of the Earth Cryosphere of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, worked out and launched experimental assembly for propane hydrate formation kinetics study at Tyumen State University laboratory?

  20. Evaluation of hydration indexes in kale leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai G. Calbo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration indexes are practical variables for quantifying plant water stress and can be useful for agronomic purposes. Three adapted hydration indexes based on relative water content, volumetric hydration, and leaf turgor pressure were evaluated in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala leaf segments. Relative water content and volumetric hydration were measured in leaf segments after a water infiltration procedure with the aim of filling its large intercellular volumes (@18%v/v. The infiltration was done using a hydrostatic weighing procedure and with the aid of vacuum to fully hydrate the leaf segments. These two relative indexes were proportional to the transpiration-induced leaf water loss. The third index, turgor pressure, was measured with a Wiltmeter® instrument. Similarly, the turgor pressure was proportional to the leaf water loss, and it decreased from @310kPa in recently harvested leaves to zero in dehydrated leaves, after a total water loss of @23%. Turgor pressure was correlated with the other two hydration indexes using approximations of leaf volumetric elastic modules. Similar estimates were obtained because the decline between turgor pressure and the natural logarithm of these relative leaf hydration indexes was numerically similar (@900kPa. However, the volumetric hydration index seemed to be more suitable as a model, not only for being more concise but also because it showed a clearer biomechanical representation of the leaf water deficit effects.

  1. Association Between Crystalline Gray Hematite and Hydrated Units in Capri Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Lane, M. D.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Roach, L.; Knudson, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We have mapped out the distribution, identified associated hydrated units, and proposed modes of formation for crystalline, gray hematite in Capri Chasma. HiRISE and CRISM images corresponding to the highest and largest abundances of gray hematite as measured by TES were analyzed for this study. Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from HiRISE stereo pairs were used in a few locations to determine stratigraphic relationships between the hematite and other geologic units. In general, we find the gray hematite correlates to dark mantles situated on low-lying plains where there are nearby sulfate outcrops. A location with one of the highest abundances of hematite is situated on plains adjacent to kieserite outcrops. The dark hematite-bearing plains have spectra with a weak 1.93 ?m absorption and HiRISE images reveal small exposures of light-toned material beneath the hematite-bearing darker mantle. There are also several light-toned layered units with mineralogies that include opal, Fe/Mg-smectite, and an unidentified mineral exhibiting a 2.22/2.27 ?m doublet. These units are exposed within small hills located both inside and outside the hematite-bearing plains, and are unlikely to be the source of any hematite based upon their spatial distribution. Another location with a large occurrence of gray hematite is situated along the southern wall and floor of a ~30 km diameter, 2.5 km deep impact crater on the northern edge of the interior layered deposit within Capri Chasma. Multiple units are exposed along the crater wall, including a lower layered kieserite unit, followed by a layered mix of polyhydrated sulfates (PHS) and monohydrated sulfates, a layered PHS, a thick sequence of upper kieserite generally lacking layering, and finally an upper PHS. Covering many of these units are surficial mantles, including kiesereite-bearing dunes, spectrally bland eolian material, and a dark mantle with features centered at 1.05, 1.93, and 2.4 ?m, consistent with a mixture of hematite and PHS. The source of the crystalline hematite is likely grains that are weathering out of kieserite outcrops and collecting along the plains or lower slopes, presumably as soil lags. However, erosion of light-toned PHS material seen along portions of the chasma floor could also be the source of some hematite grains, particularly hematite locations that are several kms from the central interior layered deposit.

  2. Studies of mineral-water surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Levchenko, Dr. Andrey [University of California, Davis; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Vlcek, L. [Vanderbilt University

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the application of inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering to the elucidation of the structure, energetics, and dynamics of water confined on the surfaces of mineral oxide nanoparticles. We begin by highlighting recent advancements in this active field of research before providing a brief review of the theory underpinning inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) techniques. We then discuss examples illustrating the use of neutron scattering methods for studying hydration layers that are an integral part of the nanoparticle structure. The first investigation of this kind, namely the INS analysis of hydrated ZrO2 nanoparticles, is described, as well as a later, complementary QENS study that allowed for the dynamics of diffusion of the water molecules within the hydration layer to be examined in detail. The diverse range of information available from INS experiments is illustrated by a recent study combining INS with calorimetric experiments that elucidated the thermodynamic properties of adsorbed water on anatase (TiO2) nanoparticles. To emphasize the importance of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for deconvoluting complex QENS spectra, we describe both the MD and QENS analysis of rutile (TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2) nanoparticle systems and show that, when combined, data obtained by these two complementary methods can provide a complete description of the motion of the water molecules on the nanoparticle surface. We close with a glimpse into the future for this thriving field of research.

  3. Effect of Zeolite for Methane Hydrate Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane hydrate is formed by physical binding between water molecules and gases such as methane, ethane, propane, or carbon dioxide, etc., which are captured in the cavities of water molecules under the specific temperature and pressure. More than 99% of naturally produced methane hydrate consists of methane, and is widely dispersed in the continental slope and continental Shelf of the Pacific and the Atlantic, the Antarctica, etc. The reserve of fossil fuel is 500 billion carbon ton and the reserve of methane is 360 million carbon ton. The reserve of gas hydrate is more than 1 trillion carbon ton, which is twice the fossil fuel. Therefore, natural gas hydrate as a kind of gas hydrate is expected to replace fossil fuel as new energy source of 21st century. Also 1 m3 hydrate of pure methane can be decomposed to the maximum of 216 m3 methane at standard condition. If these characteristics of hydrate are reversely utilized, the natural gas is fixed into water in the form of hydrate solid. Therefore, the hydrate is considered to be a great way to transport and store natural gas in large quantity. Especially the transportation cost is known to be 18?25% less than that of the liquefied transportation. However, when natural gas hydrate is artificially formed, its reaction time may be too long and the gas consumption in water becomes relatively low, because the reaction rate between water and gas is low. Therefore, for the practical purpose in the apple, for the practical purpose in the application, the present investigation is focused on the rapid production of hydrates and on the increases of gas consumption by adding natural zeolite into pure water. The results of the study show that the equilibrium pressure in natural zeolite is more lower than that in distilled water, and methane hydrate could be formed rapidly during pressurization, if the subcooling is maintained at 8K or above in distilled water and 6.5K or above in natural zeolite, respectively. Also, the amount of consumed gas volume in natural zeolite is more higher than in distilled water at the same experimental conditions. Also, when the natural zeolite of 0.01 wt% was added to distilled water, the amount of consumed gas was about four times higher than that in distilled water and the hydrate formation time decreased at the low subcooling temperature. Therefore, it is found that natural zeolite acts as a catalyst in hydrate formation

  4. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

  5. Magnetic hysteresis parameters and Day plot analysis to characterize diagenetic alteration in gas hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Randolph J.; Baker, Judith; Nourgaliev, Danis; Iassonov, Pavel; Hamilton, Tark S.

    2007-06-01

    The J meter coercivity spectrometer is a machine capable of rapid and simple measurement of magnetic hysteresis, isothermal remanence acquisition and magnetic viscosity of rocks and sediments. The J meter was used to study a suite of samples collected from strata in the gas hydrate-bearing JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 well (69.5°N, 134.6°W) in the Mackenzie Delta of the northwestern Canadian Arctic. The Day plot of magnetic hysteresis ratios for these samples is exotic in that the points do not plot along a hyperbola as is usually observed. Rather, they plot as a scatter which is shown to contour into vertical slices using coercivity field (HC) or saturation magnetization (JS), and horizontal slices using the relative quantity of superparamagnetism (JSPM/JS). Optical microscopy reveals that the magnetic minerals are detrital magnetite and authigenic greigite. Greigite is dominant in sands which in situ had >70% gas hydrate saturation and in silts in which gas hydrate growth was blocked by insufficient porosity. We infer that the silts were the accumulation sites for solutes which had been excluded from the pore waters in neighboring coarser-grained sediments during the course of gas hydrate formation. Consequently, we conclude that magnetic properties are related to gas hydrate-related processes, and as such, may have potential as a method of remote sensing for gas hydrate deposits.

  6. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Methane hydrates in the Chilean continental margin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esteban, Morales G..

    2003-08-15

    Full Text Available In the coming years the worldwide energetic resources based on hydrocarbons will diminish, and methane hydrates can become an alternative source, given its huge deposits. Chile does not have great amounts of energetic resources; however, during the cruise C-2901 on board the R/V CONRAD in 1998, seis [...] mic profiles that took place in the Chilean continental margin between 35º and 45ºS show the presence of methane hydrates through BSR analysis. The following parameters for the hydrate layer can be assumed: Thickness = 100 m, Longitude E-W = 20 km, Latitude N-S = 1000 km, hydrate concentration in the sediments = 10%, and 160 m³ of gas per m³ of hydrate. With these figures, the volume of estimated gas is 3.2 x 10(13) m³.

  8. Cement minerals at elevated temperature: Thermodynamic and structural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of cementitious materials may be used in the construction of a potential nuclear waste repository. Temperatures in the emplacement drifts may reach over 200 C owing to decay heat from radioactive waste for various ''extended-dry'' repository scenarios. Despite its potential significance, the mineralogic response of cement to elevated temperature is not well known. The chemistry of fluid introduced to the repository from cementitious materials can also have a significant impact on repository performance. The masses of water associated with the use of cementitious materials such as shotcrete, which includes both structural and pore water, can be sizable. Pore water may be driven out by heating, and structural water may be released through phase dehydration. An experimental and modeling program has been designed to elucidate the structural and thermodynamic response of cement minerals to elevated temperature. The components of the program include: (a) synthesis of hydrated Ca-silicates; (b) structural analysis of cement phases during heating and dehydration/rehydration; (c) mechanistic and thermodynamic descriptions of the hydration/dehydration behavior of hydrated Ca-silicates as a function of temperature, pressure and relative humidity; (d) study of naturally occurring hydrated Ca-silicates; and (e) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated Ca-silicates

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Thorium in Low Grade Minerals and Ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following method is intended for the determination of microgram quantities of thorium in samples of minerals and ores. The mineral sample is decomposed by repeated sintering with sodium peroxide. After digestion with water thorium peroxide hydrate is recovered by centrifugation and dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Thorium is determined spectrophotometrically with naphtarson after its separation from metals forming chloro complexes which are adsorbed on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Interferences from a few different ions have been studied. The time required for the analysis of one sample is about 4 hours, when analysing 12 samples simultaneously

  10. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  11. Quantitative texture analysis of talc in mantle hydrated mylonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Perez, J. M.; Gomez Barreiro, J.; Wenk, H. R.; Vogel, S. C.; Soda, Y.; Voltolini, M.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative texture analysis of talc-serpentinite mylonites developed in highly deformed ultramafic rocks from different orogenic contexts have been done with neutorn diffraction at HIPPO (Los Álamos National Laboratory). Mineral assemblage, metamorphic evolution and deformative fabric of these samples could be correlated with those verified along the shallow levels (talc and antigorite) it is expected to influence seismic anisotropy of the whole system, in the presence of texture. However to date there was no data on the crystallographic preferred orientation of talc and examples of antigorite textures are very limited. We explore the contribution of talc texture to the seismic anisotropy of mantle hydrated mylonites. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by research project CGL2011-22728 of Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. JGB and JMBP are grateful to the Ramón y Cajal and FPI funding programs. Access to HIPPO (LANSCE) to conduct diffraction experiments is kindly acknowledged.

  12. Overview on Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Burger; Deepak Gupta; Patrick Jacobs; John Shillinglaw

    2003-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Worldwide, gas hydrate is estimated to hold about 1016 kg of organic carbon in the form of methane (Kvenvolden et al., 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In June 2002, Westport Technology Center was requested by the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a ''Best Practices Manual on Gas Hydrate Coring, Handling and Analysis'' under Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41327. The scope of the task was specifically targeted for coring sediments with hydrates in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and from the present Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drillship. The specific subjects under this scope were defined in 3 stages as follows: Stage 1: Collect information on coring sediments with hydrates, core handling, core preservation, sample transportation, analysis of the core, and long term preservation. Stage 2: Provide copies of the first draft to a list of experts and stakeholders designated by DOE. Stage 3: Produce a second draft of the manual with benefit of input from external review for delivery. The manual provides an overview of existing information available in the published literature and reports on coring, analysis, preservation and transport of gas hydrates for laboratory analysis as of June 2003. The manual was delivered as draft version 3 to the DOE Project Manager for distribution in July 2003. This Final Report is provided for records purposes.

  13. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in the project reports.

  14. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-06-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  15. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  16. Introduction to Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This activity can be used as the introduction for a unit on mineral or crystal structure. It requires the students to create shapes cooperatively and put them together. This is analogous to individual crystals forming or to minerals forming. They will understand that minerals are made up of structures in certain patterns, and that these structures determine some of the properties of the minerals.

  17. Clathrate Hydrates in a Europan Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Chyba, C. F.

    2003-12-01

    The temperature and pressure environments of the europan ice shell and putative ocean may be such that various species of clathrate hydrates are stable. Here we calculate annual fluxes of biologically useful gases to a europan ocean and consider the role of such clathrates in a hypothetical europan ecosystem. It is known that the surface radiation environment of Europa produces O2, hydrogen peroxide, and H2S(Carlson et al., 1999) Thus, hydrates of these species could form in the ice shell or in the ocean if conditions were suitable. According to Lipenkov & Istomin, if pressures in the ice shell exceeded ~9.7 MPa for temperatures >267 K then oxygen hydrates would form in the ice. Such conditions might be expected at the base of the ice shell or in regions of high tidal stress or strain. If we make the assumption that the solubility of oxygen in Europa is comparable to that calculated for Lake Vostok temperatures and pressures, then we can estimate the extent to which the europan ocean might contain dissolved oxygen and hydrates. Taking an estimate based on radiolytic surface production of hydrogen peroxide (which decays to oxygen) and subsequent delivery to the ocean, we have argued that Europa could have an annual oxygen flux of 1012 moles. Over the course of the ~50 million year resurfacing timescale, this would produce a ~0.020 mole fraction of oxygen in the ocean, in the absence of oxygen sinks (Chyba & Hand, 2001). By comparison with Lipenkov and Istomin, this exceeds the 2.2e-3 maximum solubility for air and thus in this case we would expect to see oxygen hydrate formation in the Europan ocean. Several caveats apply: 1) We have in this estimate used the solubility for air, not pure oxygen; 2) The gases delivered to the ocean would be at ~10MPa and 272 K, this is not a high enough pressure for oxygen hydrate stability, however if the pressure were to reach levels of 11-12MPa then such hydrates would be stable. Once delivered to the ocean, the fate of biologically useful gas hydrates will depend on the density, and hence salinity, of the europan ocean water. If the density of the hydrates exceeds that of the surrounding water and saturation has been reached, then the hydrates will precipitate to the seafloor and form a hydrate sediment. If the hydrates are buoyant in the europan ocean then an accretion layer of hydrates may form at the base of the ice shell. Indeed, such a layer may have implications for ice shell dynamics and evolution.

  18. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with emphasis; (6) detailed study of CH4-CO2 exchange as a unique alternative to recover CH4 gas while sequestering CO2; (7) the relevance of fines in otherwise clean sand sediments on gas recovery and related phenomena such as fines migration and clogging, vuggy structure formation, and gas-driven fracture formation during gas production by depressurization.

  19. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  20. Mineral-Coated Polymer Membranes with Superhydrophilicity and Underwater Superoleophobicity for Effective Oil/Water Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng-Cheng Chen; Zhi-Kang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Oil-polluted water is a worldwide problem due to the increasing industrial oily wastewater and the frequent oil spill accidents. Here, we report a novel kind of superhydrophilic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. They were prepared by depositing CaCO3-based mineral coating on PAA-grafted polypropylene microfiltration membranes. The rigid mineral-coating traps abundant water in aqueous environment and forms a robust hydrated layer on the membrane pore surface, thus endowing t...

  1. Novel biological approaches to carbon mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ian; Kenward, Paul; Harrison, Anna; Dipple, Gregory; Raudsepp, Mati; Wilson, Siobhan; Southam, Gordon

    2015-04-01

    Innovative approaches for accelerating and manipulating fundamental geochemical processes are necessary to develop carbon mineralization as a viable strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Mg-carbonate formation is of interest for both ex situ and in situ CO2 sequestration strategies1. Accordingly, we have investigated approaches to accelerate these water-rock reactions that produce Mg-carbonate minerals using biological approaches. For instance, CO2-limited conditions are encountered in many systems relevant to CO2 sequestration and represent a severe limitation on carbon mineralization. In carbonation experiments, the supply of CO2 was increased with the use of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of aqueous CO2. The presence of carbonic anhydrase had a dramatic impact on carbonation rates of brucite [Mg(OH)2]2, a mineral of interest for carbon sequestration3. In a CO2-rich aqueous environment, cyanobacteria were able to induce hydrated Mg-carbonate precipitation in microcosm experiments through the alkalinization of their microenvironment and concentration of cations on their cell membranes, which also provide regularly spaced, chemically identical sites for mineral nucleation4. In both lines of investigation, the resulting precipitates were metastable hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals rather then magnesite [MgCO3], the most stable Mg-carbonate and therefore the preferred product forsequestering CO2. Consequently, we have investigated approaches to improve magnesite precipitation rate in these low temperature environments. Inopportunely, rates of magnesite precipitation are severely limited at temperatures below 60 ° C due to the strong hydration of Mg2+ ions in solution5. Yet, carboxyl functional groups (R-COOH) are able to cause desolvation of Mg2+ ions6,7. In microcosm experiments using polystyrene microspheres with a high density of carboxyl groups, we were able to precipitate magnesite at room temperature from slightly supersaturated solutions in tens of days. Precipitates were positively identified as magnesite using transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction of a thin section produced by focus ion beam milling. These experiments represent an acceleration in magnesite formation of several orders of magnitude in comparison to naturally occurring magnesite at near-surface conditions and without requiring energy input (e.g., high temperature reactions). Our current focus is to further elucidate this reaction pathway and upscale precipitation for sequestering anthropogenic CO2. [1] Power et al. (2013) Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 77: 305-360. [2] Power et al. (2013) Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control. 16: 145-155. [3] Harrison et al. (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. 47: 126-134. [4] Power et al. (2007) Geochem. Trans. 8, 13. [5] Hänchen et al. (2008) Chem. Eng. Sci. 63: 1012-1028. [6] Roberts et al. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 110: 14540-14545. [7] Kenward et al. (2009) Geobiology 7: 556-565.

  2. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was included because of the extensive data collected in a producible hydrate accumulation. To date, such a location had not been studied in the oceanic environment. The project worked closely with ongoing projects (e.g. GOM JIP and offshore India) that are actively investigating potentially economic hydrate accumulations in marine settings. The overall approach was fivefold: (1) collect key data concerning hydrocarbon fluxes which is currently missing at all locations to be included in the study, (2) use this and existing data to build numerical models that can explain gas hydrate variance at all four locations, (3) simulate how natural gas could be produced from each location with different production strategies, (4) collect new sediment property data at these locations that are required for constraining fluxes, production simulations and assessing sediment stability, and (5) develop a method for remotely quantifying heterogeneities in gas hydrate and free gas distributions. While we generally restricted our efforts to the locations where key parameters can be measured or constrained, our ultimate aim was to make our efforts universally applicable to any hydrate accumulation.

  3. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  4. Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Stern, Laura A.; Weitemeyer, Karen A.; Constable, Steven; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of our DOE-funded proposal to characterize gas hydrate in the Gulf of Mexico using marine electromagnetic methods, a collaboration between SIO, LLNL, and USGS with the goal of measuring the electrical properties of lab-created methane (CH4) hydrate and sediment mixtures was formed. We examined samples with known characteristics to better relate electrical properties measured in the field to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns. Here we discuss first-ever electrical conductivity (?) measurements on unmixed CH4 hydrate (Du Frane et al., 2011): 6 x 10-5 S/m at 5 °C, which is ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater. This difference allows electromagnetic (EM) techniques to distinguish highly resistive gas hydrate deposits from conductive water saturated sediments in EM field surveys. More recently, we performed measurements on CH4 hydrate mixed with sediment and we also discuss those initial findings here. Our results on samples free of liquid water are important for predicting conductivity of sediments with pores highly saturated with gas hydrate, and are an essential starting point for comprehensive mixing models.

  5. Minerals 4 Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy McMillan

    Minerals 4 Kids contains four Web-based activities offered for K-12 Education by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA). These activities are entitled: Minerals in Your House, Mineral Groups, Mineral Properties, and All About Crystals. Also included are links to Mineral Games, the Rock Cycle diagram that leads to descriptions of the three rock types, and Ask-A-Mineralogist that enables the user to submit a mineralogical question. Many of these activities are linked to other mineralogy-related Web sites. Minerals in Your House is designed to introduce the concept of how minerals are present in common household items found in the bedroom, bathroom, living room, and kitchen. Mineral Groups introduces mineral classification according to chemical composition. The learner can explore each of the seven major chemical groups and several minor chemical groups. Mineral Properties introduces learners to the physical properties of minerals such as hardness, cleavage, streak, color, luster, specific gravity, as well as other miscellaneous properties (i.e., magnetic, effervescence, striations, etc.). Mineral Properties, additionally, contains a five-step Mineral Identification process that uses the physical properties to narrow down a mineral's identity that, ultimately, leads to a Mineral Identification Chart. All About Crystals enables the learner to become familiar with symmetry, crystal symmetry, crystal chemistry, and crystal forms. This activity includes online 3-D models, an activity that enables the user to draw and explore symmetry patterns, a variety of detailed descriptions with figures, and an extensive vocabulary

  6. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  7. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  8. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by Maurer Technology, Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. We plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. We also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. We are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. We hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, our goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  9. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  10. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the basement rocks but also very good indicators of the fO{sub 2} and pH paleo-conditions at which the formation of the U-ore bodies took place. (author)

  11. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine

  12. Clathrate hydrates in cometary nuclei and porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoluchowski, R.

    1988-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of formation and decomposition of CO2-clathrate hydrate in cometary nuclei are discussed. As far as it is known, this is the only clathrate hydrate which is unstable at low temperatures. Calculation shows that, in accord with other evidence, neither volume nor grain boundary diffusion in the clathrate lattice can be responsible for the rate of these reactions and that a surface mechanism with the attendant sensitivity to pressure must play a crucial role. Density changes accompanying CO2-clathrate decomposition and formation can lead to microporosity and enhanced brittleness or even to fracture of cometary nuclei at low temperatures. Other clathrate hydrates and mixed clathrates are also discussed.

  13. Modeling Natural Gas Productivity Recovery from a Hydrate Reservoir Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon deposits have stimulated worldwide efforts to understand gas production from hydrate dissociation in hydrate reservoirs well. This paper deals with the potential of gas hydrates as a source of energy which is widely available in permafrost and oceanic sediments. It discusses methods for gas production from natural gas hydrates. Authors provide a detailed methodology used to model gas productivity recovery from hydrate reservoir well. The mathematical modelling of gas dissociation from hydrate reservoir as a tool for evaluating the potential of gas hydrates for natural gas production. The simulation results show that the process of natural gas production in a hydrate reservoir is a sensitive function of reservoir temperature and hydrate zone permeability. The model couples nth order decomposition kinetics with gas flow through porous media. The models provide a simple and useful tool for hydrate reservoir analysis.

  14. Reaction-driven cracking during retrograde metamorphism: Olivine hydration and carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Hirth, Greg

    2012-09-01

    Retrograde metamorphism (mineral hydration, carbonation and oxidation) is important in controlling the composition and rheology of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, particularly along tectonic plate margins, and in proposed mechanisms for geothermal power generation and engineered, geological carbon storage. Retrograde processes can lead to an increase in solid mass and volume, or can be balanced by host phase dissolution at constant solid volume. In turn, solid volume changes could reduce permeability and reactive surface area, and/or lead to host rock deformation, via fracture and frictional sliding or viscous flow. Which of these outcomes emerges in specific cases is determined in part by the “crystallization pressure”, which creates local gradients in pressure around growing crystals, and thus a differential stress. We develop thermodynamic and mineral physics estimates of the crystallization pressure and differential stress resulting from volume changes during olivine hydration (serpentinization) and carbonation. Because olivine is so far from equilibrium with fluids near the surface, the stress due to serpentinization and/or carbonation may exceed 300 MPa at temperatures up to 200 °C or more, greater than required to fracture rocks and cause frictional failure in the upper 10 km of the Earth. Provided that fluid access is initiated, for example along pre-existing fractures, the volume change due to hydration and carbonation can cause fracture formation and dilation, maintaining or increasing permeability and reactive surface energy in a positive feedback mechanism.

  15. Gas hydrate equilibrium dissociation conditions in porous media using two thermodynamic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ two thermodynamic approaches, based on the equal fugacities and the equal activities, to predict the gas hydrate equilibrium dissociation conditions in the porous media. The predictions are made for the hydrate systems, CH4/H2O, C2H6/H2O, C3H8/H2O, CO2/H2O, CH4/CO2/H2O, C3H8/CH4/C2H6/H2O, and CH4/CH3OH/H2O. For the non-hydrate phase, we used the Trebble-Bishnoi equation in the fugacity approach and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation in the activity approach. For the hydrate phase, the van der Waals-Platteeuw model incorporated with the capillary model of Llamedo et al. [M. Llamedo, R. Anderson, B. Tohidi, Am. Mineral. 89 (2004) 1264-1270] was used in the two approaches. The predictions are found to be in satisfactory to good agreement with the experimental data. The predictive ability of the fugacity approach is better than that of the activity approach

  16. Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compressive strengths and structures of composites of aluminosilicate geopolymer with the synthetic cement minerals C3S, ?-C2S, C3A and commercial OPC were investigated. All the composites showed lower strengths than the geopolymer and OPC paste alone. X-ray diffraction, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and SEM/EDS observations indicate that hydration of the cement minerals and OPC is hindered in the presence of geopolymer, even though sufficient water was present in the mix for hydration to occur. In the absence of SEM evidence for the formation of an impervious layer around the cement mineral grains, the poor strength development is suggested to be due to the retarded development of C-S-H because of the preferential removal from the system of available Si because geopolymer formation is more rapid than the hydration of the cement minerals. This possibility is supported by experiments in which the rate of geopolymer formation is retarded by the substitution of potassium for sodium, by the reduction of the alkali content of the geopolymer paste or by the addition of borate. In all these cases the strength of the OPC-geopolymer composite was increased, particularly by the combination of the borate additive with the potassium geopolymer, producing an OPC-geopolymer composite stronger than hydrated OPC paste alone.

  17. A pump-probe XFEL particle injector for hydrated samples

    CERN Document Server

    Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a liquid jet injector system that can be used for hydrated sample delivery at X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) sources and 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The injector is based on the Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN), which generates a liquid jet with diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {\\mu}m without the clogging problems associated with conventional Rayleigh jets. An improved nozzle design is presented here. A differential pumping system protects the vacuum chamber and an in-vacuum microscope allows observation of the liquid jet for diagnostics while it is being exposed to the X-ray beam. A fiber optically coupled pump laser illuminating the jet is incorporated for pump-probe experiments. First results with this injector system have been obtained at the LCLS.

  18. Experimental investigation of smectite hydration from the simulation of 001 X-ray diffraction lines. Implications for the characterization of mineralogical modifications of the 'argilite' from the Meuse - Haute Marne site as a result of a thermal perturbation; Etude experimentale de l'hydratation des smectites par simulation des raies OOl de diffraction des rayons X. Implications pour l'etude d'une perturbation thermique sur la mineralogie de l'argilite du site Meuse-Haute Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrage, E

    2004-10-15

    The structural modifications affecting the reactive mineral constituents of the clay barriers (smectite) and possibly resulting from the thermal pulse related to nuclear waste storage are essentially limited to the amount and location of the layer charge deficit. These modifications likely impact the hydration properties of these minerals, and a specific methodology has thus been developed to describe, using simulation of X-ray diffraction profiles (001 reflections), these hydration properties and specifically the heterogeneity resulting from the inter-stratification of different layer types, each exhibiting a specific hydration state. The detailed study of the hydration properties of a low-charge montmorillonite (octahedral charge) has shown that the affinity of the interlayer cation for water rules the hydration state and the thickness of hydrated smectite layers. If the layer charge is increased, the transition between the different hydration states is shifted, following a water desorption isotherm, towards lower relative humidities. In addition, the hydration of studied beidellites (tetrahedral charge) was shown to be more heterogeneous than that of montmorillonites. The developed methodology also allowed describing the structural modifications resulting from a chemical perturbation (chlorinated anionic background, pH). Finally, the link between the thickness of elementary layers and the amount of interlayer water molecules has been evidenced. A new structure model has also been determined for these interlayer species allowing an improved description of their positional distribution in bi-hydrated interlayers. (author)

  19. Distribution of near-surface gas hydrates and associated features on Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaucke, I.; Weinrebe, W.; Bohrmann, G.

    2003-04-01

    Detailed measurements of backscatter intensity of the seafloor on Hydrate Ridge (offshore Oregon) using 75 kHz sidescan sonar allowed the determination of the distribution of near-surface gas hydrates and associated features such as carbonate crusts and clam fields. The sidescan sonar data consist of seven parallel, N-S trending profiles of 1500 m swath width. They are processed with a pixel size of 0.75 m. The sidescan data are complemented by multibeam bathymetry data and echosounder profiles. Ground-truthing is possible through numerous video observations and short sediment cores. Carbonate crusts are easily recognised by high backscatter intensity while pure clam fields show lower backscatter than the surrounding seafloor. Near-surface gas hydrates are believed to be represented by irregular, patchy areas of high and low backscatter intensity. All these features are concentrated on local summits that appear to concentrate upward fluid flow. Hydrate Ridge also appears to be highly faulted and small, isolated manifestations of fluid venting are aligned along these faults. Carbonate crusts are the most prominent features of fluid venting with diameters of individual high backscatter patches on the order of several hundreds of metres. They seem to be more randomly distributed and are absent on the southern summit of Hydrate Ridge. This could reflect that prominent carbonate crusts are features of relict fluid venting sites. All these features related to gas hydrates and fluid venting are widespread on Hydrate Ridge. As a first rough estimate more than half of the surface of Hydrate Ridge shows features related to gas hydrates. This figure drops to around 10% away from the two summits of Hydrate Ridge. Knowing the extent of gas hydrate related facies it is possible to combine these data with measurements of gas hydrate content and fluid flux in order to derive regional reservoir estimates and flux rates.

  20. X-ray contact microscopy on hydrated human chromosomes using laser-produced plasma X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray contact microscopy was applied on hydrated human chromosomes using laser-produced plasma X-rays. Chromosomes from human lymphocytes (RPMI 1788) were prepared on an X-ray resist (polymethylmethacrylate; PMMA) by surface-spreading technique or syringing technique. Immediately after that, the resist was mounted in a simple moist chamber, exposed to laser-produced plasma X-rays and developed. A replica film of the developed resist was made applying plasma-polymerization replica method, and was observed in a transmission electron microscope. X-ray images of unfixed, unstained and hydrated chromosome fibers with series of beads were clearly observed. (author)

  1. Establishment of new equipment for testing low dosage hydrate inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Dirdal, Erik Gisle

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation posses a notorious concern for the oil and gas industry, and it only gets bigger because of that the never-ending pursuit of oil and gas compels the industry into deeper and colder waters. Here gas hydrate can from and agglomerate into plugs, jeopardizing pipelines and process equipments. Therefore a variety of methods have been developed to inhibit gas hydrate formation, one of them being to utilize low dosage hydrate inhibitors, which consists of kinetic hydrate inhibi...

  2. Cancer of the lung in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is due to cigarette smoking and high radon daughter product exposure in uranium mines. The incidence of oat cell cancer was very high (75 to 80%) when the miners were exposed to high levels of radiation (WLM). Exposure to these two carcinogens causes squamous cell metaplasia which is also due to upper respiratory inflammatory disease. The squamous metaplasia is not distinguishable as to cause, but when due to carcinogen, these cells persist over a longer period of time and become progressively more and more atypical until invasive neoplasia develops. This is the latent period and lasts about 10 to 15 years

  3. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    ‘Monazein’ – to be alone (isolated crystal were rare when first found) Tourmaline – Singhalese – turmali-means water rolled gem. Separation of heavy minerals Heavy minerals are minerals with specific gravity greater than that of quartz i.e. 2....65 or feldspar i.e. 2.76. A specific gravity of 2.8 is accepted as lower limit so any mineral with specific gravity more than 2.8 is heavy mineral. The method by which heavy minerals are separated in laboratory is the separation by heavy liquid (Table 5...

  4. Mineral Spectroscopy Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Rossman

    This server is primarily dedicated to providing information about color in minerals and access to data on mineral absorption in the visible, infrared, Raman and Mossbauer spectra. Both data coordinates and images of the spectra are available for selected minerals. Most data on the server were obtained in the Caltech mineral spectroscopy labs, but individuals throughout the world also contribute to this ever growing community resource. In addition to data files, the site provides an extensive list of references to papers on mineral optical spectroscopy. Citations are available sorted both by mineral name and by first authors of papers.

  5. Milk: An Alternative Beverage for Hydration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pegoretti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydration status of a physically active individual or athlete can influence his/her physical or mental performance. The degree of hypohydration may lead to serious health problems, and consequently to impair athletic performance. The consumption of water or carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages before, during and after exercise is essential to maintain fluid balance and prevent dehydration. Besides these drinks, research findings have pointed using bovine milk as an alternative to sports drinks to optimize hydration levels in athletes and physically active individuals. The nutritional composition of cow’s milk promotes post-exercise rehydration process, due to the natural presence of water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Although most studies have confirmed that bovine milk is a viable alternative for rehydration, recent studies have not reported significant differences between milk and some sports drinks for hydration process. Thus, milk consumption could be used as an alternative beverage for the hydration process.

  6. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Thomas Williams; Bjorn Paulsson; Alexander Goertz

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a drilling hazard by the oil and gas industry for years. Drilling engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous problems, including drilling kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates as a potential energy source agree that the resource potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained from physical samples taken from actual hydrate-bearing rocks. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The project team drilled and continuously cored the Hot Ice No. 1 well on Anadarko-leased acreage beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and used for determining physical characteristics of hydrates and surrounding rock. After the well was logged, a 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was recorded to calibrate the shallow geologic section with seismic data and to investigate techniques to better resolve lateral subsurface variations of potential hydrate-bearing strata. Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. deployed their 80 level 3C clamped borehole seismic receiver array in the wellbore to record samples every 25 ft. Seismic vibrators were successively positioned at 1185 different surface positions in a circular pattern around the wellbore. This technique generated a 3D image of the subsurface. Correlations were generated of these seismic data with cores, logging, and other well data. Unfortunately, the Hot Ice No. 1 well did not encounter hydrates in the reservoir sands, although brine-saturated sands containing minor amounts of methane were encountered within the hydrate stability zone (HSZ). Synthetic seismograms created from well log data were in agreement with reflectivity data measured by the 3D VSP survey. Modeled synthetic seismograms indicated a detectable seismic response would be expected in the presence of hydrate-bearing sands. Such a response was detected in the 3D VSP data at locations up-dip to the west of the Hot Ice No. 1 wellbore. Results of this project suggest that the presence of hydrate-bearing strata may not be related as simply to HSZ thickness as previously thought. Geological complications of reservoir facies distribution within fluvial-deltaic environments will require sophisticated detection technologies to assess the locations of recoverable volumes of methane contained in hydrates. High-resolution surface seismic data and more rigorous well log data analysis offer the best near-term potential. The hydrate resource potential is huge, but better tools are needed to accurately assess their location, distribution and economic recoverability.

  7. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products

  8. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  9. Proton NMR relaxation of hydrated insulin powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water proton nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements were obtained for hydrated insulin powder as a function of the water content. For samples containing enough water to complete the hydration shell, the data for the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times are consistent with a model in which water molecules exist in two phases, one exhibiting restricted motion and identified with water of hydration and another identified as free water with motions similar to ordinary water. For samples containing only water of hydration, a model for the spin-spin relaxation time is discussed, in which the water molecules relaxation is described in terms for four relaxation times. Estimates are obtained for these relaxation times, in good agreement with the experimental data. (Author)

  10. HYDRATION AND ACETYLATION OF LIMONENE: SUPPORTED HETEROPOLYACIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARIA CECILIA, AVILA; NORA A, COMELLI; NORBERTO H, FIRPO; ESTHER N, PONZI; MARTA I, PONZI.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The limonene hydration and acetylation in liquid phase catalyzed by phosphotungstic and phosphomolybdic acid bulk and supported on silica and titanium dioxide were studied. The reaction was performed in a batch reactor in acetic acid at 40°C, with magnetic stirring of the reaction mixture. Reaction [...] products were analyzed by gaseous chromatography with FID detector using a capillary column for separation of products. The identification of compounds was made with pattern terpenes and by gaseous chromatography with mass spectrometry. All catalysts tested result to be active in the hydration and acetylation reaction of limonene. Catalysts based on phophotungstic acid (HPW) produce larger amount of hydration and acetylation products than phosphomolybdic acid (HPMo) catalyst. Hydration products increase faster than isomerization products when the reaction time is increased. The structure of heteropolyacids and the presence of acid sites Bronsted and Lewis were determined by FTIR

  11. Neutron cross section of methane hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the neutronic characteristics of methane hydrate and also to synthesize cross section data for simulation we need neutron scattering data ranging wide energy and momentum region. We performed inelastic neutron scattering experiments to get information about the neutron cross section on methane hydrate. It was found that at high momentum transfer region rotational mode as well as vibration mode showed recoil like behavior. On the other hand, at low momentum region, as well known, free rotation like energy levels were observed. The energy level of ice in methane hydrate was very similar to normal ice. The results suggest that the rough expression of the cross section of the methane hydrate is presented by linear combination of the methane and ice. (orig.)

  12. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoderbek, David; Farrell, Helen; Howard, James; Raterman, Kevin; Silpngarmlert, Suntichai; Martin, Kenneth; Smith, Bruce; Klein, Perry

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  13. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically and thermally; (7) Design, construction, and successful deployment of an in situ pore-water sampling device; (8) Improvements to the original Raman spectrometer (methane sensor); (9) Laboratory demonstration of the impact of bacterially-produced surfactants' rates of hydrate formation; (10) Construction and sea floor emplacement and testing--with both watergun and ship noise sources--of the prototypal vertical line array (VLA); (11) Initiation of studies of spatial controls on hydrates; (12) Compilation and analyses of seismic data, including mapping of surface anomalies; (13) Additional field verification (bottom samples recovered), in support of the site selection effort; (14) Collection and preliminary analyses of gas hydrates from new sites that exhibit variant structures; (15) Initial shear wave tests carried out in shallow water; (16) Isolation of microbes for potential medicinal products development; (17) Preliminary modeling of occurrences of gas hydrates.

  14. Bonding by Hydroxide-Catalyzed Hydration and Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2008-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for bonding solid objects exploits hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration to form silicate-like networks in thin surface and interfacial layers between the objects. The method can be practiced at room temperature or over a wide range of temperatures. The method was developed especially to enable the formation of precise, reliable bonds between precise optical components. The bonds thus formed exhibit the precision and transparency of bonds formed by the conventional optical-contact method and the strength and reliability of high-temperature frit bonds. The method also lends itself to numerous non-optical applications in which there are requirements for precise bonds and/or requirements for bonds, whether precise or imprecise, that can reliably withstand severe environmental conditions. Categories of such non-optical applications include forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. The method is applicable to materials that either (1) can form silicate-like networks in the sense that they have silicate-like molecular structures that are extensible into silicate-like networks or (2) can be chemically linked to silicate-like networks by means of hydroxide-catalyzed hydration and dehydration. When hydrated, a material of either type features surface hydroxyl (-OH) groups. In this method, a silicate-like network that bonds two substrates can be formed either by a bonding material alone or by the bonding material together with material from either or both of the substrates. Typically, an aqueous hydroxide bonding solution is dispensed and allowed to flow between the mating surfaces by capillary action. If the surface figures of the substrates do not match precisely, bonding could be improved by including a filling material in the bonding solution. Preferably, the filling material should include at least one ingredient that can be hydrated to have exposed hydroxyl groups and that can be chemically linked, by hydroxide catalysis, to a silicate-like network. The silicate-like network could be generated in situ from the filling material and/or substrate material, or could be originally present in the bonding material.

  15. EVOLUCIÓN MINERALÓGICA DEL CEMENTO PORTLAND DURANTE EL PROCESO DE HIDRATACIÓN / MINERALOGICAL EVOLUTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT DURING HYDRATION PROCESS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MANUEL ALEJANDRO, GIRALDO M..

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la evolución mineralógica del cemento Pórtland tipo I durante el proceso de hidratación, usando las técnicas de caracterización de materiales difracción de rayos X (DRX) y microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM), con el fin de entender los cambios que se dan en los minerales anhidros de [...] l cemento (alita, belita, celita y felita entre otros) durante su transformación en las fase estables hidratadas (tobermorita, ortlandita, etringita, etc.). Se encontró que, en general, el proceso de hidratación ocurre de manera diferente en cada mineral ya sea por la velocidad de reacción, o por los cambios cristalinos experimentados por éstos durante la transformación de fase anhidra a hidratada. Se pudo apreciar la formación de tobermorita gel (CSH), portlandita y etringita primaria. Además, como cambia la apariencia de la pasta a medida que avanza la hidratación. Abstract in english An investigation about mineralogical evolution during hydration process of the portland cement was carried out in this work using techniques of materials characterization, such as X ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to understand the behaviour shown by the differe [...] nt minerals of the cement (alite, belite, celite and felite) and their transformation in the stables hydrate phases (tobermorite, portlandite, ettringite) It was found that, in general, the hydration process happens in a different way in each mineral either because of the reaction speed, or the crystalline changes experienced by them in the transformation from the anhydrous to the hydrated phase. The tobermorite gel (CSH), portlandite and ettringitre formation and the changing in appearance of the paste during the hydration advances, could be appreciated.

  16. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models and to research teams for developing future gas-hydrate projects. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and has been documented by the project team. This Topical Report documents drilling and coring operations and other daily activities.

  17. Mortality among sulfide ore miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlman, K; Koskela, R S; Kuikka, P; Koponen, M; Annanmäki, M

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains. The slight excess mortality from lung cancer could be explained by exposure to radon daughters and by the combined effect of silica dust and diesel exhaust gases in the zinc mine. PMID:1711286

  18. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains

  19. Carbon dioxide hydrates crystallisation in emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Galfre?, Aure?lie; Fezoua, Amara; Ouabbas, Yamina; Cameira?o, Ana; Herri, Jean-michel

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gases emissions, like carbon dioxide, have been identified as major sources responsible for global warming. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, capture process can be envisaged to extract CO2 from flue gases. In this work, the technology of CO2 separation and capture by gas hydrates crystallization is investigated. The principal barriers in developing this process are the necessary high conditions of formation (P, T), low hydrates formation rate, and separation efficiency. A promot...

  20. Confined water in the low hydration regime

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, P.; Rapinesi, M.; Rovere, M.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics results on water confined in a silica pore in the low hydration regime are presented. Strong layering effects are found due to the hydrophilic character of the substrate. The local properties of water are studied as function of both temperature and hydration level. The interaction of the thin films of water with the silica atoms induces a strong distortion of the hydrogen bond network. The residence time of the water molecules is dependent on the distance ...

  1. Charge Asymmetries in Hydration of Polar Solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, David L.; Barber, Alan E.; Fennell, Christopher J.; Dill, Ken A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the solvation of polar molecules in water. The center of water's dipole moment is offset from its steric center. In common water models, the Lennard-Jones center is closer to the negatively charged oxygen than to the positively charged hydrogens. This asymmetry of water's charge sites leads to different hydration free energies of positive versus negative ions of the same size. Here, we explore these hydration effects for some hypothetical neutral solutes, and two real solutes, with m...

  2. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Fezoua, Amara; Bouchemoua-Benaissa, Amina; Ouabbas, Yamina; Chauvy, Fabien; Cameirão, Ana; Herri, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrates are formed at low temperature and high pressure. They are crystalline solid formed from mixtures of liquid water and low molecular weight gases. The water molecules that form the lattice are strongly hydrogen bonded and form a network of cavities in which the gas can be encaged. The gas molecules interact with the water molecules through van der Waals type dispersion forces, in a way which is similar to Langmuir absorption. Hydrate occurrence is a problem of flow assurance for de...

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Methane-Hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Krivchikov, A. I.; Gorodilov, B. Ya.; Korolyuk, O. A.; Manzhelii, V. G.; Conrad, H.; Press, W.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of the methane hydrate CH4 (5.75 H2O) was measured in the interval 2-140 K using the steady-state technique. The thermal conductivity corresponding to a homogeneous substance was calculated from the measured effective thermal conductivity obtained in the experiment. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is typical for the thermal conductivity of amorphous solids. It is shown that after separation of the hydrate into ice and methane, ...

  4. Production strategies for marine hydrate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phirani, J.; Mohanty, K.K. [Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A multi-phase 3-D simulation tool was used to model natural gas production of hydrate in both equilibrium and kinetic modes. The finite-volume tool was designed to account for heat transfer, multi-phase fluid flow, and the equilibrium thermodynamics of the hydrates. Water freezing and ice-melting were tracked used the primary variable switch method by assuming equilibrium phase transitions. The simulations were conducted for different injection pressures, temperatures, and production pressures for a period of 3000 days. The simulator considered hydrate, methane, water, and salt components in addition to hydrate, gas, aqueous-phase, ice and salt precipitate phases. Depressurization and warm water flooding production methods were simulated for hydrate production in a reservoir underlain by a layer of water. The flooding method was studied as a function of injection temperature, injection pressure and production pressure. Results of the simulations showed that higher injection temperature increased the flow of warm water in the reservoir and increased the hydrate production rate. At intermediate injection temperatures, the production rate changed non-monotonically with injection pressure rates. It was concluded that results of the simulations should be used to optimize the recovery rates of gas production using thermal stimulation methods. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Clathrate hydrates in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds in which an expanded ice lattice forms cages that contain gas molecules. There are two principal hydrate structures. Structure I, with a 12 A cubic unit cell, contains 46 water molecules and 8 cages of two types, giving an ideal formula (for CH4) of CH4.5.75H2O. The actual formula contains somewhat more water as the cages are not completely filled. Other examples that form Structure I hydrates are C2H6, C2H4, C2H2, CO2, SO2, OCS, Xe, H2S. Structure II, with a 17 A cubic unit cell, contains 136 water molecules, and 8 large and 16 small cages. The ideal formula for CHCl3 is CHCL3.17H2O. Other examples of Structure II hydrates include C3H8, C2H5Cl, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran. Small molecules such as Ar, Kr and probably N2 and O2 also form a Structure II hydrate. The small molecules occupy both the large and small cages, giving an ideal formula of Ar.5.67H2O. The conditions of pressure and temperature for hydrate formation are discussed.

  6. Electrical properties of polycrystalline methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Frane, W. L.; Stern, L.A.; Weitemeyer, K.A.; Constable, S.; Pinkston, J.C.; Roberts, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) remote-sensing techniques are demonstrated to be sensitive to gas hydrate concentration and distribution and complement other resource assessment techniques, particularly seismic methods. To fully utilize EM results requires knowledge of the electrical properties of individual phases and mixing relations, yet little is known about the electrical properties of gas hydrates. We developed a pressure cell to synthesize gas hydrate while simultaneously measuring in situ frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (?). Synthesis of methane (CH4) hydrate was verified by thermal monitoring and by post run cryogenic scanning electron microscope imaging. Impedance spectra (20 Hz to 2 MHz) were collected before and after synthesis of polycrystalline CH4 hydrate from polycrystalline ice and used to calculate ?. We determined the ? of CH4 hydrate to be 5 × 10?5 S/m at 0°C with activation energy (Ea) of 30.6 kJ/mol (?15 to 15°C). After dissociation back into ice, ? measurements of samples increased by a factor of ~4 and Ea increased by ~50%, similar to the starting ice samples.

  7. Recent results from a study of thorium lung burdens and health effects among miners in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xingan; Cheng, Y-E; Rong Zhen [Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene, Ministry of Health, PO Box 8018, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2005-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about health effects among the dust-exposed male miners of Bayun Obo Rare-Earth and Iron Mine, China. From 2390 male miners from the seven dust-generating workshops of the mine, 136 dust-exposed miners were randomly selected for study. Of these, 64 men were from the high-dust-generating workshop and 72 from the lower-dust-generating workshops; the latter group was used as an internal control. Physical measurements and medical examinations were carried out on each of these 136 men. The average measured thorium lung burden for the high-dust-exposure miners was significantly greater than that for the group of lower-exposure miners, and the incidence of severe breathlessness and pneumoconiosis of stage 0{sup +} was also significantly raised in the high-exposure group relative to the low-exposure group. An epidemiological study of lung cancer mortality among all the miners and staff of this mine was also carried out. This showed significantly raised levels of lung cancer mortality in both exposed miners and unexposed workers when compared with the Chinese population, and the level in exposed miners was significantly higher than that in unexposed men. The general high rate of lung cancer mortality in the workers of the mine is attributed to high levels of cigarette smoking, and the raised rate in the exposed miners relative to the unexposed workers to inhalation of silica- and thorium-bearing dusts and thoron progeny.

  8. Mineral Resources Data System

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  9. Effects of CO2 hydrate on deep-sea foraminiferal assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), is the first to investigate potential effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrates on benthic microfossils, specifically oraminifera. The experiment was conducted in September 2003 aboard the R/V Western Flier using the ROV Tiburon. Experimental (CO2 exposed) and control cores were collected at 3600m and stained to distinguish live (stained) from dead (unstained) individuals. Foraminifera are ideal for these investigations because of differing test composition (calcareous and agglutinated) and thickness, and diverse epifaunal and infaunal depth preferences. The effects of the CO2 on assemblages have been tracked both vertically (10cm depth) and horizontally, and between live and dead individuals. Increased mortality and dissolution of calcareous forms resulted from exposure to CO2 hydrate. Preliminary results suggest several major effects on surface sediment assemblages: 1) total number of foraminifera in a sample decreases; 2) foraminiferal diversity decreases in both stained and unstained specimens. The number of planktonic and hyaline calcareous tests declines greatly, with milliolids being more resistant to dissolution when stained; and 3) percentage of stained (live) forms is higher. Down-core trends (up to 10cm) indicate: 1) percent agglutinated forms decline and calcareous forms increasingly dominate; 2) agglutinated diversity decreases with depth; and 3) assemblages become increasinglpth; and 3) assemblages become increasingly similar with depth to those in control cores not subjected to CO2 hydrate. These results imply almost complete initial mortality and dissolution upon CO2 hydrate emplacement in the corrals. (Author)

  10. Sedimentary and Related Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of sedimentary minerals and rocks. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine a tray of Halides, Carbonates, Borates, and Clays and record their physical properties, composition, habit, and occurence. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences of the minerals. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe sedimentary minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  11. Chelated minerals for poultry

    OpenAIRE

    SL Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confu...

  12. Clay Minerals and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Dalg?ç

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine clay minerals, which take very importantplace in relationships of minerals and human health. They have high areadensity, adsorption capacity, rheological properties, chemical inertia and verylow or nontoxic effects to human health. So, they are widely used in medicaltreatments. Commercially used clay minerals are; smectit, polygrstite, caoliniteand talc. The other clay minerals are under investigations for medicaltreatments.

  13. Study of the Natural Gas Hydrate 'Trap Zone' and the Methane Hydrate Potential in the Sverdrup Basin, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methane hydrate stability zone beneath Sverdrup Basin has developed to a depth of 2 km underneath the Canadian Arctic Islands and 1 km below sea level under the deepest part of the inter-island sea channels. It is not, however, a continuous zone. Methane hydrates are detected in this zone, but the gas hydrate/free gas contact occurs rarely. Interpretation of well logs indicate that methane hydrate occurs within the methane stability zone in 57 of 150 analyzed wells. Fourteen wells show the methane hydrate/free gas contact. Analysis of the distribution of methane hydrate and hydrate/gas contact occurrences with respect to the present methane hydrate stability zone indicate that, in most instances, the detected methane hydrate occurs well above the base of methane hydrate stability. This relationship suggests that these methane hydrates were formed in shallower strata than expected with respect to the present hydrate stability zone from methane gases which migrated upward into hydrate trap zones. Presently, only a small proportion of gas hydrate occurrences occur in close proximity to the base of predicted methane hydrate stability. The association of the majority of detected hydrates with deeply buried hydrocarbon discoveries, mostly conventional natural gas accumulations, or mapped seismic closures, some of which are dry, located in structures in western and central Sverdrup Basin, indicate the concurring relationship of hydrate occurrence with areas of high heat ydrate occurrence with areas of high heat flow. Either present-day or paleo-high heat flows are relevant. Twenty-three hydrate occurrences coincide directly with underlying conventional hydrocarbon accumulations. Other gas hydrate occurrences are associated with structures filled with water with evidence of precursor hydrocarbons that were lost because of upward leakage

  14. Minerals in our Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This downloadable poster (36 in. by 60 in.) describes how minerals are used in household substances and objects, listed by name, with numbers corresponding to locations in a typical house. For example, in the kitchen, appliances contain steel and copper, clay minerals are found in china, and table salt contains the mineral halite.

  15. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll Susan A; Maxwell Robert S; Houston Jacqueline R

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobe...

  16. Methane hydrate dissociation using inverted five-spot water flooding method in cubic hydrate simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination forms of the hydrate dissociation methods in different well systems are divided into 6 main patterns. Dissociation processes of methane hydrate in porous media using the inverted five-spot water flooding method (Pattern 4) are investigated by the experimental observation and numerical simulation. In situ methane hydrate is synthesized in the Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS), a 5.832-L cubic reactor. A center vertical well is used as the hot water injection well, while the four vertical wells at the corner are the gas and water production wells. The gas production begins simultaneously with the hot water injection, while after approximately 20 min of compression, the water begins to be produced. One of the common characteristics of the inverted five-spot water flooding method is that both the gas and water production rates decrease with the reduction of the hydrate dissociation rate. The evaluation of the energy efficiency ratio might indicate the inverted five-spot water flooding as a promising gas producing method from the hydrate reservoir. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional 5.8-L cubic pressure vessel is developed. • Gas production of hydrate using inverted five-spot flooding method is studied. • Water/gas production rate and energy efficiency ratio are evaluated. • Temperature distributions of numerical simulation and experiment agree well. • Hydrate dissociation process is a moving boundary problem in this study

  17. Investigation of the water sorption properties of Mars-relevant micro- and mesoporous minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Bish, David L.; Möhlmann, Diedrich T. F.; Stach, Helmut

    2006-02-01

    Encouraged by recent results of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft mission and the OMEGA team (Mars Express) concerning water in equatorial latitudes between ±45° on Mars and the possible existence of hydrated minerals, we have investigated the water sorption properties of natural zeolites and clay minerals close to martian atmospheric surface conditions as well as the properties of Mg-sulfates and gypsum. To quantify the stability of hydrous minerals on the martian surface and their interaction with the martian atmosphere, the water adsorption and desorption properties of nontronite, montmorillonite, chabazite and clinoptilolite have been investigated using adsorption isotherms at low equilibrium water vapor pressures and temperatures, modeling of the adsorption equilibrium data, thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and proton magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance measurements ( 1H MAS NMR). Mg-sulfate hydrates were also analyzed using TG/DSC methods to compare with clay mineral and zeolites. Our data show that these microporous minerals can remain hydrated under present martian atmospheric conditions and hold up to 2.5-25 wt% of water in their void volumes at a partial water vapor pressure of 0.001 mbar in a temperature range of 333-193 K. Results of the 1H MAS NMR measurements suggest that parts of the adsorbed water are liquid-like water and that the mobility of the adsorbed water might be of importance for adsorption-water-triggered chemistry and hypothetical exobiological activity on Mars.

  18. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both up-flow and down-flow of fluid at rates that range between 0.5 to 214 cm/yr and 2-162 cm/yr, respectively. The fluid flow system at the mound and background sites are coupled having opposite polarities that oscillate episodically between 14 days to {approx}4 months. Stability calculations suggest that despite bottom water temperature fluctuations, of up to {approx}3 C, the Bush Hill gas hydrate mound is presently stable, as also corroborated by the time-lapse video camera images that did not detect change in the gas hydrate mound. As long as methane (and other hydrocarbon) continues advecting at the observed rates the mound would remain stable. The {_}{sup 13}C-DIC data suggest that crude oil instead of methane serves as the primary electron-donor and metabolic substrate for anaerobic sulfate reduction. The oil-dominated environment at Bush Hill shields some of the methane bubbles from being oxidized both anaerobically in the sediment and aerobically in the water column. Consequently, the methane flux across the seafloor is higher at Bush hill than at non-oil rich seafloor gas hydrate regions, such as at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia. The methane flux across the ocean/atmosphere interface is as well higher. Modeling the methane flux across this interface at three bubble plumes provides values that range from 180-2000 {_}mol/m{sup 2} day; extrapolating it over the Gulf of Mexico basin utilizing satellite data is in progress.

  19. Experimental stability of magnesium sulfate hydrates that may be present on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, Steve J.; Vaniman, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in 1976, magnesium sulfates have been predicted to exist on the surface of Mars. Recent orbital measurements suggest that Mg-sulfates are rather ubiquitous on the martian surface. Chemical analyses by landers support the inference that Mg-sulfate hydrates may be one source of the significant quantities of equatorial near-surface hydrogen observed by the neutron and ?-ray spectrometers on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. The present study was undertaken to examine stability relations among the various Mg-sulfate hydrates. Using saturated salt solutions to control water-vapor pressure at temperatures of 3, 23, 50, 63, and 75 °C, Mg-sulfate phases were allowed to equilibrate from 2 to 3 months to see which hydration states were formed or were stable. Starting materials consisted of hexahydrite (6H 2O), starkeyite (4H 2O), kieserite (1H 2O), a second monohydrate-polymorph available as a chemical reagent, and an anhydrous MgSO 4 reagent. Products created in this study included these minerals, along with epsomite (7H 2O), sanderite (2H 2O), amorphous MgSO 4 (1-2H 2O), several previously undescribed phases, one of which was quite persistent (2.4H 2O), and trace amounts of pentahydrite (5H 2O). As expected, Mg-sulfate stability is strongly dependent on water vapor pressure and temperature. Lower temperatures favor the more hydrated Mg-sulfates. However, the MgSO 4 system was found to be surprisingly complicated and is strongly dominated by metastability, sluggish kinetics, and reaction pathways. Unexpected results were frequently encountered, in addition to the formation of previously undescribed phases. Several of the hydrates also show significant metastable extensions, such that phase boundaries can only be approximated. For example, kieserite, which has been reported on Mars from OMEGA data, in addition to having a distinct stability region, is resistant to transformation and persists throughout temperature-RH space until very high relative humidities are achieved. Results of this study show that MgSO 4 hydrates in addition to epsomite, hexahydrite, and kieserite can persist and should not be overlooked when assessing possible Mg-sulfate minerals that can occur on Mars.

  20. Application of Cryogenic Infrared Spectra of Hydrated Chlorine Salts to Remote Sensing of Mars and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Dalton, J. B.; Chevrier, V.; Jamieson, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Chlorides and perchlorates have been measured on the surface of Mars by various landed missions (Viking, MER, Phoenix), but have eluded detection via remote sensing (e.g. MRO's CRISM). This is partly due to the featureless near-infrared spectra of Earth-relevant chlorides; however at Mars' temperatures, these salts would be hydrated and have characteristic features that may allow for their detection. In the case of Europa, Galileo's NIMS has revealed the surface to be mostly ice. The non-icy spectra have been compared to various hydrated minerals from spectral libraries, indicating that the non-ice material has a heavily hydrated salt component. However, a problem still exists in the lack of relevant spectra, especially at the low temperatures of Europa. In particular, chlorides are modeled as a possible component of the interior, and if the non-ice material is of an endogenic source, hydrated chlorides might be present on the surface. Oxidation of chlorides would result in chlorates (ClO3-) and/or perchlorates (ClO4-) as well. Both chlorates and perchlorates would lower the freezing point of water significantly (down to 205 K in the case of Mg(ClO4)2), adding new constraints to the arguments for a liquid layer below the surface. Using an environmental chamber to create the relevant temperatures, we have acquired new spectra of some of these hydrated salts, specifically MgCl2, Mg(ClO3)2, NaClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2, and will compare them to CRISM and NIMS data.

  1. TEM and NanoSIMS Study of Hydrated/Anhydrous Phase Mixed IDPs: Cometary or Asteroidal Origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.

    2005-01-01

    Chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are subdivided into (1) particles that form highly porous aggregates (chondritic porous "CP" IDPs), and (2) smooth particles ("CS" IDPs). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been a valuable tool for non-destructively determining the bulk mineralogy of IDPs. Most IDPs fall within three distinct IR groups: (1) olivine-rich particles, (2) pyroxene-rich particles, and (3) phyllosilicate-rich particles. From the IR studies, IDPs dominated by anhydrous minerals tend to be fine grained (CP), while phyllosilicate-rich IDPs are mostly CS. CP IDPs have been linked to cometary sources based on their compositions, spectral properties, and atmospheric entry velocities. Since no spectral signatures of hydrated minerals have been detected in comets, CS IDPs are thought to derive from primitive asteroids. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have revealed that the mineralogical distinctions between CP and CS IDPs are not always clear. Previous investigators have reported trace amounts of hydrous minerals in dominantly anhydrous particles. A better understanding of these particles will help to elucidate whether there is a genetic relationship between anhydrous and hydrated IDPs, provide insight into the earliest stages of aqueous alteration of primitive materials, and may help to determine whether comets have experienced any aqueous processing. Here we report a combined TEM and isotopic imaging study of an unusual anhydrous IDP with hydrated phases. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  2. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  3. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  4. Thermodynamic modeling for clathrate hydrates of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a phase-equilibrium model for ozone-containing clathrate hydrates. • We determine intermolecular potential parameters for O3. • There is good agreement between the developed model and the experimental data. • The results show the capability of O3 as a guest substance for clathrate hydrates. • We perform parametric studies for O3 storage capacity with various thermodynamic conditions. -- Abstract: We report a theoretical study to predict the phase-equilibrium properties of ozone-containing clathrate hydrates based on the statistical thermodynamics model developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw. The Patel–Teja–Valderrama equation of state is employed for an accurate estimation of the properties of gas phase ozone. We determined the three parameters of the Kihara intermolecular potential for ozone as a = 6.815 · 10?2 nm, ? = 2.9909 · 10?1 nm, and ? · kB?1 = 184.00 K. An infinite set of ?–? parameters for ozone were determined, reproducing the experimental phase equilibrium pressure–temperature data of the (O3 + O2 + CO2) clathrate hydrate. A unique parameter pair was chosen based on the experimental ozone storage capacity data for the (O3 + O2 + CCl4) hydrate that we reported previously. The prediction with the developed model showed good agreement with the experimental phase equilibrium data within ±2% of the average deviation of the pressure. The Kihara parameters of ozone showed slightly better suitability for the structure-I hydrate than CO2, which was used as a help guest. Our model suggests the possibility of increasing the ozone storage capacity of clathrate hydrates (?7% on a mass basis) from the previously reported experimental capacity (?1%)

  5. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Dedrick, Daniel E. (Berkeley, CA); Anderson, David W. (Riverbank, CA)

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  6. Gas hydrates: Unlocking the energy from icy cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Carolyn A.; Sum, Amadeu K.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2009-09-01

    Technological advancements to control gas hydrates in energy transportation, recovery, and storage require detailed knowledge of the structural properties of these materials, and the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and decomposition. Paradigm shifts are moving the energy industry from thermodynamic to kinetic control strategies of gas hydrates in gas and oil deepwater pipelines, and from exploration to production from hydrated arctic deposits. This review examines the recent research progress in molecular structural kinetic studies of gas hydrates, and the development of new strategies for detecting and producing energy from arctic and oceanic hydrated deposits, and producing new materials for hydrogen storage.

  7. Characterization of Gas-Hydrate Sediment: In Situ Evaluation of Hydrate Saturation in Pores of Pressured Sedimental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Konno, Y.; Kida, M.; Nagao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrate saturation of gas-hydrate bearing sediment is a key of gas production from natural gas-hydrate reservoir. Developable natural gas-hydrates by conventional gas/oil production apparatus almost exist in unconsolidated sedimental layer. Generally, hydrate saturations of sedimental samples are directly estimated by volume of gas generated from dissociation of gas hydrates in pore spaces, porosity data and volume of the sediments. Furthermore, hydrate saturation can be also assessed using velocity of P-wave through sedimental samples. Nevertheless, hydrate saturation would be changed by morphological variations (grain-coating, cementing and pore-filling model) of gas hydrates in pore spaces. Jin et al.[1,2] recently observed the O-H stretching bands of H2O molecules of methane hydrate in porous media using an attenuated total reflection IR (ATR?IR) spectra. They observed in situ hydrate formation/dissociation process in sandy samples (Tohoku Keisya number 8, grain size of ca. 110 ?m). In this presentation, we present IR spectroscopy approach to in situ evaluation of hydrate saturation of pressured gas-hydrate sediments. This work was supported by funding from the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) planned by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), Japan. [1] Jin, Y.; Konno, Y.; Nagao, J. Energy Fules, 2012, 26, 2242-2247. [2] Jin, Y.; Oyama, H.; Nagao, J. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 48, No. 108001.

  8. Metamorphic Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter Perkins

    In this three-part exercise, students study hand samples and thin sections of important metamorphic rocks and minerals. Part one - Box of Rocks: Students examine trays of metamorphic rocks and minerals and record their physical properties, composition, and habit. They note chemical and physical similarities and differences and identify the rock samples and minerals they contain. Part two - Definitions: Define a list of terms relevent to the lab. Part three - Minerals in Thin Section: Observe minerals in thin section and answer questions about them.

  9. A marine electromagnetic survey to detect gas hydrate at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitemeyer, K. A.; Constable, S.; Tréhu, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    Gas hydrates are a potential energy resource and hazard for drilling and infrastructure, yet estimates of global volume vary by over three orders of magnitude. Hydrates are electrically resistive compared to water saturated sediment and so electromagnetic methods provide an additional tool to seismic surveys and drilling for determining hydrate saturations. A marine electromagnetic survey was carried out at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, USA, with the aim of testing the use of controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) methods to map gas hydrate and free gas below the gas hydrate stability zone. A 2-D CSEM inversion supports the scenario deduced from previous seismic and drilling results, which indicate two mechanisms of hydrate emplacement: a transport-dominated and reaction-dominated regime. A prominent resistive region of 2.5-4 ?m at a depth of about 130 mbsf, near the seismic bottom simulating reflector (BSR), suggests that 27 to 46 per cent of the bulk volume is filled with hydrate, depending on whether Archie's Law or the Hashin-Strikman bounds are used. This is representative of a reaction-dominated regime for hydrate emplacement, and where a significant low velocity zone exists based on a seismic tomography inversion, suggests large quantities of free gas below the BSR. Electrical resistivity logging while drilling (LWD) data show general agreement with the CSEM inversion model except for a CSEM-derived resistive region at seismic horizon A, known to transport free gas into the gas hydrate stability zone. Inversion of MT data collected simultaneously during the CSEM survey provides a complimentary low-resolution image of the shallow sediments and shows folding in the accretionary complex sediments similar to that imaged by a tomographic seismic velocity model.

  10. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  11. The role of alumina on performance of alkali-activated slag paste exposed to 50 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength and microstructural evolution of two alkali-activated slags, with distinct alumina content, exposed to 50 °C have been investigated. These two slags are ground-granulated blast furnace slag (containing 13% (wt.) alumina) and phosphorous slag (containing 3% (wt.) alumina). They were hydrated in the presence of a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution at different ratios. The microstructure of the resultant slag pastes was assessed by X-ray diffraction, differential thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained from these techniques reveal the presence of hexagonal hydrates: CAH10 and C4AH13 in all alkali-activated ground-granulated blast-furnace slag pastes (AAGBS). These hydrates are not observed in pastes formed by alkali-activated ground phosphorous slag (AAGPS). Upon exposure to 50 °C, the aforementioned hydration products of AAGBS pastes convert to C3AH6, leading to a rapid deterioration in the strength of the paste. In contrast, no strength loss was detected in AAGPS pastes following exposure to 50 °C. -- Highlights: •Strength of alkali-activated slag (AAS) pastes after exposure to 50 °C is studied. •AAS pastes with high alumina content lose strength after the exposure. •C4AH13 and CAH10 form in these AAS pastes. •Conversion of these calcium alumina hydrates is associated with the strength loss. •AAS pastes with low alumina content maintain its strength after the exposure

  12. The role of alumina on performance of alkali-activated slag paste exposed to 50 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambunathan, N. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sanjayan, J.G. [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria (Australia); Pan, Z., E-mail: zhu.pan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Li, G. [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Liu, Y. [School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Korayem, A.H.; Duan, W.H.; Collins, F. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The strength and microstructural evolution of two alkali-activated slags, with distinct alumina content, exposed to 50 °C have been investigated. These two slags are ground-granulated blast furnace slag (containing 13% (wt.) alumina) and phosphorous slag (containing 3% (wt.) alumina). They were hydrated in the presence of a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution at different ratios. The microstructure of the resultant slag pastes was assessed by X-ray diffraction, differential thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained from these techniques reveal the presence of hexagonal hydrates: CAH{sub 10} and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} in all alkali-activated ground-granulated blast-furnace slag pastes (AAGBS). These hydrates are not observed in pastes formed by alkali-activated ground phosphorous slag (AAGPS). Upon exposure to 50 °C, the aforementioned hydration products of AAGBS pastes convert to C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}, leading to a rapid deterioration in the strength of the paste. In contrast, no strength loss was detected in AAGPS pastes following exposure to 50 °C. -- Highlights: •Strength of alkali-activated slag (AAS) pastes after exposure to 50 °C is studied. •AAS pastes with high alumina content lose strength after the exposure. •C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} and CAH{sub 10} form in these AAS pastes. •Conversion of these calcium alumina hydrates is associated with the strength loss. •AAS pastes with low alumina content maintain its strength after the exposure.

  13. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  14. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SL, Vieira.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in po [...] ultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  15. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  16. Hydrate Formation and CH4 Production from Natural Gas Hydrates - Emphasis on Boundary Conditions and Production Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Birkedal, Knut Arne

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate is a solid state of gas and water at low temperature and high pressure. Gas hydrates are known to form hydrate plugs in production line, and has thus generally been considered a problem to the oil industry. However, the energy stored in gas hydrates is vast, and as the global energy demand increases, focus is shifted on gas hydrates as a potential energy resource. The work presented in this thesis is a series of experimental studies of hydrate formation and dissociatio...

  17. Novel hydrogen hydrate structures under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guang-Rui; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R; Dong, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Gas hydrates are systems of prime importance. In particular, hydrogen hydrates are potential materials of icy satellites and comets, and may be used for hydrogen storage. We explore the H?O-H? system at pressures in the range 0-100 GPa with ab initio variable-composition evolutionary simulations. According to our calculation and previous experiments, the H?O-H? system undergoes a series of transformations with pressure, and adopts the known open-network clathrate structures (sII, C?), dense "filled ice" structures (C?, C?) and two novel hydrate phases. One of these is based on the hexagonal ice framework and has the same H?O:H? ratio (2:1) as the C? phase at low pressures and similar enthalpy (we name this phase Ih-C?). The other newly predicted hydrate phase has a 1:2 H?O:H? ratio and structure based on cubic ice. This phase (which we name C?) is predicted to be thermodynamically stable above 38 GPa when including van der Waals interactions and zero-point vibrational energy, and explains previously mysterious experimental X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. This is the hydrogen-richest hydrate and this phase has a remarkable gravimetric density (18 wt.%) of easily extractable hydrogen. PMID:25001502

  18. Methane hydrates in quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrate reservoir in marine sediments is known to contain a large volume of exchangeable carbon stored as solid methane hydrate and associated free gas. This reservoir has been shown to be potentially unstable in response to changing intermediate water temperature and sea level (pressure). Evidence continues to grow for past episodes of major methane release at times of climatic warming. Yet few studies of late Quaternary climate change include methane hydrates as an integral part of the global climate system, in spite of the largest known oscillations at this time in sea level and upper ocean temperature changes for the Cenozoic or earlier, conditions that favor instability of the methane hydrate reservoir. Abrupt increases in atmospheric methane recorded in polar ice cores are widely believed to have resulted, not from ocean-floor methane degassing, but instead from continental wetland activation, a hypothesis thus far unsupported by geological data. Furthermore, as part of this Wetland Methane Hypothesis, the abrupt methane increases have been seen as a response to climatic warming rather than contributing significantly to the change. An alternative view (formulated as the Clathrate Gun Hypothesis) is that the speed, magnitude and timing of abrupt climate change in the recent geologic past are consistent with the process of major degassing of methane hydrates. We summarize aspects of this hypothesis here and needs to test this hypothesis. (Author)st this hypothesis. (Author)

  19. Hydration shells exchange charge with their protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of the interaction between a protein and its hydration shells is an experimental and theoretical challenge. Here, we used ultrasonic pressure waves in aqueous solutions of a protein to explore the conformational states of the protein and its interaction with its hydration shells. In our experiments, the amplitude of an ultrasonic pressure wave is gradually increased (0–20 atm) while we simultaneously measure the Raman spectra from the hydrated protein (?-lactoglobulin and lysozyme). We detected two types of spectral changes: first, up to 70% increase in the intensity of the fluorescence background of the Raman spectrum with a typical relaxation time of 30–45 min. Second, we detect changes in the vibrational Raman spectra. To clarify these results we conducted similar experiments with aqueous solutions of amino acids and ethanol. These experiments led us to conclude that, without the presence of an ultrasonic pressure, a protein and its hydration shells are in thermodynamic and charge equilibrium, i.e. a protein and its hydration shells exchange charges. The ultrasonic wave disrupts these equilibria which are regained within 30–45 min after the ultrasonic pressure is shut off.

  20. Cage occupancy and structural changes during hydrate formation from initial stages to resulting hydrate phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicks, Judith M; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2013-11-01

    Hydrate formation processes and kinetics are still not sufficiently understood on a molecular level based on experimental data. In particular, the cavity formation and occupancy during the initial formation and growth processes of mixed gas hydrates are rarely investigated. In this study, we present the results of our time-depending Raman spectroscopic measurements during the formation of hydrates from ice and gases or gas mixtures such as CH4, CH4-CO2, CH4-H2S, CH4-C3H8, CH4-iso-C4H10, and CH4-neo-C5H12 at constant pressure and temperature conditions and constant composition of the feed gas phase. All investigated systems in this study show the incorporation of CH4 into the 5(12) cavities as first step in the initial stages of hydrate formation. Furthermore, the results imply that the initial hydrate phases differ from the resulting hydrate phase having reached a steady state regarding the occupancy and ratio of the small and large cavities of the hydrate. PMID:23871981

  1. Gas hydrate of Lake Baikal: Discovery and varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Oleg; De Batist, Marc; Shoji, Hitoshi; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Nishio, Shinya; Naudts, Lieven; Poort, Jeffrey; Khabuev, Andrey; Belousov, Oleg; Manakov, Andrey; Kalmychkov, Genn?dy

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent gas-hydrate studies in Lake Baikal, the only fresh-water lake in the world containing gas hydrates in its sedimentary infill. We provide a historical overview of the different investigations and discoveries and highlight some recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the Baikal hydrate system. So far, 21 sites of gas hydrate occurrence have been discovered. Gas hydrates are of structures I and II, which are of thermogenic, microbial, and mixed origin. At the 15 sites, gas hydrates were found in mud volcanoes, and the rest six - near gas discharges. Additionally, depending on type of discharge and gas hydrate structure, they were visually different. Investigations using MIR submersibles allowed finding of gas hydrates at the bottom surface of Lake Baikal at the three sites.

  2. Li+ hydration in concentrated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction experiments were carried out on aqueous solutions of lithium chloride in heavy water at three concentrations - 14, 3.6 and 1 molal. The first-order isotopic difference method was applied to the lithium ions, and structural results were obtained for the Li+ hydration: the Li-O and Li-D near-neighbour distances in the first hydration shell remain the same at 1.95(3) and 2.5(5) A over the concentration range studied. However, there is an increase in coordination number from 3.2 at 14 molal to approx. 6.5 at 1 molal. There is also evidence for a relatively weak second hydration shell, which becomes displaced to larger distances at lower concentrations. (author)

  3. Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sugahara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR spectra of butyl radicals induced with ?-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane hydrate (prepared with deuterated water were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the ?-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparently transformed into a tert-butyl radical, while the sum of isobutyl and tert-butyl radicals remains constant. The apparent transformation from isobutyl to tert-butyl radicals is an irreversible first-order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 35 ± 3 kJ/mol, which was in agreement with the activation energy (39 ± 5 kJ/mol of hydrogen picking in the ?-ray-irradiated propane hydrate with deuterated water.

  4. Multicavity SCRF calculation of ion hydration energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydration energies of the proton, hydroxyl ion, and several inorganic ions were calculated using the multicavity self-consistent reaction field (MCa SCRF) method developed for the quantum-mechanical modeling of rotationally or flexible systems in dielectric media. The ionic complexes H3O+(H2O)4, OH-(H2O)4, NH+4(H2O)4, and Hal-(H2O)4, where Hal = F, Cl, or Br, have been studied. Each complex was divided between five spheres, corresponding to the central ion and four water molecules in their first coordination sphere, respectively. Each cavity was surrounded by a polarizable medium with the dielectric permittivity of water at room temperature (80). The ionic hydration energies of ions were divided into specific and nonspecific parts. After accounting for the cavity-formation energy using scaled particle theory, good agreement between the total calculated and experimental hydration energies was obtained for all ions studied

  5. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  6. Observation of transferrin hydration using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pig transferrin was enriched with 57Fe isotopes and its Moessbauer spectra were recorded using a 57Co source diffused into a rhodium matrix. The transferrin was examined in freeze-dried form, in solution and in a partially hydrated state. The spectra in the first two cases consist of two peaks, which were interpreted as quadrupole doublets. Hydrated transferrin exhibits a more complex spectrum which can fairly well be approximated by summing the spectra of dry and dissolved samples with nearly equal contributions. From this fact, it may be concluded that both the chemical shift and quadrupole splitting either for dissolved or for hydrated specimens are determined by the same amount of water molecules situated in the neighbourhood vicinity of the iron binding sites. (orig.)

  7. Numerical investigations of the fluid flows at deep oceanic and arctic permafrost-associated gas hydrate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jennifer Mary

    Methane hydrate is an ice-like solid which sequesters large quantities of methane gas within its crystal structure. The source of methane is typically derived from organic matter broken down by thermogenic or biogenic activity. Methane hydrate (or more simply, hydrate) is found around the globe within marine sediments along most continental margins where thermodynamic conditions and methane gas (in excess of local solubility) permit its formation. Hydrate deposits are quite possibly the largest reservoir of fossil fuel on Earth, however, their formation and evolution in response to changing thermodynamic conditions, such as global warming, are poorly understood. Upward fluid flow (relative to the seafloor) is thought to be important for the formation of methane hydrate deposits, which are typically found beneath topographic features on the seafloor. However, one-dimensional models predict downward flow relative to the seafloor in compacting marine sediments. The presence of upward flow in a passive margin setting can be explained by fluid focusing beneath topography when sediments have anisotropic permeability due to sediment bedding layers. Even small slopes (10 degrees) in bedding planes produce upward fluid velocity, with focusing becoming more effective as slopes increase. Additionally, focusing causes high excess pore pressure to develop below topographic highs, promoting high-angle fracturing at the ridge axis. Magnitudes of upward pore fluid velocity are much larger in fractured zones, particularly when the surrounding sediment matrix is anisotropic in permeability. Enhanced flow of methane-bearing fluids from depth provides a simple explanation for preferential accumulation of hydrate under topographic highs. Models of fluid flow at large hydrate provinces can be constrained by measurements of naturally-occurring radioactive tracers. Concentrations of cosmogenic iodine, 129-I, in the pore fluid of marine sediments often indicate that the pore fluid is much older than the host sediment. Old pore fluid age may reflect complex flow patterns, such a fluid focusing, which can cause significant lateral migration as well as regions where downward flow reverses direction and returns toward the seafloor. Longer pathlines can produce pore fluid ages much older than that expected with a one-dimensional compaction model. For steady-state models with geometry representative of Blake Ridge (USA), a well-studied hydrate province, pore fluid ages beneath regions of topography and within fractured zones can be up to 70 Ma old. Results suggest that the measurements of 129-I/127-I reflect a mixture of new and old pore fluid. However, old pore fluid need not originate at great depths. Methane within pore fluids can travel laterally several kilometers, implying an extensive source region around the deposit. Iodine age measurements support the existence of fluid focusing beneath regions of seafloor topography at Blake Ridge, and suggest that the methane source at Blake Ridge is likely shallow. The response of methane hydrate reservoirs to warming is poorly understood. The great depths may protect deep oceanic hydrates from climate change for the time being because transfer of heat by conduction is slow, but warming will eventually be felt albeit in the far future. On the other hand, unique permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits exist at shallow depths within the sediments of the circum-Arctic continental shelves. Arctic hydrates are thought to be a relict of cold glacial periods, aggrading when sea levels are much lower and shelf sediments are exposed to freezing air temperatures. During interglacial periods, rising sea levels flood the shelf, bringing dramatic warming to the permafrost- and hydrate-bearing sediments. Permafrost-associated methane hydrate deposits have been responding to warming since the last glacial maximum ~18 kaBP as a consequence of these natural glacial cycles. This `experiment,' set into motion by nature itself, allows us a unique opportunity to study the response of methane hydrate deposits to warming.

  8. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  9. Experiment of New Additives Effect on Gas Hydrate Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Dai; Xiaoxia Zhong; Xin Jiang; Shuli Wang

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate has tremendous gas storage capacity; natural gas hydrate can be used to store and transport energy. The current problem faced is how to improve the hydrate formation rate and storage capacity, and form continuously. Compared to the pure water and SDBS solution, the ionic solution [HMIPS]OTs made by the team was the excellent additive and ensured the best reaction concentration range. Specific effects of different additives on hydrate formation were s...

  10. Characterization of mixed CO2 + TBPB hydrates for refrigeration applications

    OpenAIRE

    Clain, P.; Delahaye, A. (Agnes); Fournaison, L.; Jerbi, S.; Mayoufi, N.; Dalmazzone, D.; Fürst, W.

    2011-01-01

    / The present work investigates the use of semiclathrate hydrates, formed from CO2 + tetra-nbutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) + water mixtures, as appropriate media for cold storage and distribution in refrigeration applications. Previous studies show that these hydrates are able to trap molecules of carbon dioxide resulting in mixed hydrates. Calorimetry devices were used for determining the dissociation enthalpies of mixed CO2 + TBPB hydrates under various stability conditions (P, T) and salt...

  11. Towards a Green Hydrate Inhibitor: Imaging Antifreeze Proteins on Clathrates

    OpenAIRE

    Gordienko, Raimond; Ohno, Hiroshi; Singh, Vinay K.; Jia, Zongchao; Ripmeester, John A.; Walker, Virginia K.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of hydrate plugs in oil and gas pipelines is a serious industrial problem and recently there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative hydrate inhibitors as substitutes for thermodynamic inhibitors like methanol. We show here that antifreeze proteins (AFPs) possess the ability to modify structure II (sII) tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate crystal morphologies by adhering to the hydrate surface and inhibiting growth in a similar fashion to the kinetic inhibitor poly-N-...

  12. NMR study of seed hydration with deuterated water: Dependence of proton signals on hydration level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton NMR signals in seeds are shown to depend on hydration level. In fact at low water amount, as it occurs in many native seeds, protons can have a restricted mobility and are not detectable. A NMR method for measuring the dependence of proton signals on hydration is reported. The method also allows the separation of the contributions of water and non-water protons in a low-resolution NMR experiment. It is based on successive hydrations (with deuterated water) - desiccation steps and on the analysis of the transverse magnetization decay curves

  13. Experimental Study of Gas Hydrate Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandino, O.; Ruffine, L.

    2011-12-01

    Important quantities of methane and other gases are trapped below the seafloor and in the permafrost by an ice-like solid, called gas hydrates or clathrate hydrates. The latter is formed when water is mixing with different gases at high pressures and low temperatures. Due to a their possible use as a source of energy [1] or the problematic related to flow assurance failure in pipelines [2] the understanding of their processes of formation/destabilisation of these structures becomes a goal for many laboratories research as well as industries. In this work we present an experimental study on the stochastic behaviour of hydrate formation from a bulk phase. The method used here for the experiments was to repeat several time the same hydrate formation procedure and to notice the different from one experiment to another. A variable-volume type high-pressure apparatus with two sapphire windows was used. This device, already presented by Ruffine et al.[3], allows us to perform both kinetics and phase equilibrium measurements. Three initial pressure conditions were considered here, 5.0 MPa, 7.5 MPa and 10.0 MPa. Hydrates have been formed, then allowed to dissociate by stepwise heating. The memory effect has also been investigated after complete dissociation. It turned out that, although the thermodynamics conditions of formation and/or destabilization were reproducible. An attempt to determine the influence of pressure on the nucleation induction time will be discussed. References 1. Sum, A. K.; Koh, C. A.; Sloan, E. D., Clathrate Hydrates: From Laboratory Science to Engineering Practice. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2009, 48, 7457-7465. 2. Sloan, E. D., A changing hydrate paradigm-from apprehension to avoidance to risk management. Fluid Phase Equilibria 2005, 228, 67-74. 3. Ruffine, L.; Donval, J. P.; Charlou, J. L.; Cremière, A.; Zehnder, B. H., Experimental study of gas hydrate formation and destabilisation using a novel high-pressure apparatus. Marine and Petroleum Geology 2010, 27, (6), 1157-1165.

  14. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  15. Simulation of subsea gas hydrate exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several subsea sediments and permafrost regions around the world is a promising perspective to overcome future shortages in natural gas supply. Being aware that conventional natural gas resources are limited, research is going on to develop technologies for the production of natural gas from such new sources. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, India, and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop required technologies. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of CO2 from combustion processes to reduce climate impact. While different natural or man-made reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid CO2, the storage of CO2 as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in the form of hydrates. Regarding technological implementation many problems have to be overcome. Especially mixing, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR« different technological approaches for the optimized exploitation of gas hydrate deposits are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical processes are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs. Simulations based on geological field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the potential of gas production from turbidites and their fitness for CO2 storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described for various scenarios. The behavior of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different strategies: simple depressurization, simultaneous and subsequent methane production together with CO2 injection.

  16. Mechanisms for thermal conduction in hydrogen hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    English, Niall J.; Gorman, Paul D.; Macelroy, J. M. Don

    2012-01-01

    Extensive equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal conduction mechanisms via the Green-Kubo approach for (type II) hydrogen hydrate, at 0.05 kbar and between 30 and 250 K, for both lightly-filled H2 hydrates (1s4l) and for more densely-filled H2 systems (2s4l), in which four H2 molecules are present in the large cavities, with respective single- and double-occupation of the small cages. The TIP4P water model was used in conjunction with a full...

  17. Hydration Water, Charge Transport and Protein Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrard, M.

    2001-01-01

    The hydration water of proteins is essential to biological activity but its properties are not yet fully understood. A recent study of dielectric relaxation of hydrated proteins [A. Levstik et al., Phys. Rev E.60 7604 (1999)] has found a behavior typical of a proton glass, with a glass transition of about 268 K. In order to analyze these results, we investigate the statistical mechanics and dynamics of a model of `two-dimensional water' which describes the hydrogen bonding scheme of bounded w...

  18. Hydrate Technology For Transporting Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Dawe, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas hydrate (NGH) is a viable alternative to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) or pipelines for the transportation of natural gas from source to demand. It involves three stages: production, transportation and re-gasification. The production of the hydrate occurs at pressures >50 bar at temperatures ~10oC in the presence of water and natural gas (particularly methane, ethane, propane). Transportation is by insulated bulk carrier at around –5 oC and atmospheric pressure or 0 oC at 10 bar, an...

  19. Physically based 3D finite element model of a single mineralized collagen microfibril

    CERN Document Server

    Hambli, Ridha; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2012.02.007

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized collagen microfibrils in human bone provide its mechanical properties (stiffness, elasticity, ductility, energy dissipation and strength). However, detailed 3D finite element models describing the mechanical behaviour of the mineralized collagen microfibrils are still lacking. In the current work, we developed a 3D finite element model of the mineralized collagen microfibril that incorporates the physical 3D structural details. The model components consist of five tropocollagen molecules, mineral hydroxyapatite and intermolecular cross-links joining primarily the ends of the tropocollagen molecules. Dimension, arrangement and mechanical behaviour of the constituents are based on previously published experimental and theoretical data. Tensile load was applied to the microfibril under different conditions (hydrated and dehydrated collagen) to investigate the relationship between the structure and the mechanical behaviour of the mineralized collagen microfibril (stress-strain curve and elastic modulu...

  20. Reduction of aromatic and heteroaromatic azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Sevim Rollas

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The azo compounds have been reduced with hydrazine hydrate in the presenceof a catalyst or without a catalyst. This reaction is an atractive alternate for the reduction ofazo functional group to obtain new amines. In this review, the reduction of aromatic or heteroaromaticazo compounds with hydrazine hydrate have been reported.KEYWORDS: Reduction, azo compounds, uncatalyzed reduction, hydrazine hydrate.

  1. Technical limits for development of natural gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makogan, Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Makogon, T. [BP America Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Malyshev, A. [Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Criteria for the selection of economically feasible gas hydrate production technologies were presented. The criterion were established by considering the hydrate-bearing sediment and geologic properties of the gas hydrate deposits. The study used data collected over the last 40 years conducted to establish the conditions of hydrate formation and determine efficient dissociation methods. Methods used to located the gas hydrate accumulations both on land and offshore were reviewed, as well as methods developed to estimate amounts of gas within the hydrate deposits. The principles of gas hydrate production were outlined. Thermal and depressurization techniques were reviewed in relation to the amounts of energy needed to produce the hydrate deposits in a variety of different locations. Results of the study indicated that hydrate properties and the geology of the hydrate-bearing matrix rock are critical factors in selecting cost-effective development methods. The effectiveness of any technique is constrained by the size of the deposit, hydrate saturation levels, deposit stratigraphy, and the properties of the gas hydrates. Deposits with higher porosities, saturation levels, and lower supercooling rates are more economical than other types of reservoirs. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Investigation on a novel reactor for gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? We develop a novel reactor for fast and continuous production of methane hydrates. ? Reactor forms hydrates by injection of water through spray nozzles. ? The method maximizes interfacial area between reactants. ? The method also minimizes mass transfer barriers and thermal effects. ? We obtain methane hydrates in some 10 min only with SDS surfactant promotion. -- Abstract: Gas hydrates have a large capacity for the storage of gases and are an attractive method for gas filtration and transportation. However, hydrate formation is usually controlled by the rate of crystallization and thus it can be a slow process. A technology that will rapidly and continuously form hydrate is necessary for scale-up. A novel reactor with an inner volume of 25 l has been designed, built and installed to form hydrates by injection of water through spray nozzles from the top of the methane-filled reactor. This method allows to maximize interfacial area between reactants and to minimize mass transfer barriers and thermal effects that negatively affect conversion of reactants into hydrate. A system was developed to remove heat released during hydrate formation, and to reach a good level of temperature control inside the reactor. A novel system for hydrate recovering and unloading was also designed. The objective of experimentation is to lower energetic costs of hydrate formation, also through surfactant promotion. Anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, was tested. Results of a first set of experimental applications of the reactor for rapid methane hydrate formation are presented.

  3. Experimental investigation into scaling models of methane hydrate reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The scaling criteria for methane hydrate reservoir are built. • The scaling criteria are verified by the experiments in two 3-D simulators. • The scaling criteria are used for predicting gas production of real hydrate reservoir. • Methane of 1.168 × 106 m3 is produced from the hydrate reservoir after 13.9 days. - Abstract: The Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS), a three-dimensional 5.8 L cubic pressure vessel, and the Pilot-Scale Hydrate Simulator (PHS), a three-dimensional 117.8 L pressure vessel, are used for investigating the production processes of hydrate. The gas production behaviors of methane hydrate in the porous media using the thermal stimulation method with a five-spot well system are studied. The experimental conditions are designed by a set of scaling criteria for the gas hydrate reservoir. The experimental results verify that the scaling criteria for gas hydrate production are reliable. The scaling criteria are used for predicting the production behavior of the real-scale hydrate reservoir. In the model of the real-scale hydrate reservoir with the size of 36 m × 36 m × 36 m, methane of 1.168 × 106 m3 (STP) is produced from the hydrate reservoir during 13.9 days of gas production. It is obtained that the gas recovery is 0.73, and the final energy efficiency is 9.5

  4. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange production studies from exposed natural gas hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jalloh, Alusine

    2010-01-01

    Two laboratory experimental setups have been designed in collaboration with the Reservoir Physics Group at the Department of Physics and Technology. The equipments have been completed and tested. The first experiment was conducted using the four electrode resistivity measurement method on porous media. The equipment has been used to study the influence of resistance with core samples saturated with salinity concentration at 1 kHz, 1200 psig pressure and temperatures down to 3oC during stages ...

  5. Metallic mineral deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, M J; van Leeuwen, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    This account concentrates on the the primary metallic mineral deposits and occurrences in Sumatra, in particular the recent discoveries of gold, tin and base metals. The residual and placer deposits are given less emphasis, as no significant discoveries have been made in recent years. The history of mineral exploration and discovery in Indonesia has been reviewed recently by van Leeuwen (1993, 1994), documenting the change in emphasis of mineral-based activities from western to eastern I...

  6. Naturotherapies Based on Minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Celso de Sousa Figueiredo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Since the antiquity, and on an empirical basis, man has accumulated experience on the benefits and risks of minerals (such as, special clay, mud and sand) and other mineral resources (such as, salt, sea water, spring water, underground water, volcanic emissions and dust) on human health. Man and minerals are chemical systems sharing a common composition, comprising major, minor and trace chemical elements, such as, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, phosphor, calcium, magnesium, sodium, pota...

  7. Minerals Under the Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Paul

    This website provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the basics of optical mineralogy. Topics include the polarized light microscope, mineral shape and cleavage, relief, color and pleochroism, interference colors, extinction angles, twinning, opacity, vibration directions and mineral identification. The site features short, clear descriptions accompanied by photographs and drawings. This website would be useful as a concise introduction to the use of a petrographic microscope in identifying minerals.

  8. The Impact of Magnesium Oxide on the Hydratation and Features of Mechanicaly Activated Phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejus Jefimovas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extractive hemihydrate phosphogypsum (E-PG is the most popular mineral waste in Lithuania. The dumps of that are rapidly growing and the question of possible use still remains open. Phosphogypsum is obtained during the process of extracting phosphoric acid from apatite using sulphuric acid. Due to low activity and contamination with acidic mineral admixtures (phosphorus and fluorine compounds, this technogenic product cannot be used for producing construction materials. Instead of present energy consuming processes used for neutralisation, another method – mechanical activation neutralizing acid admixtures with cement and opoka mix is offered. Whereas cement and opoka are grey, the items made of phosphogypsum (neutralised using these admixtures are dark. Research was made trying to find out the possibility of gaining the white binder from phosphogypsum. In order to achieve that magnesium oxide was chosen to neutralise phosphogypsum and its impact on E-PG, hydratation and features were studied.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Canadian Minerals Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Part of Natural Resources Canada Minerals and Metals Sector, the Canadian Minerals Yearbook Web site provides mineral industry information from 1994 to 2001. Downloadable files from each year include a Year in Review, Reserves of Selected Major Metals, Recent Production Decisions, and a Mineral and Metal Commodity Review. An example of the information provided comes from the 2001 Review: "In 2000, Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, silver and gold decreased because there were no decisions to bring new mines into production and the amount of new ore discovered at existing mining operations was insufficient to replace the quantity of ore that was mined during the year."

  10. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  11. Exposing the Programming Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard; Bennedsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this. However, textbooks do not address the issue —probably because the textbook medium is static and, therefore, ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured, narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation. We identify seven different elements of the programming process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching. This chapter is based on Bennedsen, J. and Caspersen, M. E. 2005. Revealing the programming process. In Proceedings of the 36th SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, February 23-27, 2005, pp. 186-190.

  12. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  13. Natural gas hydrate formation and growth on suspended water droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, D.L.; Liu, D.P.; Wu, Z.M.; Zhang, L. [Shanghai Univ. for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). College of Power Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The gas hydrate is a type of crystal compound consisting of host molecules and guest molecules. Host molecules form the cage structure to encapsulate guest molecules. Water molecules are the hosts in natural gas hydrate, which are assembled by hydrogen bonds, and form polyhedral cavities to accommodate the guest molecules. Gas hydrates play an important role in storage and transportation of natural gas in the form of hydrates; exploration of natural gas hydrate under the seafloor and at the bottom of the permafrost; plugging in oil and gas pipelines; and sequestration of carbon dioxide. Information on the crystal morphology of gas hydrates could provide valuable information on the mechanistic aspects of the hydrate crystal nucleation, growth, and dissociation. In order to discover the mechanism of nucleation and growth of gas hydrates on the pendant water droplet, and to provide some valuable research information on water spray hydrate formation, this paper discussed the development of an experimental apparatus for hydrate formation on a pendant water droplet and investigated the morphology of natural gas hydrate formation on the liquid droplet using a microscopic digital imaging system. Observations of natural gas hydrate formation on pendant water droplet were performed at various pressures. It was concluded that the driving force has an important effect on the hydrate nucleation and growth, and the crystal morphology on the pedant water droplet. The process of the hydrate nucleation and growth was shortened under a higher driving force, and the hydrate layer on the pendant water drop became coarser under a higher driving force. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Analysis of mineral matrices of planetary soil analogues from the Utah Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, J. M.; Quinn, R. C.; Foing, B. H.; Martins, Z.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-07-01

    Phyllosilicate minerals and hydrated sulphate minerals have been positively identified on the surface of Mars. Studies conducted on Earth indicate that micro-organisms influence various geochemical and mineralogical transitions for the sulphate and phyllosilicate minerals. These minerals in turn provide key nutrients to micro-organisms and influence microbial ecology. Therefore, the presence of these minerals in astrobiology studies of Earth-Mars analogue environments could help scientists better understand the types and potential abundance of micro-organisms and/or biosignatures that may be encountered on Mars. Bulk X-ray diffraction of samples collected during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign from the Mancos Shale, the Morrison and the Dakota formations near the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah show variable but common sedimentary mineralogy with all samples containing quantities of hydrated sulphate minerals and/or phyllosilicates. Analysis of the clay fractions indicate that the phyllosilicates are interstratified illite-smectites with all samples showing marked changes in the diffraction pattern after ethylene glycol treatment and the characteristic appearance of a solvated peak at ˜17 Å. The smectite phases were identified as montmorillonite and nontronite using a combination of the X-ray diffraction data and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The most common sulphate mineral in the samples is hydrated calcium sulphate (gypsum), although one sample contained detectable amounts of strontium sulphate (celestine). Carbonates detected in the samples are variable in composition and include pure calcium carbonate (calcite), magnesium-bearing calcium carbonate (dolomite), magnesium, iron and manganese-bearing calcium carbonate (ankerite) and iron carbonate (siderite). The results of these analyses when combined with organic extractions and biological analysis should help astrobiologists and planetary geologists better understand the potential relationships between mineralogy and microbiology for planetary missions.

  15. Decades of Theoretical Work on Protonated Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanski, E.; Kelterbaum, R.; Klein, S.; Rohmer, M. M.; Rahmouni, A.

    Theoretical studies on protonated hydrates (PH) are illustrative of the progress realized in theoretical chemistry over several decades. The evolution of such studies is presented. The main methods used (quantum chemistry, Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics calculations...) and the problems encountered are briefly recalled. Some of the results obtained are commented.

  16. Gas hydrate resource quantification in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas hydrates are crystalline solids formed by natural gas (mostly methane) and water, which are stable in thermobaric conditions given under high pressures and low temperatures. These conditions are given in permafrost zones and continental margin basins offshore in the nature

  17. Unraveling halide hydration: A high dilution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Valentina; Sessa, Francesco; Aquilanti, Giuliana; D'Angelo, Paola

    2014-07-01

    The hydration properties of halide aqua ions have been investigated combining classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) with Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Three halide-water interaction potentials recently developed [M. M. Reif and P. H. Hünenberger, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144104 (2011)], along with three plausible choices for the value of the absolute hydration free energy of the proton (? G^{ominus }_{hyd}[H^+]), have been checked for their capability to properly describe the structural properties of halide aqueous solutions, by comparing the MD structural results with EXAFS experimental data. A very good agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained with one parameter set, namely LE, thus strengthening preliminary evidences for a ? G^{ominus }_{hyd}[H^+] value of -1100 kJ mol-1 [M. M. Reif and P. H. Hünenberger, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144104 (2011)]. The Cl-, Br-, and I- ions have been found to form an unstructured and disordered first hydration shell in aqueous solution, with a broad distribution of instantaneous coordination numbers. Conversely, the F- ion shows more ordered and defined first solvation shell, with only two statistically relevant coordination geometries (six and sevenfold complexes). Our thorough investigation on the effect of halide ions on the microscopic structure of water highlights that the perturbation induced by the Cl-, Br-, and I- ions does not extend beyond the ion first hydration shell, and the structure of water in the F- second shell is also substantially unaffected by the ion.

  18. Mineral outlook for the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineral forecast has been published for the current year. Every endeavour has been made, to assess the economic climate in South Africa and to appraise the market potential for this country's mineral products abroad. The forecast of mineral export sales for precious metals, energy minerals, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, and non-metallic minerals is given

  19. PSC 424: Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Graham

    2011-10-13

    This is a webpage designed to give students access to basic information about rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals Introduction Video Basic Definitions- Mineral: a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence Rock: a mixture of minerals Ways to identify a mineral: Hardness Luster (metallic/nonmetallic) Streak Color Rock Song Three basic rock types: Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Rock Cycle Animation ...

  20. Gas Hydrate Reservoir Characterization Using Converted Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünz, S.; Mienert, J.; Berndt, C.

    Geophysical evidence exists for gas hydrates along the northern sidewall of the Storegga Slide. A BSR reflects the base of the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone (GHSZ), and the free gas zone beneath it. Gas hydrates exist outside and inside the slide area of the Storegga Slide. Ocean Bottom Seismometer, Ocean Bottom Cable and geotechni- cal borehole data allow to assess the elastic properties of hydrated and gassy sediments in an integrated approach. The P-S data evaluation requires a special processing pro- cedure, which involves two different approaches to determine the Vp/Vs-ratio and the shear-wave velocity of the sediments. The compressional-wave velocity shows a distinctive increase just above the BSR and a low-velocity zone below the BSR. We in- terpret these zones to be caused by hydrated and gas-charged sediments, respectively. Another low-velocity zone occurs at about 250 m below the BSR, at the base of the Naust Formation. This is the upper termination of a polygonal fault system and the base of a fluid leakage system in the area. The magnitude of the velocity decrease, i.e. 200 U 300 m/s, is caused by free gas. The Vp/Vs-ratio decreases through the whole sediment column from 7 for the uppermost sediments to 5 at the depth of the BSR. It shows a positive deviation from its downward decreasing trend associated with the p-wave low-velocity zone just below the BSR. This indicates the occurrence of gas underneath the hydrates. Further downward, the Vp/Vs-ratio continues to decrease to values of about 3 at a depth of 600 m below seafloor. The second gas-charged layer at about 500 m depth is not detected by the shear waves. One of the premier applications in offshore industry of recording shear waves is to image through gas clouds. Whereas shear waves behave exemplary for the lower gas-charged layer in our case, they do not so for the gas that occurs beneath the BSR. It is therefore concluded that the decrease in shear-wave velocity is caused by overpressure of gas that is trapped underneath the hydrates. Such overpressure would reduce the effective stress and grain coupling leading to low shear modulus and low shear-wave velocity.

  1. Clathrate Hydrates for Thermal Energy Storage in Buildings: Overview of Proper Hydrate-Forming Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy costs are at the origin of the great progress in the field of phase change materials (PCMs. The present work aims at studying the application of clathrate hydrates as PCMs in buildings. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline structures in which guest molecules are enclosed in the crystal lattice of water molecules. Clathrate hydrates can form also at ambient pressure and present a high latent heat, and for this reason, they are good candidates for being used as PCMs. The parameter that makes a PCM suitable to be used in buildings is, first of all, a melting temperature at about 25 °C. The paper provides an overview of groups of clathrate hydrates, whose physical and chemical characteristics could meet the requirements needed for their application in buildings. Simulations with a dynamic building simulation tool are carried out to evaluate the performance of clathrate hydrates in enhancing thermal comfort through the moderation of summer temperature swings and, therefore, in reducing energy consumption. Simulations suggest that clathrate hydrates have a potential in terms of improvement of indoor thermal comfort and a reduction of energy consumption for cooling. Cooling effects of 0.5 °C and reduced overheating hours of up to 1.1% are predicted.

  2. Enthalpy of dissociation and hydration number of methane hydrate from the Clapeyron equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enthalpies of the reactions in which methane hydrate is dissociated to methane vapor and either (1) water, or (2) ice are determined by a new analysis using the Clapeyron equation. The difference in enthalpies of the two reactions is used to infer the hydration number at the quadruple point where hydrate, ice, liquid water, and methane vapor coexist. By appropriate corrections, the hydration number at points removed from the quadruple point is also determined. The most important feature of the new analysis is the direct use of the Clapeyron equation. The method avoids the use of certain simplifying assumptions that have compromised the accuracy of previous analyses in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used. The analysis takes into account the finite volumes of all phases, the non-ideality of the vapor phase, and the solubility of methane in water. The results show that the enthalpy of dissociation and hydration number are constant within experimental error over the entire (hydrate, liquid, vapor) coexistence region. The results are more accurate than but entirely consistent with almost all previous studies

  3. The mineral sources of Murgab district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book authors describe such mineral sources of Murgab district as Mineral source Djartigumbez (Cheshtyube)(on the right bank of Istik River), Mineral source Mekhmonyuli, Mineral source Kizilrabot, Mineral source Bakhmir, Mineral source Khanyuli, Mineral source Tmeasha, Mineral source Aktash (Shaymak), Mineral source Boztere (on the Murgab River), Mineral source Elisu (on the right bank of Elisu River), Mineral source Bakhtier (on the bank of Sassikul lake), Mineral source Achiktash, Mineral source Issikbulak(Yashilkul), Mineral source Sasibulak, Mineral source Kizildjigla, Mineral source Djaylau

  4. Minerals, Crystals and Gems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module introduces students to minerals, crystals, and gems by using pictures and discussions of some of the extraordinary specimens residing in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution. It includes three lessons in which they draw pictures of specimens, grow their own crystals of magnesium sulfate, and perform a scavenger hunt in which they look for minerals in commonly used objects and products.

  5. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  6. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  7. South Africa's strategic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa is the world's fourth largest producer of non-fuel minerals and is an important exporter of a wide range of strategic metals and minerals to the West. The U.S.S.R. is largely self-sufficient in supplies of these commodities, but the U.S.A. is dependent to a varying extent on imports of most strategic minerals. Western Europe and Japan are even more dependent on foreign sources of these commodities. South Africa has a disproportionately large share of the world's reserves of many metals and minerals that are critically important to the West. The effects of a denial of mineral supplies from South Africa to the West are examined in terms of security of supplies to the West, increased prices, the bargaining position of other mineral exporters, and the establishment of powerful producer cartels. It is concluded that control over South Africa's minerals by the Communist Bloc would greatly enhance the economic and strategic bargaining position of the U.S.S.R., and that success in such a venture would lead to increasing pressure on other pro-Western mineral producers, such as Australia and Brazil

  8. MORPHOLOGY OF METHANE HYDRATE HOST SEDIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from simulated experiments in several laboratories show that host sediments influence hydrate formation in accord with known heterogeneity of host sediments at sites of gas hydrate occurrence (1). For example, in Mackenzie Delta, NWT Canada (Mallik 2L-38 well), coarser-grained units (pore-filling model) are found whereas in the Gulf of Mexico, the found hydrate samples do not appear to be lithologically controlled. We have initiated a systematic study of sediments, initially focusing on samples from various depths at a specific site, to establish a correlation with hydrate occurrence (or variations thereof) to establish differences in their microstructure, porosity, and other associated properties. The synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) set-up at the X-27A tomography beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory was used as a tool to study sediments from Blake Ridge at three sub bottom depths of 0.2, 50, and 667 meters. Results from the tomographic analysis of the deepest sample (667 m) are presented here to illustrate how tomography can be used to obtain new insights into the structures of methane hydrate host sediments. The investigation shows the internal grain/pore space resolution in the microstructure and a 3-D visualization of the connecting pathways obtained following data segmentation into pore space and grains within the sediment sample. The analysis gives the sample porosity, specific surface area,he sample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity, as well. An earlier report on the experimental program has been given by Mahajan et al. (2)

  9. The mineral sources of Ishkashim district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of book authors describe such mineral sources of Ishkashim district as Mineral source Garmchashma, Mineral source Junt (on the left bank of Garmchashma River), Mineral source Chursh, Mineral source Khosguni (on the Khosguni River), Mineral source Andarob (on the right bank of Pyandj River), Mineral source Barshor, Mineral source Obigarm (Daraistaj), Mineral source Avdj (on the bank of Pyandj River), Mineral source Abkharv, Mineral source Zerev, Mineral source Udit, Mineral source Darshay (on the right bank of Darshay River), Mineral source Narkhun (on the right bank of Pyandj River), Mineral source Sarishitkhara, Mineral source Rostoshitkharv, Mineral source Yamchin, Mineral source Vrang (on the left bank of Darai Vrang River), Mineral source Iniv, Mineral source Shirgin, Mineral source Zong, Mineral source Ikchilik, Mineral source Khargush

  10. Gas hydrate saturation from effective medium inversion of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Shyam; Minshull, Tim

    2005-07-01

    The presence of gas hydrate in marine sediments alters their physical properties. In some circumstances gas hydrate may cement the sediment grains together and dramatically increase the seismic P and S wave velocities of the composite. Hydrate may also form a load-bearing structure, within the sediment microstructure but with different seismic wave attenuation characteristics, resulting in changes in the attenuation behaviour of the composite. It has been observed that the attenuation increases with hydrate saturation at higher frequencies. We model this increase in terms of fluid flow in sediment and hydrate microstructures with different permeabilities. We relate these increases in velocity and attenuation of hydrate-bearing sediments to their hydrate content, using an effective medium inversion algorithm based on the self consistent approximation (SCA), differential effective medium (DEM) theory and, Biot and squirt flow mechanisms of fluid flow. Although in our model the hydrate is considered to cement the sediment grains together and thus strengthen the composite, the multi-structural morphology of the composite is able to explain the unusual phenomena of increase in attenuation with increase of strength. We present examples of the application of the inversion algorithm to data from hydrate bearing sediments. Since there is uncertainty in the physical constants and the input parameters used in the inversion algorithm, we used these uncertainties and estimated the total uncertainty in the prediction of hydrate saturation. The inversion algorithm is able to convert observations in compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuations to hydrate saturation in the sediment pore space. (Author)

  11. Molecular simulation of non-equilibrium methane hydrate decomposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: ? Decomposition of methane hydrate is studied with molecular dynamics simulations. ? Simulations are performed under adiabatic conditions (no thermostats). ? The effects of heat and mass transfer during the decomposition are observed. ? Temperature gradients are established as the hydrate decomposes. ? Intrinsic reaction kinetics picture of hydrate dissociation is revisited. - Abstract: We recently performed constant energy molecular dynamics simulations of the endothermic decomposition of methane hydrate in contact with water to study phenomenologically the role of mass and heat transfer in the decomposition rate [S. Alavi, J.A. Ripmeester, J. Chem. Phys. 132 (2010) 144703]. We observed that with the progress of the decomposition front temperature gradients are established between the remaining solid hydrate and the solution phases. In this work, we provide further quantitative macroscopic and molecular level analysis of the methane hydrate decomposition process with an emphasis on elucidating microscopic details and how they affect the predicted rate of methane hydrate decomposition in natural methane hydrate reservoirs. A quantitative criterion is used to characterize the decomposition of the hydrate phase at different times. Hydrate dissociation occurs in a stepwise fashion with rows of sI cages parallel to the interface decomposing simultaneously. The correlations between decomposition times of subsequent layers of the hys of subsequent layers of the hydrate phase are discussed.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of hydrate phases immersed in ice phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic properties and the pressure of hydrate phases immersed in the ice phase with the aim to understand the nature of self-preservation effect of methane hydrate in the framework of macroscopic and microscopic molecular models was studied. It was show that increasing of pressure is happen inside methane hydrate phases immersed in the ice phase under increasing temperature and if the ice structure does not destroy, the methane hydrate will have larger pressure than ice phase. This is because of the thermal expansion of methane hydrate in a few times larger than ice one. The thermal expansion of the hydrate is constrained by the thermal expansion of ice because it can remain in a region of stability within the methane hydrate phase diagram. The utter lack of preservation behavior in CS-II methane- ethane hydrate can be explain that the thermal expansion of ethane-methane hydrate coincide with than ice one it do not pent up by thermal expansion of ice. The pressure and density during the crossing of interface between ice and hydrate was found and dynamical and thermodynamic stability of this system are studied in accordance with relation between ice phase and hydrate phase

  13. Extreme chemical conditions of crystallisation of Umbrian Melilitolites and wealth of rare, late stage/hydrothermal minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa, F.; Schiazza, M.

    2014-12-01

    Melilitolites of the Umbria Latium Ultra-alkaline District display a complete crystallisation sequence of peculiar, late-stage mineral phases and hydrothermal/cement minerals, analogous to fractionated mineral associations from the Kola Peninsula. This paper summarises 20 years of research which has resulted in the identification of a large number of mineral species, some very rare or completely new and some not yet classified. The progressive increasing alkalinity of the residual liquid allowed the formation of Zr-Ti phases and further delhayelitemacdonaldite mineral crystallisation in the groundmass. The presence of leucite and kalsilite in the igneous assemblage is unusual and gives a kamafugitic nature to the rocks. Passage to non-igneous temperatures (TCO2-SO2-fluids led to the precipitation of sulphates and hydrated and/or hydroxylated silicate-sulphate-carbonates. As a whole, this mineral assemblage can be considered typical of ultra-alkaline carbonatitic rocks.

  14. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  15. Structural Investigations of Portland Cement Components, Hydration, and Effects of Admixtures by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, JØrgen Bengaard; Andersen, Morten D.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state, magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy represents a valuable tool for structural investigations on the nanoscale of the most important phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements and of various admixtures. This is primarily due to the fact that the method reflects the first- and second-coordination spheres of the spin nucleus under investigation while it is less sensitive to long-range order. Thus, crystalline as well as amorphous phases can be detected in a quantitative manner by solid-state NMR. In particular the structure of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase have been investigated in detail by 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR where the combination of the results for these spin-nuclei provides important information on the degree of Al-incorporation in the C-S-H structure and of the average chain lengths of tetrahedral SiO4 and AlO4 units. This presentation will illustrate the versatile applicability of solid-state NMR in studies of Portland cement hydration and of effects of various admixtures such as silica fume, metakaolin, and clay minerals. This includes kinetic studies on the consumption of alite and belite during Portland cement hydration and of structural characteristics for the C-S-H phase formed during hydration. It will be demonstrated that Al3+ and flouride guest-ions in the anhydrous and hydrated calcium silicates can be studied in detail by 27Al and 19F MAS NMR, thereby providing information on the local structure and the mechanisms for incorporation of these ions in the cement phases. The role of flouride ions is of special interest for mineralized Portland cements and it demonstrated that the location of these anions in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements can be clarified using 19F MAS or 29Si{19F} CP/MAS NMR despite these cements contain only about 0.2 wt.% flourine. Finally, the detection and quantification of strätlingite (2CaO?Al2O3?SiO2?8H2O) in Portland cement mixtures containing metakaolin will be demonstrated.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  17. Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy for Structure-II Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeya, Kei; Zhang, Caihong

    2009-01-01

    For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has a characteristic broad absorption peak at 0.5 THz corresponding to the dipole moment of THF molecules. The refractive indices of THF and propane hydrates are 1.725 and 1.775 at 1 THz, respectively, and show a slight but clear difference from the refractive index of ice (1.79). THz-TDS is a potentially useful technique for the ondestructive inspection of gas hydrates. # 2009 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

  18. Carbon dioxid sequestration in natural gas hydrates: Thermodynamic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicks, J. M.; Beeskow-Strauch, B.; Luzi, M.; Girod, M.; Erzinger, J.

    2009-12-01

    Due to the increasing energy demands natural gas hydrates become more and more of interest. The huge amount of hydrocarbons - mainly CH4 - stored in natural hydrate reservoirs suggest the use of natural gas hydrates as an energy resource. However, the combustion of this fossil fuel results in an undesired increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore, a combination of CH4 production on the one hand and the CO2 sequestration on the other hand seems to be ideal. Several investigations regarding the exchange reaction of CH4 with CO2 using pure methane hydrates and pure CO2 or CO2-N2-mixtures have been performed as laboratory studies in the past. Some showed exchange rates up to 85% and concluded that the driving force of this exchange reaction is the higher stability of CO2 hydrates compared to methane hydrates (e.g. Park et al. 2006). However, natural conditions may differ: natural gas hydrates may contain higher hydrocarbons or H2S, which have significant impact in terms of a higher stability of the mixed hydrate phase compared to pure CH4- and CO2-hydrates. Primary results of our investigations on the exchange reaction of a mixed CH4-C3H8-hydrate with CO2 indicates that although the stability of mixed CH4-C3H8-hydrate is significantly shifted to higher temperatures and lower pressures compared to pure CH4-, mixed CH4-CO2- and pure CO2-hydrates, it changes in the presence of CO2 from a structure II hydrate phase to form a structure I CH4-CO2-hydrate which subsequently transforms to CO2-hydrate. This process starts at the interface between gas and hydrate and continues slowly into the bulk phase. These observation lead to the following conclusions: - The driving force of the exchange reaction is less the stability with respect to temperature and pressure conditions of the hydrate phase but rather the chemical equilibrium state in terms of concentration gradients between hydrate and surrounding gas phase - After the initial formation of a CO2-CH4- or CO2 hydrate layer at the surface of the former hydrate phase, the reaction rate of the process decreases because the chemical potential in the different hydrate layers converges. - The exchange reaction can be described as a decomposition and reformation process. These findings are important for the prediction of long term stability of CO2-hydrates in natural environments, especially considering the fact that our study will also show that CO2 hydrates will decompose in presence of CH4 and CH4-CO2 mixed hydrates will form until the chemical equilibrium state is reached. In addition to the presence of a mixed hydrate phases the injected CO2 may also contain traces of SO2 or NO2, which additionally affects the stability field of the resulting hydrate phase. Results of in-situ Raman and XRD investigations on pure CH4 hydrate as well as mixed hydrates with respect to the exchange reaction with CO2 (pure CO2 as well as CO2 contaminated with SO2) will be presented and discussed. Park, Y., Kim, D.-Y., Lee, J.-W., Huh, D.-G., Park, K.-P., Lee, J., Lee, H., 2006, PNAS, 103, 12690-12694

  19. Preservation phenomena of methane hydrate in pore spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachikubo, Akihiro; Takeya, Satoshi; Chuvilin, Evgeny; Istomin, Vladimir

    2011-10-21

    Dissociation processes of methane hydrate synthesized with glass beads were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and calorimetry. Methane hydrate formed with coarse glass beads dissociated quickly at 150-200 K; in this temperature range methane hydrate dissociates at atmospheric pressure. In contrast, methane hydrate formed with glass beads less than a few microns in size showed very high stability up to just below the melting point of ice, even though this temperature is well outside the zone of thermodynamic stability of the hydrate. The rate-determining steps for methane hydrate dissociation within pores are also discussed. The experimental results suggest that methane hydrate existing naturally within the pores of fine particles such as mud at low temperatures would be significantly more stable than expected thermodynamically. PMID:21915423

  20. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (straetlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies.

  1. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  2. Clathrate-hydrate formation from a hydrocarbon gas mixture: Compositional evolution of formed hydrate during an isobaric semi-batch hydrate-forming operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reports laboratory experiments of hydrate formation from synthetic natural gas. • Shows how hydrate composition changes during each hydrate-forming operation. • Compares the observed compositional change with thermodynamic simulations. • Shows a PXRD result indicating simultaneous formation of sI and sII hydrates. - Abstract: The clathrate hydrate formation from a model natural gas, i.e., a mixture of methane, ethane, and propane in a 90:7:3 molar ratio, under a constant pressure was experimentally investigated, focusing on the compositional evolution of hydrate crystals formed inside a gas-bubbling-type reactor during each semi-batch hydrate-forming operation. The experimental system used in this study was specially designed for obtaining several hydrate samples formed at different, arbitrarily selected stages during each hydrate-forming operation. Each hydrate sample was analyzed by a gas-chromatograph to determine the mole fractions of methane, ethane and propane encaged in the hydrate. These analyses revealed a monotonic increase in the methane fraction and decreases in the ethane and propane fractions during each operation until a quasi-steady state was established. Powder X-ray diffraction analyses showed that both structure-I and structure-II crystals were simultaneously formed during the quasi-steady period. The compositional evolution of the hydrates formed during the early stages before the quasi-steady state was reached deviated from corresponding predictions based on the thermodynamic-simulation scheme previously reported. A hypothetical explanation for the discrepancy between the experimental and simulation-based results was provided

  3. Quick Assessment of Potential Hydrate Promoters for Rapid Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Y. Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate technology has advanced to greater proportions: implementing the high latent heats as refrigerant, safe carbon capture as carbon sequestration in hydrates, purifying rare gases in hydrates, and safe efficient transport of energy using rapid hydrate formation. These account for only a small amount of the fundamental understanding of gas hydrates and the use of such a novel technology. A quick and broad analysis of novel hydrate promoters is needed to assess the potential of other promoter agents. This will improve the understanding of rapid hydrate formation and fundamental ideas related to the kinetics and formation of hydrates. There are still hundreds of other surfactants that have not been identified for rapid formation. The insurmountable endeavor deters many from trying as it can be like finding a needle in a hay stack. This almost futile endeavor of correctly identifying a surfactant as a promoter agent without doing a formation test can be accomplished with recent techniques. Using Raman and a liquid hydrocarbon (Cyclo-pentane, surfactants may shift the sample’s peak towards the hydrate peak (890 cm–1, thereby identifying it as a choice surfactant for rapid formation of hydrates. With a broad survey of surfactants, understanding fundamental science and engineering kinetics for hydrates will be easily achieved. Finding more effective and novel surfactants for hydrate formations will broaden the field of hydrates and self-assembling crystallization. As hydrate technology broadens, interdisciplinary fields can contribute expertise from surface science to spectroscopy leading to geological formations and engineering kinetics.

  4. Probing methane hydrate nucleation through the forward flux sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the nucleation of hydrate is the key to developing effective strategies for controlling methane hydrate formation. Here we present a computational study of methane hydrate nucleation, by combining the forward flux sampling (FFS) method and the coarse-grained water model mW. To facilitate the application of FFS in studying the formation of methane hydrate, we developed an effective order parameter ? on the basis of the topological analysis of the tetrahedral network. The order parameter capitalizes the signature of hydrate structure, i.e., polyhedral cages, and is capable of efficiently distinguishing hydrate from ice and liquid water while allowing the formation of different hydrate phases, i.e., sI, sII, and amorphous. Integration of the order parameter ? with FFS allows explicitly computing hydrate nucleation rates and obtaining an ensemble of nucleation trajectories under conditions where spontaneous hydrate nucleation becomes too slow to occur in direct simulation. The convergence of the obtained hydrate nucleation rate was found to depend crucially on the convergence of the spatial distribution for the spontaneously formed hydrate seeds obtained from the initial sampling of FFS. The validity of the approach is also verified by the agreement between the calculated nucleation rate and that inferred from the direct simulation. Analyzing the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories, we show hydrate formation at 220 K and 500 bar is initiated by the nucleation events occurring in the vicinity of water-methane interface, and facilitated by a gradual transition from amorphous to crystalline structure. The latter provides the direct support to the proposed two-step nucleation mechanism of methane hydrate. PMID:24849698

  5. Provenance and Paleoenvironment of Sandy Sediments Possibly Hosting Gas Hydrate in the Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Takashima, I.; Ito, T.; Matsumoto, R.

    2010-12-01

    The MD179 project was undertaken by the Marion Dufresne aiming at recovery of deep seated gas and gas hydrate, methane induced carbonate, and deep sediments older than 300 ka in order to develop geologic model of gas hydrate accumulation and evaluate the possible environmental impact of gas hydrate for the last glacial-interglacial cycles. It has been inferred that methane forming gas hydrate and methane plumes are of thermogenic origin in the study area, which form gas hydrates as mounds, nodules, veins, pore fillings etc. in sediments below seafloor. Permeable intergranular pore systems of arenite sand, fractures, faults as well as gas chimneys may have played an important role as conduits for deep thermogenic hydrocarbon gas migration. Sediment samples below the seafloor were obtained in the Umitaka Spur, the Joetsu Channel, the Toyama Trough, the Japan Basin, the Nishi Tsugaru and the Okushiri Ridge areas by the UT09 and KY09-05 cruises in 2009 as well as this MD179 cruise. They have been mainly composed of muddy sediments with small amount of sandy sediments. Thin sandy layers are intercalated with thick muddy sediments, which are often strongly bioturbated with burrows and pellets. Those sandy sediments consist of fine- to medium-grained sand grains, and are sometimes tuffaceous. Pore-size distribution measurements and thin-section observations of fine- to very fine-grained arenite sands are undertaken, which indicate that porosities of muddy sediments are around 50 % but those of arenites range from 42 to 52 % of which mean pore sizes and permeabilities are larger than those of siltstones and mudstones. While the presence of gas hydrate in intergranular pores of arenite sands is not confirmed, the soupy occurrence in recovered sediments may strongly indicate the presence of gas hydrate filling the intergranular pore system of arenite sands. The geological modeling of the gas hydrate formation and evolution system is concerned for energy resource potential in the Japan Sea as well as the Nankai Trough areas. Although the chimney type accumulation may be dominated and is characterized by massive concentration of nodular and fracture filling hydrates, the sandy sediments hosting gas hydrate concentration filling the intergranular pore system may likely occur. Time of deposition and sedimentary environment of coarse-grained sediments, thermoluminescence (TL) dating of constituent quartz grains and grain-size distributions are analyzed. TL dating works on the principle that materials containing naturally occurring radioactive isotopes such as uranium, thorium or potassium are subject to low levels of radiation. In mineral crystals, this leads to ionization of the atoms in the host material and freed electrons may become trapped in structural defects or ‘holes’ in the mineral crystal lattice. These electrons can be released in the laboratory by heating under controlled conditions, and an emission of light occurs which is the basis of TL dating. They may provide information about the provenance of sands and the paleoenvironment when the sediments deposited. This study was performed as a part of the MH21 Research Consortium on methane hydrate in Japan.

  6. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of kilometres from the initial reaction site to form ore deposits. The coupling of dissolution and precipitation has important consequences for all reactions between fluids and rocks and understanding this coupling has applications well beyond mineralogy, for example, in developing new methods of materials synthesis, for carbon removal from the atmosphere and for safe storage of nuclear waste.

  7. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: results of the National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, J.R.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 01 (NGHP-01) is designed to study the occurrence of gas hydrate along the passive continental margin of the Indian Peninsula and in the Andaman convergent margin, with special emphasis on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these two diverse settings. The NGHP-01 expedition established the presence of gas hydrates in the Krishna-Godavari and Mahanadi Basins, and the Andaman Sea. The expedition discovered in the Krishna-Godavari Basin one of the thickest gas hydrate accumulations ever documented, in the Andaman Sea one of the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zones in the world, and established the existence of a fully developed gas hydrate petroleum system in all three basins.

  8. Origin and character of gaseous hydrocarbons in the hydrate and non-hydrate charged sediments on the Norway - Svalbard margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaular, Espen Nesheim

    2011-05-15

    Gas incubated in clathrate water-structures, stabilizes the hydrogen bonded substance termed gas hydrate. In the marine environment vast amount of carbon is stored as gas hydrates within the temperature and pressure zone these ice-like structures are stable. Natural gas hydrate mapping and characterization is important basic research that brings about critical knowledge concerning various topics. Natural gas hydrates is a vital part of the carbon cycle, it is a potential energy resource (and thereby a potential climate agent) and it is a potential geo-hazard. One of the goals the GANS initiative aimed at exploring, was the hydrate bearing sediment of the Norway -Svalbard margins, to investigate the character and expansion of natural gas hydrates. Part of the investigation was to define how the gas in the hydrated sediment was produced and where it came from. As a result this thesis addresses the matter of light hydrocarbon characterization and origin in two Norwegian hydrate deposits. On cruises to Vestnesa on the Svalbard margin and to Nyegga in the mid-Norwegian margin, samples of hydrate charged and non-hydrate charged sediments were obtained and analyzed. Through compositional and isotopic analyses the origin of the hydrate bound gas in the fluid escape feature G11 at Nyegga was determined. The hydrate incubated methane is microbial produced as well as parts of the hydrate bound ethane. The compositional analysis in both the Nyegga area and at the Vestnesa Ridge points at thermogenic contributions in the sediment interstitials and pore water. The two hydrate bearing margins show large differences in hydrocarbon content and microbial activity in the pockmarks investigated. The gravity cores from the penetrated pockmark at Vestnesa showed low hydrocarbon content and thus suggest ceased or periodic venting. The fluid flow escape features at Nyegga show large variety of flux rates based on ROV monitoring and headspace analysis of the sediment and pore water. The light hydrocarbon content varies largely both between the pockmarks and within a single pockmark. Laboratory experiments have been preformed to consider the carbon isotope fractionation effect of hydrate formation. The experiments display minor fractionation with contrasting fractionation effects of carbon isotopes when forming methane hydrates and structure two hydrates of methane, ethane and propane. This does not inflict with the interpretation of the isotopic signature of the hydrated deposits at Nyegga. Thus the proposed microbial carbon circulation in the free gas zone beneath the gas hydrate stability zone is withheld as the probable root of the light isotopic signature. (Author)

  9. A comparative study of the modelling of cement hydration and cement-rock laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A modelling intercomparison has shown that the dominant reaction pathways are well understood. ? However, significant differences in model parameterisation produced similar results. ? The modelling showed that there is benefit in keeping the numerical models as simple as possible. - Abstract: The use of cement and concrete as fracture grouting or as tunnel seals in a geological disposal facility for radioactive wastes creates potential issues concerning chemical reactivity. From a long-term safety perspective, it is desirable to be able model these interactions and changes quantitatively. The 'Long-term Cement Studies' (LCS) project was formulated with an emphasis on in situ field experiments with more realistic boundary conditions and longer time scales compared with former experiments. As part of the project programme, a modelling inter-comparison has been conducted, involving the modelling of two experiments describing cement hydration on one hand and cement-rock reaction on the other, with teams representing the NDA (UK), Posiva (Finland), and JAEA (Japan). This modelling exercise showed that the dominant reaction pathways in the two experiments are fairly well understood and are consistent between the different modelling teams, although significant differences existed amongst the precise parameterisation (e.g. reactive surface areas, dependences of rate upon pH, types of secondary minerals), and in some instances, processes (e.g. partition of ances, processes (e.g. partition of alkali elements between solids and liquid during cement hydration; kinetic models of cement hydration). It was not conclusive if certain processes such as surface complexation (preferred by some modellers, but not by others) played a role in the cement-rock experiment or not. These processes appear to be more relevant at early times in the experiment and the evolution at longer timescales was not affected. The observed permeability profile with time could not be matched. The fact that no secondary minerals could be observed and that the precipitated mass calculated during the simulations is minor might suggest that the permeability reduction does not have a chemical origin, although a small amount of precipitates at pore throats could have a large impact on permeability. The modelling exercises showed that there is an interest in keeping the numerical models as simple as possible and trying to obtain a reasonable fit with a minimum of processes, minerals and parameters. However, up-scaling processes and model parameterisation to the timescales appropriate to repository safety assessment are of considerable concern. Future modelling exercises of this type should focus on a suitable natural or industrial analogue that might aid assessing mineral-fluid reactions at these longer timescales.

  10. Stable prenucleation mineral clusters are liquid-like ionic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichelis, Raffaella; Raiteri, Paolo; Gale, Julian D; Quigley, David; Gebauer, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is an abundant substance that can be created in several mineral forms by the reaction of dissolved carbon dioxide in water with calcium ions. Through biomineralization, organisms can harness and control this process to form various functional materials that can act as anything from shells through to lenses. The early stages of calcium carbonate formation have recently attracted attention as stable prenucleation clusters have been observed, contrary to classical models. Here we show, using computer simulations combined with the analysis of experimental data, that these mineral clusters are made of an ionic polymer, composed of alternating calcium and carbonate ions, with a dynamic topology consisting of chains, branches and rings. The existence of a disordered, flexible and strongly hydrated precursor provides a basis for explaining the formation of other liquid-like amorphous states of calcium carbonate, in addition to the non-classical behaviour during growth of amorphous calcium carbonate. PMID:22186886

  11. Digging into Minnesota Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Digging into Minnesota Minerals Web site is part of the larger Minnesota State Department of Natural Resources site. These fun and interesting pages explain how Minnesota came to acquire its most common minerals over geologic time, what the basic types of rocks are, mining history of the state, the geology found in state parks, and much more. Included are basic descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and even educational activities for teachers related to the minerals. This well-designed site would be a great addition to any grade school or high school science curriculum.

  12. The Density of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    In this activity, students will learn to measure the density of various minerals. The activity will reinforce the usefulness of density as a physical test for identification of minerals. Using a selection of mineral specimens of varying densities, they will weigh each one in air, immerse it in a graduated cylinder of water, and measure the amount of water displaced by the specimen. Dividing the weight of the specimen by the volume of displaced water yields the density of the specimen. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

  13. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  14. Terahertz spectroscopy of concrete for evaluating the critical hydration level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jyotirmayee; Ray, Shaumik; Nallappan, Kathirvel; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2014-03-01

    Concrete, a mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, sand and filler material (if any), is widely used in the construction industry. Cement, mainly composed of Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) reacts readily with water, a process known as hydration. The hydration process forms a solid material known as hardened cement paste which is mainly composed of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. To quantify the critical hydration level, an accurate and fast technique is highly desired. However, in conventional XRD technique, the peaks of the constituents of anhydrated and hydrated cement cannot be resolved properly, where as Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has low penetration depth and hence cannot be used to determine the hydration level of thicker concrete samples easily. Further, MIR spectroscopy cannot be used to effectively track the formation of Calcium Hydroxide, a key by-product during the hydration process. This paper describes a promising approach to quantify the hydration dynamics of cement using Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. This technique has been employed to track the time dependent reaction mechanism of the key constituents of cement that react with water and form the products in the hydrated cement, viz., C-S-H, Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. This study helps in providing an improved understanding on the hydration kinetics of cement and also to optimise the physio-mechanical characteristics of concrete.

  15. Vibrational excitation induced proton transfer in hydrated Nafion membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyuan; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-02-12

    We study the energy relaxation and structural relaxation dynamics of hydrated protons in Nafion membranes at different hydration levels using femtosecond infrared transient absorption spectroscopy. At low hydration levels we observe that the excitation of the proton vibration of an Eigen-like proton hydration structure leads to a structural relaxation process in which the Eigen-like structure evolves to a Zundel-like proton hydration structure. This reorganization leads to a transfer of the proton charge and closely follows the mechanism of infrared-induced adiabatic proton transfer that has been proposed by S. Hammes-Schiffer, J. T. Hynes, and others. At high hydration levels, the spectral dynamics are dominated by vibrational energy relaxation and subsequent cooling of the proton hydration structures and the surrounding water molecules. Using a kinetic analysis of the transient spectral data, we determine the rates of proton transfer, vibrational energy relaxation, and cooling as a function of hydration level. We find that infrared-induced proton transfer occurs at all hydration levels but becomes less observable at high hydration levels due to the increasingly dominant influence of the vibrational energy relaxation. PMID:25506744

  16. Formation and durability of hydrated layers for several oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formations and durabilities of hydrated layers were compared between a soda-aluminosilicate (NAS), a soda-lime-aluminosilicate (NCAS) and a soda-lime-alumino-borosilicate (NCABS) glasses. The first step of the study was to prepare the optically transparent hydrated layers on the surface of specimens by an autoclave (400 C, 20 kgf/cm2) treatment. Distributions of OH groups in hydrated layers were analyzed by an etch sectioning and FTIR measurement. The rates of hydration of the glasses were in the order NAS much-gt NCAS > NCABS. The hydration of the NCABS glass, which is a modified nuclear waste glass, required the treatment longer than those of the NAS and NCAS glasses. In the second step, the authors investigated the durabilities of hydrated layers by immersing the specimens into a distilled water at 100 C. The dissolutions of hydrated layers were confirmed for each glass. The dissolution rates of hydrated layers were in the order NCAS > NCABS much-gt NAS. It has become apparent by an XPS analysis that the highest durability of the hydrated NAS glass was due to the formation of a sodium free Al2O3-SiO2 layer on the surface. The hydrated layer of the NCAS glass, while the sodium ions were almost leached out during immersion, dissolved to water most quickly than those of other glasses. In the hydrated layer of the NCABS glass, a half amount of sodium and boron ions remained and inhibited the dissolution of hydrated layerted the dissolution of hydrated layer

  17. Mutagenesis of Bacteria by Fibrous or Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yoshida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present cells of Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium radiobacter, or Thiobacillus intermedius were exposed to chrysotile asbestos, kaolinite, or bentonite by culture in medium containing these minerals. Chromosomal DNA was extracted from exposed cells, then amplified by the RAPD method and band patterns were compared. DNA of bacterial cells exposed to these minerals, was amplified, in whereas that in control cells was not, or that amplified in control cells disappeared. Not only asbestos, but also kaolinite and bentonite, which are principal soil components, induce bacterial mutation. Growth was inhibited by 66%, when A. radiobacter was cultured in LB medium containing 20 mg mL-1 of asbestos for 24 h. Growth inhibition by asbestos was reduced by adding 420 U mL-1 of catalase or 500 U mL-1 of superoxide dismutase to the culture medium.

  18. Incoherent inelastic neutron scattering of clathrate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured incoherent inelastic neutron scattering of clathrate hydrates of carbon dioxide, xenon and tetrahydrofuran in order to investigate the effect of the motion of guest molecule on the surrounding hydrogen-bonded network. The results showed that the peak of the transverse acoustic mode of the host water in the clathrate hydrates is stronger than that in the ice Ih. Furthermore, the intensity of the peak depends on the type of the guest molecule. The enhancement of the peak is attributed to the coupling of the translational vibration of the guest molecule and the lattice vibration of the host water, since these vibration modes are in the same energy region. It is concluded that the interaction between the guest molecules and the host waters is so strong that the coupling of the vibrations of the guest molecules and the host lattice depends on the type of guest molecule. (author)

  19. Method for treating hydrated green salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for producing green salt from hydrated green salt comprising: heating a charge of hydrated green salt in a non-reactive atmosphere to a first temperature above the boiling point of water to drive off free water; heating the charge in a non-reactive atmosphere to a second temperature higher than the first temperature to drive off the water of crystallization present in the green salt; heating the charge in a non-reactive atmosphere to a third temperature higher than 752 F to induce anhygroscopicity of the charge; and cooling the charge to approximately 400 F or less in a non-reactive atmosphere to prevent oxidation and hydrolysis

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Methane-Hydrate

    CERN Document Server

    Krivchikov, A I; Korolyuk, O A; Manzhelii, V G; Conrad, H; Press, W

    2004-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of the methane hydrate CH4 (5.75 H2O) was measured in the interval 2-140 K using the steady-state technique. The thermal conductivity corresponding to a homogeneous substance was calculated from the measured effective thermal conductivity obtained in the experiment. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is typical for the thermal conductivity of amorphous solids. It is shown that after separation of the hydrate into ice and methane, at 240 K, the thermal conductivity of the ice exhibits a dependence typical of heavily deformed fine-grain polycrystal. The reason for the glass-like behavior in the thermal conductivity of clathrate compounds has been discussed. The experimental results can be interpreted within the phenomenological soft-potential model with two fitting parameters.

  1. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, J.M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Fita, I.C., E-mail: infifer@fis.upv.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Soriano, L.; Payá, J.; Borrachero, M.V. [ICITECH, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología del Hormigón, Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solid–solution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  2. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solid–solution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix

  3. Stability of free and mineral-protected nucleic acids: Implications for the RNA world

    OpenAIRE

    Swadling, J. B.; Coveney, P. V.; Greenwell, H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the structural stability of three different nucleic acids intercalated within a magnesium aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) mineral, at varying degrees of hydration, and free in aqueous solution. The nucleotides investigated are ribose nucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA), all in duplex form. Our simulations show that DNA has enhanced Watson–Crick hydrogen-bonding when intercalated within the L...

  4. High-pressure studies of ammonia hydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia and water are major components of many planetary bodies, from comets and icy moons such as Saturn's Titan to the interiors of the planets Neptune and Uranus. Under a range of high pressures and/or low temperatures known to occur in these planetary bodies, ammonia and water form a series of compounds known as ammonia hydrates. Ammonia and water form three stoichiometric compounds, ammonia hemihydrate, ammonia monohydrate and ammonia dihydrate, which have ammonia-to-wa...

  5. Science of NFL Football: Nutrition, Hydration & Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    NBC's Lester Holt looks at the physically demanding pre-season ritual of NFL training camp. Douglas Casa, head of the Korey Stringer Institute at the University of Connecticut, and athletic trainers from the Pittsburgh Steelers explain what NFL players must do to stay hydrated and replenish the essential nutrients needed to maintain good health during rigorous practices. "Science of NFL Football" is a 10-part video series funded by the National Science Foundation and produced in partnership with the National Football League.

  6. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  7. Visible and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 ?m) reflectance spectra of playa evaporite minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, James K.

    1991-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR; 0.4–2.4 ?m) reflectance spectra were recorded for 35 saline minerals that represent the wide range of mineral and brine chemical compositions found in playa evaporite settings. The spectra show that many of the saline minerals exhibit diagnostic near-infrared absorption bands, chiefly attributable to vibrations of hydrogen-bonded structural water molecules. VNIR reflectance spectra can be used to detect minor hydrate phases present in mixtures dominated by anhydrous halite or thenardite, and therefore will be useful in combination with X ray diffraction data for characterizing natural saline mineral assemblages. In addition, VNIR reflectance spectra are sensitive to differences in sample hydration state and should facilitate in situ studies of minerals that occur as fragile, transitory dehydration products in natural salt crusts. The use of spectral reflectance measurements in playa studies should aid in mapping evaporite mineral distributions and may provide insight into the geochemical and hydrological controls on playa mineral and brine development.

  8. Predicting hydration energies for multivalent ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2014-01-01

    We have predicted the free energy of hydration for 40 monovalent and multivalent cations and anions using density functional theory and the implicit solvent model COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) at the Becke-Perdew (BP)/Triple zeta valence with polarization functions (TZVP) level. Agreement with experimental data for monovalent and divalent ions is good and shows no significant systematic errors. Predictions are noticeably better than with standard COSMO. The agreement with experimental data for trivalent and tetravalent ions is slightly worse and shows systematic errors. Our results indicate that quantum chemical calculations combined with COSMO-RS solvent treatment is a reliable method for treating multivalent ions in solution, provided one hydration shell of explicit water molecules is included for metal cations. The accuracy is not high enough to allow absolute predictions of hydration energies but could be used to investigate trends for several ions, thanks to the low computational cost, in particular for ligand exchange reactions.

  9. The economics of exploiting gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the optimal exploitation of methane hydrates, a recent discovery of methane resources under the sea floor, mainly located along the continental margins. Combustion of methane (releasing CO2) and leakage through blow-outs (releasing CH4) contribute to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. A second externality arises since removing solid gas hydrates from the sea bottom destabilizes continental margins and thus increases the risk of marine earthquakes. We show that in such a model three regimes can occur: i) resource exploitation will be stopped in finite time, and some of the resource will stay in situ, ii) the resource will be used up completely in finite time, and iii) the resource will be exhausted in infinite time. We also show how to internalize the externalities by policy instruments. - Highlights: • We set up a model of optimal has hydrate exploitation • We incorporate to types of damages: contribution to global warming and geo-hazards • We characterize optimal exploitation paths and study decentralization with an exploitation tax. • Three regimes can occur: • i) exploitation in finite time and some of the stock remaining in situ, • ii) exploitation in finite time and the resource will be exhausted, • iii) exploitation and exhaustion in infinite time

  10. Combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, M. J.; Krakowiak, K. J.; Bauchy, M.; Stewart, K. L.; Shahsavari, R.; Jagannathan, D.; Brommer, D. B.; Baronnet, A.; Buehler, M. J.; Yip, S.; Ulm, F.-J.; van Vliet, K. J.; Pellenq, R. J.-. M.

    2014-09-01

    Despite its ubiquitous presence in the built environment, concrete’s molecular-level properties are only recently being explored using experimental and simulation studies. Increasing societal concerns about concrete’s environmental footprint have provided strong motivation to develop new concrete with greater specific stiffness or strength (for structures with less material). Herein, a combinatorial approach is described to optimize properties of cement hydrates. The method entails screening a computationally generated database of atomic structures of calcium-silicate-hydrate, the binding phase of concrete, against a set of three defect attributes: calcium-to-silicon ratio as compositional index and two correlation distances describing medium-range silicon-oxygen and calcium-oxygen environments. Although structural and mechanical properties correlate well with calcium-to-silicon ratio, the cross-correlation between all three defect attributes reveals an indentation modulus-to-hardness ratio extremum, analogous to identifying optimum network connectivity in glass rheology. We also comment on implications of the present findings for a novel route to optimize the nanoscale mechanical properties of cement hydrate.

  11. Gems and Gem Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the homepage of a Gem and Minerals class at the University of Texas. The course objectives are to explore the following topics: what are gems and minerals, methods of identification, physical and optical propoerties, crystallography and optics, lapidary arts, the geology of major gem localities, and the value of gems. The site offers access to the course syllabus, handouts, exams with interactive answer-checking, and reference material for common gems.

  12. Minerals of Pohorje marbles

    OpenAIRE

    Miha Jeršek; Sabina Kramar; Simona Skobe; Nina Zupan?i?; Viljem Podgoršek

    2013-01-01

    In the Pohorje Mts, mostly outcrops of calcite marble can be found, which in places turn into dolomite marbles.The protolith carbonate rocks contained also detritical minerals, which remained unchanged or formed new mineralsduring metamorphosis. Minerals in the Pohorje marbles that can be seen as crystals with the naked eye or 10x magnifyingloupe and with binocular microscope were investigated. With the aid of Raman microspectroscopy, SEM-EDSanalysis and on the basis of morphological characte...

  13. Indian continental margin gas hydrate prospects : results of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) expedition 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, T [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Cochran, J.R. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory; Boswell, R. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Kumar, P. [Pushpendra Kumar Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Engineering and Ocean Technology; Sathe, A.V. [Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Uttaranchal (India). KDM Inst. of Petroleum Exploration

    2008-07-01

    The geologic occurrence of gas hydrate deposits along the continental margins of India were investigated in the first expedition of the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP). The objective was to determine the regional context and characteristics of the gas hydrate deposits through scientific ocean drilling, logging, and analytical activities. A research drill ship was the platform for the drilling operation. The geological and geophysical studies revealed 2 geologically distinct areas with inferred gas hydrate occurrences, notably the passive continental margins of the Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. The NGHP Expedition 01 focused on understanding the geologic and geochemical controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in these 2 diverse settings. The study established the presence of gas hydrates in Krishna-Godavari, Mahanadi and Andaman basins. Site 10 in the Krishna-Godavari Basin was discovered to be the one of the richest gas hydrate accumulations yet documented, while site 17 in the Andaman Sea had the thickest and deepest gas hydrate stability zone yet known. The existence of a fully-developed gas hydrate system in the Mahanadi Basin was also discovered. Most of the gas hydrate occurrences discovered during this expedition appeared to contain mostly methane which was generated by microbial processes. However, there was also evidence of a thermal origin for a portion of the gas within the hydrates of the Mahanadi Basin and the Andaman offshore area. Gas hydrate in the Krishna-Godavari Basin appeared to be closely associated with large scale structural features, in which the flux of gas through local fracture systems, generated by the regional stress regime, controlled the occurrence of gas hydrate. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1986-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration. Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine research vessels, evaluation of marine exploration examples; and an overview is provided of the jurisdictional situation after UNCLOS III.

  15. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  16. Radon contribution to the total effective dose of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to radon and its decay products is one of the three parts that create the total effective dose of uranium miners. Photons from gamma radiation and exposition to long-lived alpha emitters which are members of uranium family are the other two parts. The monthly total effective dose of uranium miners in mine Rozna I (Czech republic) is determined by the personal dosemeter ALGADE, which ensures the continual individual monitoring of all three parts. The exposed dosemeters are evaluated in the National institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection in Kamenna near Pribram. This paper describes the individual parts of miners' total effective dose considering the different types of work activities and workplaces. The main input data are the evaluation results of the uranium miners' personal dosemeters ALGADE in mine Rozna i in the time period from 2000 till 2012. (authors)

  17. Development of strength and heat of hydration of young concrete at low temperature - influence of granulated blast furnace slag, silica and limestone

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Monica

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this licentiate thesis was carried out within the project task Use of industrial by-products and filler in concrete, part Early-age strength development at low temperatures in concrete with mineral additions/fillers. To improve the understanding and to increase the data available, the study investigated the development of compressive strength and heat of hydration while curing at 5°C compared with curing at 20°C. Heat and strength development were investigated for differ...

  18. Octa-coordination and the hydrated Ba2+(aq) ion

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Rempe, Susan B

    2014-01-01

    The hydration structure of Ba^{2+} ion is important for understanding blocking mechanisms in potassium ion channels. Here, we combine statistical mechanical theory, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and electronic structure methods to calculate the hydration free energy and local hydration structure of Ba^{2+}(aq). The predicted hydration free energy (-302.9$\\pm$0.7 kcal/mol) matches the experimental value (-302.56 kcal/mol) when the fully occupied and exclusive inner solvation shell is treated. In the local environment defined by the inner and first shell of hydrating waters, Ba^{2+} is directly coordinated by eight (8) waters. Octa-coordination resembles the structure of Ba^{2+} and K^+ bound in potassium ion channels, but differs from the local hydration structure of K^+(aq) determined earlier.

  19. Dissolution mechanisms of CO2 hydrate droplets in deep seawaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide dissolution at intermediate ocean depths was studied using physical and mass transfer models. Particle density and hydrate layer thickness were determined using existing field data. Pseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous mass transfer models were proposed to study the dissolution process. Pseudo-homogeneous models do not seem to represent the dissolution process well. Although heterogeneous models interpret the physical behavior better, unresolved issues related to hydrate dissolution still remain. For example, solid hydrate forms on one side of the hydrate film while it dissolves on the other. Dissolution is a complex process that comprises at least two sequential steps. The global process is controlled by mass transfer inside the hydrate layer or by a dissolution reaction at the hydrate-water interface

  20. Experimental Determination of Refractive Index of Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylov, Martin; Rasmussen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The refractive indexes of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate have been experimentally determined. The refractive indexes were determined in an indirect manner making use of the fact that two non-absorbing materials will have the same refractive index if they cannot be distinguished visually. For methane hydrate (structure I) the refractive index was found to be 1.346 and for natural gas hydrate (structure II) it was found to be 1.350. The measurements further suggest that the gas hydrate growth rate increases if the water has formed hydrates before. The induction time, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the history of the water. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Chemical alteration of cement materials in a radioactive waste repository environment. 3. Development of reactive transport computational code combined with incongruent dissolution model of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For long-term performance assessment of a cementitious disposal system for TRU waste, a so-called reactive transport computational code, being a numerical simulation code coupled a geochemical model suited to the system includes cement hydrate and a solute transport model, so-called reactive transport computational code, has been developed. The thermodynamic model previously developed in our institute for incongruent dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel, which is a principal product of hydrated cement phase, was incorporated into a geochemical code, Harphrq, to evaluate chemical equilibrium conditions containing cement hydrates. This modification of the code enables a user to evaluate adequately the chemical equilibrium of a system including cement hydrate, such as a dissolution/precipitation of C-S-H gel and/or a change of Ca/Si ratio in C-S-H gel. The modified geochemical code was coupled onto a simplified solute transport code using a compartment model. The coupled code could simulate the processes where various chemical species in aqueous phase migrate through the homogeneous porous materials while locally maintaining chemical equilibrium. The developed reactive transport computational code was verified by comparison with experimental results on batch-type dissolution tests and column-type alteration tests under flow-through conditions of ordinary Portland cement hydrate. Predictive calculation results by the developed code were reasonably accordante developed code were reasonably accordant with the experimental results, e.g. the distribution of constituent minerals and the composition of pore water in altered ordinary Portland cement hydrate. The validity of the developed code was therefore verified. Analysis on the results by the calculation could indicates special features such as a distribution of Ca/Si ratio in C-S-H gel along the water-flow in the column, and a re-precipitation of C-S-H gel in the downstream side of the dissolution front of C-S-H gel. (author)

  2. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause severe not only permanent, local impact on the environment, but also will have implications for other Earth's systems as a whole. Mineral prospecting and exploration in Antarctica need to be reflected and respected in any concept of environmental sustainability. Anyway, first stage of the geological surveying should be carried purely scientific and not designed to explore for and identify mineral deposits. It's obvious that although various countries claim sovereignty in certain regions of Antarctica, the continent should be continued to be politically neutral. Efforts of scientists and politicians should respect their own responsibility for the protection of the fragile Antarctic environment and of our planet in the whole taking care for future generations.

  3. Distribution of Hydrate Inhibitors in Processing of Gas-Condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Jonassen, Anette Hartveit

    2013-01-01

    The formation of gas hydrates have been known to cause serious problems with blockages in natural gas pipelines, wellbore and natural gas processing units. The offshore sector of the North Sea comes into focus owing to factors such as low temperature, high pressure because of deep water fields, great depth of the subsea environment and remote locations that are factors underlying the increased hydrate formation. Hydrates are formed in multiphase transport comprising gas, condensate and water....

  4. Formation and accumulation of gas hydrate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, A. W.; Buffett, B. A.

    1997-05-01

    Vast quantities of clathrate hydrate are found in the Arctic and in marine sediments along continental margins. The clathrate structure traps enormous volumes of methane gas, which is both a possible source of global climate change and a potential energy resource. The growth rate and spatial distribution of gas hydrate in the shallow sediments are influenced by a variety of interacting physical processes. In order to quantify these processes, we develop mathematical models for hydrate formation in porous media. An analytical model is derived for the idealized problem of hydrate growth in a porous half-space which is cooled on its boundary. Our calculations predict the growth rate of a hydrate layer for a given rate of cooling and show that the volume of hydrate is strongly dependent on the two-phase equilibrium between hydrate and seawater. For a representative phase diagram we find that the volume of hydrate in the layer is less than 1% of the pore volume. Larger volumes of hydrate observed in some locations demand a sustained supply of gas and a long accumulation time. Numerical calculations are used to investigate situations that are more representative of conditions in marine sediments. A simple theoretical expression is derived for the rate of hydrate accumulation due to advection of methane gas from depth. Using typical estimates of fluid velocities in accretionary environments, we obtain an accumulation rate of 1% of the pore volume in 105 years. The predicted vertical distribution of hydrate is consistent with geophysical inferences from observed hydrate occurrences along the Cascadia margin. Similar distributions can arise from the combined effects of in situ methane production and warming due to ongoing sedimentation. Predicted differences between these two formation models may be detectable in geophysical and geochemical measurements.

  5. A molecular dynamics study on sI hydrogen hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S; Ghosh, S; Chattaraj, P K

    2013-07-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation is carried out to explore the possibility of using sI clathrate hydrate as hydrogen storage material. Metastable hydrogen hydrate structures are generated using the LAMMPS software. Different binding energies and radial distribution functions provide important insights into the behavior of the various types of hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the system. Clathrate hydrate cages become more stable in the presence of guest molecules like hydrogen. PMID:23093389

  6. Effect of gas hydrates melting on seafloor slope instability

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Nabil; Cochonat, Pierre; Foucher, Jean-paul; Mienert, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the thermodynamic chemical equilibrium of gas hydrate in soil by taking into account the influence of temperature, pressure, pore water chemistry, and the mean pore size distribution. The model uses a new formulation based on the enthalpy form of the law of conservation of energy. The developed model shows that due to a temperature and pressure increase, hydrates may dissociate at the top of the hydrate occurrence zone to ensure a chemical equilibrium with th...

  7. Transformation of deep-water methane bubbles into hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Egorov, Alexander V.; Nigmatulin, Robert I.; Rozhkov, Aleksey N.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the mechanics of the methane bubbles in the gas hydrate stability zone of the basin. Transformation of deep-water methane bubbles into solid hydrate was investigated in Lake Baikal in situ. Released from the bottom methane bubbles were caught by different traps with transparent walls. It was observed that when bubbles entered into internal space of the trap, the bubbles could be transformed into two different solid hydrate structures depending on am...

  8. Study of the health effects exposure to thorium dusts of the miners in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the health effects of the miners in Baiyun Obo Rare Earth Iron Mine after long-term exposed to high air concentrations of thorium-containing rare-earth dusts and short lived thoron daughters. Methods: By using the negative high voltage exhaled thoron progeny measurement system. Results: Epidemiological study showed that the SMR of lung cancers of the dust-exposed miners was much higher than that of the controls. The difference between these two SMRs was highly significant. Conclusion: It was the first evidence that the dust-exposed miners after long-term (more than 30 years) exposed to high air concentrations of thorium containing rare-earth dusts and thoron short-lived progeny could induced excess lung cancer. The synergic effects of long history smoking and the ? exposure in mining area could not be excluded

  9. Synergistic kinetic inhibition of natural gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Malmos, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Rocking cells were used to investigate the natural gas hydrate formation and decomposition in the presence of kinetic inhibitor, Luvicap. In addition, the influence of poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and NaCl on the performance of Luvicap was investigated using temperature ramping and isothermal experiments. Luvicap decreased the hydrate nucleation temperature in ramping and increased the hydrate nucleation time at fixed temperatures. The presence of PEO and NaCl enhanced the nucleation inhibition strength of Luvicap. However the addition of Luvicap promoted the hydrate growth after nucleation. PEO does not affect hydrate growth whereas NaCl reduced the hydrate growth both in the presence and absence of Luvicap. In addition complex two-stage hydrate growth was observed in the presence of Luvicap. Moreover, the hydrate formed in the presence of inhibitor took longer time/higher temperature to decompose completely. One should consider this complex inhibitor-mediated hydrate formation and decomposition kinetics when screening and designing kinetic inhibitors for field applications.

  10. Micromechanical cohesion force measurements to determine cyclopentane hydrate interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Zachary M; Joshi, Sanjeev E; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2012-06-15

    Hydrate aggregation and deposition are critical factors in determining where and when hydrates may plug a deepwater flowline. We present the first direct measurement of structure II (cyclopentane) hydrate cohesive forces in the water, liquid hydrocarbon and gas bulk phases. For fully annealed hydrate particles, gas phase cohesive forces were approximately twice that obtained in a liquid hydrocarbon phase, and approximately six times that obtained in the water phase. Direct measurements show that hydrate cohesion force in a water-continuous bulk may be only the product of solid-solid cohesion. When excess water was present on the hydrate surface, gas phase cohesive forces increased by a factor of three, suggesting the importance of the liquid or quasi-liquid layer (QLL) in determining cohesive force. Hydrate-steel adhesion force measurements show that, when the steel surface is coated with hydrophobic wax, forces decrease up to 96%. As the micromechanical force technique is uniquely capable of measuring hydrate-surface forces with variable contact time, the present work contains significant implications for hydrate applications in flow assurance. PMID:22484169

  11. Rate of Hydrate Inhibitor in Long Subsea Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Ha?kon Eidem

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is divided into several parts. The first part deals with hydrate theory and where hydrates form in the gas-and oil-dominated systems. A review of how hydrate plugs is formed and a method for removing hydrate plugs safely is also included.Simplified HYSYS models of the upstream part of Ormen Lange and Snøhvit gas fields on the Norwegian Continental Shelf constituted the basis for answering the second part of the task. Data from private conversations, reports, slide presentatio...

  12. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  13. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We then used TOUGH + Hydrate to simulate the observed gas production and reservoir pressure field data at Messoyakha. We simulated various scenarios that help to explain the field behavior. We have evaluated the effect of reservoir parameters on gas recovery from hydrates. Our work should be beneficial to others who are investigating how to produce gas from a hydrate capped gas reservoir. The results also can be used to better evaluate the process of producing gas from offshore hydrates. The Schlumberger PETREL model is used in industry to the description of geologic horizons and the special distribution of properties. An interface between FLAC3D and Petrel was built by Schlumberger to allow for efficient data entry into TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D.

  14. Characterization of CO2 hydrate formation by temperature vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? A method of temperature vibration is proposed to improve CO2 hydrate formation. ? Temperature vibration is effective for CO2 hydrate formation with pure water. ? By temperature vibration, the gas consumption can be increased 1.6 times with SDS. ? Appropriate operation time enables short hydrate formation period. -- Abstract: A method of temperature vibration was proposed to promote CO2 hydrate formation based on the dual nature of CO2 solubility in hydrate-forming regions. The effects on carbon dioxide hydrate formation were investigated in a small scale reactor. The results show that the hydrate formation with distilled water in a quiescent system can be improved effectively by temperature vibration, and the pressure drop is increased by 30%. The effect is especially evident with 0.3% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) additive using temperature vibration method, and large amount of hydrates are formed. The rest gas pressure is very close to the phase equilibrium value at setting temperature. Moreover, the pressure drop of CO2 gas in the reactor is about 2.6 times of that without temperature vibration. With appropriate operation time of temperature vibration, hydrate formation period can be greatly shortened.

  15. Study of alinite cement hydration by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of alinite cements, Mg-alinite and Zn-alinite, were synthesized using the reagent grade chemicals. Their hydration behavior was compared with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) using impedance spectroscopy (IS) and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The bulk resistance in the IS spectra and the intensity ratio of the hydrous (Q1 and Q2) to anhydrous (Q0) phases in the NMR spectra were estimated as the extent of hydration. The results obtained from both techniques were consistent each other. Mg-alinite had a comparable hydration rate to OPC and Zn-alinite exhibited faster hydration kinetics than Mg-alinite

  16. Protein interaction with hydrated C60 fullerene in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, S P; Goryunov, A S; Sukhanova, G A; Borisova, A G; Rozhkova, N N; Andrievsky, G V

    2003-04-01

    Physicochemical effects of hydrated C(60) fullerenes (HyFn) on serum albumin molecules were studied using ESR spin labeling and differential scanning microcalorimetry. Molecular-colloidal solution of hydrated C(60) fullerenes and their small spherical fractal clusters in water (C(60)FWS), was shown to stabilize protein hydration, and decrease specific surface energy in water-protein matrix in salt solutions. The mechanism of HyFn interaction with protein is discussed in terms of HyFn induced formation of protein clusters and phase transition of hydration water. PMID:12659855

  17. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV–VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C3A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration. Highlights: ? Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C3A and ettringite have been studied. ? C3A–gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. ? Welan gum retards the process of C3A–gypsum hydration. ? The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation es the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  18. Recent results from a study of thorium lung burdens and health effects among miners in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about health effects among the dust-exposed male miners of Bayun Obo Rare-Earth and Iron Mine, China. From 2390 male miners from the seven dust-generating workshops of the mine, 136 dust-exposed miners were randomly selected for study. Of these, 64 men were from the high-dust-generating workshop and 72 from the lower-dust-generating workshops; the latter group was used as an internal control. Physical measurements and medical examinations were carried out on each of these 136 men. The average measured thorium lung burden for the high-dust-exposure miners was significantly greater than that for the group of lower-exposure miners, and the incidence of severe breathlessness and pneumoconiosis of stage 0+ was also significantly raised in the high-exposure group relative to the low-exposure group. An epidemiological study of lung cancer mortality among all the miners and staff of this mine was also carried out. This showed significantly raised levels of lung cancer mortality in both exposed miners and unexposed workers when compared with the Chinese population, and the level in exposed miners was significantly higher than that in unexposed men. The general high rate of lung cancer mortality in the workers of the mine is attributed to high levels of cigarette smoking, and the raised rate in the exposed miners relative to the unexposed workers to inhalation of silica- and thorium-bearing dusts and thoron pro- and thorium-bearing dusts and thoron progeny

  19. Phase field modeling of CH4 hydrate conversion into CO2 hydrate in the presence of liquid CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegze, G; Gránásy, L; Kvamme, B

    2007-06-28

    We present phase field simulations to estimate the conversion rate of CH(4) hydrate to CO(2) hydrate in the presence of liquid CO(2) under conditions typical for underwater gas hydrate reservoirs. In the computations, all model parameters are evaluated from physical properties taken from experiment or molecular dynamics simulations. It has been found that hydrate conversion is a diffusion controlled process, as after a short transient, the displacement of the conversion front scales with t(1/2). Assuming a diffusion coefficient of D(s) = 1.1 x 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) in the hydrate phase, the predicted time dependent conversion rate is in reasonable agreement with results from magnetic resonance imaging experiments. This value of the diffusion coefficient is higher than expected for the bulk hydrate phase, probably due to liquid inclusions remaining in the porous sample used in the experiment. PMID:17612734

  20. Unraveling water's entropic mysteries: a unified view of nonpolar, polar, and ionic hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor; Underwood, Robin

    2008-08-01

    [Figure: see text]. Most chemical processes on earth are intimately linked to the unique properties of water, relying on the versatility with which water interacts with molecules of varying sizes and polarities. These interactions determine everything from the structure and activity of proteins and living cells to the geological partitioning of water, oil, and minerals in the Earth's crust. The role of hydrophobic hydration in the formation of biological membranes and in protein folding, as well as the importance of electrostatic interactions in the hydration of polar and ionic species, are all well known. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hydration are often not as well understood. This Account summarizes and extends emerging understandings of these mechanisms to reveal a newly unified view of hydration and explain previously mystifying observations. For example, rare gas atoms (e.g., Ar) and alkali-halide ions (e.g., K+ and Cl-) have nearly identical experimental hydration entropies, despite the significant charge-induced reorganization of water molecules. Here, we explain how such previously mysterious observations may be understood as arising from Gibbs inequalities, which impose rigorous energetic upper and lower bounds on both hydration free energies and entropies. These fundamental Gibbs bounds depend only on the average interaction energy of a solute with water, thus providing a deep link between solute-water interaction energies and entropies. One of the surprising consequences of the emerging picture is the understanding that the hydration of an ion produces two large but nearly perfectly cancelling, entropic contributions: a negative ion-water interaction entropy and a positive water reorganization entropy. Recent work has also clarified the relationship between the strong cohesive energy of water and the free energy required to form an empty hole (cavity) in water. Here, we explain how linear response theory (whose roots may also be traced to Gibbs inequalities) can provide remarkably accurate descriptions of the process of filling aqueous cavities with nonpolar, polar, or charged molecules. The hydration of nonpolar molecules is well-described by first-order perturbation theory, which implies that turning on solute-water van der Waals interactions does not induce a significant change in water structure. The larger changes in water structure that are induced by polar and ionic solutes are well-described by second-order perturbation theory, which is equivalent to linear response theory. Comparisons of the free energies of nonpolar and polar or ionic solutes may be used to experimentally determine electrostatic contributions to water reorganization energies and entropies. The success of this approach implies that water's ability to respond to solutes of various polarities is far from saturated, as illustrated by simulations of acetonitrile (CH 3CN) in water, which reveal that even such a strongly dipolar solute only produces subtle changes in the structure of water. PMID:18710198

  1. Seismic characterisation of gas hydrates in the Pegasus sub-basin, Southern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Gorman, A. R.; Pecher, I. A.; Golding, T.; Henrys, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Hikurangi Subduction Margin, east of the North Island of New Zealand, is a region known to contain significant deposits of gas hydrates. This has been particularly demonstrated by several multidisciplinary studies in the area since 2005. These studies, based on the acquisition and analysis of seismic, heat flow, and controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data, indicate that hydrates are primarily located beneath thrust ridges that may enable focussed fluid flow, and that the hydrates are associated with free gas. The host rock for the gas hydrates is suggested to be fractured mudstones and, potentially, localized channel sands. In late 2009 and early 2010, a new seismic dataset was acquired by Crown Minerals (part of New Zealand’s Ministry of Economic Development). The survey was conducted by the M/V Bergen Resolution, and included approximately 3000 km of 2D seismic data in the Pegasus sub-basin, an area at the southern end of the Hikurangi Margin, bounded by the Cook Strait to the west and by the Chatham Rise to the south. The Pegasus sub-basin is in the southern part of the larger East Coast Basin and is located in the zone of transition between the tectonic regimes of North Island subduction and South Island transpression. The seismic was acquired using a 12 km-long streamer, providing a grid of data over an area of approximately 35,000 km2. Water depths in the region ranged from approximately 500 to 3000 m. Preliminary examination of shipboard stacks included identification of an 80 km-long Bottom-Simulating Reflection (BSR) on one line, as well as other features associated with the BSR that may indicate the presence of gas hydrates in zones of high concentration. We present results from a quantitative analysis of the data, including high-resolution velocity analysis, providing insight into the nature of interesting seismic features such as bright spots (high-amplitude anomalies) and flat spots (indicating potential fluid contacts). The analysis also allows for the identification of targets for more detailed seismic investigation during a future survey planned for early 2011.

  2. Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for yourself or a loved one. What is artificial nutrition and hydration? Artificial nutrition and hydration is ... by putting a tube in the stomach. Is artificial nutrition and hydration different from ordinary eating and ...

  3. Properties and application of additive enhanced CO2 hydrates: Poster at 7th International Conference on Gas Hydrates, ICGH 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Egenolf-Jonkmanns, Bärbel

    2011-01-01

    CO2 hydrates are a promising but yet unused material basis for the development of key technologies in the field of technical applications in separation and energy technology. The application potential of CO2 hydrates to desalinate sea water, to treat crude oil and separate light fractions or to recover enzyme from reversed micelle solutions could be shown in principle, but yet isnt scientifically-technically developed further on. The ability to control the process of CO2 hydrate formation or ...

  4. Scar management by means of occlusion and hydration: a comparative study of silicones versus a hydrating gel-cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Henk; De Vos, Marie; Verbelen, Jozef; Pirayesh, Ali; Monstrey, Stan

    2013-11-01

    Despite the worldwide use of silicones in scar management, its exact working mechanism based on a balanced occlusion and hydration, is still not completely elucidated. Moreover, it seems peculiar that silicones with completely different occlusive and hydrating properties still could provide a similar therapeutic effect. The objective of the first part of this study was to compare the occlusive and hydrating properties of three fluid silicone gels and a hydrating gel-cream. In a second part of the study these results were compared with those of silicone gel sheets. Tape stripped skin was used as a standardized scar like model on both forearms of 40 healthy volunteers. At specific times, trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and the hydration state of the stratum corneum were measured and compared with intact skin and a scar-like control over a 3-4h period. Our study clearly demonstrated that fluid silicone gels and a hydrating gel-cream have comparable occlusive and hydrating properties while silicone gel sheets are much more occlusive, reducing TEWL values far below those of normal skin. A well-balanced, hydrating gel-cream can provide the same occlusive and hydrating properties as fluid silicone gels, suggesting that it could eventually replace silicones in scar treatment. PMID:23639224

  5. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rudy E. (Starkville, MS); Zhong, Yu (Brandon, MS)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  6. Submarine gas hydrate deposits: From genesis, geology to peculiarities of gas production and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlova, Elena V.; Yakushev, Vladimir S.; Makhonina, Natalia A.; Leonov, Sergey A.; Istomin, Vladimir A.

    2005-07-01

    Nowadays natural gas hydrates are considered as the most perspective alternative source of natural gas. At the same time submarine gas hydrate deposits for many reasons looks more preferable for exploitation comparing to continental ones. The genetic classification of submarine gas hydrate deposits is proposed in the paper, possible mechanisms of formation of a chemical composition of hydrate gas in the deposits of different types are considered. Methods of hydrate gas production, treatment and transportation from submarine gas hydrate deposits are offered. (Author)

  7. Report: Proceedings of the Hedberg Research Conference 'Gas Hydrates : Energy resource potential and associated geologic hazards'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    2005-01-01

    Sessions, covering various aspects of gas hydrates, the main themes being: Technical Oral Sessions: (1) Challenges of Unconventional Resources; (2) Gas Hydrate Resources Development Research; (3) Resource Potential and Geology of Marine Gas Hydrates; (4...' presentation is as follows: In the Session on 'Challenges of Unconventional Resources' the importance of gas hydrates, how to explore the resources, and basics for the development of gas hydrate deposits have been presented. The Session on 'Gas Hydrate...

  8. Investigating the Metastability of Clathrate Hydrates for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Carolyn Ann [Colorado School of Mines

    2014-11-18

    Important breakthrough discoveries have been achieved from the DOE award on the key processes controlling the synthesis and structure-property relations of clathrate hydrates, which are critical to the development of clathrate hydrates as energy storage materials. Key achievements include: (i) the discovery of key clathrate hydrate building blocks (stable and metastable) leading to clathrate hydrate nucleation and growth; (ii) development of a rapid clathrate hydrate synthesis route via a seeding mechanism; (iii) synthesis-structure relations of H2 + CH4/CO2 binary hydrates to control thermodynamic requirements for energy storage and sequestration applications; (iv) discovery of a new metastable phase present during clathrate hydrate structural transitions. The success of our research to-date is demonstrated by the significant papers we have published in high impact journals, including Science, Angewandte Chemie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. Intellectual Merits of Project Accomplishments: The intellectual merits of the project accomplishments are significant and transformative, in which the fundamental coupled computational and experimental program has provided new and critical understanding on the key processes controlling the nucleation, growth, and thermodynamics of clathrate hydrates containing hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and other guest molecules for energy storage. Key examples of the intellectual merits of the accomplishments include: the first discovery of the nucleation pathways and dominant stable and metastable structures leading to clathrate hydrate formation; the discovery and experimental confirmation of new metastable clathrate hydrate structures; the development of new synthesis methods for controlling clathrate hydrate formation and enclathration of molecular hydrogen. Broader Impacts of Project Accomplishments: The molecular investigations performed in this project on the synthesis (nucleation & growth)-structure-stability relations of clathrate hydrate systems are pivotal in the fundamental understanding of crystalline clathrate hydrates and the discovery of new clathrate hydrate properties and novel materials for a broad spectrum of energy applications, including: energy storage (hydrogen, natural gas); carbon dioxide sequestration; controlling hydrate formation in oil/gas transportation in subsea pipelines. The Project has also enabled the training of undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students in computational methods, molecular spectroscopy and diffraction, and measurement methods at extreme conditions of high pressure and low temperature.

  9. Antifreeze proteins: Adsorption to ice, silica and gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Huang; Brown, Alan; Wathen, Brent; Ripmeester, John A.; Walker, VIrginia K.

    2005-07-01

    Certain organisms survive under freezing conditions that could otherwise prove fatal by the synthesis of antifreeze proteins (AFPs). AFPs adsorb to the surface of microscopic ice crystals and prevent further ice growth, resulting in a noncolligative freezing point depression. Type I AFP from the winter flounder (wfAFP) is an alfa-helical, alanine-rich serum protein that helps protect against innoculative freezing from ice-laden seas. The AFP of a moth from the boreal forest, Choristoneura fumiferana (Cf), is a beta-helical threonine-rich protein that helps prevent freezing at the overwintering, caterpillar stage. In contrast, the beta-roll AFP from the grass, Lolium perenne (Lp), confers little freezing point depression and the plants readily freeze. Remarkably, AFPs also adsorb to tetrahyrofuran (THF) hydrate, changing the hydrate's octahedral morphology and, as well, inhibiting the growth of THF and gas hydrates. The hyperactive CfAFP, with 30-100 times the activity of wfAFP toward ice, showed far greater nucleation inhibition for THF hydrate than did a commercial hydrate inhibitor, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Active AFPs were also judged to be superior to PVP in that they inhibited the memory effect, a phenomenon whereby hydrate reforms at a faster rate soon after melting. An inactive mutant wfAFP, with an amino acid substitution at the ice-binding site, also reduced the growth of THF hydrate but was ineffective at suppressing hydrate reformation. These results suggest that the molecular properties important for ice adsorption and inhibition of hydrate reformation may be similar, and are distinct from those required for hydrate growth inhibition. The different AFPs also show markedly different aggregations on a third hydrophilic substrate, silica. Together these studies suggest that AFP adsorption to ice, hydrates and silica depends on the overall structure, specific residues and protein-protein interactions. (Author)

  10. The Growth and Decay of Hydrate Anomalies in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, J. T.; Rempel, A. W.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrates, stored in huge quantities beneath permafrost, and in submarine sediments on the continental shelf, have the potential to become a vital clean-burning energy source. However, clear evidence is recorded in coastal sediments worldwide that past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. Arctic permafrost is thawing, and environmental changes can alter ocean circulation to warm the seafloor, causing hydrates to dissociate or dissolve in the sediments beneath. Decades of focused research provide a firm understanding of laboratory conditions under which hydrates become unstable and dissociate, and how hydrate reserves form when microbes convert organic material into methane, which can also dissolve and be carried by pore waters into the hydrate stability zone. Despite these advances, many key questions that concern both the resource potential of hydrates and their role in causing environmental geohazards, are intimately tied to the more poorly understood behavior of hydrate anomalies, which tend to be concentrated in the large pores of sand layers and form segregated lenses and nodules in muds. We present simple models designed to unravel the importance of the diverse physical interactions (i.e. flow focusing, free-gas infiltration, and pore-scale solubility effects) that help control how hydrate anomalies form. Predicted hydrate distributions are qualitatively different when accumulation in anomalies is supplied primarily by: 1. aqueous flow through sediments with enhanced permeability, 2. free-gas transport high above the three-phase stability boundary, or 3. diffusive transport along solubility gradients associated with pore-scale effects. We discuss examples that illustrate each of these distinct generation modes, in hopes of providing a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies and their geomechanical properties in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development.

  11. Static formation and dissociation of methane+methylcyclohexane hydrate for gas hydrate production and regasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Liang, D.; Li, D. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Guangzhou Center for Gas Hydrate Research, Guangzhou (China); Ma, L. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-08-15

    The formation and decomposition of methane+methylcyclohexane (MCH) hydrate in a static batch reactor, which was also designed as a high-pressure microwave reactor, were investigated. The addition of 300 ppm sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) provides continuous formation of CH{sub 4}+MCH hydrate under static conditions. Increasing the initial pressure within the narrow range of 2.7 to 4.6 MPa at 274 K enhances the formation rate by even several times. The gas storage capacity can be largely improved with partial coexisting of sI CH{sub 4} hydrate. Unlike a stirred formation, an increase of nonaqueous MCH inhibits the static formation of sH hydrate. The following regasification by 2.45 GHz microwave heating indicates that the dissociation is rate-controlled by the parallel connection of efficient internal heating and conventional external heating. The multiphase convection characterized by osmotic dehydration and driven by intensified regasification is considered as the dominant mechanism affecting the quiescent dissociation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Salinity-buffered methane hydrate formation and dissociation in gas-rich systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kehua; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Flemings, Peter B.; Polito, Peter; Bryant, Steven L.

    2015-02-01

    Methane hydrate formation and dissociation are buffered by salinity in a closed system. During hydrate formation, salt excluded from hydrate increases salinity, drives the system to three-phase (gas, water, and hydrate phases) equilibrium, and limits further hydrate formation and dissociation. We developed a zero-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium-based model to explain this concept. We demonstrated this concept by forming and melting methane hydrate from a partially brine-saturated sand sample in a controlled laboratory experiment by holding pressure constant (6.94 MPa) and changing temperature stepwise. The modeled methane gas consumptions and hydrate saturations agreed well with the experimental measurements after hydrate nucleation. Hydrate dissociation occurred synchronously with temperature increase. The exception to this behavior is that substantial subcooling (6.4°C in this study) was observed for hydrate nucleation. X-ray computed tomography scanning images showed that core-scale hydrate distribution was heterogeneous. This implied core-scale water and salt transport induced by hydrate formation. Bulk resistivity increased sharply with initial hydrate formation and then decreased as the hydrate ripened. This study reproduced the salinity-buffered hydrate behavior interpreted for natural gas-rich hydrate systems by allowing methane gas to freely enter/leave the sample in response to volume changes associated with hydrate formation and dissociation. It provides insights into observations made at the core scale and log scale of salinity elevation to three-phase equilibrium in natural hydrate systems.

  13. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  14. Stability of clathrate hydrates in Martian crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloesener, Elodie; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2014-05-01

    Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds constituted by cages formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules inside of which guest gas molecules are trapped. These materials are typically stable at high pressure and low temperature and are present on Earth mainly in marine sediments and in permafrost. Moreover, clathrate hydrates are expected to exist on celestial bodies like the icy moons Titan, Europa or Enceladus. Current conditions in the Martian crust are favourable to the presence of clathrate hydrates. In this study, we focused on the stability of methane and carbon dioxide clathrates in the Martian crust. We coupled the stability conditions of clathrates with a 1D thermal model in order to obtain the variations of the clathrate stability zone in the crust of Mars with time and for different crust compositions. Indeed, the type of soil directly controls the geothermal conditions and therefore the depth of clathrates formation. Unconsolidated soil acts as a thermal insulator and prevents the clathrates formation in the crust except on a small part of a few tens of meters thick. In contrast, sandstone or ice-cemented soil allows the clathrates formation with a stability zone of several kilometers. This is explained by the fact that they evacuate heat more efficiently and thus maintain lower temperatures. We also studied the stability zone of clathrates formed from a mixture of methane and hydrogen sulphide as well as from a mixture of methane and nitrogen. Contrary to the addition of N2, the addition of H2S to CH4 clathrates extends the stability zone and thus brings it closer to the surface. Therefore, mixed clathrates CH4-H2S will be more easily destabilized by changes in surface temperature than CH4 clathrates.

  15. A new calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Axel NØrlund; Jensen, Torben R

    2010-01-01

    Calcium sulfate hydrates receive significant attention due to numerous large scale industrial applications. There has been a long debate on the possible existence of two gypsum hemi-hydrate polymorphs, denoted alpha- and beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O. In this work, a new crystal structure of calcium sulfate hemi-hydrates is presented, denoted beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O. The structure was solved using powder neutron diffraction data, the space group is P3(1) and the unit cell in a hexagonal setting a = 6.9268(1), c = 12.7565(3) A. The structure has two calcium-oxygen coordination polyhedra: Ca1 is eight coordinated and has Ca-O bond lengths in the range 2.31(3) to 2.89(2) A and Ca2 is nine coordinated and has one Ca-O(water) bond length of 2.43(3) A, and eight Ca-O bonds in the range 2.30(4) to 2.86(4) A. Two sulfate ions have S-O bonds in the range 1.47(3) to 1.49(4) A, and 1.47(3) to 1.50(3) A, respectively. The water molecule forms a hydrogen bond of 2.55(4) A to an oxygen atom in one of the sulfate ions. The structure of the hemi-hydrate beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O has one-dimensional channels running parallel to the c-axis where the water molecules are located. This relates the structures of alpha- and beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O and soluble anhydrite AIII-CaSO(4), which all have similar channel structures. The water molecules in the structure of beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O are packed in the channels with a three fold (3(1)) symmetry in a different way as compared to the pseudo hexagonal found in the structure of alpha-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O.

  16. Minerals as advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depmeier, W. [Universitaet Kiel (Germany). Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Kristallographie-Mineralogie

    2009-10-15

    A resume is given on relationships between minerals and materials. It is shown that Nature has many advantages over technology which can be profitably exploited for finding new materials with useful properties. However, Nature has also inherent limitations. Therefore, it seems advisable to use the knowledge of minerals as a treasure which can be tapped for getting inspired on the way to finding new materials. Several examples are given, including those of zorite/ETS-4/ETS-10, boracites, zircon, kesterite, a natural quasicrystal, opals, ultramarine and mayenite. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using the crawler camera and sensors. On retrieval, the specimens will be further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. The complex coordination of hardware, software, and people is challenging such that the ideal of frequent and timely observations of these poorly known processes is realized. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

  18. Chapter 5. Origin of Mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author deals with the origin of uranium mineralization in Slovakia. There are discussed (1) Stratiform mineralization, particularly: (A) Uranium in Ti-rare earth elements (REE)-Zr placers in sandstone, (B) uranium mineralization in sandstone with abundant organic matter, (C) Uranium mineralization in phosphatic sandstone,(D) Cu±U mineralization (copper sandstone), (E) U-Mo mineralized horizons in volcanoclastic and volcanic rocks; (2) Vein mineralization, particularly: (F) Uranium mineralization in pegmatite, (G) Mo-W-(U-Ti-REE) mineralization in granite, (H) U-REE±Au mineralization in proximity of granite, (I) U±Mo and Cu mineralization cutting the permian sequences, (J) Uranium mineralization in the Neogene volcanics; and (3) Evolution of uranium mineralization. Uraninite occurrence in pegmatite of Dubrava deposit in Nizke Tatry Mts is the oldest manifestation of the uranium mineralization in the Western Carpathians. Its origin is related to the Hercynian magmatic activity. The most important uranium mineralization occurs in the Permian sequences. The stratiform mineralization is related to sandstones with abundant organic matter of Hronicum in the Kozie Chrbty Mts. or to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of Gemericum and Tatricum. The low-grade Permian ores display age ranging from (270 to 240±30) Ma. The Permian low-grade mineralization wa re-mobilized during the Alpine orogeny forming ore bodies of high-grade uranium mineralization especially ade uranium mineralization especially on northern Gemericum and Tatricum of the Povazsky Inovec Mts. Big tectonic structures in ore deposits were favourable for remobilization. The younger re-mobilized mineralization overlaps the older low grade mineralization. U-Pb isotopic dating gave 130±20 Ma in high-grade ores of Gemericum in Novoveska Huta and 100±20 in high-grade ores of Tatricum in Kalnica. The Alpine granite with dissemination U-Ti-REE mineralization displays age 101±5 Ma according to Rb-Sr dating. As reliable U-Pb dating of U-REE±Au vein mineralization is missing its Permian age based on Rb-Sr dating of Gemeric granite cannot be also excluded. The youngest hydrothermal uranium mineralization cuts the Neogene volcanic rock

  19. The Physical Characteristics of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offered by Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (an online minerals store), the Physical Characteristics of Minerals Web site offers a detailed description of how minerals are identified. Each page gives good information and examples of a particular characteristic (e.g, color, hardness, cleavage, feel, and taste). Also, on the first page are links to dozens of minerals that are categorized by name, class, interesting groupings, and great localities. These give the class, subclass, group, uses, physical characteristics, and sample photographs of that particular mineral. Anyone interested in geology, minerals, or gemstones will find this site very informative and fun to explore.

  20. Reduction of aromatic and heteroaromatic azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Rollas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The azo compounds have been reduced with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of a catalyst or without a catalyst. This reaction is an atractive alternate for the reduction of azo functional group to obtain new amines. In this review, the reduction of aromatic or heteroaromatic azo compounds with hydrazine hydrate have been reported.

  1. Ice method for production of hydrogen clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Konstantin (Santa Fe, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-05-13

    The present invention includes a method for hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis. First, ice and hydrogen gas are supplied to a containment volume at a first temperature and a first pressure. Next, the containment volume is pressurized with hydrogen gas to a second higher pressure, where hydrogen clathrate hydrates are formed in the process.

  2. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates. PMID:26082291

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of pyrolysis processes of lanthanide nitrates hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes taking place under lanthanide nitrate hydrates heating are considered. A conclusion is made that it is impossible to prepare anhydrous lanthanide nitrates by hydrate dehydration at high temperatures because processes of lanthanide monohydroxidenitrate and oxonitrate formation are more efficient from the energetic view point

  4. Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

  5. Prediction of the mechanical response of hydrate-bearing sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, S.; Grozic, J. L. H.

    2014-06-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in production of methane gas from hydrate-bearing sediments, located below the permafrost in arctic regions and offshore within the continental margins. In order to simulate the geomechanical response of the hydrate accumulation during gas production, comprehensive evaluation of the sediments' properties is imperative. This paper presents an analysis of the mechanical properties of methane-hydrate-bearing sediments determined through numerical simulation of drained triaxial compression tests on three different sand types. The adjustment of the numerical to the experimental results was performed for the entire stress-strain curves and therefore enables a good understanding of the material constitutive relations. New constitutive relations are suggested for the hydrate-related properties. An optimization process was used, finding separately the soil skeleton-related coefficients and the hydrate-related coefficients. The values of the obtained coefficients associated with the hydrate were found to have minor deviations from each other, for the three examined sand types. By separating the soil skeleton and the hydrate-related response, this paper suggests a prediction method for the mechanical response of hydrate-bearing sands.

  6. Phase equilibrium condition of marine carbon dioxide hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium was studied in simulated marine sediments. ? CO2 hydrate equilibrium temperature in NaCl and submarine pore water was depressed. ? Coarse-grained silica sand does not affect CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. ? The relationship between equilibrium temperature and freezing point was discussed. - Abstract: The phase equilibrium of ocean carbon dioxide hydrate should be understood for ocean storage of carbon dioxide. In this paper, the isochoric multi-step heating dissociation method was employed to investigate the phase equilibrium of carbon dioxide hydrate in a variety of systems (NaCl solution, submarine pore water, silica sand + NaCl solution mixture). The experimental results show that the depression in the phase equilibrium temperature of carbon dioxide hydrate in NaCl solution is caused mainly by Cl? ion. The relationship between the equilibrium temperature and freezing point in NaCl solution was discussed. The phase equilibrium temperature of carbon dioxide hydrate in submarine pore water is shifted by ?1.1 K to lower temperature region than that in pure water. However, the phase equilibrium temperature of carbon dioxide hydrate in mixture samples of coarsed-grained silica sand and NaCl solution is in agreement with that in NaCl solution with corresponding concentrations. The relationship between the equilibrium temperature and freezing point in mixture samples was alsint in mixture samples was also discussed.

  7. Potential natural gas hydrates resources in Indian Offshore areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sethi, A.K.; Sathe, A.V.; Ramana, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    (geophysical proxies of gas hydrates). A qualitative map prepared based on the inferred BSRs brought out a deepwater area of about 80,000 sq.km unto 3000 m isobath as favourable for gas hydrate occurrence. Methodology for reprocessing of seismic data...

  8. Numerical modelling of hydrate formation in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Fukumoto, A.; Nakashima, T.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrate reformation may cause a blockage for the two-phase flow of gas and water in the sediment. This may lead to the flow stagnation in gas production process from hydrate and to one of the trap mechanisms against the gas leakage. Therefore, the permeability change due to the hydrate formation is the aim of this study. We are interested in the morphology of the hydrate formed in the sand sediment and this means the importance of the morphology of the gas-water two phases in the porous media, i.e. the area and curvature of the two-phase interface in the pore space of microscale particles. The hydrate formation and the relevant mass and heat transfers were numerically analyzed in a computational domain, in which sand, water, and hydrate-guest-gas were distributed. Hydrate formation experiments were also carried out using a cylindrical pressure cell. The proposed model successfully simulated the two-phase flow with and without stagnation , which is conditionally caused by hydrate formation.

  9. Noble gas encapsulation: clathrate hydrates and their HF doped analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sukanta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2014-09-01

    The significance of clathrate hydrates lies in their ability to encapsulate a vast range of inert gases. Although the natural abundance of a few noble gases (Kr and Xe) is poor their hydrates are generally abundant. It has already been reported that HF doping enhances the stability of hydrogen hydrates and methane hydrates, which prompted us to perform a model study on helium, neon and argon hydrates with their HF doped analogues. For this purpose 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues are taken as the model clathrate hydrates, which are among the building blocks of sI, sII and sH types of clathrate hydrate crystals. We use the dispersion corrected and gradient corrected hybrid density functional theory for the calculation of thermodynamic parameters as well as conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors. The method of the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation is used through atom centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) techniques to envisage the structural behaviour of different noble gas hydrates on a 500 fs timescale. Electron density analysis is carried out to understand the nature of Ng-OH2, Ng-FH and Ng-Ng interactions. The current results noticeably demonstrate that the noble gas (He, Ne, and Ar) encapsulation ability of 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues is thermodynamically favourable. PMID:25047071

  10. Solubility data for cement hydrate phases (25oC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility measurements were performed on most of the more thermodynamically-stable cement hydrate phases, at 25oC. The results for each hydrate phase are summarised in the form of datasheets. Solubility properties are discussed, and where possible a Ksp value is calculated. The data are compared with the data in the literature. (author)

  11. Structures of hydrocarbon hydrates during formation with and without inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Moudrakovski, Igor; Gordienko, Raimond; Ripmeester, John; Walker, Virginia K

    2012-02-01

    The formation of hydrates from a methane-ethane-propane mixture is more complex than with single gases. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), we have investigated the structural properties of natural gas hydrates crystallized in the presence of kinetic hydrate inhibitors (KHIs), two commercial inhibitors and two biological ice inhibitors, or antifreeze proteins (AFPs). NMR analyses indicated that hydrate cage occupancy was at near saturation for controls and most inhibitor types. Some exceptions were found in systems containing a new commercial KHI (HIW85281) and a recombinant plant AFP, suggesting that these two inhibitors could impact the kinetics of cavity formation. NMR analysis confirmed that the hydrate composition varies during crystal growth by kinetic effects. Strikingly, the coexistence of both structures I (sI) and II (sII) were observed in NMR spectra and PXRD profiles. It is suggested that sI phases may form more readily from liquid water. Real time PXRD monitoring showed that sI hydrates were less stable than sII crystals, and there was a conversion to the stable phase over time. Both commercial KHIs and AFPs had an impact on hydrate metastability, but transient sI PXRD intensity profiles indicated significantly different modes of interaction with the various inhibitors and the natural gas hydrate system. PMID:22185460

  12. Lung cancer mortality among the miners in a rare-earth iron mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemiology study on lung cancer mortality of the dust-exposed miners and dust-unexposed miners (controls) was performed in 2001. It was found that, during the period from 1977 to March 2001, 27 cases of lung cancers were observed in the dust-exposed miners, while 8 cases of lung cancers were found in controls. The S.M.R. of them were 6.13 and 1.90 respectively. The S.M.R. of the dust-exposed miners was much higher than that of the controls. The difference between the two S.M.R. is very significant (?2 = 9.488, P 2 and SiO2) and its short lived thoron progeny. This is the first evidence in humans of the carcinogenicity after long-term inhalation of thorium-containing dusts and thoron progeny. The total person-years of observation of the dust exposed miners and the unexposed miners were 62 712 and 34 672 respectively. (author)

  13. Personality traits in miners with past occupational elemental mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal Grum, Darja; Kobal, Alfred B; Arneric, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Zenko, Bernard; Dzeroski, Saso; Osredkar, Josko

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7-31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 microg/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 microg/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

  14. Hydration of mechanically activated granulated blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Badjena, S.; Mehrotra, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is known to possess latent hydraulic activity, i.e., it shows cementitious properties when in contact with water over a long period of time. Results are presented in this article to show that, in sharp contrast to published literature on the hydration of neat GGBFS, the complete hydration of slag is possible in a short time (days), even without a chemical activator. This is achieved if the slag used for hydration is mechanically activated, using an attrition mill. The nature of the hydration product of the mechanically activated slag depends not only on the initial specific surface area (SSA) of the slag but also on the surface activation, as manifested by the change in the zeta potential ( ?) of the slag during the milling process. Depending upon the SSA and the ?, the hydration product changed from nonreacted slag with high porosity (slag SSA -29 mV) to hydrated slag with a compact structure (SSA=0.3 to 0.4 m2/g, ?=-29 to -31 mV), and, finally, to fully hydrated slag with high porosity (SSA>0.4 m2/g, ? ˜ 26 mV). Unlike the poorly crystalline hydration product formed by the nonactivated slag, even after prolonged hydration for years, the hydration product of mechanically activated slag was crystalline in nature. The crystallinity of the product improved as the duration of the mechanical activation increased. The calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases present in the slag hydration product, characterized by a Ca/Si ratio of 0.7 to 1.5, were similar to those found for the hydraulic cement binder, except for the presence of Mg and Al as impurities. In addition, the presence of a di-calcium-silicate-hydrate phase ( ?-C2SH), which normally forms under hydrothermal conditions, and a Ca-deficient and Si-Al-rich phase (average Ca/Si mole ratio < 0.1 and Si/Al ˜ 3) is indicated, especially in the hydration product of slag that was activated for a longer time.

  15. Exploitation of marine gas hydrates: Benefits and risks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in marine gas hydrates deposited at continental margins. The global inventory of carbon bound as methane in gas hydrates is currently estimated as 1000 × 500 Gt. Large-scale national research projects located mostly in South-East Asia but also in North America and Europe are aiming to exploit these ice-like solids as new unconventional resource of natural gas. Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries are taking the lead because their national waters harbor exploitable gas hydrate deposits which could be developed to reduce the dependency of these nations on costly LGN imports. In 2013, the first successful production test was performed off Japan at water depths of ca. 1000 m demonstrating that natural gas can be released and produced from marine hydrates by lowering the pressure in the sub-seabed hydrate reservoirs. In an alternative approach, CO2 from coal power plans and other industrial sources is used to release natural gas (methane) from hydrates while CO2 is bound and stored in the sub-surface as solid hydrate. These new approaches and technologies are still in an early pre-commercial phase; the costs of field development and gas production exceed the value of natural gas being produced from the slowly dissociating hydrates. However, new technologies are currently under development in the German SUGAR project and elsewhere to reduce costs and enhance gas production rates such that gas hydrates may become commercially exploitable over the coming decade(s). The exploitation of marine gas hydrates may help to reduce CO2 emissions from the fossil fuel sector if the produced natural gas is used to replace coal and/or LNG. Hydrate development could also provide important incentives for carbon capture technologies since CO2 can be used to produce natural gas from hydrates. However, leakage of gas may occur during the production process while slope failure may be induced by the accompanying dissociation/conversion of gas hydrates. Methane gas leaking into the marine environment is rapidly oxidized by microbes such that only a very small fraction of the methane emitted at the seabed escapes into the atmosphere. Slope failure is a more serious thread. It may lead to a complete destruction of seabed infrastructures for gas production and transport, significant gas emissions, and damage to local benthic ecosystems. New regulations should be developed at the national and international level to address and minimize the specific environmental risks associated with the future commercial exploitation of marine gas hydrates.

  16. Gas Hydrate Occurrence Inferred from Dissolved Cl? Concentrations and ?18O Values of Pore Water and Dissolved Sulfate in the Shallow Sediments of the Pockmark Field in Southwestern Xisha Uplift, Northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Luo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water pockmarks are frequently accompanied by the occurrence of massive gas hydrates in shallow sediments. A decline in pore-water Cl? concentration and rise in ?18O value provide compelling evidence for the gas hydrate dissociation. Mega-pockmarks are widely scattered in the southwestern Xisha Uplift, northern South China Sea (SCS. Pore water collected from a gravity-core inside of a mega-pockmark exhibits a downward Cl? concentration decrease concomitant with an increase in ?18O value at the interval of 5.7–6.7 mbsf. Concentrations of Cl?, Na+, and K+ mainly cluster along the seawater freshening line without distinct Na+ enrichment and K+ depletion. Thus, we infer that the pore water anomalies of Cl? concentrations and ?18O values are attributed to gas hydrate dissociation instead of clay mineral dehydration. Moreover, the lower ?18O values of sulfate in the target core (C14 than those in the reference core (C9 may be associated with the equilibrium oxygen fractionation during sulfate reduction between sulfate and the relatively 18O-depleted ambient water resulting from gas hydrate formation. The gas hydrate contents are estimated to be 6%–10% and 7%–15%, respectively, according to the offset of Cl? concentrations and ?18O values from the baselines. This pockmark field in southwestern Xisha Uplift is likely to be a good prospective area for the occurrence of gas hydrate in shallow sediments.

  17. Hydration of Portoguese cements, measurement and modelling of chemical shrinkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Lino; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Development of cement hydration was studied by measuring the chemical shrinkage of pastes. Five types of Portuguese Portland cement were used in cement pastes with . Chemical shrinkage was measured by gravimetry and dilatometry. In gravimeters results were recorded automatically during at least seven days, dilatometers were manually recorded during at least 56 days. The dispersion model was applied to fit chemical shrinkage results and to estimate the maximum (or ultimate) value for calculation of degree of hydration. Except for a pure Portland cement best fits were obtained by the general form of the dispersion model. The development of hydration varied between the investigated cements; based on the measured data the degree of hydration after 24 h hydration at 20 C varied between 40 and 50%. This should be taken into account when comparing properties of concrete made from the different cement types.

  18. Theoretical description of biomolecular hydration - Application to A-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local density of water molecules around a biomolecule is constructed from calculated two- and three-points correlation functions of polar solvents in water using a Potential-of-Mean-Force (PMF) expansion. As a simple approximation, the hydration of all polar (including charged) groups in a biomolecule is represented by the hydration of water oxygen in bulk water, and the effect of non-polar groups on hydration are neglected, except for excluded volume effects. Pair and triplet correlation functions are calculated by molecular dynamics simulations. We present calculations of the structural hydration for ideal A-DNA molecules with sequences [d(CG)5]2 and [d(C5G5)]2. We find that this method can accurately reproduce the hydration patterns of A-DNA observed in neutron diffraction experiments on oriented DNA fibers

  19. Theoretical description of biomolecular hydration - Application to A-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.E.; Hummer, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Soumpasis, D.M. [Max Planck Inst. for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The local density of water molecules around a biomolecule is constructed from calculated two- and three-points correlation functions of polar solvents in water using a Potential-of-Mean-Force (PMF) expansion. As a simple approximation, the hydration of all polar (including charged) groups in a biomolecule is represented by the hydration of water oxygen in bulk water, and the effect of non-polar groups on hydration are neglected, except for excluded volume effects. Pair and triplet correlation functions are calculated by molecular dynamics simulations. We present calculations of the structural hydration for ideal A-DNA molecules with sequences [d(CG){sub 5}]{sub 2} and [d(C{sub 5}G{sub 5})]{sub 2}. We find that this method can accurately reproduce the hydration patterns of A-DNA observed in neutron diffraction experiments on oriented DNA fibers.

  20. Gas hydrate phase equilibria measurement techniques and phase rule considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Inconsistencies found in hydrate literature. ? Clarification to the number of variables needed to satisfy and justify equilibrium data. ? Application of phase rule to mixed hydrate systems. ? Thermodynamically consistent format to present data. - Abstract: A brief review of the Gibbs phase rule for non-reacting systems and its correct application to clathrate hydrates is presented. Clarification is provided for a common mistake found in hydrate phase-equilibria literature, whereby initial compositions are used as intensive variables to satisfy the Gibbs phase rule instead of the equilibrium values. The system of (methane + carbon dioxide + water) under (hydrate + liquid + vapor) equilibrium is used as a case study to illustrate key points and suggestions to improve experimental techniques are proposed.

  1. Volatile inventories in clathrate hydrates formed in the primordial nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, O; Picaud, S; Cordier, D

    2010-01-01

    Examination of ambient thermodynamic conditions suggest that clathrate hydrates could exist in the martian permafrost, on the surface and in the interior of Titan, as well as in other icy satellites. Clathrate hydrates probably formed in a significant fraction of planetesimals in the solar system. Thus, these crystalline solids may have been accreted in comets, in the forming giant planets and in their surrounding satellite systems. In this work, we use a statistical thermodynamic model to investigate the composition of clathrate hydrates that may have formed in the primordial nebula. In our approach, we consider the formation sequence of the different ices occurring during the cooling of the nebula, a reasonable idealization of the process by which volatiles are trapped in planetesimals. We then determine the fractional occupancies of guests in each clathrate hydrate formed at given temperature. The major ingredient of our model is the description of the guest-clathrate hydrate interaction by a spherically a...

  2. Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amos Nur

    2009-01-08

    We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

  3. Iron phase transformations resulting from the respiration of Shewanella putrefaciens on a mixed mineral phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial Fe(III) minerals and the secondary mineralization products of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 grown in the presence of dissolved phosphate and a commercial Fe(III) oxide, nominally nanoparticulate lepidocrocite, were determined using XRD and XAFS. The starting material was transformed by the bacteria from a reddish brown, rust colour mineral to a dark green phase over 90 days. Acid extraction of the bioreduced solids with 0.75 M HCl recovered 83% of the total iron as Fe(II), leaving a solid, acid-resistant phase. The latter was identified as nanoparticulate hematite by EXAFS. Subsequently, the starting Fe(III) phase was determined to be a mixture of 60% lepidocrocite, 26% ferrihydrite, and 14% hematite, using linear combination EXAFS analysis. For the acid-extractable phase, XANES and EXAFS indicated a predominantly Fe(II) valence state and a spectrum consistent with a mixture of brucite-type minerals(e.g., green rust or ferrous hydroxide) and siderite. The observed transformations suggest that in this mixed-mineral system, lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite are readily reducible to green rust and siderite, whereas hematite is less amenable to bacterial reduction. This study also demonstrates the utility of XAFS spectroscopy in the quantitative characterization of dissimilatory metal transformations, particularly in complex systems such as nanoparticulate minerals in hydrated mineral-bacteria assemblages.

  4. Wyoming's energy minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy-producing rocks, minerals, and fluids provide substantial business, employment, and income to the state of Wyoming and its people. With the exception of oil shale, Wyoming's petroleum, natural gas, coal, and uranium deposits are now exploited and have well established national markets. A description is given of the size, location and economic importance of each energy resource

  5. Uranium mineralizations in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the analysis of mineralizations located in the Tim Mersoi basin in Niger where sediments deposited between the Paleozoic and the Cretaceous era. They analyse and describe the tectonic evolution of this area during different periods, and focus on some specific uranium mineralisation sites

  6. Oxalate minerals on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, D. M.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Goltz, D.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Small amounts of unidentified organic compounds have only recently been inferred on Mars despite strong reasons to expect significant concentrations and decades of searching. Based on X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectroscopic analyses we show that solid oxalic acid and its most common mineral salts are stable under the pressure and ultraviolet irradiation environment of the surface of Mars, and could represent a heretofore largely overlooked reservoir of organic carbon in the martian near-surface. In addition to the delivery to Mars by carbonaceous chondrites, oxalate minerals are among the predicted breakdown products of meteoritic organic matter delivered to the martian surface, as well as any endogenic organic carbon reaching the martian surface from the interior. A reinterpretation of pyrolysis experiments from the Viking, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions shows that all are consistent with the presence of significant concentrations of oxalate minerals. Oxalate minerals could be important in numerous martian geochemical processes, including acting as a possible nitrogen sink (as ammonium oxalate), and contributing to the formation of “organic” carbonates, methane, and hydroxyl radicals.

  7. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals.The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay.Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of claup>Th, considering both kinds of clay

  8. Fossils and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc. Black Hills Institute of Geological Research

    This site from the Black Hills Institute features information about different types of fossils, minerals, meteorites, and geology in general. Each topic has a brief description, with links to a more detailed explanation. Various samples and books are abailable for purchase on the site.

  9. Controls on carbon mineralization in ultramafic mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. L.; Power, I. M.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.; Wilson, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon mineralization in ultramafic mine tailings provides the opportunity to offset a significant portion of CO2 emissions from mining operations if passive mineralization rates are accelerated. To help design acceleration strategies, it is important to determine the controls on carbon mineralization in tailings, and to capture these effects using a reactive transport model to provide better estimation of the rates that could be achieved at different mine sites. For instance, it is likely that climatic variables influence rates of passive carbon mineralization. We use the reactive transport model MIN3P [1] to investigate the degree to which temperature, rainfall, and evaporation control passive carbon mineralization rates, as constrained with field observations from a mine site. Preliminary results suggest that hot and dry climates are most suitable. In addition, experimental evidence suggests that passive carbon mineralization is largely limited by the rate of CO2 supply into pore waters [2]. Acceleration could be achieved in part by supplying CO2-rich gas streams into tailings to carbonate highly reactive low abundance (carbon mineralization when the CO2 supply is increased. The influence of heterogeneous water content along the flow path and brucite grain size on carbon mineralization efficiency was investigated. Because water acts as both a reaction medium for CO2 and brucite dissolution and as a reactant to form hydrated carbonate minerals that sequester CO2, the extent of carbon mineralization was found to mimic the water content distribution. At low water content (carbonation was extremely limited by the lack of available water. Variations in water content from the pore to the field scale therefore complicate the assessment of the carbon mineralization potential of a mine site. Thus, the experimental data were used to calibrate MIN3P [4] to better account for the control of water content on mineral reactivity and allow more robust estimation of CO2 sequestration potential. The brucite grain size also influenced the rate and extent of carbon mineralization due to its effect on reactive surface area and the degree of surface passivation. An empirical function was derived and implemented in MIN3P to model the declining reactivity of brucite with reaction progress due to passivation of the mineral surface via carbonate precipitation. This experimentally calibrated reactive transport code, and the constraints provided by field observations, will enable better assessment of the CO2 sequestration capacity of mine sites and help guide implementation of acceleration strategies. For example, a target water content for a tailings storage facility to maximize carbon mineralization could be estimated. [1] Bea et al. (2012) Vadose Zone J 11. [2] Wilson et al. (2010) Environ Sci Technol 44, 9522-9529. [3] Harrison et al. (2013) Environ Sci Technol 47, 126-134. [4] Molins and Mayer (2007) Water Resour Res 43, W05435.

  10. The hydration structure of DNA and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-soluble proteins are surrounded by water molecules, and the water molecules mediate the biological processes: i.e. the protein folding, the enzymatic reaction, the molecular recognition via hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions and van der Waals interactions. It is essential to know the structural information such as orientation and dynamical behavior of water molecules including hydrogen atoms in order to characterize these interactions. The neutron analysis can determine the positions of the hydrogen atoms at the medium resolution in the protein crystallography (dmin?2.0 A). Recently we have constructed the high-resolution neutron diffractometer (BIX) dedicated for the biological macromolecules. By using this diffractometer, the high resolution (1.5 or 1.6A) neutron structure analyses of sperm whale myoglobin, a wild-type rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus, and the rubredoxin mutant have been successfully carried out and their hydration structure including hydrogen atoms have been observed. Hydrogen atoms in the water molecule can be clearly identified in two boomerang-shaped water molecules and the forming of the hydrogen bonds between the two water molecules can be recognized well. It has been concluded that hydration structure observed by the high resolution neutron protein crystallography provides where a water molecule locates, and how it binds to the neighbor atoms, and how it behaves. (M.Suetake))

  11. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O2-.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O2-. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O2-. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O2-

  12. Weakening of ice by magnesium perchlorate hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferink, Hendrik J.; Durham, William B.; Stern, Laura A.; Pathare, Asmin V.

    2013-08-01

    We show that perchlorate hydrates, which have been detected at high circumpolar martian latitudes, have a dramatic effect upon the rheological behavior of polycrystalline water ice under conditions applicable to the North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD). We conducted subsolidus creep tests on mixtures of ice and magnesium perchlorate hydrate, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O (MP6), of 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.47 volume fraction MP6. We found these mixtures to be increasingly weak with increasing MP6 content. For mixtures with ?0.10 volume fraction MP6, we resolved a stress exponent of n ? 2 at low stresses transitioning to n ? 4 above 10 MPa. Scanning electron microscopy of deformed specimens revealed MP6 to be distributed as an interconnected film between ice grains. These results suggest that grain boundary sliding (GBS) may be enhanced with respect to pure ice. As the enhancement of GBS is expected in polycrystalline aggregates containing a few percent melt or otherwise weak material distributed along grain boundaries, the observed n ? 2 is consistent with the mutual accommodation of basal slip and GBS. If ice containing trace concentrations of MP6 is also much weaker than pure ice at low stresses, flow in the NPLD could be significantly enhanced, particularly at the warmer basal temperatures associated with higher martian obliquities.

  13. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  14. Types and characteristics of drinking water for hydration in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ángela; Ramos, Primitivo; Rodríguez, Jaime; Moreno, Norberto; Gil, Pedro

    2015-10-15

    The role of hydration in the maintenance of health is increasingly recognized. Hydration requirements vary for each person, depending on physical activity, environmental conditions, dietary patterns, alcohol intake, health problems, and age. Elderly individuals have higher risk of developing dehydration than adults. Diminution of liquid intake and increase in liquid losses are both involved in causing dehydration in the elderly. The water used for drinking is provided through regular public water supply and the official sanitary controls ensure their quality and hygiene, granting a range of variation for most of its physical and chemical characteristics, being sometimes these differences, though apparently small, responsible for some disorders in sensitive individuals. Hence, the advantages of using bottled water, either natural mineral water or spring water, are required by law to specify their composition, their major components, and other specific parameters. It is essential to take this into account to understand the diversity of indications and favorable effects on health that certain waters can offer. PMID:24915336

  15. Stability of mineral matter in aqueous media of the Chernobyl Unit-4 Shelter: Thermodynamic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special geochemical environment exists within the Shelter (Sarcophagus) erected in 1986 over the destroyed Unit-4 of Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP). Based upon the available in situ and compositional data, thermodynamic models of solid-aqueous interactions were developed to clarify the leaching behavior of various materials within the Shelter. The Selektor-A code, based on a convex programming approach to Gibbs free energy minimization, was used for the calculations. A built-in flexible hybrid thermodynamic database for the system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-S-N-H-O-Si-P-Fe-Al-Sr-Cs was extended with the critically selected and matched parameters for aqueous species and solid phases in the U-Zr-Si-O-H subsystem, secondary U-minerals, mineral phases of fully hydrated Portland cements and U-bearing zircons. Modeling results show that the Shelter Waters can selectively leach a significant quantity of U and Si from the fuel-containing masses, while Zr, Fe, Ca, Mg and some other components are rather insoluble. Serpentinite, assemblages of fully-hydrated phases of Portland cements, and oxidation products of steel structural elements are estimated to be sufficiently stable in the aqueous environment of the Shelter. Calculations also define some feasible pathways for secondary mineral formation from evaporation of Shelter water solutions and interactions between these waters with the mineral matter inside the Shelter

  16. The role of natural gas hydrates in global changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of gas hydrates which produce global changes are: structure and composition of hydrates, heat of the phase transition and of accumulation a