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Model experiments mimicking the human intestinal transit and metabolism of D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin.  

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In order to study the human intestinal transit and metabolism of D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin a number of model experiments were carried out. Both substrates were incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 degrees C using saliva (2 min) and simulated gastric juice (4 h). Under anaerobic conditions the substrates were incubated at 37 degrees C using human ileostomy and colostomy fluids, each obtained from three different donors, for 10 and for 24 h, respectively. D-Galacturonic acid, SCFA (acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid), as well as methanol were analyzed photometrically after carbazole reaction, GC-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and headspace solid-phase microextraction GC/MS (HS-SPME-GC/MS), respectively. D-Galacturonic acid and amidated pectin were found to be stable during incubations with saliva and simulated gastric juice, whereas both substrates underwent degradation in the course of human ileostomy and colostomy fluid incubations. D-Galacturonic acid was practically completely decomposed within 10 h and SCFA, with acetic acid as the major representative, were formed up to 98% of the incubated substrate in colostomy effluent. The amidated pectin was only degraded in part, revealing stable amounts of 22-35% and 3-17% in ileostomy (after 10 h) and colostomy fluid (after 24 h), respectively. SCFA were generated up to 59% of the applied amidated pectin. In parallel, 19-60% and 52-67% of the available methyl ester groups were cleaved in the course of incubations with ileostomy and colostomy fluids, respectively. The results demonstrate for the first time that D-galacturonic acid and amidated pectin are stable in human saliva and simulated gastric juice. The degradation of both compounds during incubation with ileostomy effluent is highlighted, providing evidence for a considerable metabolic potential of the small intestine. PMID:18618479

Knaup, Bastian; Kempf, Michael; Fuchs, Jan; Valotis, Anagnostis; Kahle, Kathrin; Oehme, Anett; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

2008-07-01

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Microbial functionality in the human intestinal tract  

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The extent of metabolic interactions between symbiotic intestinal microbes and the human host, and their system-wide effects on the host physiology are beginning to be understood. The metabolic capacity encoded by the intestinal microbiome significantly extends that of the host, making many of man's physiological characteristics an outcome of a human-microbe co-metabolism. A detailed characterization of the composition and function of the gut microbial ecosystem is required to foster the unde...

Salonen, A.; Palva, A.; Vos, W. M.

2009-01-01

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Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand.

Prasert Saichua, Choosak Nithikathkul, Natthawut Kaewpitoon

2008-01-01

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A deconvolution technique for processing small intestinal transit data  

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The deconvolution technique can be used to compute small intestinal impulse response curves from scintigraphic data. Previously suggested approaches, however, are sensitive to noise from the data. We investigated whether deconvolution based on a new simple iterative convolving technique can be recommended. Eight healthy volunteers ingested a meal that contained indium-111 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid labelled water and technetium-99m stannous colloid labelled omelette. Imaging was performed at 30-min intervals until all radioactivity was located in the colon. A Fermi function=(1+e{sup -{alpha}{beta}})/(1+e{sup (t-{alpha}){beta}}) was chosen to characterize the small intestinal impulse response function. By changing only two parameters, {alpha} and {beta}, it is possible to obtain configurations from nearly a square function to nearly a monoexponential function. Small intestinal input function was obtained from the gastric emptying curve and convolved with the Fermi function. The sum of least squares was used to find {alpha} and {beta} yielding the best fit of the convolved curve to the oberved small intestinal time-activity curve. Finally, a small intestinal mean transit time was calculated from the Fermi function referred to. In all cases, we found an excellent fit of the convolved curve to the observed small intestinal time-activity curve, that is the Fermi function reflected the small intestinal impulse response curve. Small intestinal mean transit time of liquid marker (median 2.02 h) was significantly shorter than that of solid marker (median 2.99 h; P<0.02). The iterative convolving technique seems to be an attractive alternative to ordinary approaches for the processing of small intestinal transit data. (orig.) With 2 figs., 13 refs.

Brinch, K. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Glostrup Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, H.B.W. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark); Madsen, J.L. [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Denmark)

1999-03-01

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A geometric description of human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models of natural phenomena play a central role in the physical sciences. Moreover, modeling of the organs draws from some beautiful areas of mathematics, such as nonlinear dynamics, multiscale transforms and stability analysis. In this study, a geometric recognition of the separate intestine sections (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) of the human is presented. The human intestine was considered a tubular shape along a special curve and two male Turkish men were used for the modeling study. The length (cm) and diameter (mm) of the intestines were measured with a digital compass and formulated. These models were compared with their original photographs. It has been concluded that the geometric modeling and experimental work were consistent. These kinds of organ modeling techniques will also profit to medical lecturers to show 3-D figures to their students. PMID:17580658

Co?kun, Ihsaniye; Yildiz, Hüseyin; Arslan, Kadri; Yildiz, Bahri

2007-01-01

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Compartmentalization of Aquaporins in the Human Intestine  

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Full Text Available Improper localization of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQP induce mucosal injury which is implicated in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The amino acid sequences of AQP3 and AQP10 are 79% similar and belong to the mammalian aquaglyceroporin subfamily. AQP10 is localized on the apical compartment of the intestinal epithelium called the glycocalyx while AQP3 is selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane. Despite the high sequence similarity and evolutionary relatedness, the molecular mechanism involved in the polarity, selective targeting and function of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestine is largely unknown. Our hypothesis is that the differential polarity and selective targeting of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestinal epithelial cells is influenced by amino acid signal motifs. We performed sequence and structural alignments to determine differences in signals for localization and posttranslational glycosylation. The basolateral sorting motif “YRLL” is present in AQP3 but absent in AQP10; while Nglycosylation signals are present in AQP10 but absent in AQP3. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AQP3 is longer compared to AQP10. The sequence and structural differences between AQP3 and AQP10 provide insights into the differential compartmentalization and function of these two aquaporins commonly expressed in human intestines.

Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan

2008-06-01

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Relationship between small-intestinal transit rate and intestinal absorption of 14C-labelled mannitol and 51Cr-labelled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in healthy subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the small-intestinal transit rate is generally considered to influence the urinary excretion of markers of intestinal permeability, no study has until now formally addressed the importance of this influence in humans. Ten healthy subjects ingested a test solution containing 99mTc-DTPA, 14C-labelled mannitol and 51Cr-EDTA. After ingestion, the small-intestinal transit rate of 99mTc-DTPA was measured with the gamma camera technique. Urine was collected to measure the excretion of absorbed 14C-mannitol and 51Cr-EDTA. Moreover, the distribution volume and plasma clearance of 14C-mannitol and 51Cr-EDTA were determined in each subject. A positive correlation was found between mean small-intestinal transit time and urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol. The study did not show any correlation between small-intestinal transit rate and urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA. Urinary excretion of neither 14C-mannitol nor 51Cr-EDTA was affected by distribution volume or urine volume. A positive correlation was observed between plasma clearance and urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol, whereas plasma clearance did not influence the urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA. Small-intestinal transit rate seems to have a significant effect on urinary excretion of 14C-mannitol, whereas small-intestinal transit rate does not influence the tinal transit rate does not influence the timed urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

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Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system  

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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland) is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. Methods: A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4x4) giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: theta, phi). Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1) with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam); (2) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3) with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Results: Experiment (1) showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min) and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min). Comparing experiments (1) and (2) there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2) and (3), short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1) (p=0.03). Conclusion: MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.

