WorldWideScience
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Model experiments mimicking the human intestinal transit and metabolism of D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the human intestinal transit and metabolism of D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin a number of model experiments were carried out. Both substrates were incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 degrees C using saliva (2 min) and simulated gastric juice (4 h). Under anaerobic conditions the substrates were incubated at 37 degrees C using human ileostomy and colostomy fluids, each obtained from three different donors, for 10 and for 24 h, respectively. D-Galacturonic acid, SCFA (acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid), as well as methanol were analyzed photometrically after carbazole reaction, GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and headspace solid-phase microextraction GC/MS (HS-SPME-GC/MS), respectively. D-Galacturonic acid and amidated pectin were found to be stable during incubations with saliva and simulated gastric juice, whereas both substrates underwent degradation in the course of human ileostomy and colostomy fluid incubations. D-Galacturonic acid was practically completely decomposed within 10 h and SCFA, with acetic acid as the major representative, were formed up to 98% of the incubated substrate in colostomy effluent. The amidated pectin was only degraded in part, revealing stable amounts of 22-35% and 3-17% in ileostomy (after 10 h) and colostomy fluid (after 24 h), respectively. SCFA were generated up to 59% of the applied amidated pectin. In parallel, 19-60% and 52-67% of the available methyl ester groups were cleaved in the course of incubations with ileostomy and colostomy fluids, respectively. The results demonstrate for the first time that D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin are stable in human saliva and simulated gastric juice. The degradation of both compounds during incubation with ileostomy effluent is highlighted, providing evidence for a considerable metabolic potential of the small intestine. PMID:18618479

Knaup, Bastian; Kempf, Michael; Fuchs, Jan; Valotis, Anagnostis; Kahle, Kathrin; Oehme, Anett; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

2008-07-01

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Interactions of reserpine and morphine on rat intestinal transit.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was designed to examine the interactions of reserpine and morphine on rat intestinal transit. Intestinal transit was determined in adult male rats by measuring the progression of an intraduodenally administered bolus (0.2 ml) or radioactive chromium (Na2(51)CrO4, 0.5 microCi) solution through the small intestine. Reserpine phosphate and morphine sulfate were administered either s.c. at 5 mg/kg or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at 50 and 30 micrograms (total dose), respectively. Reserpine given s.c. 16 hr before testing enhanced intestinal transit when given alone and diminished the intestinal antipropulsive effects of morphine given s.c. or i.c.v. Reserpine given i.c.v. 8 hr before testing did not alter the intestinal effects of morphine given s.c. or i.c.v. Neostigmine methylsulfate (0.1 mg/kg) given s.c. did not alter intestinal transit by itself but antagonized the inhibition of intestinal transit produced by morphine given s.c. Atropine sulfate (6 mg/kg) given s.c. did not affect intestinal transit by itself, nor did it antagonize the intestinal effects of s.c. administered morphine. However, atropine inhibited enhanced intestinal transit after reserpine given s.c. and restored the inhibitory effect of peripheral morphine on intestinal transit in animals pretreated with peripheral neostigmine or reserpine. The results suggest that reserpine inhibits the central and peripheral antidiarrheal effects of morphine by acting peripherally. Reserpine may antagonize the intestinal antipropulsive effects of morphine in the rat by directly or indirectly activating muscarinic cholinergic receptors. PMID:7205632

Stewart, J J

1981-03-01

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THE HUMAN INTESTINAL CYTOCHROME P450 “PIE”  

OpenAIRE

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) 3A, 2C, and 1A2 constitute the major “pieces” of the human liver P450 “pie” and account, on average, for 40, 25, and 18%, respectively, of total immunoquantified P450s (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 270:414–423, 1994). The P450 profile in the human small intestine has not been fully characterized. Therefore, microsomes prepared from mucosal scrapings from the duodenal/jejunal portion of 31 human donor small intestines were analyzed by Western blot using selective P45...

Paine, Mary F.; Hart, Heather L.; Ludington, Shana S.; Haining, Robert L.; Rettie, Allan E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2006-01-01

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Effects of methotrexate on intestinal transit in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was designed to determine the effects of methotrexate (MTX) on rat intestinal transit. Adult male rats were implanted with indwelling cannulas in the proximal duodenum 5 to 7 days prior to experimentation. After recovery from surgery, groups of animals were treated with either saline (1.0 ml/kg/day) or MTX at 0.5, 1.25, 3.125, or 7.8 mg/kg/day (ip) for 3 consecutive days (Days 1-3). On each of the next 5 consecutive days (Days 4-8) weight and intestinal transit determinations were made in animals from each test group following a 24-hr fast. Intestinal transit was determined by measuring the progression of an intraduodenally administered bolus of radioactive chromium (Na251CrO4, 0.5 mu Ci) through the small intestine. When compared with saline-treated controls, intestinal transit was significantly (p less than 0.05) increased on 1 or more of the 5 test days in animals treated with doses of MTX greater than 0.5 mg/kg/day. When compared with animals treated with saline, animals treated with MTX lost a greater percentage of their initial body weight after the fast period. Plasma concentrations of MTX, determined at various time intervals after 3.125 mg/kg given daily for 1 to 3 consecutive days, peaked at 15 and 30 min after each injection and diminished to undetectable levels after 4 hr. The results indicate that 3 days of parenteral therapy with MTX significantly increases rat intestinal transit. The intestinal effects appear to transit. The intestinal effects appear to be transient and are proportional to the total dose of drug administered over the 3-day period. The intestinal effects of MTX occur from 1 to several days after peak plasma concentrations of drug and are associated with a reduced ability to sustain body weight after a 24-hr fast

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The influence of intestinal infusion of fats on small intestinal motility and digesta transit in pigs.  

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The influence of duodenal and ileal infusion of nutrients on small intestinal transit of digesta, measured by the passage of phenol red marker, was studied in twelve pigs fitted with duodenal and ileal catheters, and a terminal ileal cannula. Changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed by electromyography and by use of an X-ray image intensifier in four of the pigs fitted additionally with nichrome wire electrodes in the gut wall and in seven pigs fitted only with a gastric catheter. Small intestinal transit time was unaffected by intestinal catheterization per se, or by duodenal or ileal infusion of glucose or peptone. It was reduced by duodenal infusion of fat or of some of the products of fat digestion including oleic acid and a monoglyceride containing unsaturated fatty acids (monoglyceride LS) but was not affected by infusion of glycerol, stearic acid or a monoglyceride containing saturated fatty acids (monoglyceride P). Ileal transit time was greatly reduced by ileal infusion of soya bean oil mixed with bile salts and lipase and by monoglyceride LS but not by soya bean oil alone. Total small intestinal transit time was reduced to a lesser degree by ileal infusion of soya bean oil mixed with bile salts and lipase and by monoglyceride LS and was unaffected by soya bean oil alone. The level of irregular spiking activity of the small intestine was greatly reduced by both duodenal and ileal infusion of fat, but rapidly propagated spike bursts were initiated from the point of infusion (identified radiologically as peristaltic rushes) many of which travelled right through to the ileo-caecal junction. It is concluded that intestinal infusion of fat accelerates small intestinal transit in pigs by induction of peristaltic rushes; that since the ileal transit times were more severely reduced than total small intestinal transit times by ileal infusion of fat the response is probably only seen over those areas of intestine in direct contract with the fat; and that the effect depends upon the presence of fat digestion products, i.e. the fatty acid and the monoglyceride, although probably only those containing unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:3559994

Gregory, P C; Rayner, V; Wenham, G

1986-10-01

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Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids acids

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Compartmentalization of Aquaporins in the Human Intestine  

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Full Text Available Improper localization of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQP induce mucosal injury which is implicated in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The amino acid sequences of AQP3 and AQP10 are 79% similar and belong to the mammalian aquaglyceroporin subfamily. AQP10 is localized on the apical compartment of the intestinal epithelium called the glycocalyx while AQP3 is selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane. Despite the high sequence similarity and evolutionary relatedness, the molecular mechanism involved in the polarity, selective targeting and function of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestine is largely unknown. Our hypothesis is that the differential polarity and selective targeting of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestinal epithelial cells is influenced by amino acid signal motifs. We performed sequence and structural alignments to determine differences in signals for localization and posttranslational glycosylation. The basolateral sorting motif “YRLL” is present in AQP3 but absent in AQP10; while Nglycosylation signals are present in AQP10 but absent in AQP3. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AQP3 is longer compared to AQP10. The sequence and structural differences between AQP3 and AQP10 provide insights into the differential compartmentalization and function of these two aquaporins commonly expressed in human intestines.

Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan

2008-06-01

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Small intestinal permeability and orocaecal transit time in cystic fibrosis.  

OpenAIRE

Cellobiose and mannitol were used as probe molecules to measure intestinal permeability in 36 children with cystic fibrosis, and 25 age matched controls. Orocaecal transit was also evaluated for each subject using the lactulose/hydrogen breath test. There was a fourfold increase in permeability to disaccharide (cellobiose) in patients with cystic fibrosis, but permeability to the monosaccharide (mannitol) was similar to controls. The orocaecal transit time of lactulose was prolonged in patien...

Dalzell, A. M.; Freestone, N. S.; Billington, D.; Heaf, D. P.

1990-01-01

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Relationship between small-intestinal transit rate and intestinal absorption of 14C-labelled mannitol and 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in healthy subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the small-intestinal transit rate is generally considered to influence the urinary excretion of markers of intestinal permeability, no study has until now formally addressed the importance of this influence in humans. Ten healthy subjects ingested a test solution containing 99mTc-DTPA, 14C-labelled mannitol and 51Cr-EDTA. After ingestion, the small-intestinal transit rate of 99mTc-DTPA was measured with the gamma camera technique. Urine was collected to measure the excretion of absorbed 14C-mannitol and 51Cr-EDTA. Moreover, the distribution volume and plasma clearance of 14C-mannitol and 51Cr-EDTA were determined in each subject. A positive correlation was found between mean small-intestinal transit time and urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol. The study did not show any correlation between small-intestinal transit rate and urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA. Urinary excretion of neither 14C-mannitol nor 51Cr-EDTA was affected by distribution volume or urine volume. A positive correlation was observed between plasma clearance and urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol, whereas plasma clearance did not influence the urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA. Small-intestinal transit rate seems to have a significant effect on urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol, whereas small-intestinal transit rate does not influence the tinal transit rate does not influence the timed urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

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Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of "night soil" (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families. PMID:15103556

Fried, Bernard; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena

2004-06-01

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Increased intestinal marker absorption due to regional permeability changes and decreased intestinal transit during sepsis in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intestinal barrier properties are impaired during inflammation and sepsis, but the mechanisms behind this are unknown and were therefore investigated during experimental sepsis in rats. The different-sized intestinal absorption markers 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ovalbumin were gavaged to rats made septic by intra-abdominal bacterial implantation and to sham-operated rats. Regional tissue permeability was measured in diffusion chambers, and intestinal transit was evaluated by intestinal accumulation of gavaged 51Cr-EDTA. In comparison with the sham-operated rats, septic rats had higher 51Cr-EDTA levels in blood and urine and showed a prolonged intestinal transit. Septic rats also had a lower tissue permeability to both markers in the small intestines but higher permeability to ovalbumin in the colon. Rats receiving morphine to decrease intestinal motility showed similar changes, with a decreased intestinal transit and increased marker absorption. Thr results suggest that the increased intestinal absorption during sepsis was due to regional permeability changes and prolonged intestinal transit. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

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Defence capabilities of human intestinal epithelial cells  

OpenAIRE

The epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa separate the underlying tissue from components of the intestinal lumen. Innate immunity mediated by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provides rapid protective functions against microorganisms. Innate immunity also participates in orchestrating adaptive immunity. Key components in innate defence are defensins. To study the production of defensins and how it is affected by intestinal inflammation IECs were isolated from the small and large int...

Fahlgren, Anna

2003-01-01

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Metabolism of hibifolin by human intestinal bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hibifolin, the highest-content bioactive flavonoid of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot, was incubated with human intestinal bacteria, and four metabolites (1-4) were obtained from the incubated solution by chromatographic methods. The structures of the four metabolites were elucidated as gossypetin 8-O-beta-D-4''-deoxy- Delta(4'')-glucuropyranoside (1), gossypetin (2), quercetin (3), and 8-methoxy-quercetin (4), respectively, on the basis of UV, NMR, and MS data. Metabolite 1 was obtained as a new compound with a specific beta-D-4''-deoxy-Delta(4'')-glucuropyranosyl moiety, which was formed through a unique and novel metabolic pathway that has not been reported previously. PMID:19235125

Xu, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Bin; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying

2009-04-01

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A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents

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A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

2005-02-28

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Intestinal transit of solid and liquid components of a meal in health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, under physiologic conditions, the human small bowel discriminates between the solid and aqueous components of chyme, that is, that in a fashion analogous to the stomach, the intestine would allow the liquid fraction to progress at a faster rate than solid particles. To evaluate this hypothesis, the authors took advantage of a gamma-emitting solid marker, 131I-fiber, previously developed in their laboratory, that is recognized by the stomach as a solid and that is emptied at a slower rate than liquid markers. Thus, 131I-fiber enters the intestine during feeding at a slower rate than a liquid marker, being eventually excreted in the feces physically and chemically unchanged. We also developed a mathematical method was also developed to calculate the intestinal transit spectrum based on scintigraphic data obtained from 6 healthy individuals who ingested 131I-fiber and technetium /sup 99m/ (/sup 99m/Tc)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-water with a meal. The results disprove the hypothesis by showing that whereas 131I-fiber, as expected, leaves the stomach at a much slower rate than /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA-water, both markers progress along the small bowel separately but at similar speeds. This method for measuring intestinal transit provides a more comprehensive quantification of chyme transit in the human small bowel than earlier methods and should prove a useful techniq methods and should prove a useful technique for further noninvasive studies of transit after feeding

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Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts

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Effect of thienorphine on intestinal transit and isolated guinea-pig ileum contraction  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To evaluate the effect of thienorphine on small intestinal transit in vivo and on guinea-pig ileum (GPI) contraction in vitro. METHODS: The effects of thienorphine on intestinal transit were examined in mice and in isolated GPI. Buprenorphine and morphine served as controls. The distance traveled by the head of the charchol and the total length of the intestine were measured in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was expressed as a percentage of the distance traveled by the head of the marker...

Pei-Lan Zhou; Yu-Lei Li; Ling-Di Yan; Zheng Yong; Gang Yu; Hua-Jin Dong; Hui Yan; Rui-Bin Su; Ze-Hui Gong

2013-01-01

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Identification of epithelial to mesenchymal transition as a novel source of fibroblasts in intestinal fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of Crohn disease (CD), but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is incompletely understood. As a result, specific therapies to halt or even reverse fibrosis have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intestinal fibrosis associated with a mouse model of CD and also human inflammatory bowel disease. Mice administered intrarectal 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) develop inflammation and fibrosis that resembles CD both histologically and by immunologic profile. We utilized this model to molecularly probe the contribution of EMT to intestinal fibrosis. Additionally, we utilized double-transgenic VillinCre;R26Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-LacZ mice, in which removal of the STOP cassette by Cre recombinase in villin(+) intestinal epithelial cells activates permanent LacZ expression, to lineage trace epithelial cells that might undergo EMT upon TNBS administration. TNBS-induced fibrosis is associated with the presence of a significant number of cells that express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. In the lineage tagged transgenic mice, the appearance of LacZ(+) cells that also express the fibroblast marker FSP1 unequivocally demonstrates EMT. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, a known inducer of EMT in epithelial cells, induces EMT in rat intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and bone morphogenic protein-7, an antagonist of TGF-beta1, inhibits EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and in the TNBS-treated mice. Our study demonstrates that EMT contributes to intestinal fibrosis associated with the TNBS-induced model of Crohn colitis and that inhibition of TGF-beta1 with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-7 prevents this process and prevents fibrosis. PMID:20363741

Flier, Sarah N; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Kokkotou, Efi G; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Zeisberg, Michael; Kalluri, Raghu

2010-06-25

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Intestinal behavior of the ester prodrug tenofovir DF in humans.  

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Tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF) is a double ester prodrug which enables intestinal uptake of tenofovir (TFV) after oral administration in humans. In this study, prodrug stability was monitored in situ in the human intestine and in vitro using biorelevant media. In fasted state human intestinal fluids, the prodrug was completely degraded within 90min, resulting in the formation of the mono-ester intermediate and TFV; in fed state intestinal fluids, the degradation rate of TDF was slightly reduced and no TFV was formed. Intestinal fluid samples aspirated after administration of TDF confirmed extensive intraluminal degradation of TDF in fasted state conditions; a relatively fast absorption of TDF partly compensated for the degradation. Although food intake reduced intestinal degradation, the systemic exposure was not proportionally increased. The lower degradation in fed state conditions may be attributed to competing esterase substrates present in food, lower chemical degradation in the slightly more acidic environment and micellar entrapment, delaying exposure to the "degrading" intestinal environment. The results of this study demonstrate premature intestinal degradation of TDF and suggest that TFV may benefit from a more stable prodrug approach; however, fast absorption may compensate for fast degradation, indicating that prodrug selection should not be limited to stability assays. PMID:25747454

Geboers, Sophie; Haenen, Steven; Mols, Raf; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

2015-05-15

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Three-Dimensional Coculture Of Human Small-Intestine Cells  

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Complex three-dimensional masses of normal human epithelial and mesenchymal small-intestine cells cocultured in process involving specially designed bioreactors. Useful as tissued models for studies of growth, regulatory, and differentiation processes in normal intestinal tissues; diseases of small intestine; and interactions between cells of small intestine and viruses causing disease both in small intestine and elsewhere in body. Process used to produce other tissue models, leading to advances in understanding of growth and differentiation in developing organisms, of renewal of tissue, and of treatment of myriad of clinical conditions. Prior articles describing design and use of rotating-wall culture vessels include "Growing And Assembling Cells Into Tissues" (MSC-21559), "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), and "In Vitro, Matrix-Free Formation Of Solid Tumor Spheroids" (MSC-21843).

Wolf, David; Spaulding, Glen; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Prewett, Tracy

1994-01-01

22

Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites.  

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The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the present study, precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) prepared from the jejunum of 18 human donors were used as an ex vivo model to investigate whether DCF intestinal metabolites are responsible for its intestinal toxicity in man. PCIS were incubated with a concentration range of DCF (0-600 µM) up to 24 h. DCF (?400 µM) caused direct toxicity to the intestine as demonstrated by ATP depletion, morphological damage, caspase 3 activation, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Three main metabolites produced by PCIS (4'-hydroxy DCF, 5-hydroxy DCF, and DCF acyl glucuronide) were detected by HPLC. Protein adducts were detected by immunohistochemical staining and showed correlation with the intestinal metabolites. DCF induced similar toxicity to each of the samples regardless of the variation in metabolism among them. Less metabolites were produced by slices incubated with 400 µM DCF than with 100 µM DCF. The addition of the metabolic inhibitors such as ketoconazole, cimetidine, or borneol decreased the metabolite formation but increased the toxicity. The results suggest that DCF can induce intestinal toxicity in human PCIS directly at therapeutically relevant concentrations, independent of the reactive metabolites 4'-OH DCF, 5-OH DCF, or diclofenac acylglucuronide produced by the liver or formed in the intestine. PMID:24770551

Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M M

2015-01-01

23

Distinct Human Stem Cell Populations in Small and Large Intestine  

Science.gov (United States)

The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease. PMID:25751518

Cramer, Julie M.; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

2015-01-01

24

Intestinal beta-galactosidases. I. Separation and characterization of three enzymes in normal human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies based on work in the rat and preliminary experiments with human intestine have suggested that two beta-galactosidases are present in small intestine, and it is believed that only one of these enzymes is a lactase important for the digestion of dietary lactose. The high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in man prompted more complete study of these enzymes. Human intestinal beta-galactosidases were studied by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 and Biogel P-300 as well as by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Gel filtration produced partial separation into three peaks of enzyme activity, but much activity against synthetic substrates was lost. Only the trailing peak with specificity for synthetic beta-galactosides was completely separated from the other enzymes. Thus gel filtration was not a suitable preparative procedure for biochemical characterization. Density gradients separated the enzymes more completely, and they were designated according to their sedimentation rates and further characterized. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 280,000, pH optimum of 6.0, and specificity for lactose of at least five times that for cellobiose or synthetic substrates. A second lactase, enzyme II, possesses slightly greater activity against lactose than for some synthetic substrates and is incapable of splitting cellobiose. Further, it has a lower pH optimum (4.5) and is present in two molecular species (molecular weights 156,000 and 660,000). Enzyme III shows specificity only for synthetic beta-galactosides but has a pH activity curve identical with enzyme I and a molecular weight of 80,000. Whereas human liver and kidney contain a beta-galactosidase with the same biochemical characteristics as intestinal enzyme II, enzymes I and III appear to be peculiar to intestine, and enzyme I most probably represents the lactase of importance in the mucosal digestion of dietary lactose. The following paper considers this further in terms of the biochemical change in intestinal lactase deficiency. PMID:5774109

Gray, G M; Santiago, N A

1969-04-01

25

A Gutsy Task: Generating Intestinal Tissue from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells  

OpenAIRE

Many significant advances in our understanding of intestine development, intestinal stem cell homeostasis and differentiation have been made in recent years. These advances include novel techniques to culture primary human and mouse intestinal epithelium in three-dimensional matrices, and de novo generation of human intestinal tissue from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. This short review will focus on the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intestinal t...

Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Spence, Jason R.

2013-01-01

26

Cholinergic mediation of small intestinal transit in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reported that small intestinal transit (SIT) in the rat is not cholinergically mediated. The geometric mean of a marker may be a more powerful method for SIT studies. Therefore, it was their goal to evaluate the effect of muscarinic blockade in normal and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-enhanced SIT using this method. Male, food-fasted rats (190 to 240 g) were first dosed subcutaneously with atropine. 30 min after the atropine the rats received an oral dose of PGE2 at 5.0 mg/kg. 5 min after PGE2, a 51Cr-labeled marker was dosed intraduodenally, and a 25 min transit period followed. The results are: (1) 5.0 mg/kg of PGE2 significantly stimulates the geometric mean of the marker in agreement with previous findings and (2) atropine is inhibitory at doses as low as 0.20 mg/kg for basal SIT and 0.10 mg/kg for PGE2-stimulated SIT. This indicates (1) the rat has cholinergically mediated SIT, and (2) cholinergic activation may be important for PGE2 effects on SIT in the rat

27

Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents. PMID:25782683

El-Taweel, Hend Aly

2015-05-01

28

Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time: Comparison with the hydrogen breath technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrogen breath test was used as a standard against which a scintigraphic method for determination of small intestinal transit time was evaluated and compared. A total of 19 male volunteers ranging in age from 23 to 28 yr participated in the study. The subjects ingested an isosmotic lactulose solution containing /sup 99m/technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Sn) and then remained supine under a large field of view gamma-camera that interfaced with a computer system. Data were visually analyzed and then quantified to determine gastric emptying and small intestinal transit time. The small intestinal transit time ranged from 31 to 139 min with the scintigraphic method and 30 to 190 min with the hydrogen breath test (r . 0.77). The mean small intestinal transit time for 20 individual determinations with the scintigraphic method, 73.0 +/- 6.5 min (mean +/- SEM), was similar to the results from the hydrogen breath test technique, 75.1 +/- 8.3 min. Thirteen volunteers underwent two studies with the scintigraphic method separated by intervals ranging from 2 days to 8 wk. Individual variations in small intestinal transit time were significantly correlated with individual variations in gastric emptying (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the scintigraphic method allows accurate determination of gastrocecal time and is a noninvasive technique which may be a useful clinical test for small intestinal transit time as well as for providing information on the pathophysior providing information on the pathophysiology and pharmacology of intestinal motility

29

Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time: Comparison with the hydrogen breath technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrogen breath test was used as a standard against which a scintigraphic method for determination of small intestinal transit time was evaluated and compared. A total of 19 male volunteers ranging in age from 23 to 28 yr participated in the study. The subjects ingested an isosmotic lactulose solution containing /sup 99m/technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Sn) and then remained supine under a large field of view gamma-camera that interfaced with a computer system. Data were visually analyzed and then quantified to determine gastric emptying and small intestinal transit time. The small intestinal transit time ranged from 31 to 139 min with the scintigraphic method and 30 to 190 min with the hydrogen breath test (r . 0.77). The mean small intestinal transit time for 20 individual determinations with the scintigraphic method, 73.0 +/- 6.5 min (mean +/- SEM), was similar to the results from the hydrogen breath test technique, 75.1 +/- 8.3 min. Thirteen volunteers underwent two studies with the scintigraphic method separated by intervals ranging from 2 days to 8 wk. Individual variations in small intestinal transit time were significantly correlated with individual variations in gastric emptying (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the scintigraphic method allows accurate determination of gastrocecal time and is a noninvasive technique which may be a useful clinical test for small intestinal transit time as well as for providing information on the pathophysiology and pharmacology of intestinal motility.

Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; Buddoura, W.; Winchenbach, K.; McCallum, R.W.

1984-04-01

30

A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine  

OpenAIRE

Vibrio cholerae is a strict human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. It is an old-world pathogen that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease [36]. The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial infectious dose is required for infection, data suggests that only a smaller sub-popul...

Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Dirita, Victor; Kirschner, Denise

2011-01-01

31

Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric 2Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit

32

Isolation and longterm culture of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

Microvascular endothelial cells play an important part in inflammation as well as in organ specific leucocyte traffic, and may be functionally different from large vessel endothelium in this respect. This study therefore established a method for isolation and longterm culture of human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC). After dissociation by collagenase/dispase/DNase of mucosal and submucosal tissue obtained from normal adult jejunum, cells were plated and cultured to subconfl...

Haraldsen, G.; Rugtveit, J.; Kvale, D.; Scholz, T.; Muller, W. A.; Hovig, T.; Brandtzaeg, P.

1995-01-01

33

Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis  

OpenAIRE

Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor-negative intestinal epithelial cells remain largely uncharacterized. We used samples of human intestinal tissue from patients with E. coli O157...

Malyukova, Irina; Murray, Karen F.; Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar; Kane, Anne; Patterson, Kathleen; Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Donowitz, Mark; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

2008-01-01

34

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli inhibits intestinal vitamin B1 (thiamin) uptake: studies with human-derived intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells  

OpenAIRE

Infection with the gram-negative enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a food-borne pathogen, represents a significant risk to human health. Whereas diarrhea is a major consequence of this infection, malnutrition also occurs especially in severe and prolonged cases, which may aggravate the health status of the infected hosts. Here we examined the effect of EPEC infection on the intestinal uptake of the water-soluble vitamin B1 (thiamin) using an established human intestinal epithelial Cac...

Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Kumar, Jeyan S.; Hecht, Gail A.; Said, Hamid M.

2009-01-01

35

Evolution of Symbiotic Bacteria in the Distal Human Intestine  

Science.gov (United States)

The adult human intestine contains trillions of bacteria, representing hundreds of species and thousands of subspecies. Little is known about the selective pressures that have shaped and are shaping this community's component species, which are dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes divisions. To examine how the intestinal environment affects microbial genome evolution, we have sequenced the genomes of two members of the normal distal human gut microbiota, Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides distasonis, and by comparison with the few other sequenced gut and non-gut Bacteroidetes, analyzed their niche and habitat adaptations. The results show that lateral gene transfer, mobile elements, and gene amplification have played important roles in affecting the ability of gut-dwelling Bacteroidetes to vary their cell surface, sense their environment, and harvest nutrient resources present in the distal intestine. Our findings show that these processes have been a driving force in the adaptation of Bacteroidetes to the distal gut environment, and emphasize the importance of considering the evolution of humans from an additional perspective, namely the evolution of our microbiomes. PMID:17579514

Ley, Ruth E; Lozupone, Catherine A; Hamady, Micah; Martens, Eric C; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Minx, Patrick; Latreille, Philippe; Cordum, Holland; Van Brunt, Andrew; Kim, Kyung; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda A; Clifton, Sandra W; Wilson, Richard K; Knight, Robin D; Gordon, Jeffrey I

2007-01-01

36

Effect of thienorphine on intestinal transit and isolated guinea-pig ileum contraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of thienorphine on small intestinal transit in vivo and on guinea-pig ileum (GPI contraction in vitro. METHODS: The effects of thienorphine on intestinal transit were examined in mice and in isolated GPI. Buprenorphine and morphine served as controls. The distance traveled by the head of the charchol and the total length of the intestine were measured in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was expressed as a percentage of the distance traveled by the head of the marker relative to the total length of the small intestine. The isolated GPI preparations were connected to an isotonic force transducer and equilibrated for at least 1 h before exposure to drugs. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation. RESULTS: Thienorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, ig or buprenorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, sc dose-dependently significantly inhibited gut transit compared with saline. Thienorphine inhibited gut transit less than buprenorphine. The maximum inhibition by thienorphine on the intestinal transit was 50%-60%, whereas the maximum inhibition by morphine on gut transit was about 100%. Thienorphine also exhibited less inhibition on acetylcholine-induced contraction of GPI, with a maximum inhibition of 65%, compared with 93% inhibition by buprenorphine and 100% inhibition by morphine. Thienorphine induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tonus of spontaneous movement of the GPI, the effect of which was weaker than that with buprenorphine. The duration of the effect of thienorphine on the GPI was longer than that with buprenorphine. CONCLUSION: Thienorphine had less influence, but a longer duration of action on GPI contraction and moderately inhibited intestinal transit.

Pei-Lan Zhou

2013-01-01

37

Rates of intestinal absorption of molybdenum in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intestinal absorption of molybdenum in healthy human volunteers has been measured by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of the stable isotopes {sup 95}Mo and {sup 96}Mo, and the results were analysed using the convolution integral technique. The results showed that molybdenum ingested in liquid form was rapidly and totally absorbed into the circulation under ordinary intake regimes. The rates and extent of absorption were lower for composite meals, and also for increasing levels of administration. This information can be helpful in the application of the new ICRP model of the human alimentary tract.

Giussani, Augusto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: augusto.giussani@gsf.de; Arogunjo, Adeseye M. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); Claire Cantone, Marie [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tavola, Federico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Veronese, Ivan [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

2006-06-15

38

Rates of intestinal absorption of molybdenum in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intestinal absorption of molybdenum in healthy human volunteers has been measured by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of the stable isotopes 95Mo and 96Mo, and the results were analysed using the convolution integral technique. The results showed that molybdenum ingested in liquid form was rapidly and totally absorbed into the circulation under ordinary intake regimes. The rates and extent of absorption were lower for composite meals, and also for increasing levels of administration. This information can be helpful in the application of the new ICRP model of the human alimentary tract

39

Human milk hyaluronan enhances innate defense of the intestinal epithelium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human ?-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human ?-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine H? D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

Hill, David R; Rho, Hyunjin K; Kessler, Sean P; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K; de la Motte, Carol A

2013-10-01

40

Human milk and infant intestinal mucosal glycans guide succession of the neonatal intestinal microbiota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants begin acquiring intestinal microbiota at parturition. Initial colonization by pioneer bacteria is followed by active succession toward a dynamic ecosystem. Keystone microbes engage in reciprocal transkingdom communication with the host, which is essential for human homeostasis and health; therefore, these bacteria should be considered mutualists rather than commensals. This review discusses the maternal role in providing infants with functional and stable microbiota. The initial fecal inoculum of microbiota results from the proximity of the birth canal and anus; the biological significance of this anatomic proximity could underlie observed differences in microbiota between vaginal and cesarean birth. Secondary sources of inocula include mouths and skin of kin, animals and objects, and the human milk microbiome, but guiding microbial succession may be a primary role of human milk. The unique glycans of human milk cannot be digested by the infant, but are utilized by mutualist bacteria. These prebiotic glycans support expansion of mutualist microbiota, which manifests as differences in microbiota among breastfed and artificially fed infants. Human milk glycans vary by maternal genotype. Milks of genetically distinct mothers and variations in infant mucosal glycan expression support discrete microbiota. Early colonization may permanently influence microbiota composition and function, with ramifications for health. PMID:25356747

Newburg, David S; Morelli, Lorenzo

2015-01-01

41

Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon

42

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an 111In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal 111In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (75Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rhe4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis

43

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an 111In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal 111In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (75Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis. PMID:3609658

Bjarnason, I; Zanelli, G; Smith, T; Prouse, P; Williams, P; Smethurst, P; Delacey, G; Gumpel, M J; Levi, A J

1987-09-01

44

Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master "communication coordinator" between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G(1) of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78). Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information. PMID:21765981

Dorsam, Glenn Paul; Benton, Keith; Failing, Jarrett; Batra, Sandeep

2011-06-26

45

Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues. Since the discovery of VIP in 1970, followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s, this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers, including leukemia. This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines. Also, there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor, Ikaros, regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g. Hut-78. Lastly, future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis, and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information.

Glenn Paul Dorsam

2011-01-01

46

Histology of the intestine in human gastroschisis--relationship to intestinal malfunction: dissolution of the "peel" and its ultrastructural characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are conflicting views on the pathogenesis of the intestinal malfunction seen in infants with gastroschisis. It has been variously ascribed to abnormalities of ganglion cells and smooth muscle elements, intestinal ischemia, and the "peel" which invests the serosa of the intestine. Review of the clinical and experimental literature showed only limited information on the histology of the eviscerated human intestine. In order to add to this data base, and to further investigate the pathogenesis of the intestinal malfunction from a histologic standpoint, we reviewed surgical and autopsy material from our experience with 105 neonates with gastroschisis. Ten specimens were satisfactory for evaluation from a standpoint of tissue integrity. The specific mural components of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and ganglion cells were examined and found to be either normal, or to show nonspecific abnormalities that varied from case to case, and were related mostly to intestinal infarction due to compromise of the gut at the site of the gastroschisis defect. In six patients, this progressed to atresia formation. The most consistent abnormalities were found in the serosal layer with its peel. Using special stains, the peel was found to be composed largely of fibrin and collagen. Based on this study, we feel that edema and ischemic changes, though often present, are much less prominent than the peel, as the leading histologic abnormality of the intestine of gastroschisis. Squamous epithelial cells were seen in the peel in four cases, suggesting that the peel had been "appliqued" onto the serosa of the herniated fetal gut. PMID:2976819

Amoury, R A; Beatty, E C; Wood, W G; Holder, T M; Ashcraft, K W; Sharp, R J; Murphy, J P

1988-10-01

47

Radionuclide esophageal and intestinal transit scintigraphy in patients undergoing radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation esophagitis and enteritis are common and significant side effects of radiation therapy. Non-invasive assessment of functional and/or anatomic changes responsible for the symptoms produced by radiation esophagitis and enteritis has been unsatisfactory. This paper demonstrates the value of radionuclide esophageal and intestinal transit scintigraphy in patients undergoing mediastinal or abdominal radiation. (author)

48

An in vivo model of human small intestine using pluripotent stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into organ-specific subtypes offers an exciting avenue for the study of embryonic development and disease processes, for pharmacologic studies and as a potential resource for therapeutic transplant. To date, limited in vivo models exist for human intestine, all of which are dependent upon primary epithelial cultures or digested tissue from surgical biopsies that include mesenchymal cells transplanted on biodegradable scaffolds. Here, we generated human intestinal organoids (HIOs) produced in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can engraft in vivo. These HIOs form mature human intestinal epithelium with intestinal stem cells contributing to the crypt-villus architecture and a laminated human mesenchyme, both supported by mouse vasculature ingrowth. In vivo transplantation resulted in marked expansion and maturation of the epithelium and mesenchyme, as demonstrated by differentiated intestinal cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells), presence of functional brush-border enzymes (lactase, sucrase-isomaltase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4) and visible subepithelial and smooth muscle layers when compared with HIOs in vitro. Transplanted intestinal tissues demonstrated digestive functions as shown by permeability and peptide uptake studies. Furthermore, transplanted HIO-derived tissue was responsive to systemic signals from the host mouse following ileocecal resection, suggesting a role for circulating factors in the intestinal adaptive response. This model of the human small intestine may pave the way for studies of intestinal physiology, disease and translational studies. PMID:25326803

Watson, Carey L; Mahe, Maxime M; Múnera, Jorge; Howell, Jonathan C; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Poling, Holly M; Schweitzer, Jamie I; Vallance, Jefferson E; Mayhew, Christopher N; Sun, Ying; Grabowski, Gregory; Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Spence, Jason R; Shroyer, Noah F; Wells, James M; Helmrath, Michael A

2014-11-01

49

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an /sup 111/In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal /sup 111/In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (/sup 75/Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis.

Bjarnason, I.; Zanelli, G.; Smith, T.; Prouse, P.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Delacey, G.; Gumpel, M.J.; Levi, A.J.

1987-09-01

50

Scintigraphic evaluation of small intestinal transit in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: Small intestine (SI) transit in the streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were examined by using 99mTc-mebrofenin scintigraphy. Materials and methods: Wistar albino rats (mean body weight: 220±12 g) were studied for both control (n=10) and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=10) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg(-1) body weight. SI transit time was assessed by measuring arrival times of 99mTc-mebrofenin from duodenum to caecum. Results: The mean transit time of 99mTc- mebrofenin was 67.8±11 min in control group. The mean transit time of SI was prolonged in STZ induced diabetic animals with (111.9±12.5, p=0.01). There was significant correlation between small intestinal transit time and blood glucose level (r: 0.73, p=0.01). Conclusion: We observed that SI transit was prolonged in diabetic animals using 99mTc- mebrofenin, and additionally this technique is a readily available method for the detection of transit abnormalities in animal experiment. PMID:22435026

Durmus-Altun, G; Vatansever, U; Arzu Vardar, S; Altaner, S; Dirlik, B

2011-01-01

51

Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells

52

Microbial Eco-Physiology of the human intestinal tract: a flow cytometric approach  

OpenAIRE

This thesis describes a multifaceted approach to further enhance our view of the complex human intestinal microbial ecosystem. This approach combines me advantages of flow cyrometry (FCM), a single cell and high-throughput technology, and molecular techniques that have proven themselves to be invaluabIe tools in studying the microbial diversity and structure of the intestinal microbiota. The ultimate aim was to relate the genetic biodiversity of the intestinal microbiota with their in situ ph...

Ben Amor, K.

2004-01-01

53

Effect of ceftobiprole on the normal human intestinal microflora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceftobiprole is a new broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone cephem active against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of administration of ceftobiprole on the normal intestinal microflora. Twelve healthy subjects (six males and six females) aged 20-31 years received ceftobiprole 500 mg by intravenous infusion every 8h for 7 days. Plasma samples were collected on Days -1, 1, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for determination of drug concentration by biological and chemical methods. Faecal samples were collected on Days -1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. For analysis of the microflora, faecal specimens were cultured on non-selective and selective media. Different colony types were counted, isolated in pure culture and identified to genus level. All new colonising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were tested for susceptibility to ceftobiprole. Plasma concentrations of ceftobiprole 10 min after completion of infusion were as follows: Day 1, 14.7-23.6 mg/L; Day 4, 15.9-24.5 mg/L; and Day 7, 15.9-23.9 mg/L. No ceftobiprole was detected in plasma on Days -1, 10, 14 and 21. No measurable concentrations of ceftobiprole were found in faeces on Days -1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21. There were minor changes in the numbers of enteric bacteria, enterococci and Candida albicans and there were moderate changes in the numbers of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, clostridia and Bacteroides spp. during the same period. No Clostridium difficile strains or toxins were found. No new colonising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with ceftobiprole minimum inhibitory concentrations of ? 4 mg/L were found. Ceftobiprole had no significant ecological impact on the human intestinal microflora. PMID:20926263

Bäckström, Tobias; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Beck, Olof; Asker-Hagelberg, Charlotte; Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

2010-12-01

54

The relation between food intake and abomasal emptying and small intestinal transit time in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relation between the level of food intake and gastrointestinal motility and digesta flow in the abomasum and small intestine was studied in sheep fitted with nichrome-wire electrodes in the gut wall, an abomasal and a duodenal catheter and a terminal ileal cannula. Abomasal volume and outflow were calculated from CrEDTA dilution in six sheep and small intestinal transit time by the passage of Phenol Red in ten sheep. The frequency of the migrating myoelectric complex of the small intestine was not altered by the level of food intake but the duration of the periods of irregular spiking activity, the amplitude of abomasal activity and the frequency of duodenal rushes were decreased as the level of food intake was decreased. There was a linear relation between the level of food intake (FI) and abomasal outflow (mean with SEM: 327 (69) ml/h for each kg FI/d; P less than 0.01), and abomasal volume (mean with SEM: 344 (50) ml/kg FI per d; P less than 0.001), without any significant change in the half-time of marker dilution in the abomasum. Small intestinal transit time decreased with an increase in food intake (mean with SEM: -54.9 (5.6) min/kg FI per d; P less than 0.001). It is concluded that abomasal volume and the rate of digesta flow from the abomasum and along the small intestine are linearly related to the level of food intake. PMID:4063279

Gregory, P C; Miller, S J; Brewer, A C

1985-03-01

55

Formation and blood supply of the large intestine in human neonates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of the large intestine has been carried out on 24 specimens of human newborns. It has been established that the form and size of the neonates large intestine demonstrated a sidnificant individual variability. The hepatic and splenic flexures of the colon had different relations with the inferior border of the liver and spleen.

Haina N.I.

2008-01-01

56

Characterization of intracellular pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) from human intestinal mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two forms of pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH) in the human intestinal mucosa, one in the brush border membrane and the other intracellular; brush border PPH is an exopeptidase with optimal activity at pH 6.5 and a requirement for zinc. The presence study characterized human intracellular PPH and compared its properties to those of brush border PPH. Intracellular PPH was purified 30-fold. The enzyme had a MW of 75,000 by gel filtration, was optimally active at pH 4.5, and had an isoelectric point at pH 8.0. In contrast to brush border PPH, intracellular PPH was unstable at increasing temperatures, was unaffected by dialysis against chelating agents and showed no requirement for Zn2+. Using PteGlu2[14C]Glu as substrate, they demonstrated a K/sub m/ of 1.2 ?M and increasing affinity for folates with longer glutamate chains. Intracellular PPH required the complete folic acid (PteGlu) moiety and a ?-glutamyl linkage for activity. Using ion exchange chromatography and an HPLC method to determine the hydrolytic products of the reaction, they found intracellular PPH could cleave both internal and terminal ?-glutamyl linkages, with PteGlu as an end product. After subcellular fractionation of the mucosa, PPH was found in the lysosomes. In summary, the distinct characteristics of brush border and intracellular PPH suggest that the two hydrolases serve different roles in folate metabolism

57

Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

L.E.A. Troncon

2000-09-01

58

Effect of pregnancy on intestinal transit: comparison of results using radioactive and non-radioactive test meals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were performed to determine the effect of pregnancy on both gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal transit. Gastrointestinal transit was examined by determining the leading edge of distribution within the small intestine of a charcoal marker placed directly into the stomach. Intestinal transit was evaluated by quantifying the distribution of a radiolabelled marker placed dirrectly into the duodenum. The distribution of the marker was determined (1) by calculating the slope of the distribution curve and (2) by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radioisotope. In all studies the data from animals in either the second or third trimester of pregnancy were compared with the results obtained from non-pregnant females. The results confirm previous observations that gastrointestinal transit is reduced during the latter stages of pregnancy. This can be explained, at least in part, by a decreased intestinal transit. The data also suggest that analysis of the geometric center of distribution provides a more sensitive and reliable measure of intestinal transit than does analysis of the slope of the distribution curve

59

Particle Transcytosis Across the Human Intestinal Epithelium : Model Development and Target Identification for Improved Drug Delivery  

OpenAIRE

The use of nano- and micro-particulate carriers as delivery systems for oral vaccines has been under investigation for several decades. Surprisingly little is known of their uptake in the human intestine, despite the fact that substantial improvement is required to achieve adequate immune responses in man after oral administration. In this thesis, various aspects of particle transcytosis across the human intestinal epithelium were studied, in order to identify strategies for improved uptake ...

Gullberg, Elisabet

2005-01-01

60

Espiroquetosis intestinal humana: serie clínica y revisión de la literatura Human intestinal spirochetosis: clinical series and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La espiroquetosis intestinal humana (EIH se define como la colonización del intestino grueso por espiroquetas. Se asocia a diarrea crónica. Su incidencia y prevalencia van desde 0,4 a 12% Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de EIH en el Hospital Del Salvador, de Santiago, Chile, entre los años 2003 y 2008, en pacientes con antecedentes clínicos de diarrea crónica y colonoscopia sin hallazgos patológicos, separados en dos grupos: pacientes con y sin antecedentes de infección por VIH. Material y Método: Evaluación morfológica retrospectiva de las biopsias endoscópicas de intestino grueso de los grupos seleccionados. Resultados: Se revisaron 115 biopsias, 98 correspondieron a pacientes sin infección por VIH y 17 a pacientes seropositivos para VIH. Se detectaron dos casos de espiroquetosis intestinal, ambos en pacientes sin infección por VIH, con una prevalencia de 1,7 %. Comentario: La prevalencia de EIH es similar a la publicada en países occidentales. Se requieren estudios poblacionales para determinar el real impacto epidemiológico en nuestro medio.Introduction: Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIE is defined as colonization by spirochetes of the large intestine. Is associated with chronic diarrhea. The incidence and prevalence ranges from 0.4% to 12%. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIE in the Salvador's Hospital, between 2003 and 2008 in patients with a history of chronic diarrhea and without abnormalities in colonoscopy, in 2 separate groups: patients with and without a history of HIV infection. Material and Methods: Retrospective morphology evaluation of the large bowel endoscopic biopsies to the selected groups. Results: We reviewed 115 biopsies, 98 were from HIV-negative and 17 HIV from positive patients. Two cases of intestinal spirochetosis were detected, both HIV negative, with a prevalence of 1.7%. Comment: The prevalence of HIE is similar to that reported in Western countries. Population studies are needed to determine the real epidemiological impact in our environment.

Carlo Lozano

2012-08-01

61

Zingerone regulates intestinal transit, attenuates behavioral and oxidative perturbations in irritable bowel disorder in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stress can lead to the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal disorders, the most prominent being irritable bowel disorder. The present study investigated the impact zingerone in ameliorating chronic water stress induced irritable bowel disorder, brain gut axis dysfunction and dysregulation of the intestinal barrier due to oxidative stress. Rats were randomly allocated to groups and subjected to chronic water stress for a period of 21 days for 1h and the fecal pellet output was measured. At the end of chronic stress, behavioral assessment for anxiety like behavior was recorded and plasma corticosterone levels were measured 60min after water stress. The colonic transit was determined, levels of oxidative and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the colon homogenate. Myeloperoxidase activity was determined as an indirect index of neutrophil infiltration. Chronic water stress increased the rate of colonic transit, fecal output, induced behavioral changes, and decreased antioxidant levels. An increase in lipid peroxide levels, catalase and corticosterone was observed. Mast cell infiltration was evident in the stressed group. Zingerone significantly reduced colonic transit, fecal output, neutrophil infiltration, and lipid peroxide formation. The levels of catalase were not altered; however, a marginal increase in the levels of glutathione peroxidase was observed. Zingerone significantly enhanced the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased the levels of corticosterone. Zingerone produced marked improvement in stress induced irritable bowel disorder which could be attributed to the powerful antioxidant nature, direct effect on the intestinal smooth muscle and adaptogenic nature. PMID:24262066

Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pavani, Bandlapalli; Kranthi Kumar, Ch; Annamalai, A R

2014-03-15

62

Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia  

OpenAIRE

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master “communication coordinator” between cells of the nervous and immune systems. To date, VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2, mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity, including arresting CD4 T cells in G1 of the cell cycle, protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mu...

Glenn Paul Dorsam; Keith Benton; Jarrett Failing; Sandeep Batra

2011-01-01

63

Human intestine luminal ACE2 and amino acid transporter expression increased by ACE-inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) and imino acid (proline) transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) are expressed at the luminal membrane of small intestine enterocytes and proximal tubule kidney cells where they exert key functions for amino acid (re)absorption as documented by their role in Hartnup disorder and iminoglycinuria, respectively. Expression of B(0)AT1 was shown in rodent intestine to depend on the presence of the carboxypeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This enzyme belongs to the renin-angiotensin system and its expression is induced by treatment with ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs) in many rodent tissues. We show here in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system that human ACE2 also functionally interacts with SIT1. To investigate in human intestine the potential effect of ACEIs or ARBs on ACE2, we analysed intestinal biopsies taken during routine gastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy from 46 patients of which 9 were under ACEI and 13 ARB treatment. Analysis of transcript expression by real-time PCR and of proteins by immunofluorescence showed a co-localization of SIT1 and B(0)AT1 with ACE2 in the brush-border membrane of human small intestine enterocytes and a distinct axial expression pattern of the tested gene products along the intestine. Patients treated with ACEIs displayed in comparison with untreated controls increased intestinal mRNA levels of ACE2, peptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) and AA transporters B(0)AT1 and PAT1 (SLC36A1). This study unravels in human intestine the localization and distribution of intestinal transporters involved in amino acid absorption and suggests that ACEIs impact on their expression. PMID:25534429

Vuille-Dit-Bille, Raphael N; Camargo, Simone M; Emmenegger, Luca; Sasse, Tom; Kummer, Eva; Jando, Julia; Hamie, Qeumars M; Meier, Chantal F; Hunziker, Schirin; Forras-Kaufmann, Zsofia; Kuyumcu, Sena; Fox, Mark; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Götze, Oliver; Verrey, François

2015-04-01

64

Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin  

OpenAIRE

The effects of a fraction (T1) of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg) or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g) labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq) was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals we...

Troncon, L. E. A.; Santos, A. A.; Garbacio, V. L.; Secaf, M.; Verceze, A. V.; Cunha-melo, J. R.

2000-01-01

65

Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The target population proposed by the applicant is people who want to improve or maintain normal bowel function. The Panel considers that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological weaknesses whereas one human intervention study showed no effect of the consumption of sugar beet fibre on decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that one human study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim showed no effect of sugar beet fibre on intestinal (orofaecal) transit time. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

66

Human large intestinal epithelium: light microscopy, histochemistry, and ultrastructure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite numerous reports of morphologic characteristics of premalignant and malignant large intestinal epithelium, the literature lacks comprehensive reports of the morphologic features of the epithelium of the normal large intestine, except of the rectum. Large intestinal epithelium from 41 persons was obtained, and samples from the ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid areas were studied by light microscopy, histochemical techniques, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic features and histochemical reactions of the various segments of the large intestine are different. Neutral mucopolysaccharide is predominant in the ascending colon, whereas the rectum has predominantly or exclusively acidic mucin. Only three basic epithelial cell phenotypes have been identified: undifferentiated cells, mucous cells, and endocrine cells. The columnar cells at the surface between the crypts appear to be a variant of mucous cells. Compared with other segments, the rectum shows an unusually high concentration of endocrine cells, positively correlating with the high incidence of carcinoid tumors in that segment of the large intestine. The mucous cells in all segments contain large mucous vacuoles and small apical vesicles. The apical vesicles show variable electron density, being most dense in the ascending colon and becoming progressively less dense at the transverse and descending colon and most electron-lucent in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Ultrastructurally, the mucin shows a variable degree of heterogeneity in the proximal segments. This study suggests that some of the previously described ultrastructural features of abnormal large-intestinal epithelium may be only the result of failure to compare the so-called abnormal cells with normal cells from the same region. Well-controlled studies of the abnormal epithelium of a particular segment of large intestine must include the normal epithelium from the identical segment as control in order to make interpretations accurate. PMID:7106744

Shamsuddin, A M; Phelps, P C; Trump, B F

1982-09-01

67

Interindividual variability of carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog, a novel olmesartan medoxomil hydrolase, in the human liver and intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug-type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist. OM is rapidly converted into its active metabolite olmesartan by multiple hydrolases in humans, and we recently identified carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog (CMBL) as one of the OM bioactivating hydrolases. In the present study, we further investigated the interindividual variability of mRNA and protein expression of CMBL and OM-hydrolase activity using 40 individual human liver and 30 intestinal specimens. In the intestinal samples, OM-hydrolase activity strongly correlated with the CMBL protein expression, clearly indicating that CMBL is a major contributor to the prodrug bioactivation in human intestine. The protein and activity were highly distributed in the proximal region (duodenum and jejunum) and decreased to the distal region of the intestine. Although there was high interindividual variability (16-fold) in both the protein and activity in the intestinal segments from the duodenum to colon, the interindividual variability in the duodenum and jejunum was relatively small (3.0- and 2.4-fold, respectively). In the liver samples, the interindividual variability in the protein and activity was 4.1- and 6.8-fold, respectively. No sex differences in the protein and activity were shown in the human liver or intestine. A genetically engineered Y155C mutant of CMBL, which was caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism rs35489000, showed significantly lower OM-hydrolase activity than the wild-type protein although no minor allele was genotyped in the 40 individual liver specimens. PMID:23471504

Ishizuka, Tomoko; Rozehnal, Veronika; Fischer, Thomas; Kato, Ayako; Endo, Seiko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi

2013-05-01

68

The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates  

Science.gov (United States)

The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray analyses demonstrated that microbiota compositions that are typically found in effluent samples from ileostomists (subjects without a colon) can also be encountered in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Phylogenetic mapping of small intestinal metagenome of three different ileostomy effluent samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine. PMID:22258098

Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Booijink, Carien CGM; Troost, Freddy J; Bork, Peer; Wels, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel

2012-01-01

69

The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray analyses demonstrated that microbiota compositions that are typically found in effluent samples from ileostomists (subjects without a colon) can also be encountered in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Phylogenetic mapping of small intestinal metagenome of three different ileostomy effluent samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine.

Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen

2012-01-01

70

Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1] was isolated from a ?gt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed

71

The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS

72

The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

1984-01-01

73

Pro-Inflammatory Flagellin Proteins of Prevalent Motile Commensal Bacteria Are Variably Abundant in the Intestinal Microbiome of Elderly Humans  

OpenAIRE

Some Eubacterium and Roseburia species are among the most prevalent motile bacteria present in the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. These flagellate species contribute “cell motility” category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome. We reviewed and revised the annotation of motility genes in the genomes of six Eubacterium and Roseburia species that occur in the human intestinal microbiota and examined their respective locus organizatio...

Neville, B. Anne; Sheridan, Paul O.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; Coughlan, Simone; Flint, Harry J.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Jeffery, Ian B.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Ross, R. Paul; Scott, Karen P.; O Toole, Paul W.

2013-01-01

74

Adhesion and absorption of Tc-99 labelled tracers for estimating the intestinal transit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid, semisolid and solid markers are used to calculate esophageal transit, gastric emptying or intestinal transit. The purpose of this study was to prove in vivo stability and wall absorption. 41 Wistar rats were fed with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (n=11), sup(99m)Tc-labeled chicken liver (n=11), sup(99m)Tc-Chelex (n=11) or sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (n=8). One to three hours later the animals were killed, the gut was dissected and rinsed with water. The water for rinsing, the activity of the intestinal wall and other organs were measured in a whole body counter. The calculated fractions (%) of intraluminal (1), wall-absorbed (W) and extraintestianl (E) activity in relation to total counts were: DPTA: (1) 89 +- 3.2, (W) 8 +- 2.1, (E) 2.3 +- 1.6. CHELEX: (1) 98.8 +- 0.6, (W) 0.9 +-0.4, (E) 0.3 +- 0.4. CHICKEN LIVER: (1) 96.9 +- 1.3, (W) 2.3 +- 1.1, (E) 0.8 +- 0.8. PERTECHNETATE: (1) 36.4 +- 12, (W) 9.5 +- 2.7, (E) 54.2 +- 13. The differences were significant between all groups (p<0.05). The most inert tracer is Chelex which, in contrast to chicken liver, is simple to handle and is different to liquid tracers in intraluminal kinetics. Clinical use is proposed. (Author)

75

Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1) of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. S [...] corpion toxin (250 µg/kg) or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g) labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq) was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml) through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95%) was significantly higher (P

L.E.A., Troncon; A.A., Santos; V.L., Garbacio; M., Secaf; A.V., Verceze; J.R., Cunha-Melo.

1053-10-01

76

Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota.  

OpenAIRE

Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile f...

Manning, B. W.; Cerniglia, C. E.; Federle, T. W.

1985-01-01

77

Entamoeba histolytica interactions with polarized human intestinal Caco-2 epithelial cells.  

OpenAIRE

To model the initial pathogenic effects of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites on intestinal epithelial cells, the interactions of E. histolytica HM1-IMSS trophozoites with polarized human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on permeabilized filters were examined. Trophozoites, when incubated with the apical surface of the monolayers at 37 degrees C, induced a rapid decrease in transepithelial resistance over 15 to 60 min. The transmonolayer resistance response was not associated with chan...

Li, E.; Stenson, W. F.; Kunz-jenkins, C.; Swanson, P. E.; Duncan, R.; Stanley, S. L.

1994-01-01

78

Surface expression, polarization, and functional significance of CD73 in human intestinal epithelia.  

OpenAIRE

During active intestinal inflammation polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) transmigrate into the lumen and release 5'-AMP (J. Clin. Invest. 1993. 91:2320-2325). 5'-AMP is converted to adenosine by the apical epithelial surface with subsequent activation of electrogenic Cl- secretion (the basis of secretory diarrhea) via apical A2b adenosine receptors (J. Biol. Chem. 1995. 270:2387-2394). Using a polarized human intestinal epithelial monolayer (T84), we now characterize the basis of the observed...

Strohmeier, G. R.; Lencer, W. I.; Patapoff, T. W.; Thompson, L. F.; Carlson, S. L.; Moe, S. J.; Carnes, D. K.; Mrsny, R. J.; Madara, J. L.

1997-01-01

79

High-throughput analysis of the impact of antibiotics on the human intestinal microbiota composition  

OpenAIRE

Antibiotic treatments can lead to a disruption of the human microbiota. In this in-vitro study, the impact of antibiotics on adult intestinal microbiota was monitored in a new high-throughput approach: a fermentation screening-platform was coupled with a phylogenetic microarray analysis (Intestinal-chip). Fecal inoculum from healthy adults was exposed in a fermentation screening-platform to seven widely-used antibiotics during 24 h in-vitro fermentation and the microbiota composition was subs...

Ladirat, S. E.; Schols, H. A.; Nauta, A.; Schoterman, M. H. C.; Keijser, B. J. F.; Montijn, R. C.; Gruppen, H.; Schuren, F. H. J.

2013-01-01

80

Intestinal Bacterial Communities That Produce Active Estrogen-Like Compounds Enterodiol and Enterolactone in Humans  

OpenAIRE

Lignans are dietary diphenolic compounds which require activation by intestinal bacteria to exert possible beneficial health effects. The intestinal ecosystem plays a crucial role in lignan metabolism, but the organisms involved are poorly described. To characterize the bacterial communities responsible for secoisolariciresinol (SECO) activation, i.e., the communities that produce the enterolignans enterodiol (ED) and enterolactone (EL), a study with 24 human subjects was undertaken. SECO act...

Clavel, Thomas; Henderson, Gemma; Alpert, Carl-alfred; Philippe, Catherine; Rigottier-gois, Lionel; Dore?, Joe?l; Blaut, Michael

2005-01-01

81

The role of disulphide bonds in human intestinal mucin  

Science.gov (United States)

Goblet-cell mucin (mucin 1) was isolated and purified from human small-intestinal scrapings. After application of mucin 1 to DEAE-Bio-Gel (A) columns, most of the glycoprotein (76–94% of hexoses) was eluted in the first peak (designated mucin 2). Minor amounts of acidic glycoproteins were eluted with 0.2m- and 0.4m-NaCl in later peaks. Analyses of mucin 1 and mucin 2 revealed mucin 2 to be a monodisperse highly glycosylated glycoprotein containing 6.3% by wt. of protein, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucose. Mucin 1 was similar in composition, but was polydisperse and contained more protein (12.3% by wt.) as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid. Analytical CsCl-gradient ultracentrifugation showed both mucin 1 and mucin 2 to have a major component with an average buoyant density of 1.47000g/ml. Mucin 1 also contained a slightly less-dense minor glycoprotein component. After exhaustive reduction and alkylation mucin 1 retained its major component, but partly dissociated into two lighter glycoprotein components. Mucin 2, in contrast, did not change its density distribution after reduction. Band ultracentrifugation in 2H2O-containing iso-osmotic buffers showed that mucin 1 contained a major fast-sedimenting component (so=37±2S), and a minor amount of a slower-sedimenting component. After reduction there was an increased quantity of the latter component, for which an so value of 14.5S was calculated. In contrast, mucin 2 was unaltered by reduction (so=33±2S). These findings indicate that the major component of goblet-cell mucin (mucin 2) does not dissociate after S–S-bond reduction, and thus does not apparently rely for its polymeric structure on the association of subunits through covalent disulphide bonds. However, the effects of reduction on mucin 1 suggest that in the native mucin intramolecular disulphide bonds in the minor glycoproteins may stabilize their structure, permitting secondary non-covalent interactions to develop with the major dense mucin (mucin 2) protein. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:518552

Forstner, Janet F.; Jabbal, Inderjit; Qureshi, Rauf; Kells, David I. C.; Forstner, Gordon G.

1979-01-01

82

High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. Results In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. Conclusion The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

Vitali Beatrice

2010-04-01

83

Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been proposed as a source for transplantation therapies and are rapidly becoming valuable tools for human disease modeling. However, many applications are limited due to the lack of robust differentiation paradigms that allow for the isolation of defined functional tissues. Here, using an endogenous LGR5-GFP reporter, we derived adult stem cells from hPSCs that gave rise to functional human intestinal tissue comprising all major cell types of the intestine. Histological and functional analyses revealed that such human organoid cultures could be derived with high purity and with a composition and morphology similar to those of cultures obtained from human biopsies. Importantly, hPSC-derived organoids responded to the canonical signaling pathways that control self-renewal and differentiation in the adult human intestinal stem cell compartment. This adult stem cell system provides a platform for studying human intestinal disease in vitro using genetically engineered hPSCs. PMID:24936470

Forster, Ryan; Chiba, Kunitoshi; Schaeffer, Lorian; Regalado, Samuel G.; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Kiani, Samira; Farin, Henner F.; Clevers, Hans; Cost, Gregory J.; Chan, Andy; Rebar, Edward J.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Gregory, Philip D.; Pachter, Lior; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Hockemeyer, Dirk

2014-01-01

84

Effect of ceftobiprole on the normal human intestinal microflora  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Ceftobiprole is a new broad-spectrum pyrrolidinone cephem active against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of administration of ceftobiprole on the normal intestinal microflora. Twelve healthy subjects (six males and six females) aged 20–31 years received ceftobiprole 500mg by intrav...

Ba?ckstro?m, Tobias; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Beck, Olof; Asker-hagelberg, Charlotte; Rashid, Mamun-ur; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

2010-01-01

85

Cell-specific expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin in human intestinal epithelium.  

OpenAIRE

alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) is an acute phase plasma protein predominantly derived from the liver which inhibits neutrophil elastase. Previous studies have suggested that alpha 1-AT is also expressed in human enterocytes because alpha 1-AT mRNA could be detected in human jejunum by RNA blot analysis, and alpha 1-AT synthesis could be detected in a human intestinal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco2, which spontaneously differentiates into villous-like enterocytes in tissue culture. To defini...

Molmenti, E. P.; Perlmutter, D. H.; Rubin, D. C.

1993-01-01

86

Effects of liquid versus solid diet on colonic transit in humans. Evaluation by standard colonic transit scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of liquid versus solid diet on human colonic transit were investigated, and transit following cecal instillation of tracer was compared with transit following instillation in the proximal jejunum. In a randomized cross-over, single-blind fashion, 6 normal volunteers ingesting either normal solid foods or a liquid diet were studied using colonic transit scintigraphy. 111In-DTPA was instilled either into the cecum via a long intestinal tube or into the proximal jejunum via a feeding tube. Compared with the liquid diet, the solid diet slowed transit in the cecum and ascending colon (p less than 0.025) and delayed progression of the geometric center (p less than 0.05) during the first 4 h of the study. Transit from 18 to 48 h was similar on the 2 diets. On the solid diet, transit was similar whether 111In-DTPA was instilled into the proximal jejunum or into the cecum. Transit from the terminal ileum to the cecum was assessed in an additional 5 volunteers following jejunal instillation of 99mTc-DTPA. Cecal filling was rapid (T1/2 = 0.49 h) and complete in all subjects before the onset of cecal emptying. These results suggest that colonic transit is slower on a solid than a liquid diet and that jejunal instillation of radiopharmaceuticals should be suitable for colonic transit studies in most subjects

87

Mathematical model of radionuclide transport in the human intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of a transport model the authors propose a ratio permitting one to calculate absorbed dose distribution in the gastrointestinal tract. After specifying and correcting some parameters of the model, and specifying irradiation geometry at the junction of the small and large intestine this ratio can be futher used for calculation of permisible radionuclide concentration in water and food. The value of a maximum permissible dose could be attributed not only to a certain region of the gastrointestinal tract but also to the regions of the gastrointestinal tract with maximum irradiation

88

Evidence of native starch degradation with human small intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (recombinant)  

Science.gov (United States)

Action of human small intestinal brush border carbohydrate digesting enzymes is thought to involve only final hydrolysis reactions of oligosaccharides to monosaccharides. In vitro starch digestibility assays use fungal amyloglucosidase to provide this function. In this study, recombinant N-terminal ...

89

Hyperplastic innervation of vasoactive intestinal peptide in human gallbladder with cholelithiasis  

OpenAIRE

The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive nerve fibres in the gallbladder from 14 human patients with cholelithiasis was examined by immunohistochemical method. In the chronic cholecystitis, hyperplastic VIP immunoreactive nerves were observed around the hypertrophied muscle bundles, Rokitansky Aschoff Sinus and in the mucosal layer. However, in the acute cholecystitis and gangrenous cholecystitis, reduction or disappearance of VIP nerve fibres...

Gonda, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Ichihara, K.

1995-01-01

90

Intestinal adaptation following resection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal adaptation is a natural compensatory process that occurs following extensive intestinal resection, whereby structural and functional changes in the intestine improve nutrient and fluid absorption in the remnant bowel. In animal studies, postresection structural adaptations include bowel lengthening and thickening and increases in villus height and crypt depth. Functional changes include increased nutrient transporter expression, accelerated crypt cell differentiation, and slowed transit time. In adult humans, data regarding adaptive changes are sparse, and the mechanisms underlying intestinal adaptation remain to be fully elucidated. Several factors influence the degree of intestinal adaptation that occurs post resection, including site and extent of resection, luminal stimulation with enteral nutrients, and intestinotrophic factors. Two intestinotrophic growth factors, the glucagon-like peptide 2 analog teduglutide and recombinant growth hormone (somatropin), are now approved for clinical use in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Both agents enhance fluid absorption and decrease requirements for parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous fluid. Intestinal adaptation has been thought to be limited to the first 1-2 years following resection in humans. However, recent data suggest that a significant proportion of adult patients with SBS can achieve enteral autonomy, even after many years of PN dependence, particularly with trophic stimulation. PMID:24586019

Tappenden, Kelly A

2014-05-01

91

Intestinal transport of manganese from human milk, bovine milk and infant formula in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of manganese from extrinsically labeled human milk, bovine milk and infant formula was studied by the everted intestinal sac method. Tissue/mucosal flux data indicated that transport of manganese into the intestinal tissue was significantly greater with bovine milk and formula than from human milk. Similarly, the total flux of manganese from the mucosal to serosal surface was less when human milk was used. Smaller molecular weight manganese binding ligands isolated from the milk samples enhanced the mucosal to tissue movement of manganese as contrasted to the higher molecular weight manganese binding ligands. Most significantly the data suggest that the transport and uptake of manganese is less in the presence of human milk and its isolated manganese fractions than it is in bovine milk or infant formula. 15 references, 3 tables

92

Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light schedule with two equally spaced 4-h scotoperiods (DARK 4þ4), which yielded the same total duration of darkness per 24 h. 3. Feeding behaviour was recorded weekly from 24-h video recordings of 24 groups each of 64 birds. Empty intestinal weights as well as their contents were measured weekly at 4 time points (n¼192). Digestive transit time was estimated on d 29 using a chromic oxide marker; production variables and the extent of foot pad dermatitis were also recorded. 4. In the 3 h prior to a scotoperiod, feeding activity increased in chickens from DARK 8 but not DARK 4þ4. This increase was reflected in a higher relative content of the crop in DARK 8 at this time. 5. Immediately following the scotoperiod, feeding activity peaked and, although the chickens in DARK 4þ4 expressed more feeding behaviour in the first 20 min after the scotoperiod, the chickens in DARK 8 had overall higher feeding activity across the day. However, DARK 4þ4 had a higher feed intake and weight gain. The occurrence and severity of foot pad dermatitis was similar between treatments. 6. In conclusion, broilers modify their feeding behaviour according to the prevailing light schedule. Eight consecutive hours of darkness reduced growth, but did not affect overall feed conversion efficiency, and did not appear to exacerbate hunger or foot pad dermatitis to any great extent.

Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna

2011-01-01

93

Symmetric infection of rotavirus on polarized human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.  

OpenAIRE

When rotavirus infects the mature villus tip cells of the small intestine, it encounters a highly polarized epithelium. In order to understand this virus-cell interaction more completely, we utilized a cell culture-adapted rhesus rotavirus (RRV) to infect human intestinal (Caco-2) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK-1) polarized epithelial cells grown on a permeable support. Filter-grown Caco-2 cells and MDCK-1 cells, producing a transepithelial resistance of 300 to 500 and greater than 1,000...

Svensson, L.; Finlay, B. B.; Bass, D.; Von Bonsdorff, C. H.; Greenberg, H. B.

1991-01-01

94

Progreso en el conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal humana / Progress in the knowledge of the intestinal human microbiota  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La aparición de nuevas técnicas de secuenciación así como el desarrollo de herramientas bioinformáticas han permitido no sólo describir la composición de la comunidad bacteriana que habita el tracto gastrointestinal, sino también las funciones metabólicas de las que proveen al huésped. La mayoría de [...] los miembros de esta amplia comunidad bacteriana pertenecen a Dominio Bacteria, aunque encontramos también Archaea y formas eucariotas y virus. Únicamente entre 7 y 9 de las 55 Phyla del Dominio Bacteria conocidos están presentes en flora fecal humana. Su mayoría pertenecen además a las Divisiones Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, encontrando también Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria y Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium y Bifidobacterium son los Géneros más abundantes aunque su abundancia relativa es muy variable entre individuos. El análisis metagenómico de la flora intestinal ha permitido describir una colección de 5 millones de genes microbianos que codifican para aproximadamente 20.000 funciones biológicas relacionadas con la vida de las bacterias. El ecosistema intestinal humano puede clasificarse en torno a tres grupos de acuerdo a la abundancia relativa de tres Géneros: Bacteroides (enterotipo 1), Prevotella (enterotipo 2) y Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). Estos grupos han sido denominados "enterotipos" y su descripción sugiere que las variaciones entre individuos están estratificadas. Una vez descrita la composición bacteriana sería interesante establecer la relación entre la alteración de equilibrios ecológicos con estados de enfermedad que puedan desembocar en una novedosa vía terapéutica. Abstract in english New sequencing technologies together with the development of bioinformatics allow a description of the full spectrum of the microbial communities that inhabit the human intestinal tract, as well as their functional contributions to host health. Most community members belong to the domain Bacteria, b [...] ut Archaea, Eukaryotes (yeasts and protists), and Viruses are also present. Only 7 to 9 of the 55 known divisions or phyla of the domain Bacteria are detected in faecal or mucosal samples from the human gut. Most taxa belong to just two divisions: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the other divisions that have been consistently found are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium are the most abundant genera but their relative proportion is highly variable across individuals. Full metagenomic analysis has identified more than 5 million non-redundant microbial genes encoding up to 20,000 biological functions related with life in the intestinal habitat. The overall structure of predominant genera in the human gut can be assigned into three robust clusters, which are known as "enterotypes". Each of the three enterotypes is identifiable by the levels of one of three genera: Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). This suggests that microbiota variations across individuals are stratified, not continuous. Next steps include the identification of changes that may play a role in certain disease states. A better knowledge of the contributions of microbial symbionts to host health will help in the design of interventions to improve symbiosis and combat disease.

Virginia, Robles-Alonso; Francisco, Guarner.

2013-06-01

95

The multi-herbal drug STW 5 (Iberogast) has prosecretory action in the human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that STW 5 (Iberogast), fixed combination of hydroethanolic herbal extracts), besides being effective in functional dyspepsia, also improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical data indicate that modulation of mucosal secretion is a promising approach to treat intestinal disorders associated with IBS. We therefore explored the effect of STW 5 on secretion in the human intestine and the mechanisms by which it acts. The Ussing chamber technique was used to measure mucosal secretion in human intestinal mucosa/submucosa preparations and in human epithelial cell line T84. In addition, we recorded STW 5 effects on human enteric neurons with voltage sensitive dye imaging. In human tissue and T84 cells STW 5 induced a dose-dependent increase in ion secretion that was significantly reduced by the Na-K-Cl cotransporter blocker bumetanide, the adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL-12 330, the non-specific and selective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitors glibenclamide and CFTR(inh)-172, respectively, and the blocker of calcium dependent Cl(-) channels (ClCa) SITS (4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulphonic acid). It was unaffected by amiloride, a blocker of epithelial Na(+) channels. In human tissue, the nerve blocker tetrodotoxin significantly suppressed the STW 5 response. STW 5 evoked an increased spike discharge in 51% of human submucous neurons. Results suggest that STW 5 is a secretogogue in the human intestine by direct epithelial actions and through activation of enteric neurons. The prosecretory effect is due to increased epithelial Cl(-) fluxes via CFTR and Ca-dependent ClCa channels. STW 5 may be a novel option to treat secretory disorders associated with IBS and constipation. PMID:19210628

Krueger, D; Gruber, L; Buhner, S; Zeller, F; Langer, R; Seidl, S; Michel, K; Schemann, M

2009-11-01

96

[Effects of NSAIDs and PGE1 analogue on the permeability of human small intestine].  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied permeability of human small intestine to clarify the following questions. 1) Does indomethacin increase intestinal permeability (IP)? 2) Does ornoprostil (PGE1 analogue) prevent the increased IP due to indomethacin? 3) Does acemetacin (pro-drug) increase IP? Eleven healthy volunteers were studied before and after ingestion of indomethacin, acemetacin, ornoprostil. After an overnight fast, they drank an isotonic solution containing 1.5 g rhamnose and 10.5 g lactulose. IP was estimated with lactulose/rhamnose percentage excretion in urine for 5 hours. An administration of indomethacin (75 mg) for one day increased IP significantly, and the coadministration of indomethacin and ornoprostil showed no significant change in IP compared with those of controls. Pro-drug administration did not increase IP. It is suggested that simultaneous administration of ornoprostil prevent the mucosal damage caused by indomethacin clinically, and that the mechanism of this increase IP is due to lack of mucosal prostaglandins on the small intestine. PMID:9277110

Nagase, K; Hiwatashi, N; Ito, K; Maekawa, H; Noguchi, M; Kinouchi, Y; Toyota, T

1997-07-01

97

Radioimmunoassay of human intestinal goblet cell mucin. Investigation of mucus from different organs and species.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the quantitative measurement of human goblet cell mucin (GCM) in order to study intestinal mucus in human and other species. The assay used 3H-labeled mucin as the antigen, rabbit antisera, and sheep anti-rabbit IgG antisera as the second antibody. A number of applications of the assay were investigated. A survey of human tissues revealed that mucins of the rectum, colon, and small intestine had identical affinity for the rabbit antibody, whereas lung eyelid conjunctiva, esophagus, and stomach reacted less strongly. GCM concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14 microgram mucin protein/mg tissue protein in the small and large intestine, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was also found to be useful as a marker during the isolation of GCM from human ileal extracts, where it indicated that a 10,000-fold purification had been achieved. Antigenic determinants of the mucin did not rely upon ABH blood group-specific terminal sugars in oligosaccharide chains. A comparison of mucins among various species revealed a partial species specificity of the GCM antibody. Human GCM cross-reacted with dog, monkey, and rabbit mucins, but not with mucins of rat, pig, toad, and oyster. Organ distributions of cross-reactive mucins in rabbit tissues indicated a pattern that was qualitatively similar to that seen in human tissues. Possible implications of these findings for autoimmune diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:115900

Qureshi, R; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F

1979-01-01

98

Human milk oligosaccharides influence maturation of human intestinal Caco-2Bbe and HT-29 cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulation of gastrointestinal tract maturation is 1 of the many benefits of human milk. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundant in human milk and are reported to promote enterocyte differentiation in vitro. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of 3 predominant HMOs on multiple aspects of enterocyte maturation in vitro. Ranging from crypt-like to differentiated enterocytes, we used the well-characterized intestinal cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe to model early and late stages of differentiation, respectively. With this model of the crypt-villus axis made up of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cultures, we characterized the impact of lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), and 6'-sialyllactose on epithelial cell kinetics and function. All 3 HMOs dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in undifferentiated HT-29 and Caco-2Bbe cultures (P < 0.05). In contrast to previous reports, only treatment with 2'FL at concentrations similar to human milk increased alkaline phosphatase activity by 31% (P = 0.044) in HT-29 cultures and increased sucrase activity by 54% (P = 0.005) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cultures. LNnT at concentrations similar to that reported for human milk increased transepithelial resistance by 21% (P = 0.002) in well-differentiated Caco-2Bbe cells. In summary, all 3 HMOs reduced cell proliferation in an epithelial cell model of the crypt-villus axis. However, effects on differentiation, digestive function, and epithelial barrier function differed between the HMOs tested. These results suggest differential roles for specific HMOs in maturation of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24572036

Holscher, Hannah D; Davis, Steven R; Tappenden, Kelly A

2014-05-01

99

Human Rights and Transitional Societies: Contemporary Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper will assess how alternative approaches to transitional justice have the potential for overcoming tensions in between human rights standards. A rule in international law prescribing that states have a duty to prosecute gross human rights violations has emerged. Accordingly, transitional societies are said to have an obligation to apply criminal justice in dealing with such past violations. In Rwanda, the transitional government decided to prosecute the perpetrators of the 1994 genocide. As a result of widespread participation in the genocide and a devastated legal sector, difficulties in respecting the rights of the accused arose. A group of paralegals known as the "Corps of Judicial Defenders" was thus relied upon as to provide legal assistance for genocide suspects, but also for civil parties. This paper describes the work of these paralegals relating to the transitional trials, and, more generally, asserts how Judicial Defenders may have contributed to justice in other ways in post conflict Rwanda. The author argues that an efficient transitional justice policy must take sufficiently into account the context of the society in question, and aim at establishing linkages between justice in transitions and justice in the long-term.

Hansen, Thomas Obel

2008-01-01

100

Autoradiographic and enzyme histochemical studies of intestinal metaplasia in human stomach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between growth potency and alkaline phosphatase activity of intestinal metaplasia of human stomach was studied using enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic technique. Both alkaline phosphatase positive and negative glands were seen in the intestinal metaplasia. Two types of alkaline phosphatase positive glands were observed, one in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were distributed from the lower part to the surface of the gland and the other in which alkaline phosphatase positive cells were localized only at the surface of the gland. 3H-Thymidine labelled cells in the former gland were localized only at the bottom but the labelled cells in the latter were distributed in the lower part of the gland. 3H-Thymidine labelled cells in alkaline phosphatase negative gland were distributed from the bottom to middle part of the gland. These results imply that the intestinal metaplasia in which cell proliferative zone was localized at the bottom of the gland showed alkaline phosphatase activity just like the activity in the small intestine, however the gland in which the cell proliferative zone was prolonged showed the alkaline phosphatase activity different from the small intestine. (author)

101

Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT) on gastric emptying (GE) and on gastrointestinal (GI) and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65) weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between [...] C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution) was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml) and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P

F. de-A.A., Gondim; J.R.V., da-Graça; G.R., de-Oliveira; M.C.V., Rêgo; R.B.M., Gondim; F.H., Rola.

1998-12-01

102

Human Ghrelin Mitigates Intestinal Injury and Mortality after Whole Body Irradiation in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

2015-01-01

103

Human ghrelin mitigates intestinal injury and mortality after whole body irradiation in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread use of ionizing radiation has led to the realization of the danger associated with radiation exposure. Although studies in radiation countermeasures were initiated a half century ago, an effective therapy for a radiomitigator has not been identified. Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal hormone, and administration of ghrelin is protective in animal models of injuries including radiation combined injury. To test whether ghrelin can be protective in whole body irradiaton (WBI) alone, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with human ghrelin (20 nmol/rat) daily for 6 days starting at either 24 h or 48 h after 10 Gray (Gy) WBI and survival outcome was examined. The 10 Gy WBI produced a LD70/30 model in SD rats (30% survival in 30 days). The survival rate in rats treated with ghrelin starting at 24 h was significantly improved to 63% and when treatment was initiated at 48 h, the survival remained at 61%. At 7 days post WBI, plasma ghrelin was significantly reduced from the control value. Ghrelin treatment starting at 24 h after WBI daily for 6 days improved histological appearance of the intestine, reduced gut permeability, serum endotoxin levels and bacterial translocation to the liver by 38%, 42% and 61%, respectively at day 7 post WBI. Serum glucose and albumin were restored to near control levels with treatment. Ghrelin treatment also attenuated WBI-induced intestinal apoptosis by 62% as evidenced by TUNEL staining. The expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-xl was decreased by 38% in the vehicle and restored to 75% of the control with ghrelin treatment. Increased expression of intestinal CD73 and pAkt were observed with ghrelin treatment, indicating protection of the intestinal epithelium after WBI. These results indicate that human ghrelin attenuates intestinal injury and mortality after WBI. Thus, human ghrelin can be developed as a novel mitigator for radiation injury. PMID:25671547

Wang, Zhimin; Yang, Weng Lang; Jacob, Asha; Aziz, Monowar; Wang, Ping

2015-01-01

104

Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine. PMID:17615175

De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

2007-09-01

105

Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and rats.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the digestibility of newly developed saccharide materials evaluated by rat small intestinal enzymes can substitute for evaluation using human enzymes.Keywords: disaccharidase, maltase, sucrase, trehalase, palatinase, digestibility

Oku T

2011-06-01

106

A morphological analysis of the transition between the embryonic primitive intestine and yolk sac in bovine embryos and fetuses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The yolk sac (YS) is the main source of embryonic nutrition during the period when the placenta has not yet formed. It is also responsible for hematopoiesis because the blood cells develop from it as part of the primitive embryonic circulation. The objective of this study was to characterize the transitional area between the YS and primitive gut using the techniques of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry to detect populations of pluripotent cells by labeling with Oct4 antibody. In all investigated embryos, serial sections were made to permit the identification of this small, restricted area. We identified the YS connection with the primitive intestine and found that it is composed of many blood islands, which correspond to the vessels covered by vitelline and mesenchymal cells. We identified large numbers of hemangioblasts inside the vessels. The mesenchymal layer was thin and composed of elongated cells, and the vitelline endodermal membrane was composed of large, mono- or binucleated cells. The epithelium of the primitive intestine comprised stratified columnar cells and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. The transitional area between the YS and the primitive intestine was very thin and composed of cells with irregular shapes, which formed a delicate lumen containing hemangioblasts. In the mesenchyme of the transitional area, there were a considerable number of small vessels containing hemangioblasts. Using Oct4 as a primary antibody, we identified positive cells in the metanephros, primordial gonad, and hepatic parenchyma as well as in YS cells, suggesting that these regions contain populations of pluripotent cells. PMID:23650099

Mançanares, Celina A F; Leiser, Rudolf; Favaron, Phelipe O; Carvalho, Ana F; Oliveira, Vanessa C De; Santos, José M Dos; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Miglino, Maria A

2013-07-01

107

Modeling colorectal cancer using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated engineering of human intestinal organoids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human colorectal tumors bear recurrent mutations in genes encoding proteins operative in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-?, TP53 and PI3K pathways. Although these pathways influence intestinal stem cell niche signaling, the extent to which mutations in these pathways contribute to human colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we use the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system to introduce multiple such mutations into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelium. By modulating the culture conditions to mimic that of the intestinal niche, we selected isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor genes APC, SMAD4 and TP53, and in the oncogenes KRAS and/or PIK3CA. Organoids engineered to express all five mutations grew independently of niche factors in vitro, and they formed tumors after implantation under the kidney subcapsule in mice. Although they formed micrometastases containing dormant tumor-initiating cells after injection into the spleen of mice, they failed to colonize in the liver. In contrast, engineered organoids derived from chromosome-instable human adenomas formed macrometastatic colonies. These results suggest that 'driver' pathway mutations enable stem cell maintenance in the hostile tumor microenvironment, but that additional molecular lesions are required for invasive behavior. PMID:25706875

Matano, Mami; Date, Shoichi; Shimokawa, Mariko; Takano, Ai; Fujii, Masayuki; Ohta, Yuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kanai, Takanori; Sato, Toshiro

2015-03-01

108

Naturally occurring products of proglucagon 111-160 in the porcine and human small intestine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent studies have revealed that the glucagon gene is expressed in the mammalian intestine. Here it codes for "glicentin" (proglucagon 1-69) and a glucagon-like peptide, proglucagon 78-107, recently isolated from porcine intestine. We studied the fate of the remaining COOH-terminal part of proglucagon (proglucagon 111-160) using radioimmunoassays against proglucagon 111-123 and 126-160. Two peptides were isolated from acid ethanol extracts of porcine ileal mucosa and sequenced: one corresponding to proglucagon 126-158 and one probably corresponding to proglucagon 111-158. By comparing human and porcine proglucagon sequences, Ala117 is replaced by Thr, and Ile138, Ala144, Ile152 and Gln153 are replaced by Val, Thr, Leu, and His. By gel filtration and radioimmunoassay of intestinal extracts it was established that a large part of porcine and virtually all of human proglucagon are processed to release proglucagon 111-123 (designated spacer peptide 2), which, like proglucagon 126-158 must be considered a potential hormonal entity. By isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography human spacer peptide 2 was indistinguishable from synthetic proglucagon 111-122 amide, suggesting that this is the structure of the naturally occurring human peptide.

Buhl, T; Thim, L

1988-01-01

109

Type I Collagen as an Extracellular Matrix for the In Vitro Growth of Human Small Intestinal Epithelium  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We previously reported in vitro maintenance and proliferation of human small intestinal epithelium using Matrigel, a proprietary basement membrane product. There are concerns over the applicability of Matrigel-based methods for future human therapies. We investigated type I collagen as an alternative for the culture of human intestinal epithelial cells. Methods Human small intestine was procured from fresh surgical pathology specimens. Small intestinal crypts were isolated using EDTA chelation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts were isolated from a pediatric sample and expanded in vitro. After suspension in Matrigel or type I collagen gel, crypts were co-cultured above a confluent layer of myofibroblasts. Crypts were also grown in monoculture with exposure to myofibroblast conditioned media; these were subsequently sub-cultured in vitro and expanded with a 1?2 split ratio. Cultures were assessed with light microscopy, RT-PCR, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Results Collagen supported viable human epithelium in vitro for at least one month in primary culture. Sub-cultured epithelium expanded through 12 passages over 60 days. Histologic sections revealed polarized columnar cells, with apical brush borders and basolaterally located nuclei. Collagen-based cultures gave rise to monolayer epithelial sheets at the gel-liquid interface, which were not observed with Matrigel. Immunohistochemical staining identified markers of differentiated intestinal epithelium and myofibroblasts. RT-PCR demonstrated expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in myofibroblasts and E-Cadherin, CDX2, villin 1, intestinal alkaline phosphatase, chromogranin A, lysozyme, and Lgr5 in epithelial cells. These markers were maintained through several passages. Conclusion Type I collagen gel supports long-term in vitro maintenance and expansion of fully elaborated human intestinal epithelium. Collagen-based methods yield familiar enteroid structures as well as a new pattern of sheet-like growth, and they eliminate the need for Matrigel for in vitro human intestinal epithelial growth. Future research is required to further develop this cell culture system for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25222024

Jabaji, Ziyad; Brinkley, Garrett J.; Khalil, Hassan A.; Sears, Connie M.; Lei, Nan Ye; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Martín, Martín G.; Dunn, James C. Y.

2014-01-01

110

Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ? 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (? 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat seruroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds

111

Human intestinal acyl-CoA synthetase 5 is sensitive to the inhibitor triacsin C  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To investigate whether human acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) is sensitive to the ACSL inhibitor triacsin C. METHODS: The ACSL isoforms ACSL1 and ACSL5 from rat as well as human ACSL5 were cloned and recombinantly expressed as 6xHis-tagged enzymes. Ni2+-affinity purified recombinant enzymes were assayed at pH 7.5 or pH 9.5 in the presence or absence of triacsin C. In addition, ACSL5 transfected CaCo2 cells and intestinal human mucosa were monitored. ACSL5 expression in cellular systems was ...

Elke Kaemmerer; Anne Peuscher; Andrea Reinartz; Christian Liedtke; Ralf Weiskirchen; Xfc Rgen Kopitz, J.; Nikolaus Gassler

2011-01-01

112

Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT. Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF). Co-culture was set up from Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells using an original seeding procedure. Viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed following incubation of FeSSIF and FaSSIF with co-culture. Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated. Results were compared with Caco-2 and HT29-MTX monocultures. While Caco-2 viability was strongly affected with FeSSIF, no toxic effect was detected for the co-cultures in terms of viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of FeSSIF to the basolateral compartment of the co-culture induced cytotoxic effects which suggested the apical mucus barrier being cell protective. In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture. Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic ?-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids. This study demonstrated the compatibility of the Caco-2/HT29-MTX model with some of the current biorelevant media. Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine. PMID:25601199

Antoine, Delphine; Pellequer, Yann; Tempesta, Camille; Lorscheidt, Stefan; Kettel, Bernadette; Tamaddon, Lana; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf; Béduneau, Arnaud

2015-03-15

113

Transglutaminase 2 expression is enhanced synergistically by interferon-? and tumour necrosis factor-? in human small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed ubiquitously, has multiple physiological functions and has also been associated with inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. In particular, TG2 is expressed in small intestine mucosa where it is up-regulated in active coeliac disease (CD). The aim of this work was to investigate the induction of TG2 expression by proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-? and IL-15] and the signalling pathways involved, in human epithelial and monocytic cells and in intestinal tissue from controls and untreated CD patients. Here we report that IFN-? was the most potent inducer of TG2 expression in the small intestinal mucosa and in four [Caco-2, HT-29, Calu-6 and human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1)] of five cell lines tested. The combination of TNF-? and IFN-? produced a strong synergistic effect. The use of selective inhibitors of signalling pathways revealed that induction of TG2 by IFN-? was mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were required for TNF-? activation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed that TG2 expression was blocked completely when stimulation by either TNF-? or IFN-? was performed in the presence of nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibitors (sulphasalazine and BAY-117082). TG2 was up-regulated substantially by TNF-? and IFN-? in intestinal mucosa in untreated CD compared with controls. This study shows that IFN-?, a dominant cytokine in intestinal mucosa in active CD, is the most potent inducer of TG2, and synergism with TNF-? may contribute to exacerbate the pathogenic mechanism of CD. Selective inhibition of signalling pathways may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22385244

Bayardo, M; Punzi, F; Bondar, C; Chopita, N; Chirdo, F

2012-04-01

114

Extensive diversity of intestinal trichomonads of non-human primates.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 139, ?. 1 (2012), s. 92-102. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : trichomonads * Parabasalia * non-human primates * diversity * host specificity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

Smejkalová, P.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; ?epi?ka, I.

2012-01-01

115

Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains differentially reduce intestinal inflammation  

OpenAIRE

Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that inhibits the severity of enteric infections and modulates the immune system. Human-derived L. reuteri strains DSM17938, ATCC PTA4659, ATCC PTA 5289, and ATCC PTA 6475 have demonstrated strain-specific immunomodulation in cultured monocytoid cells, but information about how these strains affect inflammation in intestinal epithelium is limited. We determined the effects of the four different L. reuteri strains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-in...

Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y.; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

2010-01-01

116

Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may de...

Canzonieri Vincenzo; Toffoli Giuseppe; Pavan Alessandro; Marin Maria; Cannizzaro Renato; Simula Maria; De Re Valli

2009-01-01

117

Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on active and passive transport in the human jejunum.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of intravenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on normal transport mechanisms in the human jejunum in vivo was examined with the triple-lumen, steady-state perfusion technique. By using special test solutions that revealed different aspects of jejunal transport, we were able to evaluate the effect of VIP on specific transport processes, such as active bicarbonate absorption, active chloride secretion, and passive absorption or secretion of sodium chloride. At an infusion ra...

Davis, G. R.; Santa Ana, C. A.; Morawski, S. G.; Fordtran, J. S.

1981-01-01

118

Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene.  

OpenAIRE

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and other members of the pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and secretin neuroendocrine peptide family are recognized with specificity by related G protein-coupled receptors. We report here the cloning, characterization, and chromosomal location of the gene encoding the human type I VIP receptor (HVR1), also termed the type II PACAP receptor. The gene spans approximately 22 kb and is composed of 13 exons ranging from 42 to 1400 bp and 12 ...

Sreedharan, S. P.; Huang, J. X.; Cheung, M. C.; Goetzl, E. J.

1995-01-01

119

Expression and intracellular transport of microvillus membrane hydrolases in human intestinal epithelial cells  

OpenAIRE

A panel of monoclonal antibodies was produced against purified microvillus membranes of human small intestinal enterocytes. By means of these probes three disaccharidases (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase- phlorizin hydrolase, and maltase-glucoamylase) and four peptidases (aminopeptidase N, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, angiotension I-converting enzyme, and p-aminobenzoic acid peptide hydrolase) were successfully identified as individual entities by SDS PAGE and localized in the microvillus border of th...

1985-01-01

120

Modulation of chromatin remodelling induced by the freshwater cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin in human intestinal caco-2 cells.  

OpenAIRE

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that has been recognised as an emerging potential public health risk. Although CYN toxicity has been demonstrated, the mechanisms involved have not been fully characterised. To identify some key pathways related to this toxicity, we studied the transcriptomic profile of human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to a sub-toxic concentration of CYN (1.6 µM for 24hrs) using a non-targeted approach. CYN was shown to modulate different biological functions whi...

Huguet, Antoine; Hatton, Aure?lie; Villot, Romain; Quenault, He?le?ne; Blanchard, Yannick; Fessard, Vale?rie

2014-01-01

121

In Vitro Modulation of Human Intestinal Microbiota by Mannoligosaccharides Synthesized from Amorphophallus muelleri Glucomannan  

OpenAIRE

The corms of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume contain a large amount of glucomannan, a kind of polysaccharide that are commonly consumed by people as gelly foods. In order to improve the beneficial properties of glucomannan, we previously have established the enzymatic process to produce the mannoligosaccharides from flour of glucomannan using microbial mannanase. The effects of mannoligosaccharides on the growth modulation of human intestinal microbiota were investigated in this study. A set of...

ACHMAD DINOTO; CORY CORAZON WATUMLAWAR; YOPI

2013-01-01

122

Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time of water in man  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method utilizing a lactulose solution to measure small intestinal transit time (SITT) has been previously reported. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar and is known to increase SITT. In order to determine the extent to which lactulose accelerates SITT, a group of 4 normal male volunteers were studied after the ingestion of 150cc of water to which 100 uCi of 111-In was added. To provide adequate caloric intake, as occurs physiologically, the water was drunk while ingesting a solid meal. The subject was then placed supine under a 15 inch gamma camera. Data were collected and stored in a computer at one frame every 3 minute for 240 minutes. If activity was not present in the cecal region by this time, the subject was allowed to move about for 15 minutes and then repositioned under the gamma camera. Data were first viewed in a movie format. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the SITT. Each subject was studied on three separate occasions. The mean (+- SEM) SITT for each of the separate studies was 248 +- 58 min., 240 +- 47 min. and 232 +- 54 min. respectively (p?NS). Two previously studied groups of normal volunteers had a mean SITT of approximately 80 minutes. Water appears to have a significantly slower SITT when ingested with a solid meal when compared to lactulose. Clinically, the potential to use water as a test for SITT would not seem to be as attractive or practical as using lactulose as the test substance

123

Scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time of water in man  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method utilizing a lactulose solution to measure small intestinal transit time (SITT) has been previously reported. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar and is known to increase SITT. In order to determine the extent to which lactulose accelerates SITT, a group of 4 normal male volunteers were studied after the ingestion of 150cc of water to which 100 uCi of 111-In was added. To provide adequate caloric intake, as occurs physiologically, the water was drunk while ingesting a solid meal. The subject was then placed supine under a 15 inch gamma camera. Data were collected and stored in a computer at one frame every 3 minute for 240 minutes. If activity was not present in the cecal region by this time, the subject was allowed to move about for 15 minutes and then repositioned under the gamma camera. Data were first viewed in a movie format. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the SITT. Each subject was studied on three separate occasions. The mean (+- SEM) SITT for each of the separate studies was 248 +- 58 min., 240 +- 47 min. and 232 +- 54 min. respectively (pless than or equal toNS). Two previously studied groups of normal volunteers had a mean SITT of approximately 80 minutes. Water appears to have a significantly slower SITT when ingested with a solid meal when compared to lactulose. Clinically, the potential to use water as a test for SITT would not seem to be as attractive or practical as using lactulose as the test substance.

Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Marano, A.R.; McCallum, R.

1984-01-01

124

Human bronchus and intestine express the same mucin gene.  

OpenAIRE

The amino acid and sugar composition of mucins from various organs is similar but not identical. This could arise by one or more of the following: organ-specific processing of a single core protein, organ-specific splicing of a single mucin mRNA, or organ-specific expression of various mucin genes. To begin to investigate the source of this variability, we examined (a) immunological cross-reactivity and (b) cDNA cross-hybridization, among several mucin-secreting organs of the human body. Pept...

Jany, B. H.; Gallup, M. W.; Yan, P. S.; Gum, J. R.; Kim, Y. S.; Basbaum, C. B.

1991-01-01

125

Biological role, protein expression, subcellular localization, and oxidative stress response of paraoxonase 2 in the intestine of humans and rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress is a cardinal manifestation of various intestinal disorders. However, very little knowledge is available on the intestine's inherent defense mechanisms against free radicals. This study was designed to determine the protein expression, subcellular localization and oxidative stress response of paraoxonase 2 (PON2), a member of a powerful antioxidant family in human and rat intestine. Biochemical and ultrastructural experiments all showed a substantial expression of PON2 in human and rat intestine. Western blot analysis disclosed higher levels of PON2 in the jejunum than in the duodenum, ileum, and colon. Cell fractionation revealed a predominant PON2 association with microsomes and lysosomes in the human jejunum, which differed from that in rats. PON2 was detected in the intestine as early as week 15 of gestation and was significantly increased by week 20. Iron ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation induced a marked decrease in PON2 expression in intestinal specimens coincidental to an abundant rise in malondialdehyde (MDA). On the other hand, preincubation with potent antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene, Trolox, and N-acetylcysteine, prevented iron-ascorbate-generating PON2 reduction in parallel with MDA suppression. Finally, the preincubation of permeabilized Caco-2 cells with purified PON2 led to a protection against iron-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation. These observations demonstrate that the human intestine is preferentially endowed with a marked PON2 expression compared with the rat intestine and this expression shows a developmental and intracellular pattern of distribution. Furthermore, our observations suggest PON2 protective effects against prooxidant stimuli in the small intestine. PMID:17916643

Levy, Emile; Trudel, Karine; Bendayan, Moise; Seidman, Ernest; Delvin, Edgard; Elchebly, Mounib; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Precourt, Louis-Philippe; Amre, Devendra; Sinnett, Daniel

2007-12-01

126

A Strategy for assessing potential drug-drug interactions of a concomitant agent against a drug absorbed via an intestinal transporter in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strategy for assessing potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) based on a simulated intestinal concentration is described. The proposed prediction method was applied to the DDI assessment of luseogliflozin, a novel antidiabetic drug, against miglitol absorbed via the intestinal sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). The method involves four steps: collection of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of luseogliflozin for use in a computer simulation; evaluation of the validity of these parameters by verifying the goodness of fit between simulated and observed plasma profiles; simulation of the intestinal luseogliflozin concentration-time profile using the Advanced Compartment Absorption and Transit (ACAT) model in a computer program and estimation of the time spent above a value 10-fold higher than the IC50 value (TAIC) for SGLT1; and evaluation of the DDI potential of luseogliflozin by considering the percentage of TAIC against the miglitol Tmax (time for Cmax) value (TAIC/Tmax). An initial attempt to prove the validity of this method was performed in rats. The resulting TAIC/Tmax in rats was 32%, suggesting a low DDI potential of luseogliflozin against miglitol absorption. The validity was then confirmed using an in vivo interaction study in rats. In humans, luseogliflozin was expected to have no DDI potential against miglitol absorption, since the TAIC/Tmax in humans was lower than that in rats. This prediction was proven, as expected, in a clinical interaction study. In conclusion, the present strategy based on a simulation of the intestinal concentration-time profile using dynamic modeling would be useful for assessing the clinical DDI potential of a concomitant agent against drugs absorbed via an intestinal transporter. PMID:25005603

Mizuno-Yasuhira, Akiko; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Gunji, Emi; Uchida, Saeko; Takahashi, Teisuke; Kinoshita, Kohnosuke; Jingu, Shigeji; Sakai, Soichi; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

2014-09-01

127

Involvement of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli plasmid-encoded toxin in causing human intestinal damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strains have been shown to adhere to human intestinal tissue in an in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model, and certain strains manifest mucosal toxicity. We have recently described the EAEC plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet), a member of a specific serine protease subclass of the autotransporter proteins. When injected into rat ileal loops, Pet both elicited fluid accumulation and had cytotoxic effects on the mucosa. Furthermore, the Pet protein caused rises in short circuit current from rat jejunal tissue mounted in a Ussing chamber and rounding of intestinal epithelial cells in culture. We therefore hypothesized that the mucosal pathology induced by EAEC strains in the IVOC model was related to expression of the Pet protein. Here, we have examined the effects of EAEC strain 042 and its isogenic pet mutant in the IVOC model. 042-infected colonic explants exhibited dilation of crypt openings, increased cell rounding, development of prominent intercrypt crevices, and absence of apical mucus plugs. Colonic tissue incubated with the pet mutant exhibited significantly fewer mucosal abnormalities both subjectively and as quantitated morphometrically by measurement of crypt aperture diameter. Mucosal effects were restored upon complementation of the pet mutation in trans. Interestingly, we found that the ability of 042 to damage T84 cells was not dependent upon Pet. The data suggest that the Pet toxin is active on the human intestinal mucosa but that EAEC may have other mechanisms of eliciting mucosal damage. PMID:10496914

Henderson, I R; Hicks, S; Navarro-Garcia, F; Elias, W P; Philips, A D; Nataro, J P

1999-10-01

128

Subversion of human intestinal mucosa innate immunity by a Crohn's disease-associated E. coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), associated with Crohn's disease, are likely candidate contributory factors in the disease. However, signaling pathways involved in human intestinal mucosa innate host response to AIEC remain unknown. Here we use a 3D model of human intestinal mucosa explant culture to explore the effects of the AIEC strain LF82 on two innate immunity platforms, i.e., the inflammasome through evaluation of caspase-1 status, and NF?B signaling. We showed that LF82 bacteria enter and survive within a few intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, without altering the mucosa overall architecture. Although 4-h infection with a Salmonella strain caused crypt disorganization, caspase-1 activation, and mature IL-18 production, LF82 bacteria were unable to activate caspase-1 and induce IL-18 production. In parallel, LF82 bacteria activated NF?B signaling in epithelial cells through I?B? phosphorylation, NF?Bp65 nuclear translocation, and TNF? secretion. In addition, NF?B activation was crucial for the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis upon LF82 infection. In conclusion, here we decipher at the whole-mucosa level the mechanisms of the LF82-induced subversion of innate immunity that, by maintaining host cell integrity, ensure intracellular bacteria survival.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.89. PMID:25269707

Jarry, A; Crémet, L; Caroff, N; Bou-Hanna, C; Mussini, J M; Reynaud, A; Servin, A L; Mosnier, J F; Liévin-Le Moal, V; Laboisse, C L

2014-10-01

129

Effects of casoxin 4 on morphine inhibition of small animal intestinal contractility and gut transit in the mouse  

OpenAIRE

Glen S Patten1,2, Richard J Head1, Mahinda Y Abeywardena1,21CSIRO Preventative Health National Research Flagship, Adelaide, Australia; 2CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground and aims: Chronic opioid analgesia has the debilitating side-effect of constipation in human patients. The major aims of this study were to: 1) characterize the opioid-specific antagonism of morphine-induced inhibition of electrically driven contraction of the small intestine of mice, rats, an...

Patten, Glen S.; Head, Richard J.; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y.

2011-01-01

130

Microbiology of the human intestinal tract and approaches for its dietary modulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gut bacteria can be categorised as being either beneficial or potentially pathogenic due to their metabolic activities and fermentation end-products. Health-promoting effects of the microflora may include immunostimulation, improved digestion and absorption, vitamin synthesis, inhibition of the growth of potential pathogens and lowering of gas distension. Detrimental effects are carcinogen production, intestinal putrefaction, toxin production, diarrhoea/constipation and intestinal infections. Certain indigenous bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are considered to be examples of health-promoting constituents of the microflora. They may aid digestion of lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals, reduce diarrhoea, help resist infections and assist in inflammatory conditions. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are functional foods that fortify the lactate producing microflora of the human or animal gut. PMID:19442165

Saulnier, Delphine M; Kolida, Sofia; Gibson, Glenn R

2009-01-01

131

Studies on the determination of extracellular galactosyltransferase in human intestinal tissue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of extracellular galactosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.38) activity in human intestinal tissue by assessment of the incorporation of label after incubation with UDP[3H]galactose was evaluated. Intestinal biopsy specimens were incubated with membrane-permeable L-[1-14C]fucose and non-permeable UDP-D-[6-3H]galactose (UDP[3H]Gal). Comparison of the amounts of 3H- and 14C-label incorporated into subcellular fractions showed uptake and incorporation of galactose formed by the hydrolysis of UDP[3H]Gal by brush-border enzymes. The results indicate that incorporation of galactose after incubation of the tissue with UDP[3H]Gal is not exclusively attributable to extracellular galactosyl transferase. (Auth.)

132

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Human Small-Cell Lung Cancer Proliferation in vitro and in vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive, rapidly growing and metastasizing, and highly fatal neoplasm. We report that vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits the proliferation of SCLC cells in culture and dramatically suppresses the growth of SCLC tumor-cell implants in athymic nude mice. In both cases, the inhibition was mediated apparently by a cAMP-dependent mechanism, because the inhibition was enhanced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in proportion to increases in intracellular cAMP levels, and the inhibition was abolished by selective inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. If confirmed in clinical trials, this antiproliferative action of vasoactive intestinal peptide may offer a new and promising means of suppressing SCLC in human subjects, without the toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

Maruno, Kaname; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

1998-11-01

133

Human intestinal acyl-CoA synthetase 5 is sensitive to the inhibitor triacsin C  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate whether human acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5 is sensitive to the ACSL inhibitor triacsin C. METHODS: The ACSL isoforms ACSL1 and ACSL5 from rat as well as human ACSL5 were cloned and recombinantly expressed as 6xHis-tagged enzymes. Ni2+-affinity purified recombinant enzymes were assayed at pH 7.5 or pH 9.5 in the presence or absence of triacsin C. In addition, ACSL5 transfected CaCo2 cells and intestinal human mucosa were monitored. ACSL5 expression in cellular systems was verified using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The ACSL assay mix included TrisHCl (pH 7.4, ATP, CoA, EDTA, DTT, MgCl2, [9,10-3H] palmitic acid, and triton X-100. The 200 ?L reaction was initiated with the addition of solubilized, purified recombinant proteins or cellular lysates. Reactions were terminated after 10, 30 or 60 min of incubation with Doles medium. RESULTS: Expression of soluble recombinant ACSL proteins was found after incubation with isopropyl beta-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and after ultracentrifugation these were further purified to near homogeneity with Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Triacsin C selectively and strongly inhibited recombinant human ACSL5 protein at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5, as well as recombinant rat ACSL1 (sensitive control, but not recombinant rat ACSL5 (insensitive control. The IC50 for human ACSL5 was about 10 ?mol/L. The inhibitory triacsin C effect was similar for different incubation times (10, 30 and 60 min and was not modified by the N- or C-terminal location of the 6xHis-tag. In order to evaluate ACSL5 sensitivity to triacsin C in a cellular environment, stable human ACSL5 CaCo2 transfectants and mechanically dissected normal human intestinal mucosa with high physiological expression of ACSL5 were analyzed. In both models, ACSL5 peak activity was found at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5, corresponding to the properties of recombinant human ACSL5 protein. In the presence of triacsin C (25 ?mol/L, total ACSL activity was dramatically diminished in human ACSL5 transfectants as well as in ACSL5-rich human intestinal mucosa. CONCLUSION: The data strongly indicate that human ACSL5 is sensitive to triacsin C and does not compensate for other triacsin C-sensitive ACSL isoforms.

Elke Kaemmerer

2011-01-01

134

Human intestinal acyl-CoA synthetase 5 is sensitive to the inhibitor triacsin C  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To investigate whether human acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) is sensitive to the ACSL inhibitor triacsin C. METHODS: The ACSL isoforms ACSL1 and ACSL5 from rat as well as human ACSL5 were cloned and recombinantly expressed as 6xHis-tagged enzymes. Ni2+-affinity purified recombinant enzymes were assayed at pH 7.5 or pH 9.5 in the presence or absence of triacsin C. In addition, ACSL5 transfected CaCo2 cells and intestinal human mucosa were monitored. ACSL5 expression in cellular systems was verified using Western blot and immunofluorescence. The ACSL assay mix included TrisHCl (pH 7.4), ATP, CoA, EDTA, DTT, MgCl2, [9,10-3H] palmitic acid, and triton X-100. The 200 ?L reaction was initiated with the addition of solubilized, purified recombinant proteins or cellular lysates. Reactions were terminated after 10, 30 or 60 min of incubation with Doles medium. RESULTS: Expression of soluble recombinant ACSL proteins was found after incubation with isopropyl beta-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and after ultracentrifugation these were further purified to near homogeneity with Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Triacsin C selectively and strongly inhibited recombinant human ACSL5 protein at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5, as well as recombinant rat ACSL1 (sensitive control), but not recombinant rat ACSL5 (insensitive control). The IC50 for human ACSL5 was about 10 ?mol/L. The inhibitory triacsin C effect was similar for different incubation times (10, 30 and 60 min) and was not modified by the N- or C-terminal location of the 6xHis-tag. In order to evaluate ACSL5 sensitivity to triacsin C in a cellular environment, stable human ACSL5 CaCo2 transfectants and mechanically dissected normal human intestinal mucosa with high physiological expression of ACSL5 were analyzed. In both models, ACSL5 peak activity was found at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5, corresponding to the properties of recombinant human ACSL5 protein. In the presence of triacsin C (25 ?mol/L), total ACSL activity was dramatically diminished in human ACSL5 transfectants as well as in ACSL5-rich human intestinal mucosa. CONCLUSION: The data strongly indicate that human ACSL5 is sensitive to triacsin C and does not compensate for other triacsin C-sensitive ACSL isoforms. PMID:22171129

Kaemmerer, Elke; Peuscher, Anne; Reinartz, Andrea; Liedtke, Christian; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Kopitz, Jürgen; Gassler, Nikolaus

2011-01-01

135

Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. PMID:25434735

Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

2015-01-01

136

In Vitro Modulation of Human Intestinal Microbiota by Mannoligosaccharides Synthesized from Amorphophallus muelleri Glucomannan  

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Full Text Available The corms of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume contain a large amount of glucomannan, a kind of polysaccharide that are commonly consumed by people as gelly foods. In order to improve the beneficial properties of glucomannan, we previously have established the enzymatic process to produce the mannoligosaccharides from flour of glucomannan using microbial mannanase. The effects of mannoligosaccharides on the growth modulation of human intestinal microbiota were investigated in this study. A set of in vitro single batch culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of mannooligosaccharides on human-origin Lactobacillus fermentum AA0014 and Lactobacillus plantarum FU0811. A modified MRS medium containing 10% (w/v sucrose, glucomannan, and mannoligosaccharide was used instead of glucose as carbon source. The results showed the highest growth rate (0.13 h-1 with both L. fermentum AA0014 and L. plantarum FU0811 in the presence of mannooligosaccharides. We confirmed this result by a similar in vitro experiment using human fecal samples of six healthy adults as innocula and analyzed the microbial population by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Lactobacilli were proliferated higher in the presence of mannoligosaccharide than other carbon sources, yielding the microbial proportion as much of 10.9% of total microbiota. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential use of mannoligosaccharides synthesized from A. muelleri glucomannan as prebiotic candidate of modulating the beneficial human intestinal microbiota.

ACHMAD DINOTO

2013-11-01

137

Human ?2-glycoprotein I attenuates mouse intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induced injury and inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury results from a complex cascade of inflammatory components. In the mouse model of intestinal IR, the serum protein, ?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) binds to the cell surface early in the cascade. The bound ?2-GPI undergoes a conformational change which exposes a neoantigen recognized by naturally occurring antibodies and initiates the complement cascade. We hypothesized that providing additional antigen with exogenous ?2-GPI would alter IR-induced tissue injury. Administration of human but not mouse ?2-GPI attenuated IR-induced tissue damage and prostaglandin E(2) production indicating a physiological difference between ?2-GPI isolated from the two species. To investigate whether structural features were responsible for this physiological difference, we compared the chemical, physical and biochemical properties of the two proteins. Despite possessing 76% amino acid identity and 86% sequence homology, we found that mouse ?2-GPI differs from the human protein in size, carbohydrate chain location, heterogeneity and secondary structural content. These data suggest that the structural differences result in mouse Ab recognition of soluble human but not mouse ?2-GPI and attenuated IR-induced injury. We conclude that caution should be exercised in interpreting results obtained by using human ?2-GPI in a mouse model. PMID:22750067

Tomasi, Maurizio; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pope, Michael R; Gudlur, Sushanth; Tomich, John M; Fleming, Sherry D

2012-10-01

138

Small-intestinal dysfunction accompanies the complex endocrinopathy of human proprotein convertase 1 deficiency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We have previously described the only reported case of human proprotein convertase 1 (PC1) deficiency, in a female (Subject A) with obesity, hypogonadism, hypoadrenalism, and reactive hypoglycemia. We now report the second case of human PC1 deficiency (Subject B), also due to compound heterozygosity for novel missense and nonsense mutations. While both subjects shared the phenotypes of obesity, hypoadrenalism, reactive hypoglycemia, and elevated circulating levels of certain prohormones, the clinical presentation of Subject B was dominated by severe refractory neonatal diarrhea, malabsorptive in type. Subsequent investigation of Subject A revealed marked small-intestinal absorptive dysfunction, which was not previously clinically suspected. We postulate that PC1, presumably in the enteroendocrine cells, is essential for the normal absorptive function of the human small intestine. The differences in the nature and severity of presentation between the two cases cannot readily be explained on the basis of allelic heterogeneity, as the nonsense and missense mutations from both subjects had comparably severe effects on the catalytic activity of PC1. Despite Subject A's negligible PC1 activity, some mature ACTH and glucagon-like peptide 17-36(amide) were detectable in her plasma, suggesting that the production of these hormones, at least in humans, does not have an absolute dependence on PC1. The presence of severe obesity and the absence of growth retardation in both subjects contrast markedly with the phenotype of mice lacking PC1 and suggest that the precise physiological repertoire of this enzyme may vary between mammalian species.

Jackson, Robert S; Creemers, John W M

2003-01-01

139

Cellular and molecular mechanism study of declined intestinal transit function in the cholesterol gallstone formation process of the guinea pig  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of declined intestinal transit (IT) function in the cholesterol gallstone (CG) formation process. Forty guinea pigs were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CoG), and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for the analysis of c-kit and stem cell factor (scf) mRNA expression in the small bowel. In addition, immunofluorescence staining and confocal laser mi...

Fan, Ying; Wu, Shuodong; Yin, Zhenhua; Fu, Bei-bei

2014-01-01

140

Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem  

OpenAIRE

The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core geno...

Bogert, B.; Boekhorst, J.; Herrmann, R.; Smid, E. J.; Zoetendal, E. G.; Kleerebezem, M.

2013-01-01

141

Colonization of Mucin by Human Intestinal Bacteria and Establishment of Biofilm Communities in a Two-Stage Continuous Culture System  

OpenAIRE

The human large intestine is covered with a protective mucus coating, which is heavily colonized by complex bacterial populations that are distinct from those in the gut lumen. Little is known of the composition and metabolic activities of these biofilms, although they are likely to play an important role in mucus breakdown. The aims of this study were to determine how intestinal bacteria colonize mucus and to study physiologic and enzymatic factors involved in the destruction of this glycopr...

Macfarlane, Sandra; Woodmansey, Emma J.; Macfarlane, George T.

2005-01-01

142

High content analysis of cytotoxic effects of pDMAEMA on human intestinal epithelial and monocyte cultures  

OpenAIRE

Poly(2-(dimethylamino ethyl)methacrylate) (pDMAEMA) is a cationic polymer with potential as an antimicrobial agent and as a non-viral gene delivery vector. The aim was to further elucidate the cytotoxicity of a selected pDMAEMA low molecular weight (MW) polymer against human U937 monocytes and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells using a novel multi-parameter high content analysis (HCA) assay and to investigate histological effects on isolated rat intestinal mucosae. Seven parameters of cytot...

Rawlinson, Lee-anne Betty; O Brien, Peter J.; Brayden, David James

2010-01-01

143

Poliovirus mutants excreted by a chronically infected hypogammaglobulinemic patient establish persistent infections in human intestinal cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunodeficient patients whose gut is chronically infected by vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) may excrete large amounts of virus for years. To investigate how poliovirus (PV) establishes chronic infections in the gut, we tested whether it is possible to establish persistent VDPV infections in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Four type 3 VDPV mutants, representative of the viral evolution in the gut of a hypogammaglobulinemic patient over almost 2 years [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 3001], were used to infect both undifferentiated, dividing cells, and differentiated, polarized enterocytes. A VDPV mutant excreted 36 days postvaccination by the patient was lytic in both types of intestinal cell cultures, like the parental Sabin 3 (S3) strain. In contrast, three VDPVs excreted 136, 442, and 637 days postvaccination, established persistent infections both in undifferentiated cells and in enterocytes. Thus, viral determinants selected between day 36 and 136 conferred on VDPV mutants the capacity to infect intestinal cells persistently. The percentage of persistently VDPV-infected cultures was higher in enterocytes than in undifferentiated cells, implicating cellular determinants involved in the differentiation of enterocytes in persistent VDPV infections. The establishment of persistent infections in enterocytes was not due to poor replication of VDPVs in these cells, but was associated with reduced viral adsorption to the cell surface

144

Identification of NF-?B modulation capabilities within human intestinal commensal bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To seek interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and commensal bacteria, we screened 49 commensal strains for their capacity to modulate NF-?B. We used HT-29/kb-seap-25 and Caco-2/kb-seap-7 intestinal epithelial cells and monocyte-like THP-1 blue reporter cells to measure effects of commensal bacteria on cellular expression of a reporter system for NF-?B. Bacteria conditioned media (CM) were tested alone or together with an activator of NF-?B to explore its inhibitory potentials. CM from 8 or 10 different commensal species activated NF-?B expression on HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, respectively. On THP-1, CM from all but 5 commensal strains stimulated NF-?B. Upon challenge with TNF-? or IL-1?, some CM prevented induced NF-?B activation, whereas others enhanced it. Interestingly, the enhancing effect of some CM was correlated with the presence of butyrate and propionate. Characterization of the effects of the identified bacteria and their implications in human health awaits further investigations. PMID:21765633

Lakhdari, Omar; Tap, Julien; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; de Wouters, Tomas; Cultrone, Antonietta; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Lefèvre, Fabrice; Doré, Joël; Blottière, Hervé M

2011-01-01

145

Cellular and molecular mechanism study of declined intestinal transit function in the cholesterol gallstone formation process of the guinea pig.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of declined intestinal transit (IT) function in the cholesterol gallstone (CG) formation process. Forty guinea pigs were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CoG), and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for the analysis of c-kit and stem cell factor (scf) mRNA expression in the small bowel. In addition, immunofluorescence staining and confocal laser microscopy were performed for the observation of the changes in the number of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the terminal ileum of each group. RT-PCR showed that, compared with the CoG, the intestinal c-kit and scf mRNA expression levels in the EG were significantly decreased; the average positive area of ICCs in the ileum in the EG was also significantly reduced. During the diet-induced CG formation procedure, the c-kit and scf mRNA expression levels in the small intestine decreased and the number of ICCs decreased. Inhibition of the c-kit/scf pathway may be involved in the declined IT function during the CG formation process. PMID:25289052

Fan, Ying; Wu, Shuodong; Yin, Zhenhua; Fu, Bei-Bei

2014-11-01

146

Regulation of Villin by Wnt5a and Ror2 in human intestinal cells  

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Full Text Available Regulation of expression of the intestinal epithelial actin-binding protein, villin, is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether Wnt5a stimulates Ror2 in intestinal epithelia caused transient increases in phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2 and subsequently increased expression of villin transcript and protein. To demonstrate Wnt5a-Ror2 regulation of villin expression, we overexpressed wild-type, truncated, or mutant Ror2 constructs in HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells and nontransformed fetally-derived human intestinal epithelial cells, added conditioned media containing Wnt5a and measured changes in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, villin amplicons and protein expression by RT-PCR and Western blot techniques. Wnt5a addition caused a transient increase in pERK1/2, which was maximal at 10 min but extinguished by 30 min. Transient transfection with a siRNA duplex against Ror2 diminished Ror2 amplicons and protein and reduced the extent of pERK1/2 activation. Structure-function analysis revealed that the deletion of the cysteine-rich, kringle, or tyrosine kinase domain or substitution mutations of tyrosine residues in the intracellular Ser/Thr-1 region of Ror2 prevented the Wnt5a-stimulation of pERK1/2. Deletion of the intracellular proline and serine/threonine rich regions of Ror2 had no effect on Wnt5a-stimulation of pERK1/2. The increase in villin expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1 and casein kinase 1, but not by PKC and p38 inhibitors. Neither Wnt3a nor EGF addition caused increases in villin protein. Our findings suggest that Wnt5a/ Ror2 signaling can regulate villin expression in the intestine.

JacquelineKelly

2011-09-01

147

Metabolism of Kaempferia parviflora polymethoxyflavones by human intestinal bacterium Bautia sp. MRG-PMF1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poylmethoxyflavones (PMFs) are major bioactive flavonoids, which exhibit various biological activities, such as anticancer effects. The biotransformation of PMFs and characterization of a PMF-metabolizing human intestinal bacterium were studied herein for the first time. Hydrolysis of aryl methyl ether functional groups by human fecal samples was observed from the bioconversion of various PMFs. Activity-guided screening for PMF-metabolizing intestinal bacteria under anaerobic conditions resulted in the isolation of a strict anaerobic bacterium, which was identified as Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1. The isolated MRG-PMF1 was able to metabolize various PMFs to the corresponding demethylated flavones. The microbial conversion of bioactive 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5,7,4'-TMF) was studied in detail. 5,7-DMF and 5,7,4'-TMF were completely metabolized to 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin), respectively. From a kinetics study, the methoxy group on the flavone C-7 position was found to be preferentially hydrolyzed. 5-Methoxychrysin, the intermediate of 5,7-DMF metabolism by Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1, was isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apigenin was produced from the sequential demethylation of 5,7,4'-TMF, via 5,4'-dimethoxy-7-hydroxyflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavone (thevetiaflavone). Not only demethylation activity but also deglycosylation activity was exhibited by Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1, and various flavonoids, including isoflavones, flavones, and flavanones, were found to be metabolized to the corresponding aglycones. The unprecedented PMF demethylation activity of Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1 will expand our understanding of flavonoid metabolism in the human intestine and lead to novel bioactive compounds. PMID:25437273

Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Nayoung; Han, Jaehong

2014-12-24

148

Capsaicin-enhanced Ribosomal Protein P2 Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells  

OpenAIRE

On the basis of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) measurements, we found that capsaicin (100 ?M)-treated human intestinal Caco-2 cells show a momentary increase in tight-junction (TJ) permeability (decrease in TER) followed by a complete recovery. We used proteome analysis to search for proteins that are associated with the recovery of TJ permeability in capsaicin-treated Caco-2 cells. A protein with a relative molecular mass of 14 kDa was found to be expressed more highly in cap...

Han, Junkyu; Akutsu, Mitsuaki; Talorete, Terence P. N.; Maekawa, Takaaki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Isoda, Hiroko

2005-01-01

149

Stability of Cephalosporin Prodrug Esters in Human Intestinal Juice: Implications for Oral Bioavailability  

OpenAIRE

The levels of degradation of cefetamet pivoxil (CAT), cefuroxime axetil (CAE), and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPD) in 0.6 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and human intestinal juice (pH 7.4) at 37°C over 24 h were compared. Significant differences in the time courses of degradation and in the patterns of degradation products were observed. (i) The relative proportions of the ?2- and ?3-cephalosporins were roughly reversed in the two incubation media. In phosphate buffer, the major degradation produc...

Stoeckel, Klaus; Hofheinz, Werner; Laneury, Jean Paul; Duchene, Patrick; Shedlofsky, Steve; Blouin, Robert A.

1998-01-01

150

Recombinant human interleukin-2-induced mitogenic proliferation of in vitro unstimulated bovine intestinal lymphocytes.  

OpenAIRE

Recombinant human interleukin-2 (rHIL-2) in the absence or presence of additional stimuli, was able to induce and support the proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from the intra-epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the small intestine of normal adult cows. Although dose-dependent effects of rHIL-2 were observed with all three cell populations, concentrations as low as 2.5 U/mL were able to induce DNA synthesis as measured by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, rHIL-2...

Nagi, A. M.; Babiuk, L. A.

1989-01-01

151

Transport of Aflatoxin M1 in Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells  

OpenAIRE

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). After it is formed, it is secreted in the milk of mammals. Despite the potential risk of human exposure to AFM1, data reported in literature on the metabolism, toxicity and bioavailability of this molecule are limited and out of date. The aim of the present research was to study the absorption profile of AFM1 and possible damage to tight junctions of the intestinal Caco-2/TC7 clone grown on microporous filter supports...

FrancescaCaloni

2012-01-01

152

Smoking Cessation Induces Profound Changes in the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The human intestinal microbiota is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet, knowledge about the role of environmental factors such as smoking (which is known to influence theses aforementioned disease states) on the complex microbial composition is sparse. We aimed to investigate the role of smoking cessation on intestinal microbial composition in 10 healthy smoking subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation. Methods During the observational period of 9 weeks repetitive stool samples were collected. Based on abundance of 16S rRNA genes bacterial composition was analysed and compared to 10 control subjects (5 continuing smokers and 5 non-smokers) by means of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis and high-throughput sequencing. Results Profound shifts in the microbial composition after smoking cessation were observed with an increase of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria on the phylum level. In addition, after smoking cessation there was an increase in microbial diversity. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking is an environmental factor modulating the composition of human gut microbiota. The observed changes after smoking cessation revealed to be similar to the previously reported differences in obese compared to lean humans and mice respectively, suggesting a potential pathogenetic link between weight gain and smoking cessation. In addition they give rise to a potential association of smoking status and the course of IBD. PMID:23516617

Biedermann, Luc; Zeitz, Jonas; Mwinyi, Jessica; Sutter-Minder, Eveline; Rehman, Ateequr; Ott, Stephan J.; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Frei, Anja; Frei, Pascal; Scharl, Michael; Loessner, Martin J.; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Fried, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan; Schuppler, Markus; Rogler, Gerhard

2013-01-01

153

Failure of d-psicose absorbed in the small intestine to metabolize into energy and its low large intestinal fermentability in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments with rats have produced data on the metabolism and energy value of d-psicose; however, no such data have been obtained in humans. The authors assessed the availability of d-psicose absorbed in the small intestine by measuring carbohydrate energy expenditure (CEE) by indirect calorimetry. They measured the urinary excretion rate by quantifying d-psicose in urine for 48 hours. To examine d-psicose fermentation in the large intestine, the authors measured breath hydrogen gas and fermentability using 35 strains of intestinal bacteria. Six healthy subjects participated in the CEE test, and 14 participated in breath hydrogen gas and urine tests. d-Psicose fermentation subsequent to an 8-week adaptation period was also assessed by measuring hydrogen gas in 8 subjects. d-Psicose absorbed in the small intestine was not metabolized into energy, unlike glucose, because CEE did not increase within 3 hours of d-psicose ingestion (0.35 g/kg body weight [BW]). The accumulated d-psicose urinary excretion rates were around 70% for 0.34, 0.17, and 0.08 g/kg BW of ingested d-psicose. Low d-psicose fermentability was observed in intestinal bacteria and breath hydrogen gas tests, in which fructooligosaccharide (0.34, 0.17, and 0.08 g/kg BW) was used as a positive control because its available energy is known to be 8.4 kJ/g. Based on the results of the plot of breath hydrogen concentration vs calories ingested, the energy value of d-psicose was expected to be less than 1.6 kJ/g. Incremental d-psicose fermentability subsequent to an adaptation period was not observed. PMID:19765780

Iida, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Noriko; Yamada, Takako; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Miyazato, Shoko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Tokuda, Masaaki; Izumori, Ken

2010-02-01

154

Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.  

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Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 ?M concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can help in understanding both the human interindividual differences in polyphenol metabolism, the microbial pathways involved, and the role of polyphenols in human health. The presence of urolithin producing bacteria can indirectly affect the health benefits of ellagitannin consumption. PMID:24909569

Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

2014-08-01

155

Vasoactive intestinal peptide maintains the nonpathogenic profile of human th17-polarized cells.  

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The cytokine microenvironment modulates CD4 T cell differentiation causing the shift of naïve CD4 T cells into different cell subsets. This process is also regulated by modulators such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide with known immunomodulatory properties on CD4 T cells that exert this action through specific receptors, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2. Our results show that the pattern of VIP receptors expression ratio is modified during Th17 differentiation. In this report, we evaluate the capacity of VIP to modulate naïve human cells into Th17 cells in vitro by analyzing their functional phenotype. The presence of VIP maintains the nonpathogenic profile of Th17-polarized cells, increases the proliferation rate, and decreases their Th1 potential. VIP induces the upregulation of the STAT3 gene interaction with the VPAC1 receptor during the onset of Th17 differentiation. Moreover, RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC), RAR-related orphan receptor A (RORA), and interleukin (IL)-17A genes are upregulated in the presence of VIP through interaction with VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors. Interestingly, VIP induces the expression of the IL-23R gene through interaction with the VPAC2 receptor during the expansion phase. This is the first report that describes the differentiation of naïve human T cells to Th17-polarized cells in the presence of VIP and demonstrates how this differentiation regulates the expression of the VIP receptors. PMID:24805298

Jimeno, Rebeca; Leceta, Javier; Martínez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Cañas, Irene; Carrión, Mar; Pérez-García, Selene; Garín, Marina; Mellado, Mario; Gomariz, Rosa P; Juarranz, Yasmina

2014-11-01

156

Antigenic and structural features of goblet-cell mucin of human small intestine.  

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With the use of a newly developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay method, the major antigenic determinants of human small-intestinal goblet-cell mucin were investigated and related to the overall tertiary structure of the mucin. Preliminary hapten inhibition studies with various oligosaccharides of known sequence and structure suggested that the determinants did not reside in carbohydrate. Exhaustive thiol reduction, however, almost abolished antigenicity, caused breakdown of the mucin into small heterogeneous glycopeptides, and liberated a 'link' peptide of Mr 118000. Western 'blots' of reduced mucin from polyacrylamide gels on to nitrocellulose sheets showed that a small amount of residual antigenicity remained in large-Mr glycopeptides (Mr greater than 200000). The 'link' peptide was not antigenic. Timed Pronase digestion of native mucin resulted in a progressive loss of antigenic determinants. Gel electrophoresis revealed that after 8h of digestion the 118000-Mr peptide had disappeared, whereas antigenicity, which was confined to large-Mr glycopeptides, was destroyed much more slowly with time (70% by 24h, 100% by 72h). Despite the loss of antigenicity, 72h-Pronase-digested glycopeptides retained all of the carbohydrate of the native mucin. Therefore the antibody to human small-intestinal mucin appears to recognize a 'naked' (non-glycosylated and Pronase-susceptible) peptide region(s) of mucin glycopeptides. For full antigenicity, however, disulphide bonds are required to stabilize a specific three-dimensional configuration of the 'naked' region. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:6199017

Mantle, M; Forstner, G G; Forstner, J F

1984-01-01

157

Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis of Leptin through Human Intestinal Cells In Vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gastric Leptin is absorbed by duodenal enterocytes and released on the basolateral side towards the bloodstream. We investigated in vitro some of the mechanisms of this transport. Caco-2/15 cells internalize leptin from the apical medium and release it through transcytosis in the basal medium in a time- temperature-dependent and saturable fashion. Leptin receptors are revealed on the apical brush-border membrane of the Caco-2 cells. RNA-mediated silencing of the receptor led to decreases in the uptake and basolateral release. Leptin in the basal medium was found bound to the soluble form of its receptor. An inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (chlorpromazine) decreased leptin uptake. Confocal immunocytochemistry and the use of brefeldin A and okadaic acid revealed the passage of leptin through the Golgi apparatus. We propose that leptin transcytosis by intestinal cells depends on its receptor, on clathrin-coated vesicles and transits through the Golgi apparatus. PMID:20454702

Cammisotto, Philippe G; Bendayan, Moise; Sané, Alain; Dominguez, Michel; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

2010-01-01

158

Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis of Leptin through Human Intestinal Cells In Vitro  

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Full Text Available Gastric Leptin is absorbed by duodenal enterocytes and released on the basolateral side towards the bloodstream. We investigated in vitro some of the mechanisms of this transport. Caco-2/15 cells internalize leptin from the apical medium and release it through transcytosis in the basal medium in a time- temperature-dependent and saturable fashion. Leptin receptors are revealed on the apical brush-border membrane of the Caco-2 cells. RNA-mediated silencing of the receptor led to decreases in the uptake and basolateral release. Leptin in the basal medium was found bound to the soluble form of its receptor. An inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (chlorpromazine decreased leptin uptake. Confocal immunocytochemistry and the use of brefeldin A and okadaic acid revealed the passage of leptin through the Golgi apparatus. We propose that leptin transcytosis by intestinal cells depends on its receptor, on clathrin-coated vesicles and transits through the Golgi apparatus.

Émile Levy

2010-01-01

159

Transit time heterogeneity in canine small intestine: significance for oxygen transport.  

OpenAIRE

We previously found that local O2 extraction efficacy in isolated pump-perfused intestine was enhanced when systemic reflex vasoconstriction was stimulated by hypovolemia (Samsel, R.W., and P.T. Schumacker. 1994. J. Appl. Physiol. 77: 2291-2298). The microvascular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect could involve a redistribution of flow between mucosa and serosa, or an adjustment in the heterogeneity of perfusion within those regions. We measured regional blood flows and distribution...

Connolly, H. V.; Maginniss, L. A.; Schumacker, P. T.

1997-01-01

160

Utilização do método videolaparoscopico na reconstituição do trânsito intestinal após a operação de Hartmann The use of videolaparoscopic approach in the intestinal transit restoration after Hartmann's procedure  

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Full Text Available O objetivo é apresentar a padronização da técnica operatória e os resultados obtidos com a utilização do acesso videolaparoscópico na reconstituição do trânsito intestinal em pacientes previamente submetidos à operação de Hartmann por causas diversas. Foram analisados prospectivamente 32 pacientes, no período de dezembro de 1991 a junho de 1997, com distribuição semelhante com relação ao sexo e com idade média de 42,4 anos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao mesmo preparo pré-operatório e à mesma técnica cirúrgica. Ocorreram três (9,3% complicações transoperatórias. Uma (3,1 % anastomose mecânica incompleta, necessitando de endossutura manual, uma (3,1 % laceração do reto com o grampeador mecânico e uma (3,1 % lesão da artéria epigástrica direita. Ocorreram ainda três (9,3% conversões, sendo uma (3,1 % devido à laceração do reto com o grampeador mecânico, outra (3.1 % pela invasão tumoral na pelve e outra (3,1 % pela presença de excessivas aderências intraperitoneais. O tempo operatório variou de 30 a 240 minutos, na média de 126,2 minutos (2,1 horas. A evolução clínica pós-operatória foi satisfatória. Nove (31,0% pacientes não referiram dor, enquanto 13 (44,8% a referiram em pequena intensidade, e apenas sete (24,0% queixaram-se de dor com maior intensidade. A dieta líquida via oral foi instituída no período médio de 1,6 dias, e a primeira evacuação ocorreu na média de 3,2 dias de pós-operatório. O período médio de hospitalização foi de 4,7 dias. Ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias em oito (27,5% pacientes. Duas (6,8% infecções da ferida do estoma, dois pacientes (6,8% com dor no ombro direito, uma (3,4% deiscência de anastomose, um (3,4% caso de peritonite por provável contaminação do material cirúrgico, uma coleção líquida pélvica e uma hérnia incisional. Em conclusão, a reconstituição do trânsito intestinal por videolaparoscopia apresentou-se segura e eficaz, podendo constituir-se no método cirúrgico de escolha, pois foi utilizada com sucesso em 90,6% dos pacientes.We present the operative technique and the results of the laparoscopic approach for Hartmann's colostomy reversal. Thirty two patients were prospectively analysed from december 1991 to june 1997. They presented a similar incidence regarding sex distribution, and a median age of 42.4 years old. Ali patients underwent the same preoperative preparation and operative technique. Three (9.3% intraoperative complications were observed: an uncompleted anastomosis (3.1%, requiring an endosuture, a rectal perforation by the mechanical stapler and a right epigastric artery lesion. There were convertion to open surgery in three (9.3% patients: one (3.1% due to rectal perforation by the mechanical staple1; one (3.1% for tumoral pelvic invasion and another because of excessive intra-peritoneal adhesions. Operative time varied from 30 to 240 minutes, with a mean time of 126;2 minutes. Nine (31.0% patients didn't present pain, while 13 (44.8% referred minimal pain and seven (24.0% complained severe pain. Oral liquid diet intake occurred within a mean time of 1.6 days and the first evacuation observed after a mean 3.2 postoperative days. Mean hospitalization time was 4.7 days. Postoperative complications occurred in eight (27.5% patients. Two (6.8% stoma wound infections, right shoulder pain in two (6.8% patients, one (3.4% anastomotic dehiscence, one peritonitis probably due to contaminationfrom surgical instruments, a liquid pelvic coliection and an incisional haernia. 1n conclusion, videolaparoscopic restoration of the intestinal transit demonstrated to be safe and effective. It could be the method of choice because of its success in 90.6 per cent of the patients.

Francisco Sérgio P. Regadas

2000-02-01

161

Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review  

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Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

2003-01-01

162

Adherence to lipids and intestinal mucin by a recently recognized human pathogen, Campylobacter upsaliensis.  

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Campylobacter upsaliensis is a recently recognized human enteric pathogen associated with enteritis, colitis, bacteremia, and sepsis. Very little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this organism. The goals of this study were to determine whether C. upsaliensis binds to epithelial cells and whether there are specific lipid molecules that might serve as cell membrane receptors. In addition, we also explored C. upsaliensis binding to purified human small-intestinal mucin, since the mucus gel overlying the epithelium provides an initial contact surface for the bacteria and must be penetrated for the organisms to reach their cell receptors. Binding of C. upsaliensis to model epithelial cells was shown by microscopy adhesion assays, and binding to lipids was detected by thin-layer chromatography-overlay assays. Bacteria bound to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), gangliotetraosylceramide (Gg4), and, more weakly, to phosphatidylserine (PS). There was no binding to ceramide, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and globosides. Using receptor-based microtiter well immunoassays, we observed binding to be equal, specific, and saturable for PE and Gg 4 but low and nonspecific for PS. At least five bacterial surface proteins (50 to 90 kDa) capable of PE binding were identified by a lipid-silica affinity column technique. In slot blot overlay assays, biotin-labeled C. upsaliensis also bound in a concentration-dependent fashion to purified human small-intestinal mucin, implying that these microorganisms also express an adhesin(s) recognizing a specific mucin epitope(s). We speculate that binding to mucins may influence access of the bacteria to cell membrane receptors and thereby influence host resistance to infection. PMID:8926069

Sylvester, F A; Philpott, D; Gold, B; Lastovica, A; Forstner, J F

1996-01-01

163

A protocol for differentiation of human intestinal Caco-2 cells in asymmetric serum-containing medium.  

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The human intestinal Caco-2 cell line still represents the best available in vitro model of absorptive enterocytes, despite its origin from a colon adenocarcinoma. Caco-2 cells seeded on filter inserts undergo in culture a process of spontaneous differentiation that leads to the formation, after two to three weeks, of a monolayer of polarized cell, coupled by tight junctions and expressing several morphological and functional features of small intestinal enterocytes. The medium normally used for differentiation of Caco-2 cells contains a supplement of foetal bovine serum (FBS) in both the apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) compartments. The use of FBS as cell culture media supplement has been frequently and increasingly questioned on scientific and also on ethical grounds. We have shown that addition of serum only to the BL medium (asymmetric protocol) appears to be sufficient to allow differentiation of Caco-2 cells, as monitored by morphology, monolayer permeability and alkaline phosphatase activity, compared to standard conditions using 10% FBS supplement in both AP and BL media (asymmetric protocol). Although not eliminating the use of FBS, its addition only in the BL medium results in more physiological conditions for differentiation and in a significant reduction of its use. PMID:22265977

Ferruzza, Simonetta; Rossi, Carlotta; Scarino, Maria Laura; Sambuy, Yula

2012-12-01

164

Kudoa septempunctata invasion increases the permeability of human intestinal epithelial monolayer.  

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Kudoa septempunctata is a myxosporean parasite of Paralichthys olivaceus (olive flounder) and causes a foodborne illness that affects more than 100 cases in Japan each year. We previously reported that the consumption of raw olive flounder meat containing a high concentration of K. septempunctata spores induces transient but severe diarrhea and emesis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that K. septempunctata sporoplasm plays an important role in mediating the toxicity of K. septempunctata. When K. septempunctata spores were inoculated in Caco-2 human intestinal cells, K. septempunctata sporoplasms were released from spores, and they invaded the cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the sporoplasm invasion severely damaged the Caco-2 cells. The inoculation of K. septempunctata spores eliminated the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across the cell monolayer. Inhibiting the invasion of the sporoplasms prevented the observed loss in cell layer integrity, as illustrated by the rapid elimination of the TER. These results suggest that the invasion by sporoplasms severely damaged individual intestinal cells, resulting in a loss of cell monolayer integrity. PMID:23373474

Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Furusawa, Hiroko; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2013-02-01

165

Intestinal infections in humans in the Rocky Mountain region, United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the seasonal prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the western states of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Montana, fecal samples were examined as part of routine diagnostic testing from patients experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort in August (summer) 2006, January (winter), and April (spring) 2007. Parasite identification in positive samples was confirmed using light microscopy after wet mount and trichrome staining techniques. Seventy-eight of the 1,083 patients surveyed (7.2%) in August tested positive for at least 1 species of intestinal parasite. Forty-eight of 726 (6.6%) patients and 51 of 795 (6.4%) patients tested positive for at least 1 species in January and April, respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most prevalent, followed by Giardia lamblia. Approximately 25% of the parasite occurrences were multiple infections involving fecal-oral transmitted species. Co-infections with Entamoeba spp. and Blastocystis sp. were common, suggesting a possible fecal-oral transmission for the latter parasite. Entamoeba spp. were more likely to co-occur than independently. Other species detected included Endolimax nana, Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Iodamoeba butschlii. PMID:19807196

Church, Cynthia; Neill, Andrea; Schotthoefer, Anna M

2010-02-01

166

Recombinant human interleukin-2-induced mitogenic proliferation of in vitro unstimulated bovine intestinal lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human interleukin-2 (rHIL-2) in the absence or presence of additional stimuli, was able to induce and support the proliferation of lymphocytes isolated from the intra-epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer's patches of the small intestine of normal adult cows. Although dose-dependent effects of rHIL-2 were observed with all three cell populations, concentrations as low as 2.5 U/mL were able to induce DNA synthesis as measured by tritiated thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, rHIL-2 as low as 5.0 U/mL was shown to significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation. These proliferative responses to rHIL-2 were detected within two days of culture and peaked after five days. Although the extent of the blastogenic response was variable in individual animals, the general pattern of time-course and dose-response to rHIL-2 was similar in all animals tested. The response of all three leukocyte populations to rHIL-2 was dependent on the presence of adherent accessory cells and/or 2-mercaptoethanol. Both nylon wool nonadherent (T cells, null cells) and adherent cells (B cells) were shown to be responsive to rHIL-2. These studies demonstrate that bovine lymphocytes isolated from different anatomical locations of the small intestine are capable of proliferation in response to xenogenic IL-2 without in vitro preactivation signals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2783657

Nagi, A M; Babiuk, L A

1989-01-01

167

Characterization of the transport of ?-methylaminoisobutyric acid by a human intestinal cell line (HT-29)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under certain growth conditions, the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 exhibits intestinal enterocyte-like properties. The differentiated cells possess a brush border with the enzyme markers (aminopeptidase and sucrase) normally associated with the intestine. To aid in the characterization of the transport properties of these cells, the uptake of a non-metabolizable amino acid analog, 14C-?-methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) as examined in the HT-29-Al subclone which possesses a brush border. The cells exhibited a time-dependent uptake of MeAIB which was concentrative and sodium-dependent. The pH optimum for uptake was about 7.8. Uptake was inhibited by low temperature, 1 mM ouabain, or 0.5 mM dinitrophenol. A 1 hr-preincubation of the cells in an isotonic KCl solution resulted in a decreased uptake rate, suggesting that a negative membrane potential is important for MeAIB uptake. The rate of 0.5 mM MeABIB uptake was inhibited by 40 to 90% by 5 mM of certain small neutral amino acids such as Ala, Ser, Pro, Gly, met but not by acidic or basic amino acids such as Asp, Glu, Arg or Lys. The uptake of MeAIB appears to be mediated by an amino acid transport carrier similar to the A-system described previously for Chinese hamster ovary cells

168

Human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 expression is associated with fat intake and polymorphisms.  

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The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) is involved in lipid metabolism whereby variations in the promoter (haplotypes A/B) and exon 2 (Ala54Thr) are associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To elucidate which factors determine FABP2 expression in human mucosa, we investigated the association between fat intake, genotypes, biochemical variables, and FABP2 expression. FABP2 gene expression was assessed in duodenal specimens from 100 participants who answered a FFQ and who were genotyped and characterized for traits of metabolic syndrome and further biochemical data. Homozygotes for haplotype A tended to have lower fat intake than B-allele carriers (P = 0.066). Searching for an explanation, we evaluated the orexigenic glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in a subset from the Metabolic Intervention Cohort Kiel. AA homozygotes had lower postprandial GIP concentrations than BB homozygotes. Duodenal FABP2 expression was correlated with (n-3) fatty acid (FA) intake in AA homozygotes (r = 0.49; P = 0.021). It was higher in AA homozygotes than in B-allele carriers after adjustment for (n-3) FA intake (P = 0.049) and was negatively correlated with serum FFA (r = -0.41; P FABP2 expression depends on (n-3) FA intake and FABP2 genotypes. FABP2 might be involved in regulating food intake and intestinal FA utilization. PMID:20534879

Auinger, Annegret; Helwig, Ulf; Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Pfeuffer, Maria; de Vrese, Michael; Foelsch, Ulrich Robert; Schreiber, Stefan; Doering, Frank; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

2010-08-01

169

Determinants of accelerated small intestinal transit in alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with chronic pancreatitis may have abnormal gastrointestinal transit, but the factors underlying these abnormalities are poorly understood. Gastrointestinal transit was assessed, in 40 male outpatients with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis and 18 controls, by scintigraphy after a liquid meal labeled with (99m)technetium-phytate. Blood and urinary glucose, fecal fat excretion, nutritional status, and cardiovascular autonomic function were determined in all patients. The influence of diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, malnutrition, and autonomic neuropathy on abnormal gastrointestinal transit was assessed by univariate analysis and Bayesian multiple regression analysis. Accelerated gastrointestinal transit was found in 11 patients who showed abnormally rapid arrival of the meal marker to the cecum. Univariate and Bayesian analysis showed that diabetes mellitus and autonomic neuropathy had significant influences on rapid transit, which was not associated with either malabsorption or malnutrition. In conclusion, rapid gastrointestinal transit in patients with alcohol-related chronic pancreatitis is related to diabetes mellitus and autonomic neuropathy. PMID:19390966

Rosa-E-Silva, Lucilene; Troncon, Luiz E A; Gallo, Lourenço; Foss, Milton C; Passos, Afonso D C; Perdoná, Gleici C; Achcar, Jorge A; Oliveira, Ricardo B

2010-04-01

170

Somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive intramural nerve structures of the human large intestine affected by carcinoma.  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arrangement and chemical coding of enteric nerve structures in the human large intestine affected by cancer. Tissue samples comprising all layers of the intestinal wall were collected during surgery form both morphologically unchanged and pathologically altered segments of the intestine (n=15, and fixed by immersion in buffered paraformaldehyde solution. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5 and their chemical coding using antibodies against somatostatin (SOM, substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. The microscopic observations revealed distinct morphological differences in the enteric nerve system structure between the region adjacent to the cancer invaded area and the intact part of the intestine. In general, infiltration of the cancer tissue resulted in the gradual (depending on the grade of invasion first decomposition and reduction to final partial or complete destruction and absence of the neuronal elements. A comparative analysis of immunohistochemically labeled sections (from the unchanged and pathologically altered areas revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of CGRP-positive neurons and nerve fibres in both submucous and myenteric plexuses in the transitional zone between morphologically unchanged and cancer-invaded areas. In this zone, a decrease was also observed in the density of SP-positive nerve fibres in all intramural plexuses. Conversely, the investigations demonstrated statistically insignificant differences in number of SP- and SOM-positive neurons and a similar density of SOM-positive nerve fibres in the plexuses of the intact and pathologically changed areas. The differentiation between the potential adaptive changes in ENS or destruction of its elements by cancer invasion should be a subject of further investigations.

Jerzy Kaleczyc

2010-11-01

171

[The efficacy of Plantago ovata as a regulator of intestinal transit. A double-blind study compared to placebo].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Plantago ovata on patients with chronic constipation (CC) with or without irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been assessed by a double blind study comprising 20 patients with CC of which 10 had associated IBS. A clinical questionnaire, weight of feces and intestinal transit time measured with radiopaque markers were done. Patients were then randomly distributed, 10 receiving PO and 10 placebo. Similar tests were done after treatment one month later. All patients receiving PO had good results against only one in the placebo group. Frequency of stools increased from 2.5 +/- 1 vs 8 +/- 2.2 stools per week, p less than 0.001 for paired data). A decrease in consistency of stools was also observed in the treated group. Fecal weight and colonic transit time were not significantly modified in placebo patients, while weight increase was observed in the treated ones (124 +/- 71 vs 194 +/- 65, gr/d p less than 0.001 for paired data) as well as a decrease in transit time (48 +/- 15 vs 34 +/- 18 hours p less than 0.05 for paired data). No adverse effects were observed and particularly no flatulence as often seen in patients on bran. PMID:1520545

Tomás-Ridocci, M; Añón, R; Mínguez, M; Zaragoza, A; Ballester, J; Benages, A

1992-07-01

172

Gene expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors in human lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of various human carcinomas, the 5-year survival rate for lung cancer remains below 20%. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important neuropeptide in the control of lung physiology, and exerts its functions mainly through two receptor subtypes, VPAC1 and VPAC2. Receptors for VPAC1 and VPAC2 are present in human lung cancer cells, but very limited information exists about the mRNA expression of these VIP receptor subtypes in lung cancer specimens. The aim of the present study was to investigate by RT-PCR the mRNA expression of the VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors in surgical specimens of 43 human lung cancer specimens and 7 normal lung samples. mRNA expression of the VPAC1 receptor was detected in 51% of the tumor specimens, while the incidence of mRNA expression for VPAC2 was 46%. Twenty-one percent of the tumor samples expressed only the VPAC1 receptor and 16% displayed only the VPAC2 receptor, while 13 samples (30%) expressed neither subtype. Thirteen cancer tissue specimens (30%), expressed both of these VIP receptor subtypes. Three normal lung tissue specimens also displayed gene expression for VPAC1 and/or VPAC2 receptors. Our results support the additional investigation of the role of VIP and its receptors in human lung cancer and suggest a further development of VIP analogs for therapeutic and imaging purposes in this malignancy. PMID:21769421

Szilasi, Maria; Buglyo, Armin; Treszl, Andrea; Kiss, Lili; Schally, Andrew V; Halmos, Gabor

2011-10-01

173

A Human Breast Cell Model of Preinvasive to Invasive Transition  

OpenAIRE

A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from preinvasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur “spontaneously” in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane cultures. These cells remained noninvas...

Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing

2008-01-01

174

Localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins in human liver, gall bladder and intestine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms that regulate the entry of dietary sterols into the body and their removal via hepatobiliary secretion are now beginning to be defined. These processes are specifically disrupted in the rare autosomal recessive disease, Sitosterolemia (MIM 210250. Mutations in either, but not both, of two genes ABCG5 or ABCG8, comprising the STSL locus, are now known to cause this disease and their protein products are proposed to function as heterodimers. Under normal circumstances cholesterol, but not non-cholesterol sterols, is preferentially absorbed from the diet. Additionally, any small amounts of non-cholesterol sterols that are absorbed are rapidly taken up by the liver and preferentially excreted into bile. Based upon the defects in sitosterolemia, ABCG5 and ABCG8 serve specifically to exclude non-cholesterol sterol entry at the intestinal level and are involved in sterol excretion at the hepatobiliary level. Methods Here we report the biochemical and immuno-localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human liver, gallbladder and intestine using cell fractionation and immunohistochemical analyses. Results We raised peptide antibodies against ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins. Using human liver samples, cell fractionation studies showed both proteins are found in membrane fractions, but they did not co-localize with caveolin-rafts, ER, Golgi or mitochondrial markers. Although their distribution in the sub-fractions was similar, they were not completely contiguous. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that while both proteins were readily detectable in the liver, ABCG5 was found predominately lining canalicular membranes, whereas ABCG8 was found in association with bile duct epithelia. At the cellular level, ABCG5 appeared to be apically expressed, whereas ABCG8 had a more diffuse expression pattern. Both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appeared to localize apically as shown by co-localization with MRP2. The distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the gallbladder were very similar to each other. In the small intestine both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appear to line the brush border. However, at the level of the enterocyte, the cellular distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 differed, such that ABCG5 was more diffuse, but ABCG8 was principally apical. Using standard deglycosylation methods, ABCG5 and ABCG8 do not appear to be glycosylated, suggesting a difference between human and mouse proteins. Conclusion We report the distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human tissues. Cell fractionation studies showed that both proteins co-fractionated in general, but could also be found independent of each other. As predicted, they are expressed apically in both intestine and liver, although their intracellular expression patterns are not completely congruent. These studies support the concept of heterodimerization of ABCG5 and ABCG8, but also support the notion that these proteins may have an independent function.

Chavin Kenneth D

2004-09-01

175

Localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins in human liver, gall bladder and intestine  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The molecular mechanisms that regulate the entry of dietary sterols into the body and their removal via hepatobiliary secretion are now beginning to be defined. These processes are specifically disrupted in the rare autosomal recessive disease, Sitosterolemia (MIM 210250). Mutations in either, but not both, of two genes ABCG5 or ABCG8, comprising the STSL locus, are now known to cause this disease and their protein products are proposed to function as heterodimers. Under normal circumstances cholesterol, but not non-cholesterol sterols, is preferentially absorbed from the diet. Additionally, any small amounts of non-cholesterol sterols that are absorbed are rapidly taken up by the liver and preferentially excreted into bile. Based upon the defects in sitosterolemia, ABCG5 and ABCG8 serve specifically to exclude non-cholesterol sterol entry at the intestinal level and are involved in sterol excretion at the hepatobiliary level. Methods Here we report the biochemical and immuno-localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human liver, gallbladder and intestine using cell fractionation and immunohistochemical analyses. Results We raised peptide antibodies against ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins. Using human liver samples, cell fractionation studies showed both proteins are found in membrane fractions, but they did not co-localize with caveolin-rafts, ER, Golgi or mitochondrial markers. Although their distribution in the sub-fractions was similar, they were not completely contiguous. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that while both proteins were readily detectable in the liver, ABCG5 was found predominately lining canalicular membranes, whereas ABCG8 was found in association with bile duct epithelia. At the cellular level, ABCG5 appeared to be apically expressed, whereas ABCG8 had a more diffuse expression pattern. Both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appeared to localize apically as shown by co-localization with MRP2. The distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the gallbladder were very similar to each other. In the small intestine both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appear to line the brush border. However, at the level of the enterocyte, the cellular distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 differed, such that ABCG5 was more diffuse, but ABCG8 was principally apical. Using standard deglycosylation methods, ABCG5 and ABCG8 do not appear to be glycosylated, suggesting a difference between human and mouse proteins. Conclusion We report the distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human tissues. Cell fractionation studies showed that both proteins co-fractionated in general, but could also be found independent of each other. As predicted, they are expressed apically in both intestine and liver, although their intracellular expression patterns are not completely congruent. These studies support the concept of heterodimerization of ABCG5 and ABCG8, but also support the notion that these proteins may have an independent function. PMID:15383151

Klett, Eric L; Lee, Mi-Hye; Adams, David B; Chavin, Kenneth D; Patel, Shailendra B

2004-01-01

176

Absorption and transport of pachymic acid in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 monolayers  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the absorption and transport of pachymic acid (PA isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos (Schw. Wolf. in human intestinal epithelium.Methods: By using Caco-2 (the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines cell monolayers as an intestinal epithelial cell model, the permeability of PA was studied from apical side (AP side to basolateral side (BL side or from BL side to AP side. The PA was measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector at maximum absorption wavelength of 210 nm. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp were then calculated and compared with those of propranolol and atenolol, which were the transcellular transport markers for high and poor permeability respectively.Results: The Papp values of PA were (9.50±2.20 10?7 cm/s from AP side to BL side, and (11.30±5.90 10?7 cm/s from BL side to AP side, respectively. Under the condition of this experiment, the Papp values were 1.45×10?5 cm/s for propranolol and 4.22×10?7 cm/s for atenolol.Conclusion: PA is transported through the Caco-2 cell monolayer in a concentration-dependent manner and the transport was linear with time. The absorption in apical to basolateral direction and secretion in basolateral to apical direction were poor and their Papp values were comparable to atenolol. Besides passive diffusion of PA, ATP is partially involved in its transport

Yan ZHENG

2008-07-01

177

The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and objective: The present project is part of the large ISAFRUIT project, where one of the objectives is to identify effects of apple and apple product on parameters related to gut health. In a previous rat study we observed changes in the intestinal microbiota of rats fed whole apples, pomace or apple pectin ([1], and we were interested in finding out if the same effect can be observed in humans. Method: The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled 5 x 28 days cross-over study with 24 healthy persons of both genders. The persons were following a pectin- and polyphenol free restriction diet during the control period, and in the four other periods it was supplied with four different apple based supplements. Between the diets there was a 2-week wash-out period still on the restriction diet. The four apple based supplements were: 1) whole apples, 2) clear apple juice (pectin-free), 3) cloudy juice (apple juice with pulp), and 4) pomace (press cake from the cloudy juice production process). Fecal samples were taken before and after each diet period. After DNA extraction, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with universal primers and specific primers for bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster XIVa was performed. Bands differing between the periods were sequenced, and qPCR was performed to verify the changes observed by DGGE. Results: Changes in the microbiota was observed by DGGE in persons consuming whole apples and pomace. In contrast, the two juice supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans.

Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea

2010-01-01

178

Transport of Aflatoxin M1 in Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). After it is formed, it is secreted in the milk of mammals. Despite the potential risk of human exposure to AFM1, data reported in literature on the metabolism, toxicity, and bioavailability of this molecule are limited and out of date. The aim of the present research was to study the absorption profile of AFM1 and possible damage to tight junctions (TJ) of the intestinal Caco-2/TC7 clone grown on microporous filter supports. These inserts allowed for the separation of the apical and basolateral compartments which correspond to the in vivo lumen and the interstitial space/vascular systems of intestinal mucosa respectively. In this study, the Caco-2/TC7 cells were treated with different AFM1 concentrations (10–10,000?ng/kg) for short (40?min) and long periods of time (48?h). The AFM1 influx/efflux transport and effects on TJ were evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance and observing TJ protein (Zonula occludens-1 and occludin) localization. The results showed that: (i) when introduced to the apical and basolateral compartments, AFM1 was poorly absorbed by the Caco-2/TC7 cells but its transport across the cell monolayer occurred very quickly (Papp value of 105.10?±?7.98?cm/s?×?10?6). (ii) The integrity of TJ was not permanently compromised after exposure to the mycotoxin. Viability impairment or barrier damage did not occur either. The present results contribute to the evaluation of human risk exposure to AFM1, although the AFM1 transport mechanism need to be clarified. PMID:22701428

Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; De Angelis, Isabella

2012-01-01

179

Sulfapyridine appearance in plasma after salicylazosulfapyridine. Another simple measure of intestinal transit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The appearance of sulfapyridine in plasma after oral administration of salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) was evaluated as a method for defining arrival time in the cecum, an index of small bowel transit. After direct instillation of SASP and lactulose into the cecum, the appearances of their metabolites (sulfapyridine in plasma and hydrogen in breath) were rapid (1-10 min) and simultaneous. When a mixture of SASP and lactulose was taken by mouth, times of the respective signals varied among individuals from 40 to 180 min (n = 8) but were correlated within individuals. Salicylazosulfapyridine transit times from duodenum to cecum were also very similar to simultaneous measurements of transit by scintigraphic monitoring of technetium 99m. Timing of the sulfapyridine signal corresponded to the arrival of 5%-13% of technetium 99m DTPA in the cecum. Exemplifying the use of this new technique, simultaneous administration of lactulose into the stomach and SASP into the duodenum yielded consistently longer stomach-to-cecum than duodenum-to-cecum transits, attributable to the delay caused by gastric emptying. Therapeutic doses of morphine delayed small bowel transit of SASP. Transit of SASP offers a second marker technique for the cecal arrival of the head of a bolus; the approach may be useful as an inexpensive, noninvasive measurement of transit.

Kellow, J.E.; Borody, T.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Haddad, A.C.; Brown, M.L.

1986-08-01

180

Sulfapyridine appearance in plasma after salicylazosulfapyridine. Another simple measure of intestinal transit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of sulfapyridine in plasma after oral administration of salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) was evaluated as a method for defining arrival time in the cecum, an index of small bowel transit. After direct instillation of SASP and lactulose into the cecum, the appearances of their metabolites (sulfapyridine in plasma and hydrogen in breath) were rapid (1-10 min) and simultaneous. When a mixture of SASP and lactulose was taken by mouth, times of the respective signals varied among individuals from 40 to 180 min (n = 8) but were correlated within individuals. Salicylazosulfapyridine transit times from duodenum to cecum were also very similar to simultaneous measurements of transit by scintigraphic monitoring of technetium 99m. Timing of the sulfapyridine signal corresponded to the arrival of 5%-13% of technetium 99m DTPA in the cecum. Exemplifying the use of this new technique, simultaneous administration of lactulose into the stomach and SASP into the duodenum yielded consistently longer stomach-to-cecum than duodenum-to-cecum transits, attributable to the delay caused by gastric emptying. Therapeutic doses of morphine delayed small bowel transit of SASP. Transit of SASP offers a second marker technique for the cecal arrival of the head of a bolus; the approach may be useful as an inexpensive, noninvasive measurement of transit

181

Intestinal transit in healthy southern Indian subjects and in patients with tropical sprue.  

OpenAIRE

Whole gut transit was measured in a group of 21 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with tropical sprue by radio-opaque marker technique, using mean transit time single (MTTS) and single stool transit (SST) method. Mean SST in controls was 25.8 (1.4) (SE) hours, which is considerably shorter than in controls in temperate zones. Mean SST (23.7 (0.6) h) correlated significantly with average MTTS (24.9 (1.6) h) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) confirming that SST is a valid method to measure intesti...

Jayanthi, V.; Chacko, A.; Gani, I. K.; Mathan, V. I.

1989-01-01

182

H+/solute-induced intracellular acidification leads to selective activation of apical Na+/H+ exchange in human intestinal epithelial cells  

OpenAIRE

The intestinal absorption of many nutrients and drug molecules is mediated by ion-driven transport mechanisms in the intestinal enterocyte plasma membrane. Clearly, the establishment and maintenance of the driving forces — transepithelial ion gradients — are vital for maximum nutrient absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in response to H+-coupled transport at the apical membrane of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. ...

Thwaites, David T.; Ford, Dianne; Glanville, Michael; Simmons, Nicholas L.

1999-01-01

183

Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100?nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by ?-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250?µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies. PMID:24266793

Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

2014-08-01

184

Actin cytoskeletal control during epithelial to mesenchymal transition: focus on the pancreas and intestinal tract  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of epithelial tissues allows organisms to specialise and form tissues with diverse functions and compartmentalised environments. The tight controls on cell growth and migration required to maintain epithelia can present problems such as the development and spread of cancer when normal pathways are disrupted. By attaining a deeper understanding of how cell migration is suppressed to maintain the epithelial organisation and how it is reactivated when epithelial tissues become mesenchymal, new insights into both cancer and development can be gained. Here we discuss recent developments in our understanding of epithelial and mesenchymal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in normal and cancerous tissue, with a focus on the pancreas and intestinal tract. PMID:25611303

Morris, H T; Machesky, L M

2015-01-01

185

Actin cytoskeletal control during epithelial to mesenchymal transition: focus on the pancreas and intestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The formation of epithelial tissues allows organisms to specialise and form tissues with diverse functions and compartmentalised environments. The tight controls on cell growth and migration required to maintain epithelia can present problems such as the development and spread of cancer when normal pathways are disrupted. By attaining a deeper understanding of how cell migration is suppressed to maintain the epithelial organisation and how it is reactivated when epithelial tissues become mesenchymal, new insights into both cancer and development can be gained. Here we discuss recent developments in our understanding of epithelial and mesenchymal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in normal and cancerous tissue, with a focus on the pancreas and intestinal tract. PMID:25611303

Morris, H T; Machesky, L M

2015-02-17

186

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus and humans (Homo sapiens  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376 were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans.

Hildebrand Falk

2012-09-01

187

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results: We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possiblyreflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions: The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans.

Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine

2012-01-01

188

Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel ?-strands which form two nearly orthogonal ?-sheets of five strands each, and two short ?-helices that connect the ?-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two ?-sheets. The NMR solutioeen the two ?-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand

189

Utilização do método videolaparoscopico na reconstituição do trânsito intestinal após a operação de Hartmann / The use of videolaparoscopic approach in the intestinal transit restoration after Hartmann's procedure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é apresentar a padronização da técnica operatória e os resultados obtidos com a utilização do acesso videolaparoscópico na reconstituição do trânsito intestinal em pacientes previamente submetidos à operação de Hartmann por causas diversas. Foram analisados prospectivamente 32 pacientes, [...] no período de dezembro de 1991 a junho de 1997, com distribuição semelhante com relação ao sexo e com idade média de 42,4 anos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao mesmo preparo pré-operatório e à mesma técnica cirúrgica. Ocorreram três (9,3%) complicações transoperatórias. Uma (3,1 %) anastomose mecânica incompleta, necessitando de endossutura manual, uma (3,1 %) laceração do reto com o grampeador mecânico e uma (3,1 %) lesão da artéria epigástrica direita. Ocorreram ainda três (9,3%) conversões, sendo uma (3,1 %) devido à laceração do reto com o grampeador mecânico, outra (3.1 %) pela invasão tumoral na pelve e outra (3,1 %) pela presença de excessivas aderências intraperitoneais. O tempo operatório variou de 30 a 240 minutos, na média de 126,2 minutos (2,1 horas). A evolução clínica pós-operatória foi satisfatória. Nove (31,0%) pacientes não referiram dor, enquanto 13 (44,8%) a referiram em pequena intensidade, e apenas sete (24,0%) queixaram-se de dor com maior intensidade. A dieta líquida via oral foi instituída no período médio de 1,6 dias, e a primeira evacuação ocorreu na média de 3,2 dias de pós-operatório. O período médio de hospitalização foi de 4,7 dias. Ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias em oito (27,5%) pacientes. Duas (6,8%) infecções da ferida do estoma, dois pacientes (6,8%) com dor no ombro direito, uma (3,4%) deiscência de anastomose, um (3,4%) caso de peritonite por provável contaminação do material cirúrgico, uma coleção líquida pélvica e uma hérnia incisional. Em conclusão, a reconstituição do trânsito intestinal por videolaparoscopia apresentou-se segura e eficaz, podendo constituir-se no método cirúrgico de escolha, pois foi utilizada com sucesso em 90,6% dos pacientes. Abstract in english We present the operative technique and the results of the laparoscopic approach for Hartmann's colostomy reversal. Thirty two patients were prospectively analysed from december 1991 to june 1997. They presented a similar incidence regarding sex distribution, and a median age of 42.4 years old. Ali p [...] atients underwent the same preoperative preparation and operative technique. Three (9.3%) intraoperative complications were observed: an uncompleted anastomosis (3.1%), requiring an endosuture, a rectal perforation by the mechanical stapler and a right epigastric artery lesion. There were convertion to open surgery in three (9.3%) patients: one (3.1%) due to rectal perforation by the mechanical staple1; one (3.1%) for tumoral pelvic invasion and another because of excessive intra-peritoneal adhesions. Operative time varied from 30 to 240 minutes, with a mean time of 126;2 minutes. Nine (31.0%) patients didn't present pain, while 13 (44.8%) referred minimal pain and seven (24.0%) complained severe pain. Oral liquid diet intake occurred within a mean time of 1.6 days and the first evacuation observed after a mean 3.2 postoperative days. Mean hospitalization time was 4.7 days. Postoperative complications occurred in eight (27.5%) patients. Two (6.8%) stoma wound infections, right shoulder pain in two (6.8%) patients, one (3.4%) anastomotic dehiscence, one peritonitis probably due to contaminationfrom surgical instruments, a liquid pelvic coliection and an incisional haernia. 1n conclusion, videolaparoscopic restoration of the intestinal transit demonstrated to be safe and effective. It could be the method of choice because of its success in 90.6 per cent of the patients.

Francisco Sérgio P., Regadas; Sthela M. Murad, Regadas; Lusmar Veras, Rodrigues.

2000-02-01

190

Human CD14+ macrophages in intestinal lamina propria exhibit potent antigen-presenting ability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal APCs are considered critical in maintaining the balance between the response against harmful pathogens and the induction of tolerance to commensal bacteria and food Ags. Recently, several studies indicated the presence of gut-specific APC subsets, which possess both macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) markers. These unique APC subsets play important roles in gut immunity, especially for immune regulation against commensal bacteria. Herein, we examined a unique macrophage subset, which coexpressed the macrophage (Mphi) marker CD14 and the DC marker CD209 in human intestinal lamina propria (LP). The LP Mphi subset in both normal control subjects or Crohn's disease (CD) patients induced proliferation of naive CD4(+) T cells as well as monocyte-derived DCs, and it expressed retinoic acid synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and retinol dehydrogenase 10, which induced expression of gut homing receptors on T cells in a retinoic acid-dependent manner. Moreover, the LP Mphi subset strongly evoked differentiation of Th1 cells and slightly induced Th17 cells in both normal control subjects and CD patients; the inducing potential was highest in CD patients. In CD patients, Th17, but not Th1, induction by the LP Mphi subset was enhanced in the presence of commensal bacteria Ags. This enhancement was not observed in normal control subjects. The Th17 induction by the LP Mphi subset was inhibited by neutralization of IL-6 and IL-1beta, but it was enhanced by blockade of retinoic acid signaling. These observations highlight a role for LP Mphi in the enhanced Th1, and potentially in Th17 differentiation, at the inflammatory site of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:19592647

Kamada, Nobuhiko; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Honda, Haruki; Kobayashi, Taku; Chinen, Hiroshi; Kitazume, Mina Tokutake; Takayama, Tetsuro; Okamoto, Susumu; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Kanai, Takanori; Hibi, Toshifumi

2009-08-01

191

Characterization of cadmium uptake in human intestinal crypt cells HIEC in relation to inorganic metal speciation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadmium (Cd) uptake was studied under inorganic exposure conditions in normal human intestinal crypt cells HIEC. The uptake time course of 0.3?M Cd in a serum-free chloride medium was analyzed according to a first order equation with rapid initial (U0) and maximal (Umax) accumulation values of 14.1+/-1.4pmol/mgprotein and 41.4+/-2.0pmol/mgprotein, respectively. The presence of a 300-fold excess of unlabeled Cd dramatically decreased tracer uptake, showing the involvement of specific mechanism(s) of transport. Our speciation studies revealed the preferential uptake of the free ion Cd2+, but also suggested that CdCln2-n species may contribute to Cd accumulation. Specific mechanisms of transport of very high and similar affinity (Km?5?M) have been characterized under both chloride and nitrate exposure conditions, but a two-fold higher capacity (Vmax) was estimated in the nitrate medium used to increase [Cd2+] over chlorocomplex formation. A clear inhibition of 109Cd uptake was observed at external acidic pH under both exposure media. An La-inhibitible 46% increase in 109Cd uptake was obtained in nominally Ca-free nitrate medium, whereas Zn provided additional inhibition. These results show different kinetic parameters for Cd uptake as a function of inorganic metal speciation. Cd2+ uptake would not involve the H+-coupled symport NRAMP2 bu+-coupled symport NRAMP2 but would be related instead to the Ca and/or Zn pathways. Because proliferative crypt cells play a critical role in the renewal process of the entire intestinal epithelium, studies on the impact of Cd on HIEC cell functions clearly deserve further investigation

192

Immunomodulation of human intestinal T cells by the synthetic CD80 antagonist RhuDex®.  

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Deregulated activation of mucosal lamina propria T cells plays a central role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. One of the means to attenuate T cell activation is by blocking the CD28/CD80 co-stimulatory pathway. Here we investigate RhuDex®, a small molecule that binds to human CD80, for its effects on the activation of lamina propria T cells employing a gut-culture model of inflammation. To this end, lamina propria leukocytes (LPL) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were stimulated either through the CD3/T-cell-receptor complex or the CD2-receptor (CD2) employing agonistic monoclonal antibodies. Co-stimulatory signals were provided by CD80/CD86 present on lamina propria myeloid cells or LPS-activated peripheral blood monocytes. Results show that RhuDex® caused a profound reduction of LPL and PBL proliferation, while Abatacept (CTLA-4-Ig) inhibited LPL proliferation to a small degree, and had no effect on PBL proliferation. Furthermore, Abatacept significantly inhibited IL-2, TNF-?, and IFN-? release from LPL, primarily produced by CD4(+) T cells, where IL-2 blockage was surprisingly strong, suggesting a down-regulating effect on regulatory T cells. In contrast, in the presence of RhuDex®, secretion of IL-17, again mostly by CD4(+) T cells, and IFN-? was inhibited in LPL and PBL, yet IL-2 remained unaffected. Thus, RhuDex® efficiently inhibited lamina propria and peripheral blood T-cell activation in this pre-clinical study making it a promising drug candidate for the treatment of intestinal inflammation. PMID:25505551

Heninger, Anne-Kristin; Wentrup, Sabine; Al-Saeedi, Mohammed; Schiessling, Serin; Giese, Thomas; Wartha, Florian; Meuer, Stefan; Schröder-Braunstein, Jutta

2014-11-01

193

Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal: experiência de um centro secundário do nordeste Brasileiro / Epidemiologic profile and morbimortality of patients undergoing to intestinal transit reconstruction: experience of a secundary health service in Brazil northeast  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Racional- A reconstrução do trânsito intestinal não está isenta de riscos cirúrgicos e apresenta taxas consideráveis de complicações pós-operatórias, sendo que a infecção continua a ser um dos maiores desafios existentes neste procedimento. Métodos- Foram analisados retrospectivamente 86 prontuários [...] de pacientes com colostomia ou ileostomia, através de fatores que tivessem impacto sobre a morbimortalidade após a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal, de janeiro de 2003 a abril de 2009. Resultados- Houve 20 mulheres e 60 homens, com idade média de 43 anos. A colostomia em alça (n: 34) e o trauma abdominal indicando colostomia ou ileostomia foram as condições mais frequentes. O intervalo médio entre a confecção do estoma e a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal foi 15,7 meses. O índice de morbidade foi 56,8%, sendo a infecção incisional a complicação mais comum (27.47%). A permanência hospitalar média foi 7,6 dias. Houve regressão linear positiva entre permanência hospitalar pós-operatória e a idade do paciente. Demonstrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o prolongamento da permanência hospitalar e a ocorrência de complicações (p Abstract in english Background - The reconstruction of the intestinal tract is not surgical complications risk-free and is associated to postoperative complications high rates; furthermore, infection remains the hardest challenge in this procedure. Methods - Retrospectively, eighty-six patients with intestinal stomas w [...] ere analyzed through factors that impact on the morbimortality afterwards intestinal transit reconstruction, since January 2003 to April 2009. Results - Loop colostomy (n=34) and abdominal trauma implicating 38.2% of indications to colostomy or ileostomy were the most frequent conditions. The mean interval between stoma confection and intestinal transit reconstruction was 15.7 months. The morbidity frequency was 56.8% and incisional infection was its commonest complication (27.47%). The mean inpatient length of stay was 7.6 days. There was positive linear regression between post-operative inpatient length of stay and inpatient's age. Inpatient length of stay prolongation is associated to occurrence of complications (p

Jeany Borges e, Silva; Djalma Ribeiro, Costa; Francisco Julimar Correia de, Menezes; José Marconi, Tavares; Adryano Gonçalves, Marques; Rodrigo Dornfeld, Escalante.

2010-09-01

194

Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal: experiência de um centro secundário do nordeste Brasileiro Epidemiologic profile and morbimortality of patients undergoing to intestinal transit reconstruction: experience of a secundary health service in Brazil northeast  

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Full Text Available Racional- A reconstrução do trânsito intestinal não está isenta de riscos cirúrgicos e apresenta taxas consideráveis de complicações pós-operatórias, sendo que a infecção continua a ser um dos maiores desafios existentes neste procedimento. Métodos- Foram analisados retrospectivamente 86 prontuários de pacientes com colostomia ou ileostomia, através de fatores que tivessem impacto sobre a morbimortalidade após a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal, de janeiro de 2003 a abril de 2009. Resultados- Houve 20 mulheres e 60 homens, com idade média de 43 anos. A colostomia em alça (n: 34 e o trauma abdominal indicando colostomia ou ileostomia foram as condições mais frequentes. O intervalo médio entre a confecção do estoma e a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal foi 15,7 meses. O índice de morbidade foi 56,8%, sendo a infecção incisional a complicação mais comum (27.47%. A permanência hospitalar média foi 7,6 dias. Houve regressão linear positiva entre permanência hospitalar pós-operatória e a idade do paciente. Demonstrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o prolongamento da permanência hospitalar e a ocorrência de complicações (pBackground - The reconstruction of the intestinal tract is not surgical complications risk-free and is associated to postoperative complications high rates; furthermore, infection remains the hardest challenge in this procedure. Methods - Retrospectively, eighty-six patients with intestinal stomas were analyzed through factors that impact on the morbimortality afterwards intestinal transit reconstruction, since January 2003 to April 2009. Results - Loop colostomy (n=34 and abdominal trauma implicating 38.2% of indications to colostomy or ileostomy were the most frequent conditions. The mean interval between stoma confection and intestinal transit reconstruction was 15.7 months. The morbidity frequency was 56.8% and incisional infection was its commonest complication (27.47%. The mean inpatient length of stay was 7.6 days. There was positive linear regression between post-operative inpatient length of stay and inpatient's age. Inpatient length of stay prolongation is associated to occurrence of complications (p<0,001. Conclusion - Post-operative complications and age are associated to inpatient length of stay prolongation.

Jeany Borges e Silva

2010-09-01

195

Artículos originales Cultivo primario de queratinocitos humanos sembrados en submucosa intestinal porcina / Primary culture of human keratinocytes planted on pig’s intestine Submucosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el campo de la regeneración de piel, la ingeniería de tejidos busca superar las limitaciones asociadas con el uso de autoinjertos inmediatos, dado que la elección de una región donante en el paciente, constituye un riesgo para el mismo, además de ser insuficiente cuando la lesión es extensa. Se h [...] a comprobado que el empleo de la submucosa del intestino delgado de cerdo (SIS) (por la sigla en inglés small intestinal submucosa), por su especial composición, como biomaterial de relleno para tratar lesiones, disminuye el dolor y la inflamación desde su primera aplicación y favorece la movilidad temprana de la región lesionada. Con el fin de determinar la utilidad de SIS, como sustituto epidérmico, en el presente estudio se desarrolló un protocolo para el cultivo primario de queratinocitos humanos, provenientes de prepucios infantiles, sobre una matriz de SIS como soporte. Se evaluó el potencial de adherencia y la capacidad de proliferación de queratinocitos sobre este sustrato. Abstract in english Tissue engineering, in the fields of skin regeneration, seeks to overcome the limitations associated with the use of immediate auto-grafts, since choosing the donor region of the patient constitutes a risk for the patient himself and is insufficient if the injury that has to be repaired is very larg [...] e. The use of the pig’s small intestine submucosa (SIS) has being proved as a filling biomaterial to treat injuries, because of its special composition, it lowers pain and inflammation since its first application and it favours early mobility to the wounded area. The present study developed a protocol for the primary culture of human keratinocytes from infant foreskins, and used small intestinal submucosa (SIS) like culture substrate. Cellular adherence potential and proliferation capability of the keratinocytes over this substrate was evaluated.

Ángela Ximena, Amórtegui; Sandra Rocío, Ramírez.

2008-12-01

196

Evaluation of physicochemical properties and intestinal permeability of six dietary polyphenols in human intestinal colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenolic compounds are common ingredients in many dietary supplements and functional foods. However, data concerning physicochemical properties and permeability of polyphenols on the intestinal epithelial cells are scarce. The aims of this study were to determine the experimental partition coefficient (Log P), and parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA), to characterize the bi-directional transport of six phenolic compounds viz. caffeic acid, chrysin, gallic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and rutin in Caco-2 cells. The experimental Log P values of six polyphenols were correlated (R (2) = 0.92) well with the calculated Log P values. The apparent permeability (P app) range of all polyphenols in PAMPA for the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) was 1.18 ± 0.05 × 10(-6) to 5.90 ± 0.16 × 10(-6) cm/s. The apparent Caco-2 permeability (P app) range for the AP-BL was 0.96 ± 0.03 × 10(-6) to 3.80 ± 0.45 × 10(-6) cm/s. The efflux ratio of P app (BL ? AP) to P app (AP ? BL) for all phenolics was PAMPA/Caco-2 cell monolayer permeation data. Dietary six polyphenols were poorly absorbed through PAMPA and Caco-2 cells, and their transepithelial transports were mainly by passive diffusion. PMID:25351179

Rastogi, Himanshu; Jana, Snehasis

2014-10-29

197

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces transactivation of EGFR and HER2 in human breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the cross-talk between receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the human epidermal growth factor family of tyrosine kinase receptors (HER) in oestrogen-dependent (T47D) and oestrogen-independent (MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cells. VIP treatment slowly increased the expression levels of EGFR but it rapidly augmented phosphorylation of EGFR and HER2 in both cell lines. This pattern of HERs transactivation was blocked by the specific VIP antagonist JV-1-53, supporting the direct involvement of VIP receptors in formation of P-EGFR and P-HER2. VIP-induced transactivation was also abolished by H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), PP2 (Src inhibitor) or TAPI-1 (inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases), following a differential pattern. These results shed a new light on the specific signalling pathways involved in EGFR/HER2 transactivation by VPAC receptors and suggest the potential usefulness of VIP receptor antagonists together with current antibodies against EGFR/HER2 and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors for breast cancer therapy. PMID:19101605

Valdehita, Ana; Bajo, Ana M; Schally, Andrew V; Varga, Jozsef L; Carmena, María J; Prieto, Juan C

2009-04-10

198

Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

2014-01-01

199

Digoxin inhibition of relaxation induced by prostacyclin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in small human placental arteries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Small chorionic plate arteries were obtained from human placentae following normal vaginal delivery. Tubal vascular preparations were dissected, mounted in organ baths, and their isometric tension was recorded. Digoxin (10(-6) M) caused a rise in basic tension, reaching a maximum of 17 per cent of contractions induced by potassium (124 mM) depolarization. Pretreatment with digoxin did not significantly influence the concentration-dependent contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). In preparations contracted with PGF2 alpha, cumulative addition of prostacyclin (PGI2) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) produced concentration dependent relaxations. Digoxin (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) inhibited and finally abolished these relaxant effects of PGI2 and VIP in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment by digoxin (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) diminished the relaxant effect of sodium nitroprusside, but the effect was less pronounced than that on PGI2- and VIP-induced relaxation. As PGI2 and VIP may be of importance for the maintenance of a low resistance of the fetal placental vascular bed, the finding that digoxin decreases the vasodilating effects of these agents might imply effects on placental resistance of cardiac glycosides when used in late human pregnancy.

Maigaard, S; Forman, Axel

1985-01-01

200

Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption.

Griessen, M.; Speich, P.V.; Infante, F.; Bartholdi, P.; Cochet, B.; Donath, A.; Courvoisier, B.; Bonjour, J.P.

1989-03-01

201

Evaluation by computerized morphometry of histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit in rats Avaliação por morfometria computadorizada das alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos  

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Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit, by computer-assisted imaging, and to correlate these with the length of time diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal transit diversion by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to how long after the initial surgical procedure they were sacrificed: six, twelve and eighteen weeks. Colon segments with and without transit were subjected to histopathological study. The variables colon crypt length, mucosal ulceration, muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria, vascular congestion, number of caliciform cells, inflammatory grade and degree of inflammation, comparing the two colon segments in the different experimental groups were studied. Intestinal crypt length, muscle layer thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria and caliciform cells were measured by computer-assisted imaging method. Mean equality, variance analysis and correlation tests were used in the statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Comparison between segments with and without transit showed that the latter presented reduced length of colon crypts and increased muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. There were greater quantities of ulceration of the mucosal and greater degree of inflammation with increasing time without transit. Mucosal ulceration, submucosal vascular congestion, increased thickness of the submucosal and muscularis propria layers, presence of caliciform cells, inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory grade correlated significantly with the length of time without transit. CONCLUSIONS: Histological alterations occurred in all layers of the colon wall, in the segments without intestinal transit. Ulcerations in the intestinal mucosa, increased number of caliciform cells, greater vascular congestion of the submucosal layer and inflammatory reaction were related to increasing length of time without transit.OBJETIVO: Avaliar por método de imagem assistida por computador as alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos providos e desprovidos de trânsito intestinal e relacioná-las ao tempo de exclusão. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo por meio de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado seis, doze e dezoito semanas após o procedimento cirúrgico inicial. Segmentos dos cólons providos e desprovidos de trânsito foram submetidos a estudo histopatológico. Foram analisadas as variáveis: comprimento das criptas cólicas, ulceração na mucosa, espessura das camadas muscular da mucosa, submucosa e muscular própria, congestão vascular, número de células caliciformes e graduação inflamatória comparando os dois segmentos cólicos nos diferentes grupos experimentais. As variáveis, comprimento das criptas intestinais, espessura das camadas muscular da mucosa, submucosa e muscular própria foram mensuradas por método de imagem assistida por computador. Na análise estatística foram utilizados testes de igualdade de médias e medianas, análise de variância e correlação estabelecendo-se nível de significância de cinco por cento. RESULTADOS: A exclusão de trânsito mostrou-se associada à redução do comprimento das criptas cólicas, aumento da espessura das camadas muscular da mucosa, submucosa e muscular própria. Verificou-se maior quantidade de ulcerações na mucosa e maior grau de inflamação com o progredir do tempo de exclusão. Houve correlação significante entre as ulcerações da mucosa, congestão vascular da submucosa, aumento da espessura das camadas submucosa e muscular própria, presença de células caliciformes, infiltrado inflamatório, graduação inflamatória e o t

Marcos Vieira de Sousa

2008-10-01

202

Mast cells modulate transport of CD23/IgE/antigen complex across human intestinal epithelial barrier  

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Full Text Available Background: Food allergy and chronic intestinal inflammation are common in western countries. The complex of antigen/IgE is taken up into the body from the gut lumen with the aid of epithelial cell-derived CD23 (low affinity IgE receptor II that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal allergy. This study aimed to elucidate the role of mast cell on modulation of antigen/IgE complex transport across intestinal epithelial barrier. Methods: Human intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 cell monolayer was used as a study platform. Transepithelial electric resistance (TER and permeability to ovalbumin (OVA were used as the markers of intestinal epithelial barrier function that were recorded in response to the stimulation of mast cell-derived chemical mediators. Results: Conditioned media from naïve mast cell line HMC-1 cells or monocyte cell line THP-1 cells significantly upregulated the expression of CD23 and increased the antigen transport across the epithelium. Treatment with stem cell factor (SCF, nerve growth factor (NGF, retinoic acid (RA or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO enhanced CD23 expression in HT29 cells. Conditioned media from SCF, NGF or RA-treated HMC-1 cells, and SCF, NGF, DMSO or RA-treated THP-1 cells enhanced immune complex transport via enhancing the expression of the CD23 in HT29 cells and the release of inflammatory mediator TNF-?. Nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, tryptase and TNF-? inhibited the increase in CD23 in HT29 cells and prevents the enhancement of epithelial barrier permeability. Conclusions: Mast cells play an important role in modulating the intestinal CD23 expression and the transport of antigen/IgE/CD23 complex across epithelial barrier.

Ping-Chang Yang

2009-06-01

203

Direct effect of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) on intestinal epithelial cell differentiation: relationship to HIV-1 enteropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients display severe impairments of gastrointestinal functions, including diarrhea and malabsorption, even in the absence of opportunistic infections. Since HIV-1 proteins and nucleic acids have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa, it has been postulated that HIV-1 itself could alter enterocytic functions. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of HIV-1 on the differentiation process of the epithelial intestinal cell clone HT-29-D4, which mimics the maturation of enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis of the small intestine. We found that HIV-1 infection impairs cellular differentiation (i) by affecting the barrier function of the epithelium, as evidenced by a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance, and (ii) by inhibiting the activity of one major glucose absorption function, i.e., sodium/glucose cotransport. At the morphological level, HIV-1 infection of HT-29-D4 cells was associated with the formation of lumina, which are representative of a defect in cellular organization. These morphofunctional perturbations induced by HIV-1 could be mimicked by nocodazole, a microtubule-disrupting agent. Correspondingly, HIV-1 exposure of HT-29-D4 cells evoked a massive disruption of microtubules, as revealed by alpha-tubulin indirect immunofluorescence staining. A similar effect was observed after incubation of the cells with either recombinant gp120 or a monoclonal antibody against galactosylceramide (GalCer), the intestinal receptor for HIV-1 gp120, suggesting that the effect of HIV-1 was mediated by the binding of gp120 to GalCer. Based on these data, we propose that HIV-1 may selectively alter enterocytic functions through a direct effect on the intracellular architecture of the cells. In contrast with previous theories for HIV-1 enteropathy, our data support the concept that HIV-1 may perturb intestinal functions without necessarily infecting intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:9400596

Delézay, O; Yahi, N; Tamalet, C; Baghdiguian, S; Boudier, J A; Fantini, J

1997-11-24

204

Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a 125I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binging EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the 125I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subephithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 104eins and carbohydrates tested (in 104-fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of 125I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (Ka) of 1.4 x 10-7 M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. (au)

205

Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a {sup 125}I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binging EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the {sup 125}I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subephithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 10{sup 4}-fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of {sup 125}I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 1.4 x 10{sup -7} M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. (au).

Naidu, S.S.; Erdei, J.; Forsgren, A.; Naidu, A.S. (Departments of Medical Microbiology, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Czirok, E.; Gado, I. (National Institute of Hygiene, Budapest (Hungary)); Kalfas, S. (School of Dentistry, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden)); Thoren, A. (Infectious Diseases, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden))

1991-01-01

206

Evaluation by computerized morphometry of histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit in rats / Avaliação por morfometria computadorizada das alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar por método de imagem assistida por computador as alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos providos e desprovidos de trânsito intestinal e relacioná-las ao tempo de exclusão. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esque [...] rdo por meio de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado seis, doze e dezoito semanas após o procedimento cirúrgico inicial. Segmentos dos cólons providos e desprovidos de trânsito foram submetidos a estudo histopatológico. Foram analisadas as variáveis: comprimento das criptas cólicas, ulceração na mucosa, espessura das camadas muscular da mucosa, submucosa e muscular própria, congestão vascular, número de células caliciformes e graduação inflamatória comparando os dois segmentos cólicos nos diferentes grupos experimentais. As variáveis, comprimento das criptas intestinais, espessura das camadas muscular da mucosa, submucosa e muscular própria foram mensuradas por método de imagem assistida por computador. Na análise estatística foram utilizados testes de igualdade de médias e medianas, análise de variância e correlação estabelecendo-se nível de significância de cinco por cento. RESULTADOS: A exclusão de trânsito mostrou-se associada à redução do comprimento das criptas cólicas, aumento da espessura das camadas muscular da mucosa, submucosa e muscular própria. Verificou-se maior quantidade de ulcerações na mucosa e maior grau de inflamação com o progredir do tempo de exclusão. Houve correlação significante entre as ulcerações da mucosa, congestão vascular da submucosa, aumento da espessura das camadas submucosa e muscular própria, presença de células caliciformes, infiltrado inflamatório, graduação inflamatória e o tempo de exclusão de trânsito. CONCLUSÕES: Alterações histológicas ocorrem em todas as camadas da parede cólica, em segmentos sem trânsito intestinal. Ulcerações na mucosa intestinal, aumento no número de células caliciformes, maior congestão vascular na camada submucosa e reação inflamatória estavam relacionadas com o progredir do tempo de exclusão intestinal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit, by computer-assisted imaging, and to correlate these with the length of time diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal transit diversion by a proximal [...] colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to how long after the initial surgical procedure they were sacrificed: six, twelve and eighteen weeks. Colon segments with and without transit were subjected to histopathological study. The variables colon crypt length, mucosal ulceration, muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria, vascular congestion, number of caliciform cells, inflammatory grade and degree of inflammation, comparing the two colon segments in the different experimental groups were studied. Intestinal crypt length, muscle layer thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria and caliciform cells were measured by computer-assisted imaging method. Mean equality, variance analysis and correlation tests were used in the statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Comparison between segments with and without transit showed that the latter presented reduced length of colon crypts and increased muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. There were greater quantities of ulceration of the mucosal and greater degree of inflammation with increasing time without transit. Mucosal ulceration, submucosal vascular congestion, increased thickness of the submucosal and muscularis propria layers, presence of caliciform cells, inflammatory infiltrate and inflamma

Marcos Vieira de, Sousa; Denise Gonçalves, Priolli; Adriana Valim, Portes; Izilda Aparecida, Cardinalli; José Aires, Pereira; Carlos Augusto Real, Martinez.

2008-10-01

207

Metformin Transport by a Newly Cloned Proton-Stimulated Organic Cation Transporter (Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter) Expressed in Human Intestine  

OpenAIRE

Metformin is a widely used oral antihyperglycemic drug for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. The intestinal absorption of metformin is dose-dependent and involves an active, saturable uptake process. Metformin has been shown to be transported by the human organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (hOCT1–2). We recently cloned and characterized a novel proton-activated organic cation transporter, plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). We previously showed that PMAT transports many...

Zhou, Mingyan; Xia, Li; Wang, Joanne

2007-01-01

208

Modulation of Early ?-Defensin-2 Production as a Mechanism Developed by Type I Toxoplasma gondii To Evade Human Intestinal Immunity?†  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the early innate immune responses induced in human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) by the three defined Toxoplasma gondii genotype strains. Transcriptome analysis revealed that among differentially expressed genes, ?-defensins distinguished the most IEC infected by fast- or slow-replicating T. gondii genotypes. Although ?-defensin 1 and 3 genes were not expressed in host cells at early time points postinfection, the slow-replicating type II and III parasites induced high l...

Morampudi, Vijay; Braun, Michel Y.; D Souza, S.

2011-01-01

209

Comparative Metaproteomics and Diversity Analysis of Human Intestinal Microbiota Testifies for Its Temporal Stability and Expression of Core Functions  

OpenAIRE

The human intestinal tract is colonized by microbial communities that show a subject-specific composition and a high-level temporal stability in healthy adults. To determine whether this is reflected at the functional level, we compared the faecal metaproteomes of healthy subjects over time using a novel high-throughput approach based on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The developed robust metaproteomics workflow and identifi...

Kolmeder, C.; Been, M.; Nikkila?, J.; Palva, A.; Salonen, A.; Vos, W. M.

2012-01-01

210

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication, Intracellular Trafficking, and Pathogenicity in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

OpenAIRE

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers sh...

Yu, Chao; Achazi, Katharina; Mo?ller, Lars; Schulzke, Jo?rg D.; Niedrig, Matthias; Bu?cker, Roland

2014-01-01

211

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Regulatory Functions in Human T Cells at Multiple Levels? †  

OpenAIRE

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide that, by inhibiting Th1-driven responses and inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells (Treg), has been proven successful in the induction of tolerance in various experimental models of autoimmune disorders. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in VIP-induced tolerance. VIP treatment in the presence of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and CD28 costimulation induced cell cycle arrest in human T c...

Anderson, Per; Gonzalez-rey, Elena

2010-01-01

212

For Application to Human Spaceflight and ISS Experiments: VESGEN Mapping of Microvascular Network Remodeling during Intestinal Inflammation  

OpenAIRE

Challenges to long-duration space exploration and colonization in microgravity and cosmic radiation environments by humans include poorly understood risks for gastrointestinal function and cancer. Nonetheless, constant remodeling of the intestinal microvasculature is critical for tissue viability, healthy wound healing, and successful prevention or recovery from vascular-mediated inflammatory or ischemic diseases such as cancer. Currently no automated image analysis programs provide quantitat...

Parsons-wingerter, Patricia; Reinecker, Hans-christian

2012-01-01

213

Dexamethasone-poly(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA) conjugates reduce inflammatory biomarkers in human intestinal epithelial monolayers  

OpenAIRE

The mucoadhesive polymer, poly(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA) was synthesised by living radical polymerisation and subsequently conjugated by esterification to the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, dexamethasone, to separately yield two concentrations of conjugates with ratios of 10:1 and 20:1 active:polymer. The hypothesis was to test whether the active agent maintained in vitro bioactivity when exposed to the apical side of human intestinal epithelial monolayers, Caco-2 and muco...

Keely, Simon; Ryan, Sinead; Haddleton, David M.; Limer, Adam; Murphy, Evelyn P.; Colgan, Sean P.; Brayden, David J.

2008-01-01

214

Conjugated linoleic acid enhances transepithelial calcium transport in human intestinal-like Caco-2 cells: An insight into molecular changes  

OpenAIRE

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to enhance paracellular and transcellular Ca transport across human intestinal-like Caco-2 cell monolayers. The mechanisms of action, however, are still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying CLA-induced stimulation of Ca transport by use of preliminary microarray data together with more detailed and comprehensive quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. While molecular expression of junctional adhe...

Murphy, E. F.; Jewell, C.; Hooiveld, G. J. E. J.; Mu?ller, M. R.; Cashman, K. D.

2006-01-01

215

Ets Transcription Factors Control Epithelial Maturation and Transit and Crypt-Villus Morphogenesis in the Mammalian Intestine  

OpenAIRE

Members of the Ets transcription factor family are widely expressed in both the developing and mature mammalian intestine, but their biological functions remain primarily uncharacterized. We used a dominant repressor transgene approach to probe the function of epithelial Ets factors in the homeostasis of the crypt-villus unit, the functional unit of the small intestine. We show that targeted expression in small intestinal epithelium of a fusion protein composed of the Engrailed repressor doma...

Jedlicka, Paul; Sui, Xiaomei; Sussel, Lori; Gutierrez-hartmann, Arthur

2009-01-01

216

Insights from a novel model of slow-transit constipation generated by partial outlet obstruction in the murine large intestine  

OpenAIRE

The mechanisms underlying slow-transit constipation (STC) are unclear. In 50% of patients with STC, some form of outlet obstruction has been reported; also an elongated colon has been linked to patients with STC. Our aims were 1) to develop a murine model of STC induced by partial outlet obstruction and 2) to determine whether this leads to colonic elongation and, consequently, activation of the inhibitory “occult reflex,” which may contribute to STC in humans. Using a purse-string suture...

Heredia, Dante J.; Grainger, Nathan; Mccann, Conor J.; Smith, Terence K.

2012-01-01

217

Transepithelial transports of rare sugar D-psicose in human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

D-Psicose (Psi), the C3-epimer of D-fructose (Fru), is a noncalorie sugar with a lower glycemic response. The trans-cellular pathway of Psi in human enterocytes was investigated using a Caco-2 cell monolayer. The permeation rate of Psi across the monolayer was not affected by the addition of phlorizin, an inhibitor of sugar transporter SGLT1, whereas it was accelerated by treatment with forskolin, a GLUT5-gene inducer, clearly showing that GLUT5 is involved in the transport of Psi. The permeability of Psi was suppressed in the presence of D-glucose (Glc) and Fru, suggesting that the three monosaccharides are transported via the same transporter. Since GLUT2, the predominant sugar transporter on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes, mediates the transport of Glc and Fru, Psi might be mediated by GLUT2. The present study shows that Psi is incorporated from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes via GLUT5 and is released to the lamina propria via GLUT2. PMID:23844903

Hishiike, Takashi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Shigeru; Nakajima, Daichi; O'Charoen, Siwaporn; Ooshima, Hisaka; Sun, Yuanxia

2013-07-31

218

Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirda?), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. PMID:19851968

Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

2009-01-01

219

Human intestinal spirochetosis is significantly associated with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps.  

Science.gov (United States)

It remains unclear whether or not human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS) has any associated symptoms or lesions. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of HIS in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) and their possible association. Following identification of early cecal cancer with SSA/P accompanied by a colonization of HIS, we went on to conduct a retrospective case-control study using endoscopically resected SSA/P specimens to examine the frequency of HIS infection in SSA/Ps. Nineteen SSA/P cases and 172 controls were obtained. The rate of HIS infection was significantly higher at 52.6% (10/19) in the SSA/P cases compared to the controls at 8.1% (14/172). Our SSA/P series were associated with a remarkably higher rate of HIS than controls or than previously reported. This is the first report to provide evidence for potential association between HIS and SSA/Ps. PMID:24767254

Omori, Saori; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Hatanaka, Kanako; Ono, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Mio; Takahashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Takeshi; Ono, Shoko; Shimizu, Yuichi; Sugai, Nozomi; Suzuki, Akira; Katsuki, Shinichi; Fujii, Takahiro; Kato, Mototsugu; Asaka, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Naoya

2014-07-01

220

Butyrate stimulates IL-32? expression in human intestinal epithelial cell lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of butyrate on interleukin (IL-32? expression in epithelial cell lines.METHODS: The human intestinal epithelial cell lines HT-29, SW480, and T84 were used. Intracellular IL-32? was determined by Western blotting analyses. IL-32? mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: Acetate and propionate had no effects on IL-32? mRNA expression. Butyrate significantly enhanced IL-32? expression in all cell lines. Butyrate also up-regulated IL-1?-induced IL-32? mRNA expression. Butyrate did not modulate the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, a mediator of IL-32? expression. Like butyrate, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, also enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-32? mRNA expression.CONCLUSION: Butyrate stimulated IL-32? expression in epithelial cell lines. An epigenetic mechanism, such as histone hyperacetylation, might be involved in the action of butyrate on IL-32? expression.

Ayako Kobori, Shigeki Bamba, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Hiromitsu Ban, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa, Yasuharu Saito, Yoshihide Fujiyama, Akira Andoh

2010-05-01

221

Human colon fibroblasts induce differentiation and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells through the direct paracrine action of keratinocyte growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects exerted by the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on intestinal epithelial cells cultured in vitro are influenced by cell confluence and differentiation through the modulation of keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) expression. In order to better define the contribution of KGF on the intestinal epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation, here we developed a coculture model, able to mimick in vitro the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions of the bowel. In consequence of its ability to produce KGF, demonstrated by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, the human colon fibroblast cell line CCD-18 has been selected as coculture partner for the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. Analysis of the expression of the differentiation and proliferation markers CEA and Ki67, through double immunofluorescence assays, showed that either the coculture with CCD-18 cells or the incubation with primary colon fibroblast-derived conditioned media (CM-F and CM-F2) induced an increase in differentiation and proliferation of confluent intestinal epithelial Caco-2 or HT29 cells, parallel to that obtained by KGF treatment. Use of anti-KGF blocking antibodies and of a tyrosine kinase KGFR inhibitor demonstrated the contribution of KGF and the direct role of its receptor in the regulation of epithelial growth and differentiation, indicating that KGF is a crucial paracrine factor involved in promoting these effects. PMID:19326389

Visco, Vincenzo; Bava, Felice A; d'Alessandro, Federica; Cavallini, Marco; Ziparo, Vincenzo; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

2009-07-01

222

The human neonatal small intestine has the potential for arginine synthesis; developmental changes in the expression of arginine-synthesizing and -catabolizing enzymes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Milk contains too little arginine for normal growth, but its precursors proline and glutamine are abundant; the small intestine of rodents and piglets produces arginine from proline during the suckling period; and parenterally fed premature human neonates frequently suffer from hypoargininemia. These findings raise the question whether the neonatal human small intestine also expresses the enzymes that enable the synthesis of arginine from proline and/or glutamine. Carbamoy...

Ruijter Jan M; Lm, Vermeulen Jacqueline; van Dijk Paul; van Ginneken Christa J; Sankaranarayanan Selvakumari; Köhler Eleonore S; Lamers Wouter H; Bruder Elisabeth

2008-01-01

223

Intestinal MicrobiOMICS to define health and disease in human and mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last five years an increasing effort has been made to understand the role of intestinal microbiota in health and disease, resulting in regarding to it as a new organ actively involved in the control of host metabolism, both in humans and mice. Amongst hundreds (up to thousand) germ species inhabiting the intestine, few of them are cultivable. Nevertheless, next-generation sequencing-based molecular technologies have been developed, allowing to overcome this problem and shed light on the way the gut microbiota undergoes dramatic changes during (patho)-physiological modifications of the host. Hence, the study of the overall gut germ genome (metagenome) and transcriptome (microbiome) has been launched. Thus, Genomics and Transcriptomics have begun to be increasingly used, opening the so called "Omics" era, including Proteomics and Metabolomics techniques as well. Taken together, the "Omics" allow the study of gut microbiota impact on whole host metabolism, resulting in the definition of new metabolic profiles (i.e. the presence of metabolites within the blood defines a metabolomic profile), others than those based on nucleic acid analyses only. Once demonstrated the involvement of gut microbiota within metabolic diseases, "Omics" analyses has allowed the identification of the obesity-induced gut microbiota imbalance, characterized by increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (metagenomics) and of the so called "core microbiome", focusing on the gut microbiota at a gene- rather than, solely, at a taxonomic-level. In addition, metabolomics studies revealed, for instance, the implication of gut microbiota to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in insulin-resistant mice. Additionally, the use of germ-free (axenic) mice has made possible the microflora transfer to investigate the mechanisms through which gut microbes modulate host metabolism, albeit the molecular actors of the host? ? ? gut-microbiota interplay remain to be fully determined. Here, we report the role of "Omics" in the multiple analyses of gut microbiota-driven metabolic modifications of the host, proposing also to focus on lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the Gram negative proinflammatory molecules we already showed to be the initiators of metabolic diseases. PMID:22122483

Serino, Matteo; Chabo, Chantal; Burcelin, Remy

2012-04-01

224

Comparison of DNA extraction kits for PCR-DGGE analysis of human intestinal microbial communities from fecal specimens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of diet on intestinal microflora has been investigated mainly using conventional microbiological approaches. Although these studies have advanced knowledge on human intestinal microflora, it is imperative that new methods are applied to facilitate scientific progress. Culture-independent molecular fingerprinting method of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE has been used to study microbial communities in a variety of environmental samples. However, these protocols must be optimized prior to their application in order to enhance the quality and accuracy of downstream analyses. In this study, the relative efficacy of four commercial DNA extraction kits (Mobio Ultra Clean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit, M; QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit, Q; FastDNA® SPIN Kit, FSp; FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil, FSo were evaluated. Further, PCR-DGGE technique was also assessed for its feasibility in detecting differences in human intestinal bacterial fingerprint profiles. Method Total DNA was extracted from varying weights of human fecal specimens using four different kits, followed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and DGGE separation of the amplicons. Results Regardless of kit, maximum DNA yield was obtained using 10 to 50 mg (wet wt of fecal specimens and similar DGGE profiles were obtained. However, kits FSp and FSo extracted significantly larger amounts of DNA per g dry fecal specimens and produced more bands on their DGGE profiles than kits M and Q due to their use of bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking step. DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR products was suitable for capturing the profiles of human intestinal microbial community and enabled rapid comparative assessment of inter- and intra-subject differences. Conclusion We conclude that extraction kits that incorporated bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking produced high quality DNA from human fecal specimens (10 to 50 mg, wet wt that can be resolved as bacterial community fingerprints using PCR-DGGE technique. Subsequently, PCR-DGGE technique can be applied for studying variations in human intestinal microbial communities.

Nakatsu Cindy H

2010-05-01

225

Conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil by human intestinal microflora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

5-Fluorocytosine (FC) is used to treat systemic fungal infections in man. Its clinical effectiveness has been limited by hematologic toxicity which may be secondary to the formation of 5-fluorouracil (FU). It is unclear how FU is formed since human cells lack cytosine deaminase. The present study examined if intestinal microflora (IMF) could convert FC to FU in man. An in vitro semicontinuous culture system was inoculated with human feces and maintained with sterile nutrient suspension. The microbial community was assessed for cell count and anaerobes as well as formation of volatile fatty acids and CH4. The system approximated that believed to occur in vivo. The study was initiated with addition of purified [6-14C]-FC. Unlabelled FC was then added to the system daily for 2 weeks following which [6-14C]-FC was again added. Following each addition of [6-14C]-FC, samples were removed at 2,4,8,24,48,72, and 96 hr. Utilizing HPLC, FC and FU could be separated with quantitation of radioactivity in each peak. Following the initial dose, no detectable FU was observed during the first 8 hr, but after 24 hr increasing levels were detected (9.42 ?g FU/ml after 4 days). Following chronic administration of FC, increased levles of FU were noted without an 8 hr lag time in the production of FU (31.86 ?g FU/ml after 4 days). In summary, these studies demonstrate that IMF can convert FC to FU possibly accounting for toxicity observed following administration of FC

226

In situ studies of regional absorption of lobucavir and ganciclovir from rabbit intestine and predictions of dose-limited absorption and associated variability in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The regional absorption of lobucavir (LBV), an experimental antiviral agent, and ganciclovir (DHPG) was investigated in rabbit intestine using an in situ single-pass perfusion technique. Duodenal, jejunal, and colonic segments in anesthetized rabbits were perfused with drug solutions in a hypotonic buffer at 0.2 mL/min. Effluent perfusate samples for drug analysis were collected every 10 min for 180 min. To account for water absorption during perfusion, an intestinal absorption model was developed to estimate the absorptive clearance (PeA): PeA=Qavexln((QinxCin)/(QoutxCout)), where Qave is a logarithmic average of the inflow (Qin) and outflow perfusion rate (Qout); Cin and C(out) are drug inflow and outflow concentrations. The PeA of LBV in the duodenum and jejunum was 2.1+/-0.77 and 1.7+/-0.46 microL/min/cm (n=3), respectively, 4.8- and 3.0-fold higher than that of DHPG in the same animals. However, LBV PeA decreased significantly in the colon (0.47+/-0.11 microL/min/cm) and was similar to that of DHPG which exhibited no regional differences in absorption. The interplay between PeA and solubility was studied using a compartmental absorption and transit model, and simulations were performed to investigate dose-limited absorption and the sources of variability in absorption where two compounds differ significantly. The dose range where absorption started to decrease was predicted using the model, with LBV exhibiting the phenomenon at a lower dose than DHPG (450 vs. 750 mg). Furthermore, the intersubject variability in human absorption of both compounds was reproduced when the variability in both PeA and the small intestinal transit time was considered in the model. The variability in the ascending colonic transit time also contributed to the intersubject variability observed for DHPG. The results demonstrate value of integrating in situ studies and modeling in predicting these absorption characteristics. PMID:16883564

Yang, Zheng; Manitpisitkul, Prasarn; Sawchuk, Ronald J

2006-10-01

227

Identification of NF-?B Modulation Capabilities within Human Intestinal Commensal Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulation of mucosal immune responses. To seek interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and commensal bacteria, we screened 49 commensal strains for their capacity to modulate NF-?B. We used HT-29/kb-seap-25 and Caco-2/kb-seap-7 intestinal epithelial cells and monocyte-like THP-1 blue reporter cells to measure effects of commensal bacteria on cellular expression of a reporter system for NF-?B. Bacteria conditioned media (CM...

Lakhdari, Omar; Tap, Julien; Be?guet-crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Wouters, Tomas; Cultrone, Antonietta; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Lefe?vre, Fabrice; Dore?, Joe?l; Blottie?re, Herve? M.

2011-01-01

228

What Future Expects Humanity After the Demographic Transition Time?  

CERN Document Server

The variant of phenomenological theory of humankind future existence after time of demographic transition based on treating the time of demographic transition as a point of phase transition and taking into account an appearing of the new phase of mankind is proposed. The theory based on physical phenomenological theories of phase transitions and classical equations for system predatory-preys for two phases of mankind, take into account assumption about a multifractal nature of the set of number of people in temporal axis and contains control parameters. The theory includes scenario of destroying of existent now human population by new phase of humanity and scenario of old and new phases co-existence. In particular cases when the new phase of mankind is absent the equations of theory may be formulated as equations of Kapitza, Foerster, Hoerner, Kobelev and Nugaeva, Johansen and Sornette phenomenological theories of growth of mankind.

Kobelev, L Yu

2000-01-01

229

Human ?2-glycoprotein I attenuates mouse intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induced injury and inflammation  

OpenAIRE

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury results from a complex cascade of inflammatory components. In the mouse model of intestinal IR, the serum protein, ?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) binds to the cell surface early in the cascade. The bound ?2-GPI undergoes a conformational change which exposes a neoantigen recognized by naturally occurring antibodies and initiates the complement cascade. We hypothesized that providing additional antigen with exogenous ?2-GPI would alter IR-ind...

Tomasi, Maurizio; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Pope, Michael R.; Gudlur, Sushanth; Tomich, John M.; Fleming, Sherry D.

2012-01-01

230

Human intestinal epithelial cells in innate immunity : interactions with normal microbiota and pathogenic bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Rod-shaped bacteria were previously shown to be associated with the small intestinal epithelium of children with celiac disease (CD). Using culture-dependent and independent methods, we characterized the microbiota of small intestine in children with CD and controls. The normal microbiota constitutes an unique organ-specific biofilm. Dominant bacteria are Streptococcus, Neisseria, Veillonella, Gemella, Actinomyces, Rothia and Haemophilus. Altogether 162 Genus Level Operational Taxonomic Units...

Ou, Gangwei

2009-01-01

231

The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

2010-03-01

232

For Application to Human Spaceflight and ISS Experiments: VESGEN Mapping of Microvascular Network Remodeling during Intestinal Inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Challenges to long-duration space exploration and colonization in microgravity and cosmic radiation environments by humans include poorly understood risks for gastrointestinal function and cancer. Nonetheless, constant remodeling of the intestinal microvasculature is critical for tissue viability, healthy wound healing, and successful prevention or recovery from vascular-mediated inflammatory or ischemic diseases such as cancer. Currently no automated image analysis programs provide quantitative assessments of the complex structure of the mucosal vascular system that are necessary for tracking disease development and tissue recovery. Increasing abnormalities to the microvascular network geometry were therefore mapped with VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software from 3D tissue reconstructions of developing intestinal inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model. By several VESGEN parameters and a novel vascular network linking analysis, inflammation strongly disrupted the regular, lattice-like geometry that defines the normal microvascular network, correlating positively with the increased recruitment of dendritic cells during mucosal defense responses. PMID:25143705

Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Reinecker, Hans-Christian

2012-10-01

233

Reduced expression of aquaporins in human intestinal mucosa in early stage inflammatory bowel disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Petr Ricanek,1,2 Lisa K Lunde,3 Stephan A Frye,1 Mari Støen,1 Ståle Nygård,4 Jens P Morth,5,6 Andreas Rydning,2 Morten H Vatn,7,8 Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam,3 Tone Tønjum,1,9 1Department of Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog and Campus Ahus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 3Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, 4Bioinformatics Core Facility, Institute for Medical Informatics, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, 5Centre for Molecular Medicine, Nordic EMBL Partnership, University of Oslo, 6Institute for Experimental Research, Oslo University Hospital (Ullevaal, Oslo, 7EpiGen Institute, Campus Ahus, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 8Section of Gastroenterology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, 9Department of Microbiology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between aquaporin (AQP water channel expression and the pathological features of early untreated inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in humans. Methods: Patients suspected to have IBD on the basis of predefined symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or blood in stool for more than 10 days, were examined at the local hospital. Colonoscopy with biopsies was performed and blood samples were taken. Patients who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for IBD and who displayed no evidence of infection or other pathology in the gut were included as symptomatic non-IBD controls. AQP1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 9 messenger RNA (mRNA levels were quantified in biopsies from the distal ileum and colon by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of selected AQPs was assessed by confocal microscopy. Through multiple alignments of the deduced amino acid sequences, the putative three-dimensional structures of AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 were modeled. Results: AQP1, 3, 7, and 8 mRNAs were detected in all parts of the intestinal mucosa. Notably, AQP1 and AQP3 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum of patients with Crohn's disease, and AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA levels were reduced in the ileum and the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed localization of AQP3, 7, and 8 at the mucosal epithelium, whereas the expression of AQP1 was mainly confined to the endothelial cells and erythrocytes. The reduction in the level of AQP3, 7, and 8 mRNA was confirmed by immunofluorescence, which also indicated a reduction of apical immunolabeling for AQP8 in the colonic surface epithelium and crypts of the IBD samples. This could indicate loss of epithelial polarity in IBD, leading to disrupted barrier function. Conclusion: AQPs 1 and 8 and the aquaglyceroporins AQPs 3 and 7 are the AQPs predominantly expressed in the lower intestinal tract of humans. Their expression is significantly reduced in patients with IBD, and they are differentially expressed in specific bowel segments in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The data present a link between gut inflammation and water/solute homeostasis, suggesting that AQPs may play a significant role in IBD pathophysiology. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins

Ricanek P

2015-01-01

234

Real-time cell analysis for monitoring cholera toxin-induced human intestinal epithelial cell response.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenic mechanism of Vibrio cholerae manifests as diarrhea and causes life-threatening dehydration. Here, we observe the human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC) response to Cholera toxin (CT) by a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) platform, and disclose the difference from CT-induced cytotoxicity and others in HIEC. An HIEC cell of 1.0 × 10(5) cells/mL was characterized as the suitable concentration for each well. For experimentation, the assay requires an inoculation of CT dissolved in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline with 0.1 % gelatin for a period of 18-25 h. The dimensionless impedance cell index curve presented characteristic dose- and time-dependent drop responses at the first stage, and the CT-induced cytotoxicity was the most remarkable following exposure for 18-25 h (P = 0.0002). Following the obvious cytotoxic reaction, the CI curve gradually increased over time until the original CI value, indicating that self-recovery occurred. The CT-induced CI curve for HIEC was different from that induced by other toxins, including diphtheria and Clostridium difficile toxin. Collectively, these results suggest that the CT-induced cytotoxicity in HIEC was absolutely different from that induced by C. difficile and other toxins because of the different pathogeneses that were correlated with the specific CI curve generated by the RTCA system. In summary, our data show that the assay described here is a convenient and rapid high-throughput tool for real-time monitoring of host cellular responses to CT on the basis of the characteristic CI curve. PMID:25510171

Ye, Julian; Luo, Yun; Fang, Weijia; Pan, Junhang; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yanjun; Chen, Zhiping; Jin, Dazhi

2015-04-01

235

PKQuest: measurement of intestinal absorption and first pass metabolism – application to human ethanol pharmacokinetics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background PKQuest, a new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK program, is applied to human ethanol data. The classical definition of first pass metabolism (FPM based on the differences in the area under the curve (AUC for identical intravenous and oral doses is invalid if the metabolism is non-linear (e.g. ethanol. Uncertainties in the measurement of FPM have led to controversy about the magnitude of gastric alcohol metabolism. PKQuest implements a new, rigorous definition of FPM based on finding the equivalent intravenous input function that would produce a blood time course identical to that observed for the oral intake. This input function equals the peripheral availability (PA and the FPM is defined by: FPM = Total oral dose – PA. PKQuest also provides a quantitative measurement of the time course of intestinal absorption. Methods PKQuest was applied to previously published ethanol pharmacokinetic data. Results The rate of ethanol absorption is primarily limited by the rate of gastric emptying. For oral ethanol with a meal: absorption is slow (? 3 hours and the fractional PKQuest FPM was 36% (0.15 gm/Kg dose and 7% (0.3 gm/Kg. In contrast, fasting oral ethanol absorption is fast (? 50 minutes and FPM is small. Conclusions The standard AUC and one compartment methods significantly overestimate the FPM. Gastric ethanol metabolism is not significant. Ingestion of a coincident meal with the ethanol can reduce the peak blood level by about 4 fold at low doses. PKQuest and all the examples are freely available on the web at http://www.pkquest.com.

Levitt David G

2002-08-01

236

Utilization of a human intestinal epithelial cell culture system (Caco-2) for evaluating cytoprotective agents.  

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Human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were cultured as confluent monolayers on polycarbonate membranes in Transwells for investigating their applicability in evaluating the cytoprotective activity of sucralfate. The control experiments established a reproducible chemical method (using 0.5 mM indomethacin in Hanks' balanced salt solution) for inducing damage to the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Damage was determined by measuring changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Twenty-day-old Caco-2 cell monolayers were significantly and reproducibly damaged (compared to buffer alone) (P indomethacin to the apical side for 1 hr. While sucralfate, at a 0.5, 2, or 5 mg/mL concentration in the buffer, was shown not to reverse (treat) the damage caused by indomethacin in this cellular model, it was able to protect (prevent) the cells from indomethacin-induced damage (P indomethacin-induced damage to the Caco-2 cell monolayers greatly affected the paracellular pathway since the percentage transport of [3H]methoxyinulin was significantly elevated. In contrast, protection of the Caco-2 cells with 5 mg/mL sucralfate in the presence of the damaging agent resulted in transport of the paracellular marker similar to that in the control (HBSS-treated) cell monolayers. This direct cytoprotective effect was thus independent of vascular factors at neutral pH and was observed to be dose dependent (0.5 to 5 mg/mL) when sucralfate was applied to the cells in the presence of the damaging agent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8290475

Tang, A S; Chikhale, P J; Shah, P K; Borchardt, R T

1993-11-01

237

Gelatin tannate reduces the proinflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide in human intestinal epithelial cells  

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Full Text Available Giuseppina Frasca1, Venera Cardile1, Carmelo Puglia2, Claudia Bonina2, Francesco Bonina21Department of Biomedical Sciences, (Physiology, 2Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, ItalyBackground: Gelatin tannate is a mixture of tannic acid and gelatin. Tannic acid has astringent properties, due to its capacity to form protein–macromolecular complexes, as well as antibacterial and antioxidant properties. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of gelatin tannate by quantifying the suppression of key molecules produced during inflammatory events in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human intestinal cells. Methods: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression was determined by Western blot analysis; interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in Caco-2 cells 24 hours after treatment with LPS (1 ?g/mL in presence of different concentrations of gelatin tannate. Results: ICAM-1 is induced on a wide variety of cells by inflammatory stimuli such as LPS. Our results have shown gelatin tannate as a potent inhibitor of ICAM-1 expression in LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells. IL-8 and TNF-? are important inflammatory mediators, recruiting neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. Together with LPS, adding gelatin tannate at different concentrations induced a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-8 and TNF-? released by Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that gelatin tannate exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the specific cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in several inflammatory disorders.Keywords: Caco-2, ICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-?

Frasca G

2012-05-01

238

Human population growth and the demographic transition  

OpenAIRE

The world and most regions and countries are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the huge expansion of human numbers: four billion have been added since 1950. Projections for the next half century expect a highly divergent world, with stagnation or potential decline in parts of the developed world and continued rapid growth in the least developed regions. Other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: women's...

Bongaarts, John

2009-01-01

239

Transcriptional and functional profiling of human intestinal dendritic cells reveals conserved specialization and a role for Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in terminal subset differentiation  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic cells (DCs) that orchestrate mucosal immunity have been studied in mice. Here we characterize human gut DC populations, and define their relationship to previously studied human and mouse DCs. CD103+Sirp?? DCs were related to human blood CD141+ and to mouse intestinal CD103+CD11b? DCs and expressed markers of cross-presenting DCs. CD103+Sirp?+ DCs aligned with human blood CD1c+ DCs and mouse intestinal CD103+CD11b+ DCs and supported regulatory T cell induction. Both CD103+ DC ...

Watchmaker, Payal B.; Lahl, Katharina; Lee, Mike; Baumjohann, Dirk; Morton, John; Kim, Sun Jung; Zeng, Ruizhu; Dent, Alexander; Ansel, K. Mark; Diamond, Betty; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C.

2013-01-01

240

Anatomical study on The Arm Greater Yang Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in Human  

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Full Text Available This study was carried to identify the component of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in human, dividing the regional muscle group into outer, middle, and inner layer. the inner part of body surface were opened widely to demonstrate muscles, nerve, blood vessels and the others, displaying the inner structure of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle. We obtained the results as follows; 1. Small Intestine Meridian Muscle is composed of the muscle, nerve and blood vessels. 2. In human anatomy, it is present the difference between a term of nerve or blood vessels which control the muscle of Meridian Muscle and those which pass near by Meridian Muscle. 3. The inner composition of meridian muscle in human arm is as follows ; 1 Muscle ; Abd. digiti minimi muscle(SI-2, 3, 4, pisometacarpal lig.(SI-4, ext. retinaculum. ext. carpi ulnaris m. tendon.(SI-5, 6, ulnar collateral lig.(SI-5, ext. digiti minimi m. tendon(SI-6, ext. carpi ulnaris(SI-7, triceps brachii(SI-9, teres major(SI-9, deltoid(SI-10, infraspinatus(SI-10, 11, trapezius(Sl-12, 13, 14, 15, supraspinatus(SI-12, 13, lesser rhomboid(SI-14, erector spinae(SI-14, 15, levator scapular(SI-15, sternocleidomastoid(SI-16, 17, splenius capitis(SI-16, semispinalis capitis(SI-16, digasuicus(SI-17, zygomaticus major(Il-18, masseter(SI-18, auriculoris anterior(SI-19 2 Nerve ; Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve(SI-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, br. of mod. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6, 7, br. of post. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6,7, br. of radial n.(SI-7, ulnar n.(SI-8, br. of axillary n.(SI-9, radial n.(SI-9, subscapular n. br.(SI-9, cutaneous n. br. from C7, 8(SI-10, 14, suprascapular n.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, intercostal n. br. from T2(SI-11, lat. supraclavicular n. br.(SI-12, intercostal n. br. from C8, T1(SI-12, accessory n. br.(SI-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, intercostal n. br. from T1,2(SI-13, dorsal scapular n.(SI-14, 15, cutaneous n. br. from C6, C7(SI-15, transverse cervical n.(SI-16, lesser occipital n. & great auricular n. from cervical plexus(SI-16, cervical n. from C2,3(SI-16, fascial n. br.(SI-17, great auricular n. br.(SI-17, cervical n. br. from C2(SI-17, vagus n.(SI-17,hypoglossal n.(SI-17, glossopharyngeal n.(SI-17, sympathetic trunk(SI-17, zygomatic br. of fascial n.(SI-18, maxillary n. br.(SI-18, auriculotemporal n.(SI-19, temporal br. of fascial n.(SI-19 3 Blood vessels ; Dorsal digital vein.(SI-1, dorsal br. of proper palmar digital artery(SI-1, br. of dorsal metacarpal a. & v.(SI-2, 3, 4, dorsal carpal br. of ulnar a.(SI-4, 5, post. interosseous a. br.(SI-6,7, post. ulnar recurrent a.(SI-8, circuirflex scapular a.(SI-9, 11 , post. circumflex humeral a. br.(SI-10, suprascapular a.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, first intercostal a. br.(SI-12, 14, transverse cervical a. br.(SI-12,13,14,15, second intercostal a. br.(SI-13, dorsal scapular a. br.(SI-13, 14, 15, ext. jugular v.(SI-16, 17, occipital a. br.(SI-16, Ext. jugular v. br.(SI-17, post. auricular a.(SI-17, int. jugular v.(SI-17, int. carotid a.(SI-17, transverse fascial a. & v.(SI-18,maxillary a. br.(SI-18, superficial temporal a. & v.(SI-19.

Kyoung-Sik, Park

2004-06-01

241

Dipeptide model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter. Affinity for and transport via hPepT1 in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a drug delivery target via increasing the intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by designing peptidomimetic prodrugs. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro-moieties for benzyl alcohol have been shown to maintain affinity for hPepT1. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if modifications of the benzyl alcohol model drug influence the corresponding D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala model prodrugs' affinity for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells. A second aim was to investigate the transepithelial transport and hydrolysis parameters for D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, all investigated D-Asp-Ala and D-Glu-Ala model prodrugs retained various degrees of affinity for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells. These affinities are used to establish a QSAR of our benzyl alcohol modified model prodrugs, aided at elucidating the observed differences in model prodrug affinity for hPepT1; additionally, these data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the side-chain model drug is the major determinant in the compounds affinity for hPepT1. Transepithelial transport studies performed using Caco-2 cells of D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala showed that the K(m) for transepithelial transport was not significantly different for the two compounds. The maximal transport rate of the carrier-mediated flux component does not differ between the two model prodrugs either. The transepithelial transport of D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala follows simple kinetics, and the release of benzyl alcohol is pH-dependent, but unaffected by 1 mM of the esterase inhibitor Paraoxon in 80% human plasma and Caco-2 cell homogenate.

Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R

2001-01-01

242

[Human infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths in Calbuco County, X Region, Chile, 1997].  

Science.gov (United States)

By the performance of parasitological examination of one fecal sample per individual, a total of 256 persons from a rural county in the X Region (41 degrees 50 minutes South lat., 73 degrees 05 minutes West long.) were studied. The general rates of infection by intestinal parasite and/or commensal protozoa and helminths found were: Giardia intestinalis 14.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 11.7%, Blastocystis hominis 36.0%, Entamoeba coli 9.8%, Endolimax nana 16.4%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 1.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 13.7% and Trichuris trichiura 9.8%. The prevalence rates of intestinal infection led us to conclude that environmental conditions favorable for its transmission remain and show that intestinal parasitoses are still a public health problem in this region, affecting mostly children. PMID:9497539

Mercado, R; Otto, J P; Musleh, M; Pérez, M

1997-01-01

243

Aneuploidy Arises at Early Stages of Apc-Driven Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Pinpoints Conserved Chromosomal Loci of Allelic Imbalance between Mouse and Human  

OpenAIRE

Although chromosomal instability characterizes the majority of human colorectal cancers, the contribution of genes such as adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), KRAS, and p53 to this form of genetic instability is still under debate. Here, we have assessed chromosomal imbalances in tumors from mouse models of intestinal cancer, namely Apc+/1638N, Apc+/1638N/KRASV12G, and Apc+/1638N/Tp53?/?, by array comparative genomic hybridization. All intestinal adenomas from Apc+/1638N mice displayed chro...

Alberici, Paola; Pater, Emma; Cardoso, Joana; Bevelander, Mieke; Molenaar, Lia; Jonkers, Jos; Fodde, Riccardo

2007-01-01

244

Persistence and toxin production by Clostridium difficile within human intestinal organoids result in disruption of epithelial paracellular barrier function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhea. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) results from the interactions between the pathogen, intestinal epithelium, host immune system, and gastrointestinal microbiota. Previous studies of the host-pathogen interaction in CDI have utilized either simple cell monolayers or in vivo models. While much has been learned by utilizing these approaches, little is known about the direct interaction of the bacterium with a complex host epithelium. Here, we asked if human intestinal organoids (HIOs), which are derived from pluripotent stem cells and demonstrate small intestinal morphology and physiology, could be used to study the pathogenesis of the obligate anaerobe C. difficile. Vegetative C. difficile, microinjected into the lumen of HIOs, persisted in a viable state for up to 12 h. Upon colonization with C. difficile VPI 10463, the HIO epithelium is markedly disrupted, resulting in the loss of paracellular barrier function. Since similar effects were not observed when HIOs were colonized with the nontoxigenic C. difficile strain F200, we directly tested the role of toxin using TcdA and TcdB purified from VPI 10463. We show that the injection of TcdA replicates the disruption of the epithelial barrier function and structure observed in HIOs colonized with viable C. difficile. PMID:25312952

Leslie, Jhansi L; Huang, Sha; Opp, Judith S; Nagy, Melinda S; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Young, Vincent B; Spence, Jason R

2015-01-01

245

Intestinal invagination Invaginación intestinal.  

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Full Text Available Intestinal intussusceptions are the most frequent cause of acute surgical occlusive syndrome in infants; it is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases. Their treatment can be conservative, with reduction by means of imaging and hydrostatic procedures, or surgical. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intestinal intussusceptions, approved by consensus in the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 – 26, 2004.
La invaginación intestinal es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de abdomen agudo quirúrgico oclusivo en lactantes y es idiopática en más del 90 % de los casos. Su tratamiento puede ser conservador, con reducción mediante procedimientos hidrostáticos combinados con vigilancia imaginológica, o quirúrgico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para invaginación intestinal, aprobada por consenso en el 3er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Camagüey, 23 al 26 de febrero de 2004.

Dayamnelys Aguilar Atanay

246

Intestinal Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

247

Intestinal beta-galactosidases. II. Biochemical alteration in human lactase deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the high prevalence of intestinal lactase deficiency in some racial groups and in patients with intestinal disease, the biochemical defect has not been characterized. In the preceding paper normal intestine was found to have two lactases with distinctly different pH optima. Therefore, pH activity curves of homogenates from lactase-deficient intestine were studied, and the pH optimum was found to be shifted from the normal of 5.8 to 4.8. Density gradient ultracentrifugation of intestinal material from five lactase-deficient patients demonstrated absence of a lactase with pH optimum 6.0 and molecular weight 280,000. A second lactase with pH optimum 4.5 and molecular weights of 156,000 and 660,000 remained at normal levels accounting for the shift in the pH optimum in whole intestinal homogenates. In addition, three of the five patients had absence of a smaller beta-galactosidase (molecular weight 80,000) that had specificity only for synthetic substrates. Although not a lactase, this enzyme had a pH optimum identical with the missing lactase, and its activity was inhibited by lactose in a partially competitive manner suggesting that it is capable of binding lactose. It is possible that this enzyme is a precursor or fragment of the missing lactase.The residual lactase activity provided by the lactase with low pH optimum represents 20-70% of the activity of the missing enzyme, and yet these patients are not able to digest dietary lactose. Thus it appears that the residual enzyme plays no significant role in the hydrolysis of ingested lactose. PMID:5774110

Gray, G M; Santiago, N A; Colver, E H; Genel, M

1969-04-01

248

Ontogeny of human hepatic and intestinal transporter gene expression during childhood: age matters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic and intestinal drug transporters. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3 expression was determined in postmortem liver samples (fetal n = 6, neonatal n = 19, infant n = 7, child n = 2, adult n = 11) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression in 61 pediatric liver samples. Intestinal expression of MDR1, MRP2, and OATP2B1 was determined in surgical small bowel samples (neonates n = 15, infants n = 3, adults n = 14). Using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured fetal and pediatric gene expression relative to 18S rRNA (liver) and villin (intestines), and we compared it with adults using the 2(-??Ct) method. Hepatic expression of MRP2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in all pediatric age groups was significantly lower than in adults. Hepatic MDR1 mRNA expression in fetuses, neonates, and infants was significantly lower than in adults. Neonatal intestinal expressions of MDR1 and MRP2 were comparable to those in adults. Intestinal OATP2B1 expression in neonates was significantly higher than in adults. We provide new data that show organ- and transporter-dependent differences in hepatic and intestinal drug transporter expression in an age-dependent fashion. This suggests that substrate drug absorption mediated by these transporters may be subject to age-related variation in a transporter dependent pattern. PMID:24829289

Mooij, Miriam G; Schwarz, Ute I; de Koning, Barbara A E; Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Samsom, Janneke N; Spaans, Edwin; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Tibboel, Dick; Kim, Richard B; de Wildt, Saskia N

2014-08-01

249

Human intestinal epithelial cells express interleukin-10 through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated epithelial-macrophage crosstalk.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the intestine, interaction between epithelial cells and macrophages (M?s) create a unique immunoregulatory microenvironment necessary to maintain local immune and tissue homeostasis. Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been shown to express interleukin (IL)-10, which keeps epithelial integrity. We have demonstrated that bacterial signaling through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 induces 15-deoxy-?-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) synthesis in intestinal M?s by cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 expression. Here, we show that TLR4 signaling generates crosstalk between IECs and M?s that enhances IL-10 expression in IECs. Direct stimulation of TLR4 leads to the expression of IL-10 in IECs, while the presence of M?s in a Transwell system induces another peak in IL-10 expression in IECs at a later time point. The second peak of the IL-10 expression is two times greater than the first peak. This late induction of IL-10 depends on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? that is accumulated in IECs by TLR4-mediated inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. TLR4 signaling in M?s in turn synthesizes 15d-PGJ2 through p38 and ERK activation and Cox-2 induction, which activates PPAR? in IECs. These results suggest that TLR4 signaling maintains IL-10 production in IECs by generating epithelial-M?s crosstalk, which is an important mechanism in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis mediated through host-bacterial interactions. PMID:25171731

Hyun, Jinhee; Romero, Laura; Riveron, Reldy; Flores, Claudia; Kanagavelu, Saravana; Chung, Kristina D; Alonso, Ana; Sotolongo, John; Ruiz, Jose; Manukyan, Armine; Chun, Sally; Singh, Gaurav; Salas, Pedro; Targan, Stephan R; Fukata, Masayuki

2015-01-01

250

The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on titration microcalorimetry and Caco-2 cell line transfection studies, it has been suggested that the A54T of the FABP2 gene plays a significant role in the assimilation of dietary fatty acids. However, reports were divergent with regard to the in vivo interaction between this polymorphism and postprandial lipemia. We therefore determined the influence of this intestinal fatty acid-binding protein polymorphism on intestinal fat transport using the human jejunal organ culture model, thus avoiding the interference of various circulating factors capable of metabolizing in vivo postprandial lipids. Analysis of DNA samples from 32 fetal intestines revealed 22 homozygotes for the wild-type Ala-54/Ala-54 genotype (0.83) and 10 heterozygotes for the polymorphic Thr-54/Ala-54 genotype (0.17). The Thr-encoding allele was associated with increased secretion of newly esterified triglycerides, augmented de novo apolipoprotein B synthesis, and elevated chylomicron output. On the other hand, no alterations were found in very low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein production, apolipoprotein A-I biogenesis, or microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mass and activity. Similarly, the alanine to threonine substitution at residue 54 did not result in changes in brush border hydrolytic activities (sucrase, glucoamylase, lactase, and alkaline phosphatase) or in glucose uptake or oxidation. Our data clearly document that the A54T polymorphism of FABP2 specifically influences small intestinal lipid absorption without modifying glucose uptake or metabolism. It is proposed that, in the absence of confounding factors such as environmental and genetic variables, the FABP2 polymorphism has an important effect on postprandial lipids in vivo, potentially influencing plasma levels of lipids and atherogenesis. PMID:11487582

Levy, E; Ménard, D; Delvin, E; Stan, S; Mitchell, G; Lambert, M; Ziv, E; Feoli-Fonseca, J C; Seidman, E

2001-10-26

251

Pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins of prevalent motile commensal bacteria are variably abundant in the intestinal microbiome of elderly humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some Eubacterium and Roseburia species are among the most prevalent motile bacteria present in the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. These flagellate species contribute "cell motility" category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome. We reviewed and revised the annotation of motility genes in the genomes of six Eubacterium and Roseburia species that occur in the human intestinal microbiota and examined their respective locus organization by comparative genomics. Motility gene order was generally conserved across these loci. Five of these species harbored multiple genes for predicted flagellins. Flagellin proteins were isolated from R. inulinivorans strain A2-194 and from E. rectale strains A1-86 and M104/1. The amino-termini sequences of the R. inulinivorans and E. rectale A1-86 proteins were almost identical. These protein preparations stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human intestinal epithelial cell lines, suggesting that these flagellins were pro-inflammatory. Flagellins from the other four species were predicted to be pro-inflammatory on the basis of alignment to the consensus sequence of pro-inflammatory flagellins from the ?- and ?- proteobacteria. Many fliC genes were deduced to be under the control of ?(28). The relative abundance of the target Eubacterium and Roseburia species varied across shotgun metagenomes from 27 elderly individuals. Genes involved in the flagellum biogenesis pathways of these species were variably abundant in these metagenomes, suggesting that the current depth of coverage used for metagenomic sequencing (3.13-4.79 Gb total sequence in our study) insufficiently captures the functional diversity of genomes present at low (?1%) relative abundance. E. rectale and R. inulinivorans thus appear to synthesize complex flagella composed of flagellin proteins that stimulate IL-8 production. A greater depth of sequencing, improved evenness of sequencing and improved metagenome assembly from short reads will be required to facilitate in silico analyses of complete complex biochemical pathways for low-abundance target species from shotgun metagenomes. PMID:23935906

Neville, B Anne; Sheridan, Paul O; Harris, Hugh M B; Coughlan, Simone; Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Jeffery, Ian B; Claesson, Marcus J; Ross, R Paul; Scott, Karen P; O'Toole, Paul W

2013-01-01

252

Impact of chronic exposure to low doses of chlorpyrifos on the intestinal microbiota in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) and in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the mammalian digestive system has been poorly described. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of chronic, low-dose exposure to CPF on the composition of the gut microbiota in a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem: the SHIME and in rats. The SHIME comprises six reactor vessels (stomach to colon). The colonic segments were inoculated with feces from healthy humans. Then, the simulator was exposed to a daily dose of 1 mg of CPF for 30 days. The changes over time in the populations of bacteria were examined at different time points: prior to pesticide exposure (as a control) and after exposure. In parallel, pregnant rats were gavaged daily with 1 mg/kg of CPF (or vehicle) until the pups were weaned. Next, the rats were gavaged with same dose of CPF until 60 days of age (adulthood). Then, samples of different parts of the digestive tract were collected under sterile conditions for microbiological assessment. Chronic, low-dose exposure to CPF in the SHIME and in the rat was found to induce dysbiosis in the microbial community with, in particular, proliferation of subpopulations of some strains and a decrease in the numbers of others bacteria. In compliance with European guidelines, the use of the SHIME in vitro tool would help to (1) elucidate the final health effect of toxic agents and (2) minimize (though not fully replace) animal testing. Indeed, certain parameters would still have to be studied further in vivo. PMID:23135753

Joly, Claire; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme; Léké, André; Chardon, Karen; Delanaud, Stéphane; Bach, Véronique; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida

2013-05-01

253

Transcriptional regulation of the human Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE3 by serotonin in intestinal epithelial cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serotonin (5-HT) decreases NHE2 and NHE3 activities under acute conditions in human intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on expression of the human NHE3 gene and the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation in differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, C2BBe1, with 5-HT (20 {mu}M) resulted in a significant decrease in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression. In transient transfection studies, 5-HT repressed the NHE3 promoter activity by {approx}55%. The repression of the NHE3 promoter activity in response to 5-HT was accompanied by reduced DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter without alteration in their nuclear levels. Pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the promoter activity. Our data indicate that 5-HT suppresses the transcriptional activity of the NHE3 promoter and this effect may be mediated by PKC{alpha} and modulation of DNA-binding affinities of Sp1 and Sp3.

Amin, Md Ruhul; Ghannad, Leda; Othman, Ahmad; Gill, Ravinder K. [Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy [Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Jesse Brown VAMC, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Malakooti, Jaleh, E-mail: malakoot@uic.edu [Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

2009-05-08

254

Antimicrobial activity of Phyllanthus amarus on some human intestinal facultatively anaerobic flora  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Phyllanthus amarus is an economic plant grown in West Africa that has antimicrobial properties. Aim: We investigated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus against some intestinal flora that are facultative anaerobes. Methods: The leaves were washed thoroughly in clean water, and rinsed in sterile distilled water, allowed to dry at room temperature for several days. It was oven dried at 45OC for about an hour until considered brittle enough to bleed. Final dilutions used were 500 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml, 300 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml and 200 mg/ml. Six intestinal organisms were isolated and identified: K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coli. P. mirabilis and E. faecalis. Both agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assay antimicrobial activity against the organisms. Results: The result indicated that the growth of the organisms were inhibited at 50 mg/ml of aqueous extract by agar diffusion and broth dilution methods but varied at lower concentration. Phyllanthus amarus showed bacteriostatic action at this concentration because sub-culture yielded growth except on plate of K. pneumoniae. Consumption of cold or hot aqueous herbal preparations can alter microbial balance. The implication of ingestion of cold or hot aqueous herbal preparations against the normal intestinal flora was discussed. Conclusion: P. amarus possesses significant antimicrobial activity against normal intestinal flora.

Babatunde S.K

2014-03-01

255

Mouse gastric tumor models with prostaglandin E2 pathway activation show similar gene expression profiles to intestinal-type human gastric cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancers are generally classified into better differentiated intestinal-type tumor and poorly differentiated diffuse-type one according to Lauren's histological categorization. Although induction of prostaglandin E2 pathway promotes gastric tumors in mice in cooperation with deregulated Wnt or BMP signalings, it has remained unresolved whether the gastric tumor mouse models recapitulate either of human gastric cancer type. This study assessed the similarity in expression profiling between gastric tumors of transgenic mice and various tissues of human cancers to find best-fit human tumors for the transgenic mice models. Results Global expression profiling initially found gastric tumors from COX-2/mPGES-1 (C2mE-related transgenic mice (K19-C2mE, K19-Wnt1/C2mE, and K19-Nog/C2mE resembled gastric cancers among the several tissues of human cancers including colon, breast, lung and gastric tumors. Next, classification of the C2mE-related transgenic mice by a gene signature to distinguish human intestinal- and diffuse-type tumors showed C2mE-related transgenic mice were more similar to intestinal-type compared with diffuse one. We finally revealed that induction of Wnt pathway cooperating with the prostaglandin E2 pathway in mice (K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice further reproduce features of human gastric intestinal-type tumors. Conclusion We demonstrated that C2mE-related transgenic mice show significant similarity to intestinal-type gastric cancer when analyzed by global expression profiling. These results suggest that the C2mE-related transgenic mice, especially K19-Wnt1/C2mE mice, serve as a best-fit model to study molecular mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of human gastric intestinal-type cancers.

Oshima Masanobu

2009-12-01

256

Multiple forms of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: chemical and enzymatic properties, and circulating clearances of the fast- and slow-moving enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two forms of alkaline phosphatase orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum, EC 3.1.3.1) have been purified from human small intestine by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and tyraminyl derivative affinity gel, and by preparative disc gel electrophoresis. Intestinal phosphatases were electrophoretically separated into two components, fast- and slow-moving enzymes, with apparent molecular weights of 140000 and 168000 and with subunit weights of 68000 and 80000, respectively. Organ distribution of injected 125I-labelled enzymes indicates that the desialylated hepatic enzyme was selectively distributed in liver, while the degalactosylated intestinal enzyme was incorporated into liver, lymph fluid, and small intestine. These results suggest that the pathway of circulating clearance of alkaline phosphatase has several routes. (Auth.)

257

Demonstration of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 in human colonic biopsies with intestinal spirochaetosis by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sequences of known 16S rRNA genes, derived from sequence analysis of cloned 16S rDNA, were used to design a specific oligonucleotide probe targeting spirochaetes of Brachyspira aalborgi lineages 2 and 3. The probe was used with fluorescent in situ hybridization to study the involvement of these organisms in human intestinal spirochaetosis. Seventeen human colonic biopsies from Norway and Denmark with intestinal spirochaetosis caused by Brachyspira-like organisms different from the type strain of B. aalborgi (lineage 1) were examined. Application of the probe gave a positive signal in two Norwegian biopsies, whereas the 15 other biopsies were hybridization-negative. The positive reaction visualized the spirochaetes as a fluorescent, 3-5 mum-high fringe on the surface epithelium, extending into the crypts. The study verified the presence of B. aalborgi lineages 2 and 3 and identified the bacteria as an aetiological agent of human intestinal spirochaetosis.

Jensen, Tim Kåre; Teglbjærg, Peter S.

2004-01-01

258

Study on human intestinal bacterium Blautia sp. AUH-JLD56 for the conversion of arctigenin to (-)-3'-desmethylarctigenin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctium lappa L. (A. lappa) is a popularly used vegetable as well as herbal medicine. Human intestinal microflora was reported to convert arctiin, the lignan compound with highest content in the dried fruits of Arctium lappa, to a series of metabolites. However, the specific bacterium responsible for the formation of 3'-desmethylarctigenin (3'-DMAG), the most predominant metabolite of arctiin by rat or human intestinal microflora, has not been isolated yet. In the present study, we isolated one single bacterium, which we named Blautia sp. AUH-JLD56, capable of solely biotransforming arctiin or arctigenin to (-)-3'-DMAG. The structure of the metabolite 3'-DMAG was elucidated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biotransforming kinetics and maximum biotransforming capacity of strain AUH-JLD56 was investigated. In addition, the metabolite 3'-DMAG showed significantly higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than that of the substrate arctigenin at the concentrations tested. PMID:24236649

Liu, Ming-Yue; Li, Meng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Liu, Peng; Hao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Xiu-Mei

2013-12-11

259

Isquemia intestinal / Intestinal ischemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La isquemia intestinal está considerada como la causa más letal del síndrome de abdomen agudo; su consecuencia, el infarto del intestino delgado, ocurre por fenómenos tromboembólicos e isquemia no oclusiva. El objetivo del presente artículo es proporcionar una revisión bibliográfica actualizada acer [...] ca del tema y facilitar la actuación del cirujano ante este problema de salud de repercusión sistémica y que no es tan infrecuente como se piensa Abstract in english The intestinal ischemia is considered as the most lethal cause in the acute abdomen syndrome; its consequence, the small intestine infarction, takes place due to thromboembolic phenomena and non occlusive ischemia. The objective of the present work is to provide an updated literature review about th [...] e topic and to facilitate the surgeon's performance in front of this health problem of systemic repercussion which is not as uncommon as it is thought

Ileana, Guerra Macías; Zenén, Rodríguez Fernández.

2014-03-01

260

Human factors issues for resolving adverse effects of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the United States National Research Council, United States Federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded performance in advanced human-machine systems (e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. Recent history demonstrates that: (1) humans often react adversely to their diminishing roles in advanced human-machine systems, and therefore (2) new allocation models and strategies are required if humans are to be willing and able to assume diminishing and shifting roles assigned to them in these systems, and are to accept new technologies making up these systems. Problems associated with theses diminishing and shifting human roles are characterized as work underload and workload transitions. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards, and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

Ryan, T.G.

1995-10-01

261

The Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Stimulates Chloride/Hydroxyl Exchange Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells12  

OpenAIRE

Probiotics are viable nonpathogenic microorganisms that are considered to confer health benefits to the host. Recent studies indicated that some Lactobacillus species function as probiotics and have been used as alternative treatments for diarrhea, which occurs due to increased secretion, decreased absorption, or both. However, the direct effects of probiotics on intestinal electrolyte absorption are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of Lactobacillus on luminal chloride/hydroxyl (...

Borthakur, Alip; Gill, Ravinder K.; Tyagi, Sangeeta; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Hecht, Gail A.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

2008-01-01

262

Adherence of Probiotic Bacteria to Human Intestinal Mucus in Healthy Infants and during Rotavirus Infection  

OpenAIRE

The concentration of fecal mucin and the adhesion of specific probiotics and their combinations in the intestinal mucus of infants during and after rotavirus diarrhea and in healthy children were determined. Mucus was prepared from fecal samples from 20 infants during and after rotavirus diarrhea and from 10 healthy age-matched children. Mucin concentration was determined, and the adhesion of five probiotics—Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus paracasei F1...

Juntunen, M.; Kirjavainen, P. V.; Ouwehand, A. C.; Salminen, S. J.; Isolauri, E.

2001-01-01

263

Human intestinal P-glycoprotein activity estimated by the model substrate digoxin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) plays a part in the intestinal uptake of xenobiotics and has been associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to examine Pgp activity in relation to age, gender, medical treatment (rifampicin or ketoconazole) and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G2677T and C3435T using the model drug digoxin.

Larsen, U L; Hyldahl Olesen, L

2007-01-01

264

Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine  

OpenAIRE

Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells i...

Wang, Guo-du; Wang, Xi-yu; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Liu, Sumei; Fei, Guijun; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.; Wood, Jackie D.

2013-01-01

265

Antimicrobial activity of Phyllanthus amarus on some human intestinal facultatively anaerobic flora  

OpenAIRE

Background: Phyllanthus amarus is an economic plant grown in West Africa that has antimicrobial properties. Aim: We investigated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus against some intestinal flora that are facultative anaerobes. Methods: The leaves were washed thoroughly in clean water, and rinsed in sterile distilled water, allowed to dry at room temperature for several days. It was oven dried at 45OC for about an hour until considered brittle enough to bleed. Final...

Babatunde S.K; Abubakare A.A; Abdulraheem Y.J; Ajiboye E.A

2014-01-01

266

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasitosis in the Hospital of Oran (Algeria)  

OpenAIRE

Objective: This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patient addressed to the hospital of Oran and to identify parasites causing this infection. Design: The survey was made on 1042 individuals, external and hospitalized, having between one month and 80 years old, addressed te H.U.C. of Oran. For every patient, an analysis of stool sample was done including direct and complementary methods. Results: The prevalence is about 19,96%. Adultes (71,15%...

Benouis, A.; Bekkouche, Z.; Benmansour, Z.

2013-01-01

267

Conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil by human intestinal microflora.  

OpenAIRE

The mechanism of toxicity from 5-fluorocytosine chemotherapy is unclear. However, recent evidence suggests that the generation of 5-fluorouracil by a host may play an important role in the development of this toxicity. Using an in vitro semicontinuous culture system to mimic the intestinal microflora, we examined the capacity of this complex microbial community to convert 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil. The system was dosed initially and after 2 weeks of chronic exposure to 5-fluorocytosi...

Harris, B. E.; Manning, B. W.; Federle, T. W.; Diasio, R. B.

1986-01-01

268

Adherence to and Penetration of Human Intestinal Caco-2 Epithelial Cell Monolayers by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from blood adhered to and penetrated intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers to a greater degree than did isolates from sputum, with a concomitant drastic decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. PAO-PR1, an avirulent exotoxin A mutant of PAO1, did not cause a decrease in the resistance. The Caco-2 monolayer system may be useful for the evaluation of certain P. aeruginosa virulence factor activities. PMID:9529107

Hirakata, Yoichi; Izumikawa, Kohichi; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Igimi, Shizunobu; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Yamada, Yasuaki; Kohno, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kamihira, Shimeru

1998-01-01

269

Adherence to and Penetration of Human Intestinal Caco-2 Epithelial Cell Monolayers by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

OpenAIRE

Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from blood adhered to and penetrated intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers to a greater degree than did isolates from sputum, with a concomitant drastic decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance. PAO-PR1, an avirulent exotoxin A mutant of PAO1, did not cause a decrease in the resistance. The Caco-2 monolayer system may be useful for the evaluation of certain P. aeruginosa virulence factor activities.

Hirakata, Yoichi; Izumikawa, Kohichi; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Igimi, Shizunobu; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Yamada, Yasuaki; Kohno, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kamihira, Shimeru

1998-01-01

270

Effect of CpG-ODN combined with radiation on micronuclei cell of the human intestinal crypt epithelial cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order study the changes of micronuclei cell frequency in the non-immune cell types, the human intestinal crypt epithelial cell (HIEC) was treated by CpG-ODN after radiation. MTT assay and micronuclei assay were used in this research. The result of MTT assay shows that CpG-ODN does not have any toxicity to HIEC in the concentration range of 0.00-1.25 ?mol/L. Micronuclei assay measurement indicates that CpG-ODN can protect HIEC from radiation damage by reducing the micronucleus frequency (MNF) and the micronucleus cell frequency (MNCF). The experiment results reveal that CpG-ODN is safe and may have radioprotection effect on some non-immune human cell types. (authors)

271

Immunomodulatory effect of a wild blueberry anthocyanin-rich extract in human Caco-2 intestinal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal inflammation is a natural process crucial for the maintenance of gut functioning. However, abnormal or prolonged inflammatory responses may lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases, typically treated by means of pharmacological interventions. Dietary strategies for the prevention of inflammation are a safer alternative to pharmacotherapy. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols have been documented to display anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, three bioactive fractions (anthocyanin, phenolic, and water-soluble fractions) were extracted from a wild blueberry powder. The Caco-2 intestinal model was used to test the immunomodulatory effect of the above fractions. Only the anthocyanin-rich fraction reduced the activation of NF-?B, induced by IL-1? in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Specifically, concentrations of 50 and 100 ?g mL(-1) decreased NF-?B activation by 68.9 and 85.2%, respectively (p ? 0.05). These preliminary results provide further support for the role of food bioactives as potential dietary anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25075866

Taverniti, Valentina; Fracassetti, Daniela; Del Bo', Cristian; Lanti, Claudia; Minuzzo, Mario; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia; Guglielmetti, Simone

2014-08-20

272

Evidence for the involvement of a 5-HT4 receptor in the secretory response of human small intestine to 5-HT.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-Hydroxytryptamine increases transmucosal short-circuit current across human isolated small intestinal mucosa. The competitive 5-HT4 antagonist, DAU 6285 evoked a concentration-dependent, dextral and parallel shift of the concentration-response curve to 5-HT, with no alteration of the maximum response. Schild analysis of this antagonism produced a Schild regression with a slope of 1.00 and an apparent pA2 estimate of 6.17. It appears that a 5-HT4 receptor may mediate the short-circuit current response of human small intestinal mucosa to 5-HT. PMID:8298816

Borman, R A; Burleigh, D E

1993-11-01

273

Anti inflammatory and anti angiogenic effect of black raspberry extract on human esophageal and intestinal microvascular endothelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoid glycosides) in berries prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in rat's digestive tract and esophagus, in part, via anti-inflammatory pathways. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of black raspberry extract (BRE) on two organ specific primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells, (HIMEC) and human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC), isolated from surgically resected human intestinal and donor discarded esophagus, respectively. HEMEC and HIMEC were stimulated with TNF-?/IL-1? with or without BRE. The anti-inflammatory effects of BRE were assessed based upon COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression, PGE2 production, NF?B p65 subunit nuclear translocation as well as endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion. The anti-angiogenic effects of BRE were assessed on cell migration, proliferation and tube formation following VEGF stimulation as well as on activation of Akt, MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. BRE inhibited TNF-?/IL-1?-induced NF?B p65 nuclear translocation, PGE2 production, up-regulation of COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression and leukocyte binding in HEMEC but not in HIMEC. BRE attenuated VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in both HEMEC and HIMEC. The anti-angiogenic effect of BRE is mediated by inhibition of Akt, MAPK and JNK phosphorylations. BRE exerted differential anti-inflammatory effects between HEMEC and HIMEC following TNF-?/IL-1? activation whereas demonstrated similar anti-angiogenic effects following VEGF stimulation in both cell lines. These findings may provide more insight into the anti-tumorigenic capacities of BRE in human disease and cancer. PMID:25446010

Medda, Rituparna; Lyros, Orestis; Schmidt, Jamie L; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Nie, Linghui; Link, Benjamin J; Otterson, Mary F; Stoner, Gary D; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

2015-01-01

274

Use of Recombinant Human Soluble Thrombomodulin in Patients with Sepsis-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation after Intestinal Perforation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Anticoagulant therapy has been evaluated with respect to its potential usefulness in reducing the high mortality rates associated with severe sepsis, including sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) after intestinal perforation. We examined the hypothesis that recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM) is effective in the treatment of patients with septic shock with sepsis-induced DIC after laparotomy for intestinal perforation. Methods: We performed propensity-score and instrumental variable analyses of the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination in-patient database, a nationwide administrative database. The main outcome was 28-day in-hospital all-cause mortality. Results: We categorized eligible patients (n?=?2202) from 622 hospitals into the rhTM group (n?=?726) and control group (n?=?1476). Propensity-score matching created 621 matched pairs of patients with and without rhTM. There was neither significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups in the unmatched analysis (rhTM vs. control, 25.3 vs. 23.4%, respectively; difference, 1.9%; 95% CI, ?1.9 to 5.7) nor in the propensity-score-matched analysis (rhTM vs. control, 26.1 vs. 24.8%, respectively; difference, 1.3%; 95% CI, ?3.6 to 6.1). The logistic analysis showed no significant association between the use of rhTM and the mortality in propensity-score-matched patients (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.82–1.4). The instrumental variable analyses, using the hospital rhTM-prescribing proportion as the variable, found that receipt of rhTM was not associated with the reduction in the mortality (risk difference, ?6.7%; 95% CI, ?16.4 to 3.0). Conclusion: We found no association between administration of rhTM and 28-day mortality in mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock and concurrent DIC after intestinal perforation. PMID:25767801

Tagami, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo

2015-01-01

275

Insights from a novel model of slow-transit constipation generated by partial outlet obstruction in the murine large intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms underlying slow-transit constipation (STC) are unclear. In 50% of patients with STC, some form of outlet obstruction has been reported; also an elongated colon has been linked to patients with STC. Our aims were 1) to develop a murine model of STC induced by partial outlet obstruction and 2) to determine whether this leads to colonic elongation and, consequently, activation of the inhibitory "occult reflex," which may contribute to STC in humans. Using a purse-string suture, we physically reduced the maximal anal sphincter opening in C57BL/6 mice. After 4 days, the mice were euthanized (acutely obstructed), the suture was removed (relieved), or the suture was removed and replaced repeatedly (chronically obstructed, over 24-31 days). In partially obstructed mice, we observed increased cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 levels in muscularis and mucosa, an elongated impacted large bowel, slowed transit, nonpropagating colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), a lack of mucosal reflexes, a depolarized circular muscle with slow-wave activity due to a lack of spontaneous inhibitory junction potentials, muscle hypertrophy, and CMMCs in mucosa-free preparations. Elongation of the empty obstructed colon produced a pronounced occult reflex. Removal of the obstruction or addition of a COX-2 antagonist (in vitro and in vivo) restored membrane potential, spontaneous inhibitory junction potentials, CMMC propagation, and mucosal reflexes. We conclude that partial outlet obstruction increases COX-2 leading to a hyperexcitable colon. This hyperexcitability is largely due to suppression of only descending inhibitory nerve pathways by prostaglandins. The upregulation of motility is suppressed by the occult reflex activated by colonic elongation. PMID:22961801

Heredia, Dante J; Grainger, Nathan; McCann, Conor J; Smith, Terence K

2012-11-01

276

Immunohistochemical characterization of the lymphocyte and the immunoglobulin-containing cell in the epithelium and the lamina propria of normal human intestines.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to clarify difference of the mucosal immunity in various sites of normal large and small intestines, we studied the population of lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulin (Ig-containing cells in situ in biopsy specimens taken from various sites (ascending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum of the large intestine and from the duodenum using an immunohistochemical method. Monoclonal antibodies against pan-T (Leu 1, cytotoxic/suppressor T (Leu2a, helper/inducer T (Leu3a, suppressor T (Leu15 and natural killer/K (Leu7 cells, and polyclonal antibodies to human IgG, IgA and IgM were used. In the duodenum, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs were more prominent than in the large intestine. Immunoelectron microscopic observation revealed that some Leu2a+ IELs possessed pseudopods extending into intestinal epithelial cells, indicating that some IELs belong to the cytotoxic T cell subset. Leu7+ IELs were scarcely observed and Leu7+/Leu1+ ratio was higher in the large intestine than in the duodenum. Furthermore, the number of Leu7+ cells were more in the distal than the proximal colon. In the lamina propria Ig-containing cells tended to be fewer in the rectum than in the duodenum and the proximal colon. Our findings may suggest the variation of local immune responses and the difference of assigned immunological functions among the various sites of the intestines.

Matsueda,Kazuhiro

1991-06-01

277

Absorção intestinal de D-xilose em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Intestinal absorption of D-xilose in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos - Avaliar a absorção intestinal em crianças de 18 meses a 14 anos infectadas pelo HIV, atendidas em uma unidade de ambulatório e verificar se existe associação entre má absorção, diarréia, estado nutricional, alteração imunológica, parasitas entéricos clássicos e Cryptosporidium. Metodologia - A absorção intestinal foi investigada utilizando-se a medida da D-xilose sérica. Amostras fecais foram colhidas para a pesquisa de pátogenos entéricos clássicos e Cryptosporidium. O tamanho da amostra foi calculado considerando a prevalência de 30% com precisão de 5% de alteração na absorção da D-xilose em crianças infectadas pelo HIV. Os procedimentos estatísticos utilizados foram: medidas descritivas, análise de correspondência múltipla e regressão logística. Resultados - Das 104 crianças estudadas, somente 8 (7,7% apresentaram o teste da D-xilose alterado e 33 (31,73% foram positivas para Cryptosporidium. A análise de correspondência múltipla aplicada aos dados encontrados sugeriu a associação entre o teste da D-xilose alterado e a presença de Cryptosporidium. Não se encontrou associação entre o teste alterado e diarréia, estado nutricional, alteração imunológica e parasistas entéricos clássicos. Conclusões - A má absorção intestinal avaliada pelo teste da D-xilose foi infreqüente nas crianças HIV positivas estudadas. O comprometimento intestinal, quando presente, parece estar relacionado com a presença de Cryptosporidium, porém não com diarréia, estado nutricional, alteração imunológica e parasistas entéricos clássicos.Aim - To evaluate the intestinal absorption in HIV-infected children children 14 months to 14 years and to investigate its relationship to diarrhea, nutritional status, immune dysfunction, classical enteric parasites and Cryptosporidium. Methods - Intestinal absorption was investigated by measuring serum D-xylose. Fecal samples were investigated for classical pathogens and Cryptosporidium. The sample size was calculated considering a 30% prevalence of altered D-xylose absorption in HIV-infected children with a 5% accuracy. Statistical procedures used were: descriptive measurements, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Results - D-xylose absorption was altered in only 8 out of 104 (7,7% and Cryptosporidium was positive in 33 out of 104 (31,73% HIV-infected children. The multiple correspondence analysis suggested an association between an altered D-xylose test and Cryptosporidium. D-xylose malabsorption was not associated with diarrhea, nutritional status, immune disfunction and classic enteric parasites. Conclusions - Intestinal malabsorption evaluated through the D-xylose test was an uncommon finding in HIV-infected children. Intestinal dysfunction when present seems to be related to Cryptosporidium, but not to diarrhea, nutritional status, immune disfunction and classic enteric parasites.

Nilza Medeiros PERIN

2001-10-01

278

Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.

Murano, Tatsuro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi, E-mail: rokamoto.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Go; Nakata, Toru; Hibiya, Shuji; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Fujii, Satoru; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Yui, Shiro; Akiyama-Morio, Junko; Nemoto, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Advanced GI Therapeutics, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

2014-01-17

279

Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. Here, we provide a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420, and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Interestingly, L. salivarius Ls-33 DCE-induced changes were overall more similar to those of B. lactis 420 than to L. acidophilus NCFM™, which is consistent with previously observed in vivo immunomodulation properties. In the gene ontology and pathway analyses both specific and unspecific changes were observed. Common to all was the regulation of apoptosis and adipogenesis, and lipid-metabolism related regulation by the probiotics. Specific changes such as regulation of cell-cell adhesion by B. lactis 420, superoxide metabolism by L. salivarius Ls-33, and regulation of MAPK pathway by L. acidophilus NCFM™ were noted. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed between the pathogenic and probiotic treatments in the Toll-like receptor pathway, especially for adapter molecules with a lowered level of transcriptional activation of MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1 and TRAF6 by probiotics compared to EHEC. The results in this study provide insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlight the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria.

Putaala, H; Barrangou, R

2010-01-01

280

Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model  

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The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4?h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6?h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods.

Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

2015-01-01

281

Qing Hua Chang Yin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human intestinal cells by inhibiting NF-?B activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is tightly regulated by the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway. Thus, the suppression of NF-?B signaling may provide a promising strategy for the treatment of UC. Qing Hua Chang Yin (QHCY) is a traditional Chinese formulation, which has been used for a number of years to clinically treat UC. However, little is known with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro inflammatory model of the human intestinal epithelium to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of QHCY and its underlying molecular mechanisms. We observed that QHCY inhibited the inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells as it significantly and concentration-dependently reduced the LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory TNF-? and IL-8 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, QHCY treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B and the nuclear translocation of NF-?B in Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that QHCY suppressed the activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that the inhibition of NF-?B-mediated inflammation may constitute a potential mechanism by which QHCY treats UC. PMID:23935744

Ke, Xiao; Chen, Jingtuan; Zhang, Xin; Fang, Wenyi; Yang, Chunbo; Peng, Jun; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J

2013-07-01

282

The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (hFABP2) gene is regulated by HNF-4?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cytosolic human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (hFABP2) is proposed to be involved in intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of hFABP2 by the endodermal hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF-4?), involved in regulation of genes of fatty acid metabolism and differentiation. Electromobility shift assays demonstrated that HNF-4? binds at position -324 to -336 within the hFABP2 promoter. Mutation of this HNF-4 binding site abolished the luciferase reporter activity of hFABP2 in postconfluent Caco-2 cells. In HeLa cells, this mutation reduced the activation of the hFABP2 promoter by HNF-4? by about 50%. Thus, binding element at position -336/-324 essentially determines the transcriptional activity of promoter and may be important in control of hFABP2 expression by dietary lipids and differentiation. Studying genotype interactions of hFABP2 and HNF-4?, that are both candidate genes for diabetes type 2, may be a powerful approach

283

Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

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Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2013-02-01

284

Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with ?-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Qrypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

285

[Intestinal helminthiases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal helminthiases are infections in which adult helminths (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes) parasitize the intestine. In Central Europe intestinal helminthiases are usually acquired during travel or are imported by migrants. In contrast, in developing countries, intestinal helminthiases are highly prevalent. The mode of transmission and the clinical picture depend on the helminth species. Special laboratory methods are needed to diagnose the different intestinal helminthiases. Nematodes are usually treated with the benzimidazoles mebendazole and albendazole. Ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone, is an alternative. Praziquanel is the drug of choice for the treatment of intestinal cestodes. PMID:20687462

Feldmeier, Hermann

2010-07-01

286

NF-kB-dependent synergistic regulation of CXCL10 gene expression by IL-1? and IFN-?? in human intestinal epithelial cell lines; NF-kappaB-dependent synergistic regulation of CXCL10 gene expression by IL-1beta and IFN-gamma in human intestinal epithelial cell lines  

OpenAIRE

Background and aims Little is known about the intestinal epithelial expression and secretion of CXCL10 (IP-10), a chemokine involved in recruiting T cells and monocytes. We aimed to study CXCL10 gene expression and regulation by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, interferon (IFN-?) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a in intestinal epithelial cell lines. Materials and methods: CXCL10 expression and secretion kinetics were assessed in Caco-2, HT-29 and DLD1 human colon epith...

Yeruva, Sunil; Ramadori, Giuliano; Raddatz, Dirk

2008-01-01

287

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasitosis in the Hospital of Oran (Algeria  

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Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patient addressed to the hospital of Oran and to identify parasites causing this infection. Design: The survey was made on 1042 individuals, external and hospitalized, having between one month and 80 years old, addressed te H.U.C. of Oran. For every patient, an analysis of stool sample was done including direct and complementary methods. Results: The prevalence is about 19,96%. Adultes (71,15% are more parasited than children (28,84%. The sex ratio is equal to 1. It is essentially Protozoa parasitism with 95,7% and Helminth represent only 4,3%. The intestinal parasites founded are : Blastocystis hominis 47,17% Entamoeba coli 18,95%, Giardia intestinalis 15,32%, Endolimax nana 5,24%, Entamoeba histolytica 4 ,83%, Pseudolimax butschlii 4,43%, Enterobius vermicularis 2,82%, Cryptosporidium sp 0,4%, Ascaris lumbricoides 0,4% and Taenia saginata 0,4%. Statistically, it was no significant to the distribution of parasites species by sex. But according to age, it was significant for Giardia intestinalis which infects more children than adults, for Endolimax nana and Blastocystis hominis with the most infection of adults. Conclusion: The majority of parasites listed are not pathological. Their epidemiology is linked to faulty hygiene; this is why developing countries are the most concerned.

A. Benouis

2013-04-01

288

Differences between human and rat intestinal and hepatic bisphenol A glucuronidation and the influence of alamethicin on in vitro kinetic measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which membrane-disrupting agents, such as alamethicin, may alter cofactor transport and influence in vitro kinetic measurements of glucuronidation is a major concern regarding the characterization and extrapolation of inter- and intraspecies pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA). An additional concern is the omission of a BPA intestinal metabolism component in current pharmacokinetic models used to assess oral exposure. In this study, BPA glucuronidation in native hepatic microsomes from female rat and female human liver displayed higher V(max) values than that in males. In the presence of alamethicin, all hepatic V(max) values increased; however, this increase was disproportionately greater in males and gender differences were no longer observed. Female rats exhibited a much higher K(m) than all other species and genders; the addition of alamethicin had little influence on K(m) values for any of the test systems. The dissimilar K(m) measured for female rat suggests that different UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme(s) are involved in BPA glucuronidation. The presence of different UGTs in female rat was confirmed using Hill coefficients measured from diclofenac-mediated chemical inhibition assays within hepatic microsomes and purified human UGT2B7 and UGT2B15. Mixed-gender human intestinal microsomes showed little BPA glucuronidation reactivity compared with those from male rat intestine. Male rat intestinal microsomes in the presence of alamethicin exhibited a V(max) that was nearly 30-fold higher than that for mixed human microsomes. The species and gender metabolic differences we observed between rat and human liver and intestine provide key information for delineating BPA pharmacokinetics needed for human health risk assessment. PMID:20736320

Mazur, Christopher S; Kenneke, John F; Hess-Wilson, Janet K; Lipscomb, John C

2010-12-01

289

Endometriosis intestinal / Intestinal endometriosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad e [...] n el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada). En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo. Abstract in english Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnorm [...] ality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation). In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment, this will depend on the clinical features and the age of the patient, as well as her wishes with regard to pregnancy.

C.I., González; M., Cires; F.J., Jiménez; T., Rubio.

2008-08-01

290

Amebiasis intestinal / Intestinal amebiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le pe [...] rmiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica) y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar), ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad. Abstract in english Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex patho [...] genic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica), and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar), have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

JULIO CÉSAR, GÓMEZ; JORGE ALBERTO, CORTÉS; SONIA ISABEL, CUERVO; MYRIAM CONSUELO, LÓPEZ.

2007-03-01

291

Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis  

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Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

2007-03-01

292

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid analysis of the metabolites of morroniside produced by human intestinal bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morroniside, the most abundant iridoid glycoside in the valuable traditional Chinese medicine Fructus Corni, exhibits various pharmacological activities and biological effects. Intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of drug compounds, which might lead to the variation of ethnopharmacological profile of the medicine. However, little is known of the interactions of the morroniside with human intestinal bacteria. In this study, different pure bacteria were isolated from human feces and their capability to convert morroniside were investigated. The metabolites of morroniside were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technique using Metabolynx™ software. Parent compound and three metabolites were detected and tentatively identified based on the characteristics of their protonated ions. The parent is proposed to be metabolized by three main metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, dehydroxylation and methylation. Morroniside was firstly metabolized to its aglycone (M1), and then was further converted to dehydroxylated aglycone (M2) and methylated aglycone (M3). This is the first report of the metabolism of morroniside by human intestinal bacteria. These metabolites might influence the biological activities of morroniside in vivo, which could affect the clinical effects of medicines. Thus, the study on the metabolism of morroniside by human intestinal bacteria is very helpful to unravel how traditional medicines work. PMID:25482010

Zhao, Min; Du, Leyue; Tao, Jinhua; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Jiang, Shu; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Chen

2015-01-22

293

Acute Small-Bowel Obstruction From Intestinal Anisakiasis After the Ingestion of Raw Clams; Documenting a New Method of Marine-to-Human Parasitic Transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enteric anisakiasis is a known parasitic infection. To date, human infection has been reported as resulting from the inadvertent ingestion of the anisakis larvae when eating raw/undercooked fish, squid, or eel. We present a first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis, after the ingestion of raw clams. PMID:25734153

Shweiki, Ehyal; Rittenhouse, David W; Ochoa, Joana E; Punja, Viren P; Zubair, Muhammad H; Baliff, Jeffrey P

2014-09-01

294

Esquistosomiasis intestinal / Intestinal schistosomiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: la esquistosomiasis es una enfermedad parasitaria crónica causada por trematodos del género Schistosoma. La esquistosomiasis es prevalente en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Los síntomas de la esquistosomiasis son causados por la reacción del organismo a los huevos del gusano. [...] Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 21 años, que ingresa en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos con cuadro de diarreas con sangre, deshidratación y mal estado general, con empeoramiento clínico progresivo. Conclusiones: la esquistosomiasis intestinal es una enfermedad frecuente en Nampula, Mozambique; la enfermedad debe ser sospechada en pacientes con diarreas sanguinolentas y/o hematuria a fin de realizar el diagnóstico oportuno e iniciar tratamiento con prazicuantel, con lo cual se obtiene curación de la enfermedad en la mayoría de los pacientes oportunamente tratados. Abstract in english Introduction: intestinal schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes and genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis prevails in tropical and subtropical regions. The symptoms are caused by the reaction of organism to the worm eggs. Case report: the case of a male aged 21 was admitted [...] to the Intensive Care Unit presenting bloody diarrhea, dehydration, and bad general status with progressive clinical worsening. Conclusions: intestinal schistosomiasis is a frequent disease in Nampula, Mozambique; the disease might be suspected in patients with bloody diarrhea and/or hematuria aimed at making the opportune diagnosis and starting the treatment with the specific and updated medication praziquantel, favoring the cure for the disease on the majority of patients properly treated.

José Abel, García Acosta; Ariel Efrain, Delgado Rodríguez.

2014-08-01

295

Transition-state structure of human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and computer modeling using density functional theory were used to approximate the transition state of human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). KIEs were measured on the arsenolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) catalyzed by MTAP and were corrected for the forward commitment to catalysis. Intrinsic KIEs were obtained for [1'-(3)H], [1'-(14)C], [2'-(3)H], [4'-(3)H], [5'-(3)H(2)], [9-(15)N], and [Me-(3)H(3)] MTAs. The primary intrinsic KIEs (1'-(14)C and 9-(15)N) suggest that MTAP has a dissociative S(N)1 transition state with its cationic center at the anomeric carbon and insignificant bond order to the leaving group. The 9-(15)N intrinsic KIE of 1.039 also establishes an anionic character for the adenine leaving group, whereas the alpha-primary 1'-(14)C KIE of 1.031 indicates significant nucleophilic participation at the transition state. Computational matching of the calculated EIEs to the intrinsic isotope effects places the oxygen nucleophile 2.0 Angstrom from the anomeric carbon. The 4'-(3)H KIE is sensitive to the polarization of the 3'-OH group. Calculations suggest that a 4'-(3)H KIE of 1.047 is consistent with ionization of the 3'-OH group, indicating formation of a zwitterion at the transition state. The transition state has cationic character at the anomeric carbon and is anionic at the 3'-OH oxygen, with an anionic leaving group. The isotope effects predicted a 3'-endo conformation for the ribosyl zwitterion, corresponding to a H1'-C1'-C2'-H2' torsional angle of 33 degrees. The [Me-(3)H(3)] and [5'-(3)H(2)] KIEs arise predominantly from the negative hyperconjugation of the lone pairs of sulfur with the sigma (C-H) antibonding orbitals. Human MTAP is characterized by a late S(N)1 transition state with significant participation of the phosphate nucleophile. PMID:17090056

Singh, Vipender; Schramm, Vern L

2006-11-15

296

Transition state analogues of Plasmodium falciparum and human orotate phosphoribosyltransferases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The survival and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites and human cancer cells require de novo pyrimidine synthesis to supply RNA and DNA precursors. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) is an indispensible component in this metabolic pathway and is a target for antimalarials and antitumor drugs. P. falciparum (Pf) and Homo sapiens (Hs) OPRTs are characterized by highly dissociative transition states with ribocation character. On the basis of the geometrical and electrostatic features of the PfOPRT and HsOPRT transition states, analogues were designed, synthesized, and tested as inhibitors. Iminoribitol mimics of the ribocation transition state in linkage to pyrimidine mimics using methylene or ethylene linkers gave dissociation constants (Kd) as low as 80 nM. Inhibitors with pyrrolidine groups as ribocation mimics displayed slightly weaker binding affinities for OPRTs. Interestingly, p-nitrophenyl riboside 5'-phosphate bound to OPRTs with Kd values near 40 nM. Analogues designed with a C5-pyrimidine carbon-carbon bond to ribocation mimics gave Kd values in the range of 80-500 nM. Acyclic inhibitors with achiral serinol groups as the ribocation mimics also displayed nanomolar inhibition against OPRTs. In comparison with the nucleoside derivatives, inhibition constants of their corresponding 5'-phosphorylated transition state analogues are largely unchanged, an unusual property for a nucleotide-binding site. In silico docking of the best inhibitor into the HsOPRT active site supported an extensive hydrogen bond network associated with the tight binding affinity. These OPRT transition state analogues identify crucial components of potent inhibitors targeting OPRT enzymes. Despite their tight binding to the targets, the inhibitors did not kill cultured P. falciparum. PMID:24158442

Zhang, Yong; Evans, Gary B; Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R; Harris, Lawrence D; Fröhlich, Richard F G; Tyler, Peter C; Hazleton, Keith Z; Cassera, María B; Schramm, Vern L

2013-11-29

297

Transition State Analogues of Plasmodium falciparum and Human Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferases*  

Science.gov (United States)

The survival and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites and human cancer cells require de novo pyrimidine synthesis to supply RNA and DNA precursors. Orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) is an indispensible component in this metabolic pathway and is a target for antimalarials and antitumor drugs. P. falciparum (Pf) and Homo sapiens (Hs) OPRTs are characterized by highly dissociative transition states with ribocation character. On the basis of the geometrical and electrostatic features of the PfOPRT and HsOPRT transition states, analogues were designed, synthesized, and tested as inhibitors. Iminoribitol mimics of the ribocation transition state in linkage to pyrimidine mimics using methylene or ethylene linkers gave dissociation constants (Kd) as low as 80 nm. Inhibitors with pyrrolidine groups as ribocation mimics displayed slightly weaker binding affinities for OPRTs. Interestingly, p-nitrophenyl riboside 5?-phosphate bound to OPRTs with Kd values near 40 nm. Analogues designed with a C5-pyrimidine carbon–carbon bond to ribocation mimics gave Kd values in the range of 80–500 nm. Acyclic inhibitors with achiral serinol groups as the ribocation mimics also displayed nanomolar inhibition against OPRTs. In comparison with the nucleoside derivatives, inhibition constants of their corresponding 5?-phosphorylated transition state analogues are largely unchanged, an unusual property for a nucleotide-binding site. In silico docking of the best inhibitor into the HsOPRT active site supported an extensive hydrogen bond network associated with the tight binding affinity. These OPRT transition state analogues identify crucial components of potent inhibitors targeting OPRT enzymes. Despite their tight binding to the targets, the inhibitors did not kill cultured P. falciparum. PMID:24158442

Zhang, Yong; Evans, Gary B.; Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R.; Harris, Lawrence D.; Fröhlich, Richard F. G.; Tyler, Peter C.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Cassera, María B.; Schramm, Vern L.

2013-01-01

298

Tick-borne encephalitis virus replication, intracellular trafficking, and pathogenicity in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers showed morphological changes including cytoskeleton rearrangements and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Ultrastructural analysis revealed dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and further enlargement to TBEV containing caverns. Caco-2 monolayers maintained an intact epithelial barrier with stable transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) during early stage of infection. Concomitantly, viruses were detected in the basolateral medium, implying a transcytosis pathway. When Caco-2 cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of cellular pathways of endocytosis TBEV cell entry was efficiently blocked, suggesting that actin filaments (Cytochalasin) and microtubules (Nocodazole) are important for PI3K-dependent (LY294002) virus endocytosis. Moreover, experimental fluid uptake assay showed increased intracellular accumulation of FITC-dextran containing vesicles. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of TBEV with early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) as well as with sorting nexin-5 (SNX5), pointing to macropinocytosis as trafficking mechanism. In the late phase of infection, further evidence was found for translocation of virus via the paracellular pathway. Five days after infection TER was slightly decreased. Epithelial barrier integrity was impaired due to increased epithelial apoptosis, leading to passive viral translocation. These findings illuminate pathomechanisms in TBEV infection of human intestinal epithelial cells and viral transmission via the alimentary route. PMID:24820351

Yu, Chao; Achazi, Katharina; Möller, Lars; Schulzke, Joerg D; Niedrig, Matthias; Bücker, Roland

2014-01-01

299

Transition state structure of human 5?-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase†  

OpenAIRE

Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and computer modeling using density functional theory were used to approximate the transition state of human 5?-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP). KIEs were measured on the arsenolysis of 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA) catalyzed by MTAP and were corrected for the forward commitment to catalysis. Intrinsic KIEs were obtained for [1?-3H], [1?-14C], [2?-3H], [4?-3H], [5?-3H], [9-15N] and [Me-3H3] MTAs. The primary intrinsic KIEs (1?-14C and 9-1...

Singh, Vipender; Schramm, Vern L.

2006-01-01

300

Geometrical guidance and trapping transition of human sperm cells  

CERN Document Server

The guidance of human sperm cells under confinement in quasi 2D microchambers is investigated using a purely physical method to control their distribution. Transport property measurements and simulations are performed with dilute sperm populations, for which effects of geometrical guidance and concentration are studied in detail. In particular, a trapping transition at convex angular wall features is identified and analyzed. We also show that highly efficient microratchets can be fabricated by using curved asymmetric obstacles to take advantage of the spermatozoa specific swimming strategy.

Guidobaldi, A; Berdakin, I; Moshchalkov, V V; Condat, C A; Marconi, V I; Giojalas, L; Silhanek, A V

2014-01-01

301

Interaction of CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotides with Toll Like Receptor 9 Induces Apoptosis and Modulates Metaloproteinase-2 Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelium  

OpenAIRE

Recent reports have indicated different effects of immunostimulatory sequences containing CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) on various immune cells. However, the exact role of CpG-ODN in the human gut is unclear. In the present study, we assessed potential effects of CpG-ODN on non lymphoid cell (intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29) on a dose-response and time-course basis. Intestinal epithelial cell line HT-29 was treated with CpG-ODN (CpG 2006) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 5, 10, 25, 50 ...

Reza Falak; Nastaran Aalizadeh; Farshid Saadat; Farnaz Safavifar; Shahnaz Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh; Zohre Jadali; Mohammad Pezeshki

2007-01-01

302

Contributions of NanI sialidase to Caco-2 cell adherence by Clostridium perfringens type A and C strains causing human intestinal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies showed that Clostridium perfringens type D animal disease strain CN3718 uses NanI sialidase for adhering to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. The current study analyzed whether NanI is similarly important when type A and C human intestinal disease strains attach to Caco-2 cells. A PCR survey determined that the nanI gene was absent from typical type A food poisoning (FP) strains carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (CPE) gene or the genetically related type C Darmbrand (Db) strains. However, the nanI gene was present in type A strains from healthy humans, type A strains causing CPE-associated antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) or sporadic diarrhea (SD), and type C Pig-Bel strains. Consistent with NanI sialidase being the major C. perfringens sialidase when produced, FP and Db strains had little supernatant sialidase activity compared to other type A or C human intestinal strains. All type A and C human intestinal strains bound to Caco-2 cells, but NanI-producing strains had higher attachment levels. When produced, NanI can contribute to host cell attachment of human intestinal disease strains, since a nanI null mutant constructed in type A SD strain F4969 had lower Caco-2 cell adhesion than wild-type F4969 or a complemented strain. Further supporting a role for NanI in host cell attachment, sialidase inhibitors reduced F4969 adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that NanI may contribute to the intestinal attachment and colonization needed for the chronic diarrhea of CPE-associated AAD and SD, but this sialidase appears to be dispensable for the acute pathogenesis of type A FP or type C enteritis necroticans. PMID:25135687

Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

2014-11-01

303

Intestinal stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-renewal in the intestinal epithelia is fueled by a population of undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that give rise to daughter or progenitor cells, which can subsequently differentiate into the mature cell types required for normal gut function. The cellular signals that regulate self-renewal are poorly understood and the factors that mediate the transition from a stem cell to a progenitor cell in the gut are unknown. Recent studies have suggested that ISCs are located either at the crypt base interspersed between the Paneth cells (eg, Lgr-5+ve cells) or at or near position 4 within the intestinal crypt (eg, DCAMKL-1 or Bmi-1+ve cells). This raises the possibility that distinct stem cell regions exist in the crypts and that ISC's state of activation will determine how the self-renewal is regulated in the intestinal tract. PMID:20683682

Umar, Shahid

2010-10-01

304

Model Systems of Human Intestinal Flora, to Set Acceptable Daily Intakes of Antimicrobial Residues  

OpenAIRE

The veterinary use of antimicrobial drugs in food producing animals may result in residues in food, that might modify the consumer gut flora. This review compares three model systems that maintain a complex flora of human origin: (i) human flora associated (HFA) continuous flow cultures in chemostats, (ii) HFA mice, and (iii) human volunteers. The "No Microbial Effect Level" of an antibiotic on human flora, measured in one of these models, is used to set the accept¬able daily intake (ADI) fo...

Corpet, Denis E.

2000-01-01

305

Moderate consumption of red wine can modulate human intestinal inflammatory response.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 24 immune markers were analyzed in feces from healthy volunteers (n = 34) before and after consumption of a red wine (12% ethanol, 1758 mg/L total polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Analysis of the data permitted the differentiation of a six-volunteer subgroup showing unusually high basal values of cytokines. For this subgroup, consumption of wine significantly (P wine consumption for the rest of the volunteers. Additionally, significant and negative correlations among cytokines IFN-?, IL-8, and IL-6 and the total fecal content of phenolic metabolites were found for the high-cytokines-values subgroup, before wine intake. This study shows, for the first time, that moderate consumption of red wine could modulate inflammatory intestinal response in vivo. PMID:25263395

Muñoz-González, Irene; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

2014-10-29

306

Inhibition of intestinal absorption and decorporation of radiocaesium in humans by hexacyanoferrates(II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of hexacyanoferrate (II) preparations, KFe[Fe(CN)6], (KFeHCF) anol Fe4[Fe(N)6 ]3, (FeHCF) on intestinal radiocaesium absorption was studied in two male volunteers. The 134Cs absorption was decreased from 100 to 3-10% when 500-1000 mg KFeHCF or FeHCF were administered 10 min before the 134Cs-labelled test meal. However, when HCF was administered simultaneously with the test meal, the 134Cs absorption was decreased to only 38-63%. The biological half-time of previously absorbed 134Cs was reduced from 106 (73) to 44 (46) days by daily administration of 3 times 0.5 g KFeHCF. The 134Cs dose conversion factors lie below the values recommended by IRCP 30, indicating that the IRCP model represents a cautious description of the Cs biokinetics in our study. (author)

307

Localizations of Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 in human kidney and of SGLT1 in human small intestine, liver, lung, and heart.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel affinity-purified antibodies against human SGLT1 (hSGLT1) and SGLT2 (hSGLT2) were used to localize hSGLT2 in human kidney and hSGLT1 in human kidney, small intestine, liver, lung, and heart. The renal locations of both transporters largely resembled those in rats and mice; hSGLT2 and SGLT1 were localized to the brush border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubule S1/S2 and S3 segments, respectively. Different to rodents, the renal expression of hSGLT1 was absent in thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) and macula densa, and the expression of both hSGLTs was sex-independent. In small intestinal enterocytes, hSGLT1 was localized to the BBM and subapical vesicles. Performing double labeling with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), hSGLT1 was localized to GLP-1-secreting L cells and GIP-secreting K cells as has been shown in mice. In liver, hSGLT1 was localized to biliary duct cells as has been shown in rats. In lung, hSGLT1 was localized to alveolar epithelial type 2 cells and to bronchiolar Clara cells. Expression of hSGLT1 in Clara cells was verified by double labeling with the Clara cell secretory protein CC10. Double labeling of human heart with aquaporin 1 immunolocalized the hSGLT1 protein in heart capillaries rather than in previously assumed myocyte sarcolemma. The newly identified locations of hSGLT1 implicate several extra renal functions of this transporter, such as fluid absorption in the lung, energy supply to Clara cells, regulation of enteroendocrine cells secretion, and release of glucose from heart capillaries. These functions may be blocked by reversible SGLT1 inhibitors which are under development. PMID:25304002

Vrhovac, Ivana; Balen Eror, Daniela; Klessen, Dirk; Burger, Christa; Breljak, Davorka; Kraus, Ognjen; Radovi?, Nikola; Jadrijevi?, Stipe; Aleksic, Ivan; Walles, Thorsten; Sauvant, Christoph; Saboli?, Ivan; Koepsell, Hermann

2014-10-11

308

Should an athlete eat straight after training?--A study of intestinal transit time and its relationship to prior exercise.  

OpenAIRE

The mouth-to-caecum transit time of food was measured using the rise in breath hydrogen after a standard breakfast of baked beans on two occasions in seven healthy volunteers. The first occasion was after resting and the second after moderate exercise on a bicycle ergometer. There was no significant difference between the transit times with or without prior exercise. It is concluded that moderate exercise taken before food does not interfere with transit time and therefore should not in that ...

Scott, D.; Scott, B.

1994-01-01

309

Actin reorganization is involved in vasoactive intestinal peptide induced human mast cells priming to fraktalkine-induced chemotaxis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amr E El-ShazlyDepartment of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Liege University Hospital (Centre hospitalier Universaitaire-C.H.U., Liege, BelgiumAbstract: We recently reported a novel neuro-immuno co-operation between vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and fraktalkine (FKN in recruiting human mast cells to the asthmatic airway that provided a classical example of priming effect on mast cells migratory function, but the role of the F-actin in human mast cell chemotaxis’ priming is poorly defined. Therefore the aim of this study was to further investigate the biophysical role of the cytoskeletal element; the F-actin, intracellular reorganization and its polymerization in mast cell priming of chemotaxis function. In the present communication it is shown by immunofluoresence confocal microscopy analysis that physical F-actin intracellular reorganization in a membrane bound manner on uman mast cell is involved in VIP-induced priming of human mast cell chemotaxis against FKN. The F-actin reorganization was calcium independent and without modifi cation of its contents as assessed by fluorescence-activated cell scanning analysis. These results identify a novel role for the biophysical association of F-actin in the crosstalk between neuro-inflammatory mediators and mast cells and may be an important target for therapeutic modalities in allergic inflammation.Keywords: mast cells, chemotaxis, neuroimmuno-axis, F-actin intracellular reorganization, VIP, priming

Amr E El-Shazly

2008-08-01

310

The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. PMID:24704609

Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

2014-08-01

311

The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species weredetected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.

Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin

2014-01-01

312

Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae. These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria may be involved in the metabolism of dietary and endogenous lipids, and provide a scientific rationale for further human studies to explore the role of intestinal microbes in host lipid metabolism.

Leo Lahti

2013-02-01

313

Intestinal spirochetosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A espiroquetose intestinal está definida histologicamente como a presença de micro-organismos da família spirochetaceae ligadas ao ápice das células do epitélio cólico. A doença pode ser provocada por um grupo heterogêneo de bactérias. Em humanos, a Brachyspira aalborgi e a Brachyspira pilosicoli pr [...] edominam. A incidência varia desde 1%, nos países desenvolvidos, até 34% nas áreas mais pobres, atingindo taxas de colonização de 62,5%, em homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) e vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) positivo. O significado clínico dessa colonização ainda é incerto e a maioria dos infectados permanece assintomática. Quando há sintomas gastrointestinais, o tratamento com metronidazol é efetivo. Por razões desconhecidas, HSH positivos para o HIV, apresentam mais infestação sintomática. A infecção pelo Treponema pallidum dever ser excluída, pois os tratamentos são diferentes e as complicações por essa última são mais graves e definitivas. Abstract in english The intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is a histologically defined by the presence of spirochetal microorganisms connected to the apical cell membrane of the colorectal epithelium. The disease is caused by a heterogeneous group of bacteria. In humans, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli are p [...] revalent. The incidence ranges from 1% in developed countries to 34% in poorer areas. It affects 62.5% of colonized areas, as well as men who have intercourse with men (MSM) and those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected. Clinical significance of such colonization is still not clear. Most infected people are asymptomatic. At the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, treatment with metronidazole is effective. Due to unknown reasons, MSM and HIV-positive men are more likely to be symptomatic. Treponema pallidum infection must be excluded, since this agent may cause serious and permanent complications, and because the treatment is different.

Luis Roberto Manzione, Nadal; Sidney Roberto, Nadal.

2011-12-01

314

The effects of L-arabinose on intestinal sucrase activity : dose-response studies in vitro and in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: On the basis of results in cell cultures, rodents, and pigs, l-arabinose may inhibit intestinal sucrase activity and thereby delay sucrose digestion. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the dose-response effects of l-arabinose on intestinal sucrase activity in vitro and glucose tolerance, appetite, and energy intake in humans. DESIGN: In vitro, Caco-2 cells were cultured for 21 d, homogenized, and used as an enzyme preparation with sucrose as substrate in concentrations from 7 to 280 mmol/L with 0.84, 1.4, and 2.8 mmol l-arabinose/L as inhibitor. Released glucose was measured after 30 min. In the human studies, 15 healthy men participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Sucrose beverages (75 g in 300 mL) supplemented with 0%, 1.3%, 2.7%, and 4% by weight of l-arabinose were tested at breakfast. Blood for the measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, incretin hormones, and triacylglycerol was collected under fasting conditions and for 3 h postprandially. Postprandial appetite sensations and energy intake at lunch were registered. RESULTS: In vitro, the addition of l-arabinose resulted in uncompetitive inhibition of sucrase activity. In the human studies, supplementation with 4% l-arabinose produced an 11% lower glucose peak, a 33% lower and delayed insulin peak, a 23% reduction in the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin, a 23% lower and delayed C-peptide peak, a 9% reduction in the iAUC for C-peptide, a 53% increase in the iAUC for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and a 28% reduction in the iAUC for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. No effects on triacylglycerol, gastrointestinal symptoms, appetite ratings, or energy intake were observed. CONCLUSIONS: l-Arabinose inhibits sucrase activity from Caco-2 cells; 4% l-arabinose in sucrose beverages reduces postprandial glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses and enhances the GLP-1 response in humans without gastrointestinal adverse effects. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302302.

Krog-Mikkelsen, Inger; Hels, Ole

2011-01-01

315

Scintigraphy of the small intestine: a simplified standard for study of transit with reference to normal values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of small bowel transit, which should preferably be performed using non-invasive techniques, is complex owing to the anatomical position of the small bowel. In order to avoid any influence of the gastric emptying rate on scintigraphic results, we have used 99mTc-HIDA, an intravenous tracer that is excreted in bile and thereby delivered directly into the duodenum. Thirty healthy subjects were studied after an overnight fast. Immediately after administration of 120 MBq 99mTc-HIDA, dynamic 1-min image acquisitions were begun. The duodenum and caecum were easily identified on the digitised images. Small bowel transit time was determined from the difference in the arrival times of the radiopharmaceutical in the proximal duodenum and caecum, as assessed by evaluation of the count rate against background activity (Scint 1) and by the visual appearance of activity (Scint 2). Hydrogen breath test was performed simultaneously to evaluate scintigraphic transit. Scintigraphic transit tests were also performed in 23 patients with motility disorders who had undergone manometry of the small bowel. In healthy subjects, the transit time of 99mTc-HIDA was 77.9±31.1 min (Scint 1) or 79.3±30.9 min (Scint 2) and the lactulose transit time was 100.1±43.4 min. Seventeen of the 23 patients had a dysmotility pattern verified by manometry, and in 14 of these patients, 99mTc-HIDA transit was prolonged. 99mTc-HIDA small bowel trd. 99mTc-HIDA small bowel transit is a readily available method for the detection of transit abnormalities in the clinical setting. The method is clinically feasible and the transit time of 99mTc-HIDA shows a good correlation with results of the hydrogen breath test (lactulose transit time) in healthy volunteers. (orig.)

316

Scintigraphy of the small intestine: a simplified standard for study of transit with reference to normal values  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of small bowel transit, which should preferably be performed using non-invasive techniques, is complex owing to the anatomical position of the small bowel. In order to avoid any influence of the gastric emptying rate on scintigraphic results, we have used {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA, an intravenous tracer that is excreted in bile and thereby delivered directly into the duodenum. Thirty healthy subjects were studied after an overnight fast. Immediately after administration of 120 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA, dynamic 1-min image acquisitions were begun. The duodenum and caecum were easily identified on the digitised images. Small bowel transit time was determined from the difference in the arrival times of the radiopharmaceutical in the proximal duodenum and caecum, as assessed by evaluation of the count rate against background activity (Scint 1) and by the visual appearance of activity (Scint 2). Hydrogen breath test was performed simultaneously to evaluate scintigraphic transit. Scintigraphic transit tests were also performed in 23 patients with motility disorders who had undergone manometry of the small bowel. In healthy subjects, the transit time of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA was 77.9{+-}31.1 min (Scint 1) or 79.3{+-}30.9 min (Scint 2) and the lactulose transit time was 100.1{+-}43.4 min. Seventeen of the 23 patients had a dysmotility pattern verified by manometry, and in 14 of these patients, {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA transit was prolonged. {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA small bowel transit is a readily available method for the detection of transit abnormalities in the clinical setting. The method is clinically feasible and the transit time of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA shows a good correlation with results of the hydrogen breath test (lactulose transit time) in healthy volunteers. (orig.)

Grybaeck, P.; Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Blomquist, L.; Hellstroem, P.M. [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Schnell, P.O. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

2002-01-01

317

Diagnostic examination of human intestinal spirochetosis by fluorescent in situ hybridization for Brachyspira aalborgi, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and other species of the genus Brachyspira (Serpulina)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Human intestinal spirochetosis, characterized by end-on attachment of densely packed spirochetes to the epithelial surface of the large intestines as a fringe has been associated with the weakly beta-hemolytic spirochetes Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli. In this study, fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S or 23S rRNA of B. aalborgi, B. pilosicoli, and the genus Brachyspira was applied to 40 sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded intestinal biopsy specimens from 23 Danish and 15 Norwegian patients with histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis. Five biopsy specimens from patients without intestinal spirochetosis and three samples from pigs with experimental B. pilosicoli colitis were examined as well. In addition, the 16S ribosomal DNAs of two clinical isolates of B. aalborgi were sequenced, and a PCR procedure was developed for the identification of B. aalborgi in cultures. The genotypic characteristics of the two clinical isolates showed very high (99.5%) similarity with two existing isolates, the type strain of B. aalborgi and a Swedish isolate. Hybridization with the Brachyspira genus-specific probe revealed a brightly fluorescing fringe of spirochetes on the epithelia of 39 biopsy specimens, whereas 1 biopsy specimen was hybridization negative. The spirochetes in biopsy specimens from 13 Danish and 8 Norwegian patients (55.3%) were identified as B. aalborgi. The spirochetes in the biopsy specimens from the other 17 patients hybridized only with the Brachyspira probe, possibly demonstrating the involvement of as-yet-uncharacterized Brachyspira spirochetes in human intestinal spirochetosis.

Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette

2001-01-01

318

Identification of TRPM7 channels in human intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To investigate the characteristics of slow electrical waves and the presence of transient receptor potential melastatin-type 7 (TRPM7) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract.METHODS: Conventional microelectrode techniques were used to record intracellular electrical responses from human GI smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify TRPM7 channels in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).RESULTS: The human GI tract generated slow electrical waves and had ICCs which fun...

Byung Joo Kim, Kyu Joo Park

2009-01-01

319

Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of B. fragilis group organisms isolated from clinical specimen and human intestinal microbiota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological aspects and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolated from clinical and human intestinal specimens were examined in this study. B. fragilis group strains were isolated from 46 (37%) of 124 clinical specimens and the source of the samples was: Blood culture (3), intraabdominal infection (27), brain abscess (2), soft tissue infection (17), respiratory sinus (3), pleural aspirate (9), breast abscess (3), surgical infected wound (22), pelvic inflammatory disease (22), chronic otitis media (9) and miscellaneous (7). Intraabdominal and soft tissue infections were responsible for more than half of the clinical isolates. Susceptibility to penicillin, cefoxitin, tetracycline, metronidazole, chloramphenicol and clindamycin was examined. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and chloramphenicol. For clindamycin and cefoxitin the resistance rates observed were 21.7% and 10.9% respectively. Susceptibility profiles varied among the different species tested. A total of 37 species of B. fragilis group isolated from intestinal microbiota of individuals who had no antimicrobial therapy for at least 1 month before the sampling was also examined. All strains were also susceptible to chloramphenicol and metronidazole and the resistance rates to clindamycin and cefoxitin were 19.4% and 5.4% respectively. A few institutions, in Brazil, have monitored the antimicrobial susceptibility of B. fragilis group strains isolated from anaerobic infections. The resistance rates to cefoxitin and clindamycin and the variation in susceptibility patterns among the species isolated in this study emphasize the need for monitoring of susceptibility patterns of B. fragilis group organisms isolated, especially at our University Hospitals. PMID:9293074

de Carvalho, C B; Moreira, J L; Ferreira, M C

1996-01-01

320

Bacteria of food and human intestine are the most possible sources of the gad-trigger of type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type 1 diabetes incidence increases at about 3% per year in the Western world. From genetically predisposed people only 20-50% develop the disease. To unravel these mysteries, literature was searched to determine the disease background and to find suggestions for research and prevention. A promising hypothesis was found: the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in bacteria may be the source of type 1 diabetes. Epidemiological data can be accounted for this possibility. GAD-containing bacteria can originate from raw foods, especially salted or dried or smoked raw meat and fish products or from proliferation in the ileum of the human small intestine. Proliferation of GAD-containing bacteria in the ileum is probably the most frequent causation of type 1 diabetes. This proliferation is stimulated by the consumption of nitrate-containing ingredients such as vegetables, fruits or nitrate-polluted water and by sugars dissolved in liquids, for example lactose in milk or sugars in juicy fruits and fruit-juices. In the ileum GAD is released from bacteria by endocrine enzymes of the small intestine. Released GAD enters Peyer's patches (PP) in the ileum wall, where it is bound or enclosed by immune cells. These cells move GAD by the lymph- and bloodstream to the immune system for priming and elimination. In case of type 1 diabetes, however, malfunction of PP causes GAD freely move in the lymph stream where it settles on vascular endothelial cells and pancreatic beta-cells. GAD-settlement on beta-cells gives an inflammatory immune response, leading to destruction of the beta-cells and to type 1 diabetes. A perspective for prevention of the disease in predisposed individuals is discussed. It is concluded that GAD-containing bacteria and malfunction of PP should be taken into account in future type 1 diabetes research. PMID:15922105

Mulder, Sieger Jeen

2005-01-01

321

Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to pronounced reduction of concentration of . hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. This results give an opportunity to use this drug to prevent the violations in intestine microflora in altered habitat conditions.

Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

322

Intracellular calcium release induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface envelope glycoprotein in human intestinal epithelial cells: a putative mechanism for HIV-1 enteropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) was measured in single human epithelial intestinal HT-29-D4 cells with the Ca2+ probe Fura-2 and digital imaging microscopy. Treatment of these cells with HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein gp120 (or a soluble form of its precursor gp160) induced an important increase of [Ca2+]i. This effect was abolished by preincubation of the viral glycoprotein with neutralizing antibodies specific for the V3 domain of gp120. These antibodies inhibited the binding of both gp120 and gp160 to galactosylceramide (GalCer), the alternative HIV-1 receptor in HT-29-D4 cells. Moreover, treatment of HT-29-D4 cells with an anti-GalCer mAb induced an increase in [Ca2+]i and rendered the cells insensitive to HIV-1 glycoprotein stimulation. The calcium response resulted from release of Ca2+ from caffeine-sensitive intracellular stores. Finally, the viral glycoprotein specifically abrogated the calcium response to the neuropeptide agonist neurotensin, a stimulator of chloride secretion via inositol trisphosphate-mediated calcium mobilization. Reciprocally, after neurotensin stimulation, the cells did not respond to gp120, showing that neurotensin and gp120 stimulate a common pathway of [Ca2+]i mobilization. These results suggest that HIV-1 may directly alter ion secretion in the intestine and thus be the causative agent of the watery diarrhea associated with HIV-1 infection. PMID:7585886

Dayanithi, G; Yahi, N; Baghdiguian, S; Fantini, J

1995-07-01

323

Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal: experiência de um centro secundário do Nordeste Brasileiro / Epidemiologic profile and morbimortality of patients undergoing reconstruction intestinal transit: experience of a secundary health service in the Northeast of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: A reconstrução do trânsito intestinal não está isenta de riscos cirúrgicos e apresenta taxas consideráveis de complicações pós-operatórias, sendo que a infecção continua a ser um dos maiores desafios existentes neste procedimento. OBJETIVO: Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos paci [...] entes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 86 prontuários de pacientes com colostomia ou ileostomia, através de fatores que tivessem impacto sobre a morbimortalidade após a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal, de janeiro de 2003 a abril de 2009. RESULTADOS: Houve 20 mulheres e 60 homens, com idade média de 43 anos. A colostomia em alça (n=34) e o trauma abdominal indicando colostomia ou ileostomia foram as condições mais frequentes. O intervalo médio entre a confecção do estoma e a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal foi 15,7 meses. O índice de morbidade foi 56,8%, sendo a infecção incisional a complicação mais comum (27.47%). A permanência hospitalar média foi 7,6 dias. Houve regressão linear positiva entre permanência hospitalar pós-operatória e a idade do paciente. Demonstrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o prolongamento da permanência hospitalar e a ocorrência de complicações (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of the intestinal tract is not surgical complications risk-free and is associated to postoperative complications high rates; furthermore, infection remains the hardest challenge in this procedure. AIM: Epidemiological profile and mortality and morbidity in patients und [...] ergoing reconstruction of intestinal transit. METHODS: Retrospectively, 86 patients with intestinal stomas were analyzed through factors that impact on the morbimortality afterwards intestinal transit reconstruction, since January 2003 to April 2009. RESULTS: Loop colostomy (n=34) and abdominal trauma implicating 38.2% of indications to colostomy or ileostomy, were the most frequent conditions. The mean interval between stoma confection and intestinal transit reconstruction was 15.7 months. The morbidity frequency was 56.8% and incisional infection was its commonest complication (27.47%). The mean inpatient length of stay was 7.6 days. There was positive linear regression between post-operative inpatient length of stay and inpatient's age. Inpatient length of stay prolongation is associated to occurrence of complications (p

Jeany Borges e, Silva; Djalma Ribeiro, Costa; Francisco Julimar Correia de, Menezes; José Marconi, Tavares; Adryano Gonçalves, Marques; Rodrigo Dornfeld, Escalante.

2010-09-01

324

Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases  

OpenAIRE

Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured ...

Oku T; Tanabe K; Ogawa S; Sadamori N; Nakamura S

2011-01-01

325

Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostaglandins on the permeability of the human small intestine.  

OpenAIRE

Intestinal permeability was estimated in healthy subjects after ingestion of aspirin (1.2+1.2 g), ibuprofen (400+400 mg) and indomethacin (75+50 mg) at midnight and an hour before starting a 51chromium labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetate absorption test. Intestinal permeability increased significantly from control levels following each drug and the effect was related to drug potency to inhibit cyclooxygenase. Intestinal permeability increased to a similar extent after oral and rectal adminis...

Bjarnason, I.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Peters, T. J.; Levi, A. J.

1986-01-01

326

Identification of TRPM7 channels in human intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the characteristics of slow electrical waves and the presence of transient receptor potential melastatin-type 7 (TRPM7 in the human gastrointestinal (GI tract.METHODS: Conventional microelectrode techniques were used to record intracellular electrical responses from human GI smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify TRPM7 channels in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs.RESULTS: The human GI tract generated slow electrical waves and had ICCs which functioned as pacemaker cells. Flufenamic acid, a nonselective cation channel blocker, and 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and La3+, TRPM7 channel blockers, inhibited the slow waves. Also, TRPM7 channels were expressed in ICCs in human tissue.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the human GI tract generates slow waves and that TRPM7 channels expressed in the ICCs may be involved in the generation of the slow waves.

Byung Joo Kim, Kyu Joo Park, Hyung Woo Kim, Seok Choi, Jae Yeoul Jun, In Youb Chang, Ju-Hong Jeon, Insuk So, Seon Jeong Kim

2009-12-01

327

Compound K, intestinal metabolite of ginsenoside, attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation via AMPK activation in human hepatoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compound K (CK) is a major intestinal metabolite of ginsenosides derived from ginseng radix. Although antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of CK have been investigated in recent years, action mechanism of CK remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether CK affects the lipid metabolism in insulin-resistant HepG2 human hepatoma cells. In this study, a significant increase in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was observed when the cells were treated with CK. Activation of AMPK was also demonstrated by measuring the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a substrate of AMPK. CK attenuated gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) in time- and dose-dependent manners. Genes for fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), well-known target molecules of SREBP1c, were also suppressed. In contrast, gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) and CD36 were increased. These effects were reversed by treatment of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. However, there were no differences in gene expressions of SREBP2, hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR), and low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Taken together, AMPK mediates CK induced suppression and activation of SREBP1c and PPAR-alpha, respectively, and these effects seem to be one of antidiabetic and/or antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of CK in insulin-resistant HepG2 human hepatoma cells. PMID:19182950

Kim, Do Yeon; Yuan, Hai Dan; Chung, In Kyung; Chung, Sung Hyun

2009-02-25

328

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulates both apical and basal production of HIV in polarized human intestinal HT29 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human colon epithelial cell line HT29 can be infected by selected strains of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [9]. In the present study, it is shown that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent stimulator of HIV replication in chronically infected differentiated HT29 cells, but not in undifferentiated cells. The polarity of HIV production upon TNF-alpha stimulation has been studied in polarized monolayers of differentiated HT29 cells grown on porous-bottomed dishes. It is shown that the cytokine induced a dramatic increase of HIV production through the two opposite sides of the monolayer, i.e. the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains. The effect of TNF-alpha was mainly localized at the level of viral mRNA synthesis as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. These data support the concept that cytokines released as a result of intestinal inflammatory responses could promote HIV replication and contribute to the gastrointestinal disease in HIV-infected patients. PMID:1282499

Fantini, J; Bolmont, C; Yahi, N

1992-09-01

329

Evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of individual and mixed 7-ketophytosterol oxides on human intestinal carcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) are constituents of the human diet. Definitive information on the toxic or biological effects of POPs is limited and in some cases contradictory. This study evaluates the cytotoxicity of four individual 7-ketophytosterol oxides, including 7-ketositosterol (7K-SI), 7-ketocampesterol (7K-CA), 7-ketobrassicasterol (7K-BR), 7-ketostigmasterol (7K-ST), and a mixture of 7-ketophytosterols (7K-MIX) toward a human intestinal carcinoma (HIC) cell line. Results showed that all tested compounds reduced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner; especially 7K-SI and 7K-CA exhibited higher activities. Both compounds increased early apoptotic cells and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase with cell accumulation in the S phase. No evidence of cell death was observed induced by 7K-ST and 7K-MIX. Furthermore, 7K-SI, 7K-CA, and 7K-BR induced apoptosis by enhancing caspase-3 activity and the modulatory effects of Bcl-2, while 7K-ST and 7K-MIX did not involve caspase-3 activation and Bcl-2 down-regulation. PMID:25542134

Gao, Junlan; Chen, Shaopeng; Zhang, Lele; Cheng, Beijiu; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xin

2015-01-28

330

Brucella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells elicits a weak proinflammatory response but a significant CCL20 secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of the frequent acquisition of Brucella infection by the oral route in humans, the interaction of the bacterium with cells of the intestinal mucosa has been poorly studied. Here, we show that different Brucella species can invade human colonic epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29), in which only smooth species can replicate efficiently. Infection with smooth strains did not produce a significant cytotoxicity, while the rough strain RB51 was more cytotoxic. Infection of Caco-2 cells or HT-29 cells with either smooth or rough strains of Brucella did not result in an increased secretion of TNF-?, IL-1?, MCP-1, IL-10 or TGF-? as compared with uninfected controls, whereas all the infections induced the secretion of IL-8 and CCL20 by both cell types. The MCP-1 response to flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium was similar in Brucella-infected or uninfected cells, ruling out a bacterial inhibitory mechanism as a reason for the weak proinflammatory response. Infection did not modify ICAM-1 expression levels in Caco-2 cells, but increased them in HT-29 cells. These results suggest that Brucella induces only a weak proinflammatory response in gut epithelial cells, but produces a significant CCL20 secretion. The latter may be important for bacterial dissemination given the known ability of Brucella to survive in dendritic cells. PMID:22553918

Ferrero, Mariana C; Fossati, Carlos A; Rumbo, Martín; Baldi, Pablo C

2012-10-01

331

MicroRNA-146a-mediated downregulation of IRAK1 protects mouse and human small intestine against ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury causes inflammation and tissue damage and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Uncontrolled activation of the innate immune system through toll-like receptors (Tlr) plays a key role in I/R-mediated tissue damage but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully resolved. Here, we identify post-transcriptional upregulation of the essential Tlr signalling molecule interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase (Irak) 1 as the causative mechanism for post-ischemic immune hyper-responsiveness of intestinal epithelial cells. Increased Irak1 protein levels enhanced epithelial ligand responsiveness, chemokine secretion, apoptosis and mucosal barrier disruption in an experimental intestinal I/R model using wild-type, Irak1(-/-) and Tlr4(-/-) mice and ischemic human intestinal tissue. Irak1 accumulation under hypoxic conditions was associated with reduced K48 ubiquitination and enhanced Senp1-mediated deSUMOylation of Irak1. Importantly, administration of microRNA (miR)-146a or induction of miR-146a by the phytochemical diindolylmethane controlled Irak1 upregulation and prevented immune hyper-responsiveness in mouse and human tissue. These findings indicate that Irak1 accumulation triggers I/R-induced epithelial immune hyper-responsiveness and suggest that the induction of miR-146a offers a promising strategy to prevent I/R tissue injury. PMID:23143987

Chassin, Cécilia; Hempel, Cordelia; Stockinger, Silvia; Dupont, Aline; Kübler, Joachim F; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Vandewalle, Alain; Hornef, Mathias W

2012-12-01

332

Comparison of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug-digoxin interactions in Caco-2 with human and rodent intestine: relevance to in vivo prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (PGP) resulting from the co-administration of substrate drugs represents a potential source of drug-drug interactions. Although in vitro screens can readily identify such interactions, the accuracy with which they mimic interactions in tissues or their value in predicting interactions in vivo is unresolved. This was addressed for the model PGP substrate digoxin by comparing the modulation of its permeability across Caco-2 cells and ex vivo human and rodent intestine by drugs for which pharmacokinetic data on interactions with digoxin in man is available. All five compounds (talinolol, omeprazole, verapamil, quinidine, cyclosporin) dose-dependently increased absorptive (A-B) digoxin permeability with maximal increases of 2.2-4.5-fold across Caco-2. Quantitatively similar increases were observed in ex vivo human and mouse intestine and studies in mdr1a(-/-) intestine confirmed that these interactions are mediated solely by PGP. In vitro changes in digoxin permeability were qualitative indicators of the increase in digoxin C(max) for these compounds in man, although accounting for the luminal drug concentrations expected for a given oral dose was a critical consideration. Based on a limited dataset these data suggest that Caco-2 accurately mimics intestinal digoxin interactions and may be useful in predicting the threshold dose at which interactions become clinically significant. Further studies across a wider range of drugs are needed to determine the broader applicability of in vitro data for quantitative prediction of clinical drug interactions. PMID:16153812

Collett, Andrew; Tanianis-Hughes, Jola; Carlson, Gordon L; Harwood, Matthew D; Warhurst, Geoff

2005-12-01

333

Phase transitions in human IgG solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein condensations, such as crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, aggregation, and gelation, have been observed in concentrated antibody solutions under various solution conditions. While most IgG antibodies are quite soluble, a few outliers can undergo condensation under physiological conditions. Condensation of IgGs can cause serious consequences in some human diseases and in biopharmaceutical formulations. The phase transitions underlying protein condensations in concentrated IgG solutions is also of fundamental interest for the understanding of the phase behavior of non-spherical protein molecules. Due to the high solubility of generic IgGs, the phase behavior of IgG solutions has not yet been well studied. In this work, we present an experimental approach to study IgG solutions in which the phase transitions are hidden below the freezing point of the solution. Using this method, we have investigated liquid-liquid phase separation of six human myeloma IgGs and two recombinant pharmaceutical human IgGs. We have also studied the relation between crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of two human cryoglobulin IgGs. Our experimental results reveal several important features of the generic phase behavior of IgG solutions: (1) the shape of the coexistence curve is similar for all IgGs but quite different from that of quasi-spherical proteins; (2) all IgGs have critical points located at roughly the same protein concentration at ˜100 mg/ml while their critical temperatures vary significantly; and (3) the liquid-liquid phase separation in IgG solutions is metastable with respect to crystallization. These features of phase behavior of IgG solutions reflect the fact that all IgGs have nearly identical molecular geometry but quite diverse net inter-protein interaction energies. This work provides a foundation for further experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of generic IgGs as well as outliers with large propensity to condense. The investigation of the phase diagram of IgG solutions is of great importance for the understanding of immunoglobulin deposition diseases as well as for the understanding of the colloidal stability of IgG pharmaceutical formulations.

Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil F.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Hideshima, Teru; Richardson, Paul G.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Benedek, George B.

2013-09-01

334

Enhanced uptake and transport of (+-catechin and (--epigallocatechin gallate in niosomal formulation by human intestinal Caco-2 cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qinxin Song,1–3 Danhui Li,3 Yongzhi Zhou,3 Jie Yang,1 Wanqi Yang,1 Guohua Zhou,2 Jingyuan Wen31Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate (+-catechin and (?-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG cellular uptake and transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer in both the absence and presence of niosomal carrier in variable conditions. The effect of free drugs and drug-loaded niosomes on the growth of Caco-2 cells was studied. The effects of time, temperature, and concentration on drug cellular uptake in the absence or presence of its niosomal delivery systems were investigated. The intestinal epithelial membrane transport of the drug-loaded niosomes was examined using the monolayer of the human Caco-2 cells. The kinetics of transport, and the effect of temperature, adenosine triphosphate inhibitor, permeability glycoprotein inhibitor, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 inhibitor, and the absorption enhancer on transport mechanism were investigated. It was found that the uptake of catechin, EGCG, and their niosomes by Caco-2 cells was 1.22±0.16, 0.90±0.14, 3.25±0.37, and 1.92±0.22 µg/mg protein, respectively (n=3. The apparent permeability coefficient values of catechin, EGCG, and their niosomes were 1.68±0.16, 0.88±0.09, 2.39±0.31, and 1.42±0.24 cm/second (n=3 at 37°C, respectively. The transport was temperature- and energy-dependent. The inhibitors of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and the absorption enhancer significantly enhanced the uptake amount. Compared with the free drugs, niosomal formulation significantly enhanced drug absorption. Additionally, drug-loaded niosomes exhibited stronger stability and lower toxicity. These findings showed that the oral absorption of tea flavonoids could be improved by using the novel drug delivery systems.Keywords: niosomes, formulation, bioavailability, stability

Song Q

2014-05-01

335

First molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. Method We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. Results The sequence obtained (629 bp was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. Conclusion The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis.

Palumbo Massimo

2011-03-01

336

Carboxypeptidase-B-like processing of the C-terminus of glucagon-like peptide-2 in pig and human small intestine  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We developed specific, C-terminal radioimmunoassays for three proglucagon (PG) fragments: PG 151-158, PG 151-160 and PG 126-159 (glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2] in order to determine the exact C-terminal sequence of the newly isolated GLP-2 in man and pig. The antigens and the antisera showed no mutual cross-reactivity. By gel filtration of extracts of pig and human small intestine, the immunoreactivity eluting at the position of GLP-2 was identified by the radioimmunoassays for glucagon-like peptide-2 (PG 126-159) and for PG 151-158, whereas the assay for PG 151-160 was completely negative. We conclude that the C-terminal amino acid residue of pig and human ileal GLP-2 is PG 158. Thus the basic residues, PG 159 and 160 are removed during its processing in the small intestine.

Orskov, C; Buhl, T

1989-01-01

337

Availability of intestinal microbial lysine for whole body lysine homeostasis in human subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated whether there is a net contribution of lysine synthesized de novo by the gastrointestinal microflora to lysine homeostasis in six adults. On two separate occasions an adequate diet was given for a total of 11 days, and a 24-h (12-h fast, 12-h fed) tracer protocol was performed on the last day, in which lysine turnover, oxidation, and splanchnic uptake were measured on the basis of intravenous and oral administration of L-[1-(13)C]lysine and L-[6,6-(2)H(2)]lysine, respectively. [(15)N(2)]urea or (15)NH(4)Cl was ingested daily over the last 6 days to label microbial protein. In addition, seven ileostomates were studied with (15)NH(4)Cl. [(15)N]lysine enrichment in fecal and ileal microbial protein, as precursor for microbial lysine absorption, and in plasma free lysine was measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Differences in plasma [(13)C]- and [(2)H(2)]lysine enrichments during the 12-h fed period were observed between the two (15)N tracer studies, although the reason is unclear, and possibly unrelated to the tracer form per se. In the normal adults, after (15)NH(4)Cl and [(15)N(2)]urea intake, respectively, lysine derived from fecal microbial protein accounted for 5 and 9% of the appearance rate of plasma lysine. With ileal microbial lysine enrichment, the contribution of microbial lysine to plasma lysine appearance was 44%. This amounts to a gross microbial lysine contribution to whole body plasma lysine turnover of between 11 and 130 mg. kg(-1). day(-1), depending on the [(15)N]lysine precursor used. However, insofar as microbial amino acid synthesis is accompanied by microbial breakdown of endogenous amino acids or their oxidation by intestinal tissues, this may not reflect a net increase in lysine absorption. Thus we cannot reliably estimate the quantitative contribution of microbial lysine to host lysine homeostasis with the present paradigm. However, the results confirm the significant presence of lysine of microbial origin in the plasma free lysine pool. PMID:10516118

Metges, C C; El-Khoury, A E; Henneman, L; Petzke, K J; Grant, I; Bedri, S; Pereira, P P; Ajami, A M; Fuller, M F; Young, V R

1999-10-01

338

Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Evolution, Structures and Bioselectivity as Substrates for Intestinal Bacteria  

OpenAIRE

Human milk contains a high concentration of diverse soluble oligosaccharides that are carbohydrate polymers formed from a relatively small number of different monosaccharides. Novel methods combining liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry have identified approximately 200 unique oligosaccharides structures varying from 3 to 22 sugars. The increasing structural complexity of oligosaccharides follows the general pattern of mammalian and primate evolution though the concent...

German, J. Bruce; Freeman, Samara L.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.

2008-01-01

339

Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-Clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine  

OpenAIRE

Background—Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate (BIC)-Clostridium difficile is prepared from the colostrum of cows immunised against C difficile toxins and contains high concentrations of neutralising IgG antitoxin. ?Aims—To determine the proportion of BIC-C difficile which survives passage through the human stomach and small intestine. ?Methods—Six volunteers with an end ileostomy took 5 g of BIC-C difficile containing 2.1 g of bovine IgG on four occasions: alone,...

Warny, M.; Fatimi, A.; Bostwick, E.; Laine, D.; Lebel, F.; Lamont, J.; Pothoulakis, C.; Kelly, C.

1999-01-01

340

Binding of Yersinia enterocolitica to purified, native small intestinal mucins from rabbits and humans involves interactions with the mucin carbohydrate moiety.  

OpenAIRE

Plasmid-bearing (but not plasmid-cured) Yersinia enterocolitica is known to bind to purified small intestinal mucins from rabbits and humans. This study examined which region(s) of the mucin molecule is important for bacterial adherence. Pronase digestion of mucin and removal of nonglycosylated or poorly glycosylated peptide regions had no effect on bacterial binding, suggesting that plasmid-bearing Y. enterocolitica interacts with mucin carbohydrate. Periodate oxidation also did not alter ba...

Mantle, M.; Husar, S. D.

1994-01-01

341

TNFR and LT?R agonists induce Follicle-Associated Epithelium and M cell specific genes in rat and human intestinal epithelial cells  

OpenAIRE

M cells assist mucosal immune surveillance by transcytosis of particles to underlying lymphoid tissue, but the mechanisms of M cell differentiation are poorly understood. To develop a better defined cell culture model of M cell differentiation, we treated human (Caco-2BBe) and rat (IEC-6) intestinal epithelial cell lines with lymphotoxin beta receptor (LT?R) and TNF receptor (TNFR) agonists. Treated cells were studied for regulation of genes associated with M cell and Follicle-Associated Epi...

Wang, Jing; Lopez-fraga, Marta; Rynko, Abby; Lo, David D.

2009-01-01

342

Apical uptake and transepithelial transport of sphingosine monomers through intact human intestinal epithelial cells: physicochemical and molecular modeling studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism of absorption of sphingosine was studied in human intestinal epithelial cells Caco-2 and HT-29-D4. The experiments were performed below the critical micellar concentration of sphingosine which was evaluated to 6 microM by surface tension measurements. [3H]Sphingosine uptake was not inhibited by Na+-free conditions, ATP depletion, L-cycloserine or methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, consistent with a passive diffusion mechanism independent of lipid raft integrity. Molecular modeling studies suggested that sphingosine can adopt two distinct conformations: a high-energy "snake-like" conformer in water and an extended low-energy conformer in lipid phases. We propose that the energy stored in the compressed snake-like conformer is transformed into kinetic energy, allowing: (i) the motion of sphingosine through the unstirred water layer bathing the mucosal enterocyte surface, and (ii) its insertion into the enterocyte brush border membrane. Dietary lipids that stabilized the extended sphingosine conformer in mixed micelles (e.g., cholesterol and sphingomyelin) induced a marked inhibition of sphingosine absorption. PMID:16009329

Garmy, Nicolas; Taïeb, Nadira; Yahi, Nouara; Fantini, Jacques

2005-08-01

343

Isolation of nitrofurantoin-resistant mutants of nitroreductase-producing Clostridium sp. strains from the human intestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five spontaneous nitrofurantoin-resistant mutants (one each of Clostridium leptum, Clostridium paraputrificum, two other Clostridium spp. strains from the human intestinal microflora, and Clostridium perfringens ATCC 3626) were selected by growth on a nitrofurantoin-containing medium. All of the Clostridium wild-type and mutant strains produced nitroreductase, as was shown by the conversion of 4-nitrobenzoic acid to 4-aminobenzoic acid. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the mutants during incubation with 50 microg of nitrofurantoin per ml showed the gradual disappearance of the nitrofurantoin peak. The nitrofurantoin peak also disappeared when cell-free supernatants instead of cultures of each of the resistant and wild-type bacteria were used, but it persisted if the cell-free supernatants had been inactivated by heat. At least two of the mutants converted nitrofurantoin to metabolites without antibacterial activity, as was shown by a bioassay with a nitrofurantoin-susceptible Bacillus sp. strain. Nitrofurantoin at a high concentration (50 microg/ml) continued to exert some toxicity, even on the resistant strains, as was evident from the longer lag phases. This study indicates that Clostridium strains can develop resistance to nitrofurantoin while retaining the ability to produce nitroreductase; the mutants metabolized nitrofurantoin to compounds without antibacterial activity. PMID:9593138

Rafii, F; Hansen, E B

1998-05-01

344

Chitooligosaccharide elicits acute inflammatory cytokine response through AP-1 pathway in human intestinal epithelial-like (Caco-2) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitooligosaccharides (COSs) are bioactive carbohydrate derivatives that have numerous health benefits, including stimulation of the immune system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of chitooligosaccharide (COS) on expression of a specific panel of cytokine genes involved in inflammation and to delineate the signal transduction pathway underlying the COS mediated inflammatory response. Human intestinal epithelial-like (Caco-2) cells were treated with COS (5000-10,000Da) and expression of a panel of eighty-four cytokine genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. COS induced up-regulation of a total of 11 genes including CCL20 and IL8 and concurrent down-regulation of 10 genes including pro-inflammatory mediators CCL15, CCL25 and IL1B. To further establish the signal transduction pathway of COS mediated response in Caco-2 cells, two major inflammatory signal transduction pathways (NF-?B and AP-1) were investigated. COS had inhibitory effect (PTNF-? induced NF-?B binding activity while stimulatory effect (PCaco-2 cells and hence it has the potential to stimulate the immune system in the gut epithelium. PMID:22512945

Bahar, Bojlul; O'Doherty, John V; Maher, Sam; McMorrow, Jason; Sweeney, Torres

2012-07-01

345

The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<0·05) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

2014-02-01

346

Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P on human intramyometrial arteries and stem villous arteries in term pregnancy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P on isolated human intramyometrial arteries and fetal stem villous arteries obtained from term pregnant women were compared. Ring preparations of small intramyometrial arteries and fetal stem villous arteries obtained at caesarean section were mounted in organ baths, and isometric tension was recorded. None of the peptides affected resting tension. In intramyometrial arteries precontracted by vasopressin (2.8 x 10(-9) M) both substance P (10(-12) to 10(-8) M) and VIP (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) caused relaxation. In fetal stem villous arteries precontracted by prostaglandin F2 alpha (10(-5) M) cumulative addition of substance P (10(-11) to 10(-6) M) did not produce significant changes in tension as compared with controls, while addition of single doses produced moderate relaxation. VIP (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) induced relaxation with similar effects for the addition of cumulative and single doses. The responses to VIP and substance P remained unaffected after pretreatment by atropine (10(-6) M), propranolol (10(-6) M), and indomethacin (10(-6) M). The results support a role for VIP and substance P in the regulation of uteroplacental blood flow in term pregnancy.

Hansen, V; Maigaard, S

1988-01-01

347

Synergistic effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and hydrogen peroxide on the induction of IL-8 production in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? are thought to be involved in mucosal inflammation. The intestinal epithelium may be concurrently stimulated by both oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines during the inflammation process in the intestines. However, experimental models for intestinal inflammation still employ single stimulation, either by an oxidative stress or inflammatory cytokine. We therefore examined an in vitro inflammation study using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, in which the cells were stimulated both by hydrogen peroxide and TNF-?, and measured the IL-8 production as an index of inflammation. The IL-8 production (secretion, mRNA expression, and transcriptional activity) induced by both TNF-? and H(2)O(2) was significantly higher than that by single stimulation. The synergistic effect of TNF-? and H(2)O(2) on the NF-?B signaling pathway (transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation) was also observed. Oxidative stress and TNF-? may cooperatively enhance IL-8 production via NF-?B in Caco-2 cells. PMID:20845069

Shin, Hee Soon; Zhao, Zhaohui; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Shimizu, Makoto

2011-10-01

348

Dihydrodaidzein-producing Clostridium-like intestinal bacterium, strain TM-40, affects in vitro metabolism of daidzein by fecal microbiota of human male equol producer and non-producers  

OpenAIRE

Much attention has been focused on the biological effects of equol, a metabolite of daidzein produced by intestinal microbiota. However, little is known about the role of isoflavone metabolizing bacteria in the intestinal microbiota. Recently, we isolated a dihydrodaidzein (DHD)-producing Clostridium-like bacterium, strain TM-40, from human feces. We investigated the effects of strain TM-40 on in vitro daidzein metabolism by human fecal microbiota from a male equol producer and...

Tamura, Motoi; Hori, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

349

Biosynthetic precursor (214 kDa) of apolipoprotein B-48 is not secreted by Caco-2 cells and normal human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein B (apo B) was studied in a human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cell line and in explants from normal human intestine. In Caco-2 cells, the specific activity of the intestinal disaccharidases maltase, sucrase-isomaltase and lactase was enhanced 8-, 6- and 3-fold respectively, at 19 days post-confluence as compared with 1-day-post-confluence cultures. The level of apo B secreted into the medium increased from undetectable in the cells just reaching confluency, to 115 ng/ml at 18 days post-confluence. The presence of apo B-100 and apo B-48 with mobilities on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis corresponding to those of human very-low-density lipoproteins and lymph chylomicrons, respectively, was detected in the media from 7-, 12- and 18-days-post-confluence cells. These two apo B proteins were also found intracellularly in 7-day-post-confluence cultures. However, more differentiated cells (12 and 18 days post-confluence) accumulated large amount of a 214 kDa protein intracellularly. Apo B-related 214 kDa protein was also synthesized by normal human intestinal explants. A pulse-chase experiment with explants from normal human jejunum showed a slow intracellular conversion of the 214 kDa protein into the size of mature apo B-48 (264 kDa), concomitant with increasing amounts of mature apo B-48 in the medium, suggesting a precursor-product relationship. Despite large intracellular quantities, the 214 kDa protein from the normal human tissue and Caco-2 cells was absent from the medium. No apo B-100 synthesis was detected in the human explants. These findings may help in our understanding of cholesterol and lipid metabolism in health and in some disorders characterized by the inability to secrete apo B-containing lipoproteins. PMID:2604723

Sasak, W V; Buller, H A; Reinhold, R

1989-12-01

350

Genes methylated by DNA methyltransferase 3b are similar in mouse intestine and human colon cancer  

OpenAIRE

Human cancer cells frequently have regions of their DNA hypermethylated, which results in transcriptional silencing of affected genes and promotion of tumor formation. However, it is still unknown whether cancer-associated aberrant DNA methylation is targeted to specific genomic regions, whether this methylation also occurs in noncancerous cells, and whether these epigenetic events are maintained in the absence of the initiating cause. Here we have addressed some of these issues by demonstrat...

Steine, Eveline J.; Ehrich, Mathias; Bell, George W.; Raj, Arjun; Reddy, Seshamma; Oudenaarden, Alexander; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Linhart, Heinz G.

2011-01-01

351

Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.  

OpenAIRE

A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a nove...

Akao, T.; Che, Q. M.; Kobashi, K.; Yang, L.; Hattori, M.; Namba, T.

1994-01-01

352

Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluig phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

353

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1992-03-15

354

Toll-like receptor 2 activation by ?2?1-fructans protects barrier function of T84 human intestinal epithelial cells in a chain length-dependent manner.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear. We hypothesized that ?2?1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether ?2?1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 ?2?1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by ?2?1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain ?2?1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 ± 5.2%, P < 0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 ± 8.8%, P < 0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain ?2?1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with ?2?1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that ?2?1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, ?2?1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of ?2?1-fructan-mediated health effects. PMID:24790027

Vogt, Leonie M; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; de Vos, Paul

2014-07-01

355

Aflatoxin M1 absorption and cytotoxicity on human intestinal in vitro model.  

OpenAIRE

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) metabolite and is detected in milk of mammals, after consumption of feed contaminated with AFB1. As it is classified as probable human carcinogen (group 2B of the IARC), most countries have regulated its maximum allowed levels in milk in order to reduce AFM1 risk (50 ng/kg the EU and 500 ng/kg in the USA). It was demonstrated that if AFB1 must be converted into its reactive epoxide to exert its effects, and the protein bind...

Caloni, F.; Stammati, A.; Frigge?, G.; Angelis, I.

2006-01-01

356

El desarrollo de la microbiota intestinal humana, el concepto de probiótico y su relación con la salud humana / Development of the human intestinal microbiota, the concept probiotics and their relationships with human health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos que al ser ingeridos en cantidades adecuadas confieren beneficios para la salud del huésped. Provienen mayormente de la microbiota del colon de seres humanos aunque algunas cepas provienen del ambiente. El colon del recién nacido es colonizado durante el par [...] to por bacterias provenientes de las microbiotas fecal y vaginal maternas, del ambiente y por lactobacilos y bifidobacterias de la leche materna. Con el destete esta microbiota se hace compleja y desde los 2 años de edad alberga unas 1500 especies y recuentos de 1014 bacterias. En la colonización del tubo digestivo de los prematuros el bajo peso de nacimiento, la inmadurez de las defensas y la alimentación artificial cuando la madre es incapaz de amamantar, llevan en una proporción de los casos a la enterocolitis necrosante, que puede afectar la pared ileal o colónica, con perforación y peritonitis en algunos prematuros. La colonización microbiológica anormal jugaría un papel importante. Los probióticos disminuyen el riesgo de este cuadro y su morbilidad y mortalidad en los casos iniciales y de intensidad media. Estos efectos positivos son causados por diferentes probióticos. El riesgo de septicemia asociado con los probióticos ha sido ampliamente discutido. Estudios en Finlandia no han demostrado que durante 10 años de su consumo masivo se produjeran aumentos de su incidencia ni cambios de su etiología en comparación con resultados previos a su introducción. Las septicemias han sido detectadas principalmente en individuos con graves alteraciones de su salud, pérdida de la función de barrera de su mucosa intestinal, trastornos congénitos graves de la inmunidad, lesiones valvulares cardíacas o en estado de shock. Los pacientes con VIH y/o SIDA se benefician con el consumo de estos agentes. No se ha demostrado que el consumo de probióticos esté asociado causalmente con la obesidad. Abstract in english Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate numbers, confer health benefits to the host. They originate mostly from the colonic and vaginal microbiota of humans although a number of strains originate from the environment. The human fetus is colonized after birth by bacteria o [...] f maternal fecal and vaginal origin and by microorganisms from the environment. Maternal milk contains a varied microbiota, mainly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. After weaning the resident microbiota becomes more complex and by 2 years of age it is composed of some 1500 species with 1014 microorganisms. During the colonization of the digestive tract of premature infants low birth weight, immaturity of the defenses and artificial feeding may lead to necrotizing enterocolitis. This inflammatory condition involves mainly the terminal ileum and the colon and may result in necrosis and perforation of the wall with subsequent peritonitis. Anoxia and abnormal colonization are important associated factors. Probiotic administration is associated with a decreased risk of this condition and decreases of its morbidity, mortality and sequelae if the treatment is started early. The positive effects are associated with more than one species of probiotics. The risk of septicemia associated with probiotics has been widely discussed. Studies in Helsinki, Finland, demonstrated that the results of comparing the frequency and etiology of septicemia during the 10 years after the introduction of probiotics with the results in the 10 years previous to their introduction were not different. Septicemia due to probiotics is infrequent and most cases are associated with extreme prematurity, failure of the intestinal barrier function, heart valve disease, severe shock and congenital immune deficiencies; patients with these conditions should be closely watched if they consume probiotics. However, patients with HIV and AIDS benefit from the consumption of these microorganisms. It has nor been demonstrated that probiotics play a role in the genesis of obesi

Oscar, Brunser T.

2013-09-01

357

Structural insight into substrate specificity of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) hydrolyzes linear alpha-1,4-linked oligosaccharide substrates, playing a crucial role in the production of glucose in the human lumen and acting as an efficient drug target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal portions of MGAM (MGAM-N and MGAM-C) carry out the same catalytic reaction but have different substrate specificities. In this study, we report crystal structures of MGAM-C alone at a resolution of 3.1 Å, and in complex with its inhibitor acarbose at a resolution of 2.9 Å. Structural studies, combined with biochemical analysis, revealed that a segment of 21 amino acids in the active site of MGAM-C forms additional sugar subsites (+ 2 and + 3 subsites), accounting for the preference for longer substrates of MAGM-C compared with that of MGAM-N. Moreover, we discovered that a single mutation of Trp1251 to tyrosine in MGAM-C imparts a novel catalytic ability to digest branched alpha-1,6-linked oligosaccharides. These results provide important information for understanding the substrate specificity of alpha-glucosidases during the process of terminal starch digestion, and for designing more efficient drugs to control type 2 diabetes or obesity. PMID:22058037

Ren, Limei; Qin, Xiaohong; Cao, Xiaofang; Wang, Lele; Bai, Fang; Bai, Gang; Shen, Yuequan

2011-10-01

358

Prebiotic effect of fructooligosaccharide in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME® model).  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintaining "gut health" is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. The SHIME(®) model was used to study the effect of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2 weeks using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-week control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-week treatment period by adding 5?g/day-1 FOS to vessel one (the "stomach" compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and ammonium analyses were used to observe the influence of FOS treatment in simulated colon compartments. A significant increase (P<.01) in the Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed the overall microbial community was changed in the ascending colon compartment of the SHIME reactor. FOS induced increase of the SCFA concentration (P<.05) during the treatment period, mainly due to significant increased levels of acetic and butyric acids. However, ammonium concentrations increased during the same period (P<.01). This study indicates the usefulness of in vitro methods that simulate the colon region as part of research towards the improvement of human health. PMID:24654949

Sivieri, Katia; Morales, Martha L Villarreal; Saad, Susana M I; Adorno, Maria A Tallarico; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Rossi, Elizeu A

2014-08-01

359

[Short bowel syndrome: definition, causes, intestinal adaptation and bacterial overgrowth].  

Science.gov (United States)

The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a complex entity due to anatomical or functional loss of part of the small bowel originating a clinical picture with severe metabolic and nutritional impairments due to reduction of the effective absorptive surface area of the gut. SBS is one of the causes of a larger entity known as "intestinal failu-Currently, mesenteric vascular accidents are the main cause in adults, followed by inflammatory bowel disease, and radiation enteritis, whereas in children, the main causes are congenital and perinatal diseases. The clinical picture associated with SBS varies according to the length and location of affected small bowel, the presence of underlying disease, the presence or absence of the large bowel and ileocecal valve, and the nature of the underlying disease. Intestinal adaptation is the process by which, throughout 1-2 years, intestinal absorption is reestablished to the situation prior to intestinal resection, and is a key factor determining whether a patient with SBS will progress to intestinal failure and depend on DPN. Intestinal adaptation may take place if the patient does oral intake higher than the usual one (hyperphagia); besides, the bowel may also adapt to secure a more effective absorption per surface area unit, either by increasing the absorptive surface area (structural adaptation) and/or slowing intestinal transit (functional adaptation). These changes are not still clearly established in humans, but there are so in animal models. The presence of nutrients within the intestinal lumen and certain gastrointestinal hormones, particularly GLP-2, have an influence on a successful adaptation process. Patients with SBS are prone to the occurrence of bacterial overgrowth that makes adaptation difficult and worsens the symptoms, besides being a factor for dependence on parenteral nutrition. PMID:17679296

Ballesteros Pomar, M D; Vidal Casariego, A

2007-05-01

360

Distribution of iodinated antibodies to the human organ-specific intestinal antigen in the body of nude mice with tumor geterografts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

131I labeled rabbit antibodies to the human epithelial intestinal antigen ?1MA was administered intravenously to nude mice together with human tumor grafts: colon cancer (CC), breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma and hepatoma. Antibodies to ?1MA were selectively accumulated in CC only, excluding the other tumors. Iodinated nonspecific rabbit IgG in mice with CC were distributed like antibodies to ?1MA in the body of mice with control heterografts. A conclusion was made of the promising use of labeled antibodies to ?1MA in radioimmunoscintigraphy of CC and its metastases

361

Epigenetic control of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in human cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development and tissue homeostasis as well as carcinogenesis share the evolutionary conserved process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT enables differentiated epithelial cells to trans-differentiate to a mesenchymal phenotype which is associated with diverse cellular properties including altered morphology, migration and invasion and stemness. In physiological development and tissue homeostasis, EMT exerts beneficial functions for structured tissue formation and maintenance. Under pathological conditions, EMT causes uncontrolled tissue repair and organ fibrosis, as well as the induction of tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in the context of cancer progression. Particularly, the metastatic process is essentially linked to diverse EMT-driven functions which give the mesenchymal differentiated tumor cells the capacity to migrate and form micrometastases in distant organs. Recent analyses of the mechanisms controlling EMT revealed a significant epigenetic regulatory impact reflecting the reversible nature of EMTs. As several approaches of epigenetic therapy are already under clinical evaluation, including inhibitors of DNA methyl transferase and histone deacetylase, targeting the epigenetic regulation of EMT may represent a promising therapeutic option in the future. Therefore, we undertook this review to reassess the current knowledge on the roles of epigenetic control in the regulation of EMT in human cancer. These recent findings are discussed in view of their implications on future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24649114

Kiesslich, Tobias; Pichler, Martin; Neureiter, Daniel

2013-01-01

362

Sequence of an intestinal cDNA encoding human gastric inhibitory polypeptide precursor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a 42-amino acid hormone that stimulates insulin secretion in the presence of glucose. Complementary DNA clones encoding human GIP were isolated from a library prepared with RNA from duodenum. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that GIP is derived by proteolytic processing of a 153-residue precursor, preproGIP. The GIP moiety is flanked by polypeptide segments of 51 and 60 amino acids at its NH2 and COOH termini, respectively. The former includes a signal peptide of about 21 residues and an NH2-terminal propeptide of 30 amino acids. GIP is released from the precursor by processing at single arginine residues. There is a region of nine amino acids in the COOH-terminal propeptide of the GIP precursor that has partial homology with a portion of chromogranin A as well as pancreastatin

363

Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

2014-04-01

364

Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

OpenAIRE

Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. T...

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

365

Prediction of the intestinal first-pass metabolism of CYP3A and UGT substrates in humans from in vitro data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to establish a practical and simplified method of predicting intestinal availability in humans (F(g,human)) at the drug discovery stage using in vitro metabolic clearance values and permeability clearance values. A prediction model for F(g,human) of 19 CYP3A substrates and 5 UGT substrates was constructed based on the concept that the permeability clearance values mean the permeability across the basal membrane with a pH of 7.4 on both sides. Permeability clearance values were obtained by parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) at pH 7.4. PAMPA is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as the earliest primary screening stage and enables estimation of the kinetics of transport by passive diffusion. For CYP3A substrates, the metabolic clearance was obtained from in vitro intrinsic clearance values in human intestinal or hepatic microsomes (CL(int,HIM) or CL(int,HLM), respectively). Using metabolic clearances corrected by the ratio of CL(int,HIM) to CL(int,HLM), HLM showed equivalent predictability to that of HIM for CYP3A substrates. For UGT substrates, the clearance was obtained from alamethicin-activated HIM using one incubation with both NADPH and UDPGA cofactors. The method proposed in this study could predict F(g,human) for the compounds investigated and represents a simplified method based on a new concept applicable to lower permeability compounds. PMID:21878741

Nishimuta, Haruka; Sato, Kimihiko; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko

2011-01-01

366

Aspectos funcionais, microbiológicos e morfológicos intestinais em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Functional, microbiological and morphological intestinal findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RACIONAL: O trato gastrointestinal é freqüentemente acometido nas crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com importantes repercussões no seu estado nutricional e sobrevida. A maioria dos estudos relacionados a esse tema foi desenvolvida com adultos, sendo menos investigado o problema nas crianças OBJETIVOS: Estudar aspectos digestivo-absortivos, microbiológicos e morfológicos intestinais em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Onze crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, menores de 13 anos, pertencentes às categorias clínicas A, B ou C, divididas em dois grupos: cinco pacientes com relato atual ou recente de diarréia e seis pacientes sem diarréia nos 30 dias que antecederam à inclusão no estudo. Investigação proposta: biopsia de intestino delgado e reto para análise morfológica e microbiológica, coprocultura, protoparasitológico de fezes, pesquisa de rotavírus, micobactérias e Cryptosporidium; teste da D-xilose RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes testados (9/11 apresentavam má absorção da D-xilose (8,4-24,4 mg/dL. Os achados histopatológicos de intestino delgado foram inespecíficos, representados em sua maioria, por enteropatia grau I a II (6/10. Em todos os casos foi constatado aumento do infiltrado celular do córion. As alterações histopatológicas do reto também foram inespecíficas, com presença de aumento do infiltrado celular do córion. A pesquisa de microorganismos enteropatogênicos só foi positiva em dois casos, sendo identificado Mycobacterium avium intracellulare e Cryptosporidium nas fezes CONCLUSÕES: Demonstrou-se alta prevalência (100% de má absorção intestinal em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com ou sem diarréia. Não foi possível estabelecer correlações quanto à presença de agentes enteropatogênicos, má absorção intestinal, alterações morfológicas intestinais e ocorrência ou não de diarréia. Não houve correlação entre os valores de D-xilose e os graus de atrofia vilositária.BACKGROUD: Gastrointestinal tract disorders are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, with important repercussions on nutrition and survival. Most studies related to this subject were restricted to adults, being less investigated the problem in the children. AIMS: To study intestinal digestion, absorption, microbiological and morphological findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human immunodeficiency virus infected children under 13 years old, belonging to clinical categories A, B or C, separated in two groups: five patients with current or recent episode of diarrhea and six patients without diarrhea in the last 30 days preceding entering in study. Investigation proposed: microbiological and morphological analysis of small intestine and rectum biopsy; stool exams for bacterium, parasite, rotavirus, Mycobacterium species and Cryptosporidium; D-xylose test RESULTS: All tested subjects (9/11 had low D-xylose absorption (8,4 _ 24,4 mg d/L. Small intestinal mucosa histology findings were nonspecific, represented, in majority, of grade I/II enteropathy (6/10. Increased cellular infiltration of the chorion was observed in all specimens. Rectum histology alterations were also nonspecific, with chorion increased cellular infiltration. Mycobacterim avium intracellulare and Cryptosporidium were the solely microorganisms founded, both in stool CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated high prevalence (100% of intestinal malabsorption among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, despite the occurrence or not of diarrhea. It was not possible to establish relationships between the presence of microorganisms, intestinal malabsorption, intestinal morphologic findings and the occurrence or not of diarrhea. There was no correlation between D-xylose and intensity of villous atrophy.

Christiane Araujo Chaves Leite

2006-12-01

367

Overexpression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate cancer. Analysis of potential prognostic relevance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent inductor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human prostate cancer cell lines. There are conflicting data regarding the role of COX-2 in the progression of this disease. Here we examined the expression of VIP receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2) and COX-2 in prostate cancer specimens. Correlations among protein levels and various clinicopathological factors and prognosis of patients were statistically analyzed. For these purposes, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate tissue specimens from 63 patients with prostate cancer and 9 control samples were used. The expression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 was analyzed at mRNA levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. The corresponding expression at protein level was studied by immunohistochemistry, scored as negative, weak, moderate, or strong, and correlated with different clinicopathological factors by means of multivariate analysis. 88% of prostate cancer tissues overexpressed VPAC1-receptor at mRNA level, 72% VPAC2-receptor and 77% COX-2. Simultaneous overexpression of the three genes was seen in 52% of patients. Similar overexpression patterns were observed at protein level. The correlation between VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptor protein levels was statistically significant. However, no significant correlations existed among protein levels of VPAC receptors and COX-2 with patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, tumor stage, Gleason score and survival time. The overexpression of VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and COX-2 in cancer tissue gives them a potential role as targets for diagnosis of prostate cancer but results do not support a clear value as biomarkers for the clinical prognosis of this disease. PMID:22763881

Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Carmena, María J; Arenas, M Isabel; Bajo, Ana M; Prieto, Juan C; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel

2012-08-01

368

Cox2 and ?-Catenin/T-cell Factor Signaling Intestinalize Human Esophageal Keratinocytes When Cultured under Organotypic Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is rising in the United States. An important risk factor for EAC is the presence of Barrett esophagus (BE. BE is the replacement of normal squamous esophageal epithelium with a specialized columnar epithelium in response to chronic acid and bile reflux. However, the emergence of BE from squamous keratinocytes has not yet been demonstrated. Our research has focused on this. Wnt and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2 are two pathways whose activation has been associated with BE and progression to EAC, but their role has not been tested experimentally. To explore their contribution, we engineered a human esophageal keratinocyte cell line to express either a dominant-active Wnt effector CatCLef or a Cox2 complementary DNA. In a two-dimensional culture environment, Cox2 expression increases cell proliferation and migration, but neither transgene induces known BE markers. In contrast, when these cells were placed into three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions, we observed more profound effects. CatCLef-expressing cells were more proliferative, developed a thicker epithelium, and upregulated Notch signaling and several BE markers including NHE2. Cox2 expression also increased cell proliferation and induced a thicker epithelium. More importantly, we observed cysts form within the epithelium, filled with intestinal mucins including Muc5B and Muc17. This suggests that Cox2 expression in a three-dimensional culture environment induces a lineage of mucin-secreting cells and supports an important causal role for Cox2 in BE pathogenesis. We conclude that in vitro modeling of BE pathogenesis can be improved by enhancing Wnt signaling and Cox2 activity and using three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions.

Jianping Kong

2011-09-01

369

Genome sequences and comparative genomics of two Lactobacillus ruminis strains from the bovine and human intestinal tracts  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity, which recent genomic analyses have further highlighted. However, the choice of species for sequencing has been non-random and unequal in distribution, with only a single representative genome from the L. salivarius clade available to date. Furthermore, there is no data to facilitate a functional genomic analysis of motility in the lactobacilli, a trait that is restricted to the L. salivarius clade. Results The 2.06 Mb genome of the bovine isolate Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 27782 comprises a single circular chromosome, and has a G+C content of 44.4%. In silico analysis identified 1901 coding sequences, including genes for a pediocin-like bacteriocin, a single large exopolysaccharide-related cluster, two sortase enzymes, two CRISPR loci and numerous IS elements and pseudogenes. A cluster of genes related to a putative pilin was identified, and shown to be transcribed in vitro. A high quality draft assembly of the genome of a second L. ruminis strain, ATCC 25644 isolated from humans, suggested a slightly larger genome of 2.138 Mb, that exhibited a high degree of synteny with the ATCC 27782 genome. In contrast, comparative analysis of L. ruminis and L. salivarius identified a lack of long-range synteny between these closely related species. Comparison of the L. salivarius clade core proteins with those of nine other Lactobacillus species distributed across 4 major phylogenetic groups identified the set of shared proteins, and proteins unique to each group. Conclusions The genome of L. ruminis provides a comparative tool for directing functional analyses of other members of the L. salivarius clade, and it increases understanding of the divergence of this distinct Lactobacillus lineage from other commensal lactobacilli. The genome sequence provides a definitive resource to facilitate investigation of the genetics, biochemistry and host interactions of these motile intestinal lactobacilli.

2011-08-30

370

Differential multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 through 6 isoform expression and function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) isoforms 1 through 6 mRNA are expressed in the human intestine and Caco-2 cells. In Caco-2 cells, the rank order for mRNA expression was MRP2 > or = MRP6 > MRP4 > or = MRP3 > MRP1 = MRP5. The functional expression of MRP-like activity was quantified as the efflux of the fluorescent probe calcein from confluent, polarized monolayers of Caco-2 cells. Calcein efflux was sensitive to temperature, energy depletion, and the MRP antagonist MK571 [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid]. Calcein efflux across the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells exceeded that across the basolateral by approximately 2-fold, correlating with the apical localization of MRP2 visualized by immunocytochemical staining. T84 cells do not express MRP2 and show a predominance of basolateral calcein efflux over apical efflux. MRP3 was localized by immunocytochemical staining to the basolateral membrane. MRP1 staining was not localized to either membrane domain and MRP5 staining was not detected. Thus, basolateral calcein efflux may reflect a function of MRP3 or MRP4 and 6 inferred by their basolateral localization in other tissues. Basolateral, but not apical, calcein efflux was sensitive to glutathione depletion with buthioninesulfoximine, indicating that whereas MRP2-mediated apical efflux is independent of glutathione, basolateral efflux is glutathione-dependent. Benzbromarone, probenecid, pravastatin, and diclofenac were able to inhibit both apical and basolateral calcein efflux. The apical calcein efflux in Caco-2 cells was selectively sensitive to indomethacin and propranolol, but not verapamil or erythromycin, whereas the converse was observed for basal efflux. The differential pharmacological sensitivity of apical (MRP2) and basolateral calcein efflux provides tools for dissecting MRP isoform functional roles. PMID:15210835

Prime-Chapman, Hannah M; Fearn, Richard A; Cooper, Anne E; Moore, Vanessa; Hirst, Barry H

2004-11-01

371

Identification of muscle synergies associated with gait transition in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest how the central nervous system (CNS) controls a variety of muscles associated with gait transition between walking and running. Here, we examined the motor control during