Worsoe, Jonas; Fynne, Lotte

2011-01-01

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Gastric transit and small intestinal transit time and motility assessed by a magnet tracking system  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracking an ingested magnet by the Magnet Tracking System MTS-1 (Motilis, Lausanne, Switzerland is an easy and minimally-invasive method to assess gastrointestinal transit. The aim was to test the validity of MTS-1 for assessment of gastric transit time and small intestinal transit time, and to illustrate transit patterns detected by the system. Methods A small magnet was ingested and tracked by an external matrix of 16 magnetic field sensors (4 × 4 giving a position defined by 5 coordinates (position: x, y, z, and angle: ?, ?. Eight healthy subjects were each investigated three times: (1 with a small magnet mounted on a capsule endoscope (PillCam; (2 with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the fasting state; and (3 with the magnet alone and the small intestine in the postprandial state. Results Experiment (1 showed good agreement and no systematic differences between MTS-1 and capsule endoscopy when assessing gastric transit (median difference 1 min; range: 0-6 min and small intestinal transit time (median difference 0.5 min; range: 0-52 min. Comparing experiments (1 and (2 there were no systematic differences in gastric transit or small intestinal transit when using the magnet-PillCam unit and the much smaller magnetic pill. In experiments (2 and (3, short bursts of very fast movements lasting less than 5% of the time accounted for more than half the distance covered during the first two hours in the small intestine, irrespective of whether the small intestine was in the fasting or postprandial state. The mean contraction frequency in the small intestine was significantly lower in the fasting state than in the postprandial state (9.90 min-1 vs. 10.53 min-1 (p = 0.03. Conclusion MTS-1 is reliable for determination of gastric transit and small intestinal transit time. It is possible to distinguish between the mean contraction frequency of small intestine in the fasting state and in the postprandial state.

WorsØe Jonas

2011-12-01

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Increased intestinal marker absorption due to regional permeability changes and decreased intestinal transit during sepsis in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intestinal barrier properties are impaired during inflammation and sepsis, but the mechanisms behind this are unknown and were therefore investigated during experimental sepsis in rats. The different-sized intestinal absorption markers 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ovalbumin were gavaged to rats made septic by intra-abdominal bacterial implantation and to sham-operated rats. Regional tissue permeability was measured in diffusion chambers, and intestinal transit was evaluated by intestinal accumulation of gavaged 51Cr-EDTA. In comparison with the sham-operated rats, septic rats had higher 51Cr-EDTA levels in blood and urine and showed a prolonged intestinal transit. Septic rats also had a lower tissue permeability to both markers in the small intestines but higher permeability to ovalbumin in the colon. Rats receiving morphine to decrease intestinal motility showed similar changes, with a decreased intestinal transit and increased marker absorption. Thr results suggest that the increased intestinal absorption during sepsis was due to regional permeability changes and prolonged intestinal transit. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

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Alternative Functional In Vitro Models of Human Intestinal Epithelia  

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Full Text Available Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We sought to evaluate and compare two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, our previously described 3-dimensional intestinal organogenesis method was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

AmandaLKauffman

2013-07-01

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Augmented cholesterol absorption and sarcolemmal sterol enrichment slow small intestinal transit in mice, contributing to cholesterol cholelithogenesis  

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Cholesterol gallstones are associated with slow intestinal transit in humans as well as in animal models, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We investigated in C57L/J mice whether the components of a lithogenic diet (LD; 1.0% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 17% triglycerides), as well as distal intestinal infection with Helicobacter hepaticus, influence small intestinal transit time. By quantifying the distribution of 3H-sitostanol along the length of the small intestine following intraduodenal instillation, we observed that, in both sexes, the geometric centre (dimensionless) was retarded significantly (P < 0.05) by LD but not slowed further by helicobacter infection (males, 9.4 ± 0.5 (uninfected), 9.6 ± 0.5 (infected) on LD compared with 12.5 ± 0.4 and 11.4 ± 0.5 on chow). The effect of the LD was reproduced only by the binary combination of cholesterol and cholic acid. We inferred that the LD-induced cholesterol enrichment of the sarcolemmae of intestinal smooth muscle cells produced hypomotility from signal-transduction decoupling of cholecystokinin (CCK), a physiological agonist for small intestinal propulsion in mice. Treatment with ezetimibe in an amount sufficient to block intestinal cholesterol absorption caused small intestinal transit time to return to normal. In most cholesterol gallstone-prone humans, lithogenic bile carries large quantities of hepatic cholesterol into the upper small intestine continuously, thereby reproducing this dietary effect in mice. Intestinal hypomotility promotes cholelithogenesis by augmenting formation of deoxycholate, a pro-lithogenic secondary bile salt, and increasing the fraction of intestinal cholesterol absorbed. PMID:22331417

Xie, Meimin; Kotecha, Vijay R; Andrade, Jon David P; Fox, James G; Carey, Martin C

2012-01-01

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Establishment of novel prediction system of intestinal absorption in humans using human intestinal tissues.  

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The objective of this study was to establish a novel prediction system of drug absorption in humans by utilizing human intestinal tissues. Based on the transport index (TI), a newly defined parameter, calculated by taking account of the change in drug concentrations because of precipitation on the apical side and the amounts accumulated in the tissue and transported to the basal side, the absorbability of drugs in rank order as well as the fraction of dose absorbed (Fa) in humans were estimated. Human intestinal tissues taken from ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease patients were mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber and transport studies were performed to evaluate the permeation of drugs, including FD-4, a very low permeable marker, atenolol, a low permeable marker, and metoprolol, a high permeable marker. Although apparent permeability coefficients calculated by the conventional equation did not reflect human Fa values for FD-4, atenolol, and metoprolol, TI values were well correlated with Fa values, which are described by 100 · [1 - e (- f · (TI - ?)) ]. Based on this equation, Fa values in humans for other test drugs were predicted successfully, indicating that our new system utilizing human intestinal tissues would be valuable for predicting oral drug absorption in humans. PMID:23686795

Miyake, Masateru; Toguchi, Hajime; Nishibayashi, Toru; Higaki, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Koganei, Kazutaka; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Kitazume, Mina T; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Sato, Toshiro; Okamoto, Susumu; Kanai, Takanori; Hibi, Toshifumi

2013-08-01

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A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices.  

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A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption, however, is often insufficient, especially when food-drug interactions are evaluated. Ideally, for this purpose healthy human intestinal tissue is used, but due to its limited availability there is a need for alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of healthy porcine intestinal tissue mounted in a newly developed InTESTine™ system to predict human intestinal absorption of compounds with different chemical characteristics, and within biorelevant matrices. To that end, first, a representative set of compounds was chosen of which the apparent permeability (Papp) data in both Caco-2 cells and human intestinal tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber system, and absolute human oral bioavailability were reported. Thereafter, Papp values of the subset were determined in both porcine jejunal tissue and our own Caco-2 cells. In addition, the feasibility of this new approach to study regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) in permeability of compounds and to study the effects of luminal factors on permeability was also investigated. For the latter, a comparison was made between the compatibility of porcine intestinal tissue, Caco-2 cells, and Caco-2 cells co-cultured with the mucin producing HT29-MTX cells with biorelevant samples as collected from an in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM). The results demonstrated that for the paracellularly transported compounds atenolol, cimetidine, mannitol and ranitidine porcine Papp values are within 3-fold difference of human Papp values, whereas the Caco-2 Papp values are beyond 3-fold difference. Overall, the porcine intestinal tissue Papp values are more comparable to human Papp values (9 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference), compared to Caco-2 Papp values (4 out of 12 are within 3-fold difference). In addition, for the selected hydrophilic compounds a significant increase in the permeability was observed from duodenum to ileum. Finally, this study indicated that porcine jejunal tissue segments can be used with undiluted luminal samples to predict human intestinal permeability and the effect of biorelevant matrices on this. In conclusion, viable porcine intestinal tissue mounted in the InTESTine™ system can be applied as a reliable tool for the assessment of intestinal permeability in the absence and presence of biorelevant samples. This would enable an accessible opportunity for a reliable prediction of human intestinal absorption, and the effect of luminal compounds such as digested foods, early in drug development. PMID:25046168

Westerhout, Joost; van de Steeg, Evita; Grossouw, Dimitri; Zeijdner, Evelijn E; Krul, Cyrille A M; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

2014-10-15

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Metabolism of hibifolin by human intestinal bacteria.  

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Hibifolin, the highest-content bioactive flavonoid of the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot, was incubated with human intestinal bacteria, and four metabolites (1-4) were obtained from the incubated solution by chromatographic methods. The structures of the four metabolites were elucidated as gossypetin 8-O-beta-D-4''-deoxy- Delta(4'')-glucuropyranoside (1), gossypetin (2), quercetin (3), and 8-methoxy-quercetin (4), respectively, on the basis of UV, NMR, and MS data. Metabolite 1 was obtained as a new compound with a specific beta-D-4''-deoxy-Delta(4'')-glucuropyranosyl moiety, which was formed through a unique and novel metabolic pathway that has not been reported previously. PMID:19235125

Xu, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Wang, Bin; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Qing-Ying

2009-04-01

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Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines  

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AIM: To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT116). Different strains of LAB isolated from new born infants and fermented milk, together with the strains obtained from culture collections were tested.METHODS: LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines. ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-? protein secretion. Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs) gene expression were assessed us...

Shugui Wang, Lydia Hui Mei Ng

2008-01-01

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A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents

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A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

2005-02-28

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Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts

20

Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.  

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The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Cholinergic mediation of small intestinal transit in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reported that small intestinal transit (SIT) in the rat is not cholinergically mediated. The geometric mean of a marker may be a more powerful method for SIT studies. Therefore, it was their goal to evaluate the effect of muscarinic blockade in normal and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-enhanced SIT using this method. Male, food-fasted rats (190 to 240 g) were first dosed subcutaneously with atropine. 30 min after the atropine the rats received an oral dose of PGE2 at 5.0 mg/kg. 5 min after PGE2, a 51Cr-labeled marker was dosed intraduodenally, and a 25 min transit period followed. The results are: (1) 5.0 mg/kg of PGE2 significantly stimulates the geometric mean of the marker in agreement with previous findings and (2) atropine is inhibitory at doses as low as 0.20 mg/kg for basal SIT and 0.10 mg/kg for PGE2-stimulated SIT. This indicates (1) the rat has cholinergically mediated SIT, and (2) cholinergic activation may be important for PGE2 effects on SIT in the rat

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The Intestinal Expulsion of the Roundworm Ascaris suum Is Associated with Eosinophils, Intra-Epithelial T Cells and Decreased Intestinal Transit Time  

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Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections. PMID:24340121

Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Vlaminck, Johnny; Claerhoudt, Sarah; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Saunders, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

2013-01-01

23

Effect of human intestinal macrophages on immunoglobulin production by human intestinal mononuclear cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease.  

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The effect of macrophages on spontaneous immunoglobulin production by isolated human intestinal mononuclear cells (MNC) is unknown. Depletion of macrophages by adherence to fibronectin or by panning with macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody 3C10 lead to a significant reduction in IgA. IgG and IgM production by intestinal MNC from both normal (n = 10) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 13) mucosa. The reduction in immunoglobulin produced by macrophage-depleted intestinal MNC was greater in IBD patients than in normal controls. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.816, P less than 0.001) between the percentage of macrophages depleted by panning with 3C10 and the reduction in IgG produced by macrophage-depleted intestinal MNC. Addition of either fibronectin-adherent cells or the supernatant from these macrophage-enriched cells enhanced immunoglobulin production in a dose-dependent fashion. A greater increase in IgG production by macrophage-depleted cells was seen when cultured with supernatant from inflamed IBD mucosal cells, compared with that from normal mucosal cells. The soluble factor(s) responsible in the supernatant was acid and heat susceptible but was not affected by freezing and thawing. Addition of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta or human interferon-gamma to cell cultures did not influence immunoglobulin production. Thus, human intestinal macrophages enhance spontaneous immunoglobulin production by isolated intestinal MNC by secreting soluble factor(s) which remain to be fully characterized. PMID:2302833

Wu, K C; Mahida, Y R; Priddle, J D; Jewell, D P

1990-01-01

24

Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT116. Different strains of LAB isolated from new born infants and fermented milk, together with the strains obtained from culture collections were tested.METHODS: LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines. ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-? protein secretion. Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs gene expression were assessed using RT-PCR. Conditional medium, sonicated bacteria and UV killed bacteria were used to find the effecter molecules on the bacteria. Carbohydrate oxidation and protein digestion were applied to figure out the molecules’ residues. Adhesion assays were further carried out.RESULTS: It was found that Enterococcus faecalis is the main immune modulator among the LABs by downregulation of IL-8 secretion and upregulation of TGF-?. Strikingly, the effect was only observed in four strains of E. faecalis out of the 27 isolated and tested. This implies strain dependent immunomodulation in the host. In addition, E. faecalis may regulate inflammatory responses through TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and TRAF6. Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface are involved in both its adhesion to intestinal cells and regulation of inflammatory responses in the host.CONCLUSION: These data provide a case for the modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity in which specific strains of E. faecalis have uniquely evolved to maintain colonic homeostasis and regulate inflammatory responses.

Shugui Wang, Lydia Hui Mei Ng, Wai Ling Chow, Yuan Kun Lee

2008-02-01

25

Metabolism of swertiamarin from Swertia japonica by human intestinal bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biotransformation of swertiamarin [1, a seco-iridoid glucoside isolated from Swertia japonica (Schult.) Makino] by human intestinal bacteria was investigated. Three metabolites were isolated and identified as erythrocentaurin (2), 5-hydroxymethylisochroman-1-one (3), and gentianine (4) by spectroscopic methods. Through screening of various defined strains of intestinal bacteria (25 species), it was found that all these species had the ability to metabolize 1 to 2 and 3, whereas only a few species had the ability to produce 4. This is the first report to show that one of the metabolic intermediates of the secoiridoid compound is further transformed to a nitrogen-containing compound through metabolic processes by human intestinal bacteria. PMID:2748732

el-Sedawy, A I; Shu, Y Z; Hattori, M; Kobashi, K; Namba, T

1989-04-01

26

Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells  

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BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Previous studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of ?2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of ?2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the human ?2A adrenoceptor.?METHODS—Cells were transfected with a bicistronic p...

Schaak, S.; Cussac, D.; Cayla, C.; Devedjian, J.; Guyot, R.; Paris, H.; Denis, C.

2000-01-01

27

Impact of diet on human intestinal microbiota and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate systemic immune and metabolic responses. Due to the immense metabolic capacity of the intestinal microbiota and its relatively high plasticity, there is great interest in identifying dietary approaches that allow intentional and predictable modulation of the microbiota. In this article, we review the current insights on dietary influence on the human intestinal microbiota based on recent high-throughput molecular studies and interconnections with health. We focus especially on the emerging data that identify the amount and type of dietary fat as significant modulators of the colonic microbiota and its metabolic output. PMID:24387608

Salonen, Anne; de Vos, Willem M

2014-01-01

28

Effect of thienorphine on intestinal transit and isolated guinea-pig ileum contraction  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate the effect of thienorphine on small intestinal transit in vivo and on guinea-pig ileum (GPI) contraction in vitro. METHODS: The effects of thienorphine on intestinal transit were examined in mice and in isolated GPI. Buprenorphine and morphine served as controls. The distance traveled by the head of the charchol and the total length of the intestine were measured in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was expressed as a percentage of the distance traveled by the head of the marker relative to the total length of the small intestine. The isolated GPI preparations were connected to an isotonic force transducer and equilibrated for at least 1 h before exposure to drugs. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation. RESULTS: Thienorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, ig) or buprenorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, sc) dose-dependently significantly inhibited gut transit compared with saline. Thienorphine inhibited gut transit less than buprenorphine. The maximum inhibition by thienorphine on the intestinal transit was 50%-60%, whereas the maximum inhibition by morphine on gut transit was about 100%. Thienorphine also exhibited less inhibition on acetylcholine-induced contraction of GPI, with a maximum inhibition of 65%, compared with 93% inhibition by buprenorphine and 100% inhibition by morphine. Thienorphine induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tonus of spontaneous movement of the GPI, the effect of which was weaker than that with buprenorphine. The duration of the effect of thienorphine on the GPI was longer than that with buprenorphine. CONCLUSION: Thienorphine had less influence, but a longer duration of action on GPI contraction and moderately inhibited intestinal transit. PMID:23539497

Zhou, Pei-Lan; Li, Yu-Lei; Yan, Ling-Di; Yong, Zheng; Yu, Gang; Dong, Hua-Jin; Yan, Hui; Su, Rui-Bin; Gong, Ze-Hui

2013-01-01

29

Effect of thienorphine on intestinal transit and isolated guinea-pig ileum contraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of thienorphine on small intestinal transit in vivo and on guinea-pig ileum (GPI contraction in vitro. METHODS: The effects of thienorphine on intestinal transit were examined in mice and in isolated GPI. Buprenorphine and morphine served as controls. The distance traveled by the head of the charchol and the total length of the intestine were measured in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was expressed as a percentage of the distance traveled by the head of the marker relative to the total length of the small intestine. The isolated GPI preparations were connected to an isotonic force transducer and equilibrated for at least 1 h before exposure to drugs. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation. RESULTS: Thienorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, ig or buprenorphine (0.005-1.0 mg/kg, sc dose-dependently significantly inhibited gut transit compared with saline. Thienorphine inhibited gut transit less than buprenorphine. The maximum inhibition by thienorphine on the intestinal transit was 50%-60%, whereas the maximum inhibition by morphine on gut transit was about 100%. Thienorphine also exhibited less inhibition on acetylcholine-induced contraction of GPI, with a maximum inhibition of 65%, compared with 93% inhibition by buprenorphine and 100% inhibition by morphine. Thienorphine induced a concentration-dependent decrease in the basal tonus of spontaneous movement of the GPI, the effect of which was weaker than that with buprenorphine. The duration of the effect of thienorphine on the GPI was longer than that with buprenorphine. CONCLUSION: Thienorphine had less influence, but a longer duration of action on GPI contraction and moderately inhibited intestinal transit.

Pei-Lan Zhou

2013-01-01

30

Significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine and quantitative prediction of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of new drug candidates that are cleared via non-cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes has increased. However, unlike oxidation by P450, the roles of reductive enzymes are less understood. The metabolism in intestine is especially not well known. The purposes of this study were to investigate the significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine, and to establish a quantitative prediction method of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes, using haloperidol, mebendazole, and ziprasidone. First, we estimated the metabolic activities for these compounds in intestine and liver using subcellular fractions. Metabolic activities were detected in human intestinal cytosol (HIC) for all three compounds, and the intrinsic clearance values were higher than those in human liver cytosol for haloperidol and mebendazole. These metabolic activities in HIC were NADPH- and/or NADH-dependent. Furthermore, the metabolic activities for all three compounds in HIC were largely inhibited by menadione, which has been used as a carbonyl reductase (CBR)-selective chemical inhibitor. Therefore, considering subcellular location, cofactor requirement, and chemical inhibition, these compounds might be metabolized by CBRs in human intestine. Subsequently, we tried to quantitatively predict intestinal availability (F(g)) for these compounds using human intestinal S9 (HIS9). Our prediction model using apparent permeability of parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and metabolic activities in HIS9 could predict F(g) in humans for the three compounds well. In conclusion, CBRs might have higher metabolic activities in human intestine than in human liver. Furthermore, our prediction method of human F(g) using HIS9 is applicable to substrates of cytosolic reductive enzymes. PMID:23444387

Nishimuta, Haruka; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nomura, Naruaki; Yabuki, Masashi

2013-05-01

31

INTESTINAL BACTERIAL FLORA AND TRANSIT TIME OF THREE NEOTROPICAL BAT SPECIES.  

Science.gov (United States)

Klite, P. D. (Middle America Research Unit, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone). Intestinal bacterial flora and transit time of three neotropical bat species. J. Bacteriol. 90:375-379. 1965.-Quantitative studies on the intestinal bacterial flora of three neotropical bat species revealed the following average bacterial populations: Molossus major, 10(4.8) bacteria per intestinal contents; Carollia perspicillata, 10(3.3); Chilonycteris rubiginosa, 10(3.9). In comparison, laboratory mice had an average of 10(9.7) bacteria per intestinal contents. Of 236 bacterial isolates obtained from 60 bats, bacteria of the Klebsiella-Aerobacter-Serratia group were found most frequently, followed by enterococci and Proteus spp. Bacteria of eight other groups were less frequently recovered. A large intestine, cecum, or appendix was absent in all three bat species, and the intestinal length was one-third to one-fifth of that in a mouse of comparable weight. The transit time through the short bat intestine was 15 min. The possible relationship of these unusual anatomical and physiological phenomena to the ability of Histoplasma capsulatum to survive in bat feces is discussed. PMID:14329450

KLITE, P D

1965-08-01

32

Síndrome estreñimiento: métodos para medir la velocidad de tránsito intestinal / Constipation syndrome: methods for measuring the speed of intestinal transit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo, recuerdo lo que presenté, en un simposio llevado a cabo en nuestra Sociedad sobre el síndrome estreñimiento, en relación con la definición y los factores determinantes de este síndrome, y, además, con los métodos que hemos creado para medir en forma fisiológica la velocidad [...] del tránsito intestinal, especialmente colónico. Abstract in english In the present article, I remind what I presented, in a symposium performed in our Society on the constipation syndrome, in relation with the definition and the determinant factores of this syndrome, and, in addition, with the methods we have created to determine physiologically the velocity of the [...] intestinal transit, specially colonic.

Raúl, León-Barúa.

33

Human intestinal spirochetosis accompanied by human immunodeficiency virus infection:a case report  

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Full Text Available We present a middle-aged, heterosexual Japanese man with mixed infections including human intestinal spirochetosis, which led us to the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The patient had syphilis without related physical or neurological findings. An examination for the serum antibody for HIV performed 9 years previously was negative. In a complete medical checkup at the present time, human intestinal spirochetosis and unspecified entamebic cysts were suggested by histological examination of colonic biopsy material and parasitic examination of the intestinal fluid, respectively. Moreover, a serological test for the antibody for HIV was positive. In specimens obtained by colonoscopy, Brachyspira aalborgi was diagnosed by ultrastructural study and the polymerase chain reaction method for bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. Although HIV infection remains at low prevalence in Japan, we recommend examination for HIV infection in patients with human intestinal spirochetosis, especially when other co-infections are apparent.

Okusa,Yasushi

2009-08-01

34

Macropinocytosis in Shiga toxin 1 uptake by human intestinal epithelial cells and transcellular transcytosis  

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Shiga toxin 1 and 2 production is a cardinal virulence trait of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection that causes a spectrum of intestinal and systemic pathology. However, intestinal sites of enterohemorrhagic E. coli colonization during the human infection and how the Shiga toxins are taken up and cross the globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) receptor-negative intestinal epithelial cells remain largely uncharacterized. We used samples of human intestinal tissue from patients with E. coli O157...

Malyukova, Irina; Murray, Karen F.; Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar; Kane, Anne; Patterson, Kathleen; Peterson, Jeffrey R.; Donowitz, Mark; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

2009-01-01

35

Dendritic cells transmit HIV-1 through human small intestinal mucosa  

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To dissect the early events in the transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child, we investigated whether DCs participate in HIV-1 entry into human small intestinal mucosa. We isolated human MNLs from jejunal lamina propria and identified a subpopulation of CD11c+HLA-DR+ MNLs that expressed DC-SIGN, CD83, CD86, CD206, and CCR7, indicating a DC phenotype. Jejunal DCs also expressed the HIV-1 receptor CD4 and coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and in suspension rapidly took up cell-free HIV-1. HIV-1 inocu...

Shen, Ruizhong; Smythies, Lesley E.; Clements, Ronald H.; Novak, Lea; Smith, Phillip D.

2010-01-01

36

Rates of intestinal absorption of molybdenum in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intestinal absorption of molybdenum in healthy human volunteers has been measured by simultaneous oral and intravenous administration of the stable isotopes 95Mo and 96Mo, and the results were analysed using the convolution integral technique. The results showed that molybdenum ingested in liquid form was rapidly and totally absorbed into the circulation under ordinary intake regimes. The rates and extent of absorption were lower for composite meals, and also for increasing levels of administration. This information can be helpful in the application of the new ICRP model of the human alimentary tract

37

Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon

38

Loss of Rab25 promotes the development of intestinal neoplasia in mice and is associated with human colorectal adenocarcinomas  

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Transformation of epithelial cells is associated with loss of cell polarity, which includes alterations in cell morphology as well as changes in the complement of plasma membrane proteins. Rab proteins regulate polarized trafficking to the cell membrane and therefore represent potential regulators of this neoplastic transition. Here we have demonstrated a tumor suppressor function for Rab25 in intestinal neoplasia in both mice and humans. Human colorectal adenocarcinomas exhibited reductions ...

Nam, Ki Taek; Lee, Hyuk-joon; Smith, J. Joshua; Lapierre, Lynne A.; Kamath, Vidya P.; Chen, Xi; Aronow, Bruce J.; Yeatman, Timothy J.; Bhartur, Sheela G.; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Condie, Brian; Manley, Nancy R.; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Coffey, Robert J.; Goldenring, James R.

2010-01-01

39

Small intestinal transit in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension : a descriptive study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gastrointestinal dysmotility may be involved in the development of bacterial translocation and infection in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to describe gastric, small intestinal and colorectal motility and transit in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension using a magnet-based Motility Tracking System (MTS-1) and standard radiopaque markers.

Karlsen, Stine; Fynne, Lotte

2012-01-01

40

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an 111In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal 111In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (75Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis

 
 
 
 
41

[Progress in the knowledge of the intestinal human microbiota].  

Science.gov (United States)

New sequencing technologies together with the development of bio-informatics allow a description of the full spectrum of the microbial communities that inhabit the human intestinal tract, as well as their functional contributions to host health. Most community members belong to the domain Bacteria, but Archaea, Eukaryotes (yeasts and protists), and Viruses are also present. Only 7 to 9 of the 55 known divisions or phyla of the domain Bacteria are detected in faecal or mucosal samples from the human gut. Most taxa belong to just two divisions: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the other divisions that have been consistently found are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium are the most abundant genera but their relative proportion is highly variable across individuals. Full metagenomic analysis has identified more than 5 million non-redundant microbial genes encoding up to 20,000 biological functions related with life in the intestinal habitat. The overall structure of predominant genera in the human gut can be assigned into three robust clusters, which are known as "enterotypes". Each of the three enterotypes is identifiable by the levels of one of three genera: Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). This suggests that microbiota variations across individuals are stratified, not continuous. Next steps include the identification of changes that may play a role in certain disease states. A better knowledge of the contributions of microbial symbionts to host health will help in the design of interventions to improve symbiosis and combat disease. PMID:23848071

Robles-Alonso, Virginia; Guarner, Francisco

2013-01-01

42

Impaired transit of chyme in chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Correction by cisapride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is a clinical syndrome whose pathophysiology, objective diagnosis, and treatment are poorly understood. We investigated 8 patients with this syndrome in whom intestinal dysmotility was established manometrically by two or more of the following criteria: abnormal configuration or propagation of interdigestive motor complexes, sustained incoordinate pressure activity, non-propagated bursts of phasic pressure activity, and failure of a solid-liquid meal to induce a fed pattern. To establish the functional impairment and region of the gut primarily affected by the disease, we quantified radio-scintigraphically the gastrointestinal transit of the solid (131I-fiber) and liquid (99 mTc-DTPA) components of a meal. Our techniques allowed us to quantify separately gastric emptying and pylorus-to-cecum transit. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of a new prokinetic agent, cisapride. Gastric emptying times in pseudoobstruction were not significantly delayed; however, transit times through the small bowel (t1/2) were markedly prolonged (solids, 235 +/- 43 min (mean +/- SEM) vs. 138 +/- 25 controls, p less than 0.05; liquids, 310 +/- 67 vs. 181 +/- 28 controls, p = 0.07). Cisapride was effective in reducing the delayed intestinal transit time to within the normal range (delta solids = -115 +/- 25 min; delta liquids = -146 +/- 71 min; p less than 0.05 for both). These studies suggest that intestinal dysmotility in this group of patients with pseudoobstruction was associated with delayed small bowel transit of radiolabeled solid and liquid components of chyme. Cisapride can restore to normal the delayed transit, indicating that it may potentially correct the impaired propulsive activity in the small bowel of these patients.

Camilleri, M.; Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

1986-09-01

43

Impaired transit of chyme in chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Correction by cisapride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction is a clinical syndrome whose pathophysiology, objective diagnosis, and treatment are poorly understood. We investigated 8 patients with this syndrome in whom intestinal dysmotility was established manometrically by two or more of the following criteria: abnormal configuration or propagation of interdigestive motor complexes, sustained incoordinate pressure activity, non-propagated bursts of phasic pressure activity, and failure of a solid-liquid meal to induce a fed pattern. To establish the functional impairment and region of the gut primarily affected by the disease, we quantified radio-scintigraphically the gastrointestinal transit of the solid (131I-fiber) and liquid (99 mTc-DTPA) components of a meal. Our techniques allowed us to quantify separately gastric emptying and pylorus-to-cecum transit. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of a new prokinetic agent, cisapride. Gastric emptying times in pseudoobstruction were not significantly delayed; however, transit times through the small bowel (t1/2) were markedly prolonged [solids, 235 +/- 43 min (mean +/- SEM) vs. 138 +/- 25 controls, p less than 0.05; liquids, 310 +/- 67 vs. 181 +/- 28 controls, p = 0.07]. Cisapride was effective in reducing the delayed intestinal transit time to within the normal range (delta solids = -115 +/- 25 min; delta liquids = -146 +/- 71 min; p less than 0.05 for both). These studies suggest that intestinal dysmotility in this group of patients with pseudoobstruction was associated with delayed small bowel transit of radiolabeled solid and liquid components of chyme. Cisapride can restore to normal the delayed transit, indicating that it may potentially correct the impaired propulsive activity in the small bowel of these patients

44

Three dimensional human small intestine models for ADME-Tox studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro human small intestine models play a crucial part in preclinical drug development. Although conventional 2D systems possess many advantages, such as facile accessibility and high-throughput capability, they can also provide misleading results due to their relatively poor recapitulation of in vivo physiology. Significant progress has recently been made in developing 3D human small intestine models, suggesting that more-reliable preclinical results could be obtained by recreating the 3D intestinal microenvironment in vitro. Although there are still many challenges, 3D human small intestine models have the potential to facilitate drug screening and drug development. PMID:24853950

Yu, Jiajie; Carrier, Rebecca L; March, John C; Griffith, Linda G

2014-10-01

45

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced intestinal inflammation in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the small intestine in humans. Using an /sup 111/In-leukocyte technique in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 90) and osteoarthritis (n = 7), it appears that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs cause small intestinal inflammation in two-thirds of patients on long-term treatment and on discontinuation, the inflammation may persist for up to 16 mo. The prevalence and magnitude of the intestinal inflammation was unrelated to the type and dose of nonsteroidal drugs and previous or concomitant second-line drug treatment. There was a significant inverse correlation (r = -0.29, p less than 0.05) between fecal /sup 111/In excretion and hemoglobin levels in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. The kinetics of fecal indium 111 excretion in patients treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs was almost identical to that of patients with small bowel Crohn's disease. Eighteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs underwent a radiologic examination of the small bowel and 3 were found to have asymptomatic ileal disease with ulceration and strictures. Nineteen patients on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, 20 healthy controls, and 13 patients with Crohn's ileitis underwent a dual radioisotopic ileal function test with tauro 23 (/sup 75/Se) selena-25-homocholic acid and cobalt 58-labeled cyanocobalamine. On day 4, more than half of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, but the ileal dysfunction was much milder than seen in patients with Crohn's ileitis.

Bjarnason, I.; Zanelli, G.; Smith, T.; Prouse, P.; Williams, P.; Smethurst, P.; Delacey, G.; Gumpel, M.J.; Levi, A.J.

1987-09-01

46

Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbiota that colonizes the human intestinal tract is complex and its structure is specific for each of us. In this study we expand the knowledge about the stability of the subject-specific microbiota and show that this ecosystem is stable in short-term intervals (?10 years). The faecal microbiota composition of five unrelated and healthy subjects was analysed using a comprehensive and highly reproducible phylogenetic microarray, the HITChip. The results show that the use of antibiotics, application of specific dietary regimes and distant travelling have limited impact on the microbiota composition. Several anaerobic genera, including Bifidobacterium and a number of genera within the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes phylum, exhibit significantly higher similarity than the total microbiota. Although the gut microbiota contains subject-specific species, the presence of which is preserved throughout the years, their relative abundance changes considerably. Consequently, the recently proposed enterotype status appears to be a varying characteristic of the microbiota. Our data show that the intestinal microbiota contains a core community of permanent colonizers, and that environmentally introduced changes of the microbiota throughout adulthood are primarily affecting the abundance but not the presence of specific microbial species. PMID:23286720

Rajili?-Stojanovi?, Mirjana; Heilig, Hans G H J; Tims, Sebastian; Zoetendal, Erwin G; de Vos, Willem M

2012-10-15

47

Intestinal motility and transit following chronic ingestion of different forms of palm oil diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at finding the effect of palm oil diets on the small intestinal motor activity and transit in rats. Adult albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten rats each. The first group was fed on rat chow containing 15% (wt/wt) of fresh palm oil diets for fifteen weeks. The second was fed on rat chow containing 15% (wt/wt) thermally oxidized diet while the third group was the control and so was fed on rat chow only. Water and feed were allowed freely to all the groups. Intestinal motility and transit were measured after the feeding period. Results show that there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in basal tone of the ileum from rats fed on thermally oxidized palm oil diet when compared with fresh palm oil fed and control diets respectively. Contraction to acetylcholine (10(-11) - 10(-5)M) showed a biphasic tone with highest contraction at lower doses of acetylcholine and lowest tone at 10(-7)M in both fresh palm oil-fed and thermally oxidized oil-fed groups when compared with control. There was a significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inhibition of atropine effect in the oxidized oil fed group when compared with control while there was a significant (P < 0.01) increase in transit of food material in the intestine of oxidized oil-fed group when compared with control and fresh palm oil-fed groups. These results show that chronic ingestion of oxidized palm oil diet causes an increase in basal tone of ileum and enhances intestinal motility and transit in the rat. PMID:19434222

Obembe, A O; Okwari, O O; Owu, D U; Antai, A B; Osim, E E

2008-01-01

48

Intestinal proliferation and delayed intestinal transit in a patient with a GLP-1-, GLP-2- and PYY-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucagon-like peptides (GLP) 1 and 2 are hormones derived from the post-translational processing of proglucagon in the intestinal L cells that influence intestinal motility and small bowel growth, respectively. We describe a patient with a neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary origin with peritoneal carcinomatosis and diffuse liver metastases, who presented with constipation and nocturnal itching for over 3 years. Small bowel follow-through showed decreased small intestinal motility and marked intestinal hypertrophy. Biopsies from mesenterial lymph nodes showed, histologically, a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (G1), with positive immunostaining for chromogranin A, GLP-1, GLP-2 and polypeptide YY (PYY). Jejunal biopsy demonstrated marked intestinal mucosal hypertrophy. HPLC analysis combined with RIA of tumor and serum extracts revealed that the tumor was producing and releasing fasting levels of GLP-1 of 738+/-20.7 pg/ml (normal levels (nl) dacarbazine therapy and the patient died 8 months later. This is the first case report demonstrating the overproduction of GLP-1, GLP-2 and PYY from an neuroendocrine tumor, in a patient with intestinal hypertrophy and delayed intestinal transit time. PMID:11173902

Byrne, M M; McGregor, G P; Barth, P; Rothmund, M; Göke, B; Arnold, R

2001-01-01

49

Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

Troncon L.E.A.

2000-01-01

50

Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells

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Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant. PMID:24696582

Majumder, Sayani; Ashok, B K; Nishteswar, K

2013-10-01

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Human and simulated intestinal fluids as solvent systems to explore food effects on intestinal solubility and permeability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mixed micelles and vesicles present in the intraluminal environment of the postprandial state exhibit suitable solubilizing capacities for lipophilic drugs. This increase in solubility, however, is accompanied by a decrease in the free fraction caused by micellar entrapment of these lipophilic compounds. In this study, both simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of fasted and fed state conditions were used to evaluate the influence of food on the intestinal disposition of a series of structurally related ?-blockers, with varying logP values. Using the in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling in rats, it was demonstrated that fed state conditions significantly decreased the absorptive flux of the more lipophilic compounds metoprolol, propranolol and carvedilol, whereas the influence on the flux of the hydrophilic ?-blocker atenolol was limited. The solubility of BCS class II compound carvedilol was found to increase significantly in simulated and aspirated media of the fed state. Intestinal perfusions using intestinal media saturated with carvedilol, revealed a higher flux in the fasted state compared to the fed state, despite the higher solubility in the fed state. This study underscores the importance of addressing the complex nature of the behavior of compounds in the intraluminal environment in fasted and fed state conditions. Moreover, our data point out the value of studying the effect of food on both solubility and permeability using biorelevant experimental conditions. PMID:25063035

Stappaerts, Jef; Wuyts, Benjamin; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

2014-10-15

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Small intestinal transit in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension: a descriptive study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal dysmotility may be involved in the development of bacterial translocation and infection in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to describe gastric, small intestinal and colorectal motility and transit in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension using a magnet-based Motility Tracking System (MTS-1 and standard radiopaque markers. Methods We included 15 patients with liver cirrhosis (8 Child-Pugh A, 6 Child-Pugh B, and 1 Child-Pugh C and portal hypertension (11 males, median age 54?years (range 38–73, median hepatic venous pressure gradient 18?mmHg (range 12–37, and 18 healthy controls (8 males, median age 58?years (range 34–64. The gastric emptying time and small intestinal motility were evaluated by MTS-1, and the total gastrointestinal transit time was assessed by radiopaque markers and abdominal radiographs. Results The velocity through the proximal small intestine was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients (median 1.27 metres (m/hour, range 0.82–2.68 than in the healthy controls (median 1.00?m/hour, range 0.46–1.88 (p?=?0.03. Likewise, the magnet travelled significantly longer in both fast (p?=?0.04 and slow movements (p?=?0.05 in the patient group. There was no significant difference in either gastric emptying time—23?minutes (range 5–131 in patients and 29?minutes (range 10.5–182 in healthy controls (p?=?0.43—or total gastrointestinal transit time—1.6?days (range 0.5–2.9 in patients and 2.0?days (range 1.0–3.9 in healthy controls (p?=?0.33. No correlation was observed between the hepatic venous pressure gradient and the velocity of the magnet through the small intestine. Conclusion Patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension demonstrated faster-than-normal transit through the proximal small intestine. This may be due to an overactive bowel, as suggested by previous studies.

Karlsen Stine

2012-12-01

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Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Although malabsorption of small amounts of fructose-sorbitol mixtures occurs frequently in healthy humans, insights into their effects on gastrointestinal motility are poor. The present study addresses the hypothesis that malabsorption of a fructose-sorbitol challenge changes the small intestinal transit rate. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind crossover investigation. In random order, the subjects ingested 30 g glucose or a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol as 10% solutions. As a radiolabeled marker, (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was added to each test solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after ingestion of glucose did not differ from that after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture (P = 0.7897). However, the mouth-to-cecum transit of the radiolabeled marker was faster (P = 0.0033) and the percentage content of the marker in colon was higher after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture than after ingestion of glucose (P = 0.0128). In healthy humans, malabsorption of small amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture accelerates small bowel transit.

Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Linnet, J

2006-01-01

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Effect of pregnancy on intestinal transit: comparison of results using radioactive and non-radioactive test meals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were performed to determine the effect of pregnancy on both gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal transit. Gastrointestinal transit was examined by determining the leading edge of distribution within the small intestine of a charcoal marker placed directly into the stomach. Intestinal transit was evaluated by quantifying the distribution of a radiolabelled marker placed dirrectly into the duodenum. The distribution of the marker was determined (1) by calculating the slope of the distribution curve and (2) by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radioisotope. In all studies the data from animals in either the second or third trimester of pregnancy were compared with the results obtained from non-pregnant females. The results confirm previous observations that gastrointestinal transit is reduced during the latter stages of pregnancy. This can be explained, at least in part, by a decreased intestinal transit. The data also suggest that analysis of the geometric center of distribution provides a more sensitive and reliable measure of intestinal transit than does analysis of the slope of the distribution curve

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Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine.  

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The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOSs) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOSs was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by cHMOSs, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOSs attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/2 and IL-1?), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. In all, 3'-, 4-, and 6'-galactosyllactoses of cHMOSs account for specific immunomodulation of polyinosinic:polycytodylic acid-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOSs attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system. PMID:24691111

He, Y; Liu, S; Leone, S; Newburg, D S

2014-11-01

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Illness behavior, affective disturbance and intestinal transit time in idiopathic constipation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with constipation differ not only from healthy subjects but can also be categorized into two groups: slow transit constipation (STC) and normal transit constipation (NTC) using measures of total intestinal transit time (TITT). We investigated the role of illness behavior and affective state in 45 NTC and 29 STC patients as compared with 20 healthy subjects. All subjects completed the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ), and the CES-D to assess illness behavior, psychological distress, and depression. The constipated patients reported more psychological distress than healthy subjects. Within the constipated group, the NTC subjects had significantly higher scores on the IBQ dimensions of hypochondriasis and disease affirmation. Our results suggest that even among constipated patients psychological distress is prominent and that measures of illness behavior help to discriminate among different pathophysiological groups. PMID:9055217

Chattat, R; Bazzocchi, G; Balloni, M; Conti, E; Ercolani, M; Zaccaroni, S; Grilli, T; Trombini, G

1997-01-01

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Formation and blood supply of the large intestine in human neonates  

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Full Text Available A study of the large intestine has been carried out on 24 specimens of human newborns. It has been established that the form and size of the neonates large intestine demonstrated a sidnificant individual variability. The hepatic and splenic flexures of the colon had different relations with the inferior border of the liver and spleen.

Haina N.I.

2008-01-01

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Zingerone regulates intestinal transit, attenuates behavioral and oxidative perturbations in irritable bowel disorder in rats.  

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Stress can lead to the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal disorders, the most prominent being irritable bowel disorder. The present study investigated the impact zingerone in ameliorating chronic water stress induced irritable bowel disorder, brain gut axis dysfunction and dysregulation of the intestinal barrier due to oxidative stress. Rats were randomly allocated to groups and subjected to chronic water stress for a period of 21 days for 1h and the fecal pellet output was measured. At the end of chronic stress, behavioral assessment for anxiety like behavior was recorded and plasma corticosterone levels were measured 60min after water stress. The colonic transit was determined, levels of oxidative and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the colon homogenate. Myeloperoxidase activity was determined as an indirect index of neutrophil infiltration. Chronic water stress increased the rate of colonic transit, fecal output, induced behavioral changes, and decreased antioxidant levels. An increase in lipid peroxide levels, catalase and corticosterone was observed. Mast cell infiltration was evident in the stressed group. Zingerone significantly reduced colonic transit, fecal output, neutrophil infiltration, and lipid peroxide formation. The levels of catalase were not altered; however, a marginal increase in the levels of glutathione peroxidase was observed. Zingerone significantly enhanced the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased the levels of corticosterone. Zingerone produced marked improvement in stress induced irritable bowel disorder which could be attributed to the powerful antioxidant nature, direct effect on the intestinal smooth muscle and adaptogenic nature. PMID:24262066

Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pavani, Bandlapalli; Kranthi Kumar, Ch; Annamalai, A R

2014-03-15

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Permeability of rhynchophylline across human intestinal cell in vitro.  

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Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is the major component of Uncaria species, which is used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. However, its oral bioavailability has not been known. This study aims to investigate the intestinal permeability and related mechanisms of Rhy using cultured human epithelial Caco-2 cells. The cytotoxicity of Rhy on Caco-2 cells was evaluated with MTT assay. The effect of Rhy on the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer was assayed with transepithelial electrical resistance. The permeability of Rhy across cell monolayer was assayed by measuring Rhy quantity in received side with HPLC. The effect of Rhy on the expression of P-glycoprotein and MDR1 was detected with Western blot and flow cytometry, respectively. In the concentration of Rhy, which did not produce toxicity on cell viability and integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayer, Rhy crossed the monolayer with velocity 2.76~5.57×10^-6 cm/sec and 10.68~15.66×10^-6 cm/sec from apical to basolateral side and from basolateral to apical side, respectively. The permeability of Rhy was increased by verapamil, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, or rhodamine123, a P-glycoprotein substrate. Rhy revealed an induction effect on P-glycoprotein expression in Caco-2 cells. These results demonstrate the low permeability of Rhy in intro, and suggest that P-glycoprotein may underlie the mechanism. PMID:24966905

Ma, Bo; Wang, Jing; Sun, Jing; Li, Ming; Xu, Huibo; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Clinical features of human intestinal capillariasis in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human intestinal capillariasis is a rare parasitosis that was first recognized in the Philippines in the 1960 s. Parasitosis is a life threatening disease and has been reported from Thailand, Japan, South of Taiwan (Kaoh-Siung), Korea, Iran, Egypt, Italy and Spain. Its clinical symptoms are characterized by chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, borborygmus, marked weight loss, protein and electrolyte loss and cachexia. Capillariasis may be fatal if early treatment is not given. We reported 14 cases living in rural areas of Taiwan. Three cases had histories of travelling to Thailand. They might have been infected in Thailand while stayed there. Two cases had the diet of raw freshwater fish before. Three cases received emergency laparotomy due to peritonitis and two cases were found of enteritis cystica profunda. According to the route of transmission, freshwater and brackish-water fish may act as the intermediate host of the parasite. The most simple and convenient method of diagnosing capillariasis is stool examination. Two cases were diagnosed by histology. Mebendazole or albendezole 200 mg orally twice a day for 20-30 d is the treatment of choice. All the patients were cured, and relapses were not observed within 12 mo. PMID:15285025

Bair, Ming-Jong; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Wang, Tsang-En; Liou, Tai-Cherng; Lin, Shee-Chan; Kao, Chin-Roa; Wang, Tao-Yeuan; Pang, Kwok-Kuen

2004-08-15

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Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The target population proposed by the applicant is people who want to improve or maintain normal bowel function. The Panel considers that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological weaknesses whereas one human intervention study showed no effect of the consumption of sugar beet fibre on decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that one human study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim showed no effect of sugar beet fibre on intestinal (orofaecal) transit time. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011

2011-01-01

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Sildenafil delays the intestinal transit of a liquid meal in awake rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sildenafil slows down the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal in awake rats and inhibits the contractility of intestinal tissue strips. We studied the acute effects of sildenafil on in vivo intestinal transit in rats. Fasted, male albino rats (180-220 g, N = 44) were treated (0.2 mL, iv) with sil [...] denafil (4 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.01 N HCl). Ten minutes later they were fed a liquid test meal (99m technetium-labeled saline) injected directly into the duodenum. Twenty, 30 or 40 min after feeding, the rats were killed and transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by progression of the radiotracer using the geometric center method. The effect of sildenafil on mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored in a separate group of rats (N = 14). Data (medians within interquartile ranges) were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test. The location of the geometric center was significantly more distal in vehicle-treated than in sildenafil-treated rats at 20, 30, and 40 min after test meal instillation (3.3 (3.0-3.6) vs 2.9 (2.7-3.1); 3.8 (3.4-4.0) vs 2.9 (2.5-3.1), and 4.3 (3.9-4.5) vs 3.4 (3.2-3.7), respectively; P

J.R.V, Graça; G.M, Macedo; R.C, Palheta Jr; F. de A.A, Gondim; R.O, Nogueira; J.M, Correia; F.H, Rola; R.B, Oliveira; M.A.N, Souza; A.A, Santos.

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Sildenafil delays the intestinal transit of a liquid meal in awake rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Sildenafil slows down the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal in awake rats and inhibits the contractility of intestinal tissue strips. We studied the acute effects of sildenafil on in vivo intestinal transit in rats. Fasted, male albino rats (180-220 g, N = 44) were treated (0.2 mL, iv) with sil [...] denafil (4 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.01 N HCl). Ten minutes later they were fed a liquid test meal (99m technetium-labeled saline) injected directly into the duodenum. Twenty, 30 or 40 min after feeding, the rats were killed and transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by progression of the radiotracer using the geometric center method. The effect of sildenafil on mean arterial pressure (MAP) was monitored in a separate group of rats (N = 14). Data (medians within interquartile ranges) were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test. The location of the geometric center was significantly more distal in vehicle-treated than in sildenafil-treated rats at 20, 30, and 40 min after test meal instillation (3.3 (3.0-3.6) vs 2.9 (2.7-3.1); 3.8 (3.4-4.0) vs 2.9 (2.5-3.1), and 4.3 (3.9-4.5) vs 3.4 (3.2-3.7), respectively; P

J.R.V, Graça; G.M, Macedo; R.C, Palheta Jr; F. de A.A, Gondim; R.O, Nogueira; J.M, Correia; F.H, Rola; R.B, Oliveira; M.A.N, Souza; A.A, Santos.

2008-01-01

65

Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effects of a fraction (T1) of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. S [...] corpion toxin (250 µg/kg) or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g) labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq) was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml) through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95%) was significantly higher (P

L.E.A., Troncon; A.A., Santos; V.L., Garbacio; M., Secaf; A.V., Verceze; J.R., Cunha-Melo.

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Microbial modulation of energy availability in the colon regulates intestinal transit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gut microbiota contribute to host metabolic efficiency by increasing energy availability through the fermentation of dietary fiber and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon. SCFAs are proposed to stimulate secretion of the proglucagon (Gcg)-derived incretin hormone GLP-1, which stimulates insulin secretion (incretin response) and inhibits gastric emptying. We find that germ-free (GF) and antibiotic-treated mice, which have severely reduced SCFA levels, have increased basal GLP-1 levels in the plasma and increased Gcg expression in the colon. Increasing energy supply, either through colonization with polysaccharide-fermenting bacteria or through diet, suppressed colonic Gcg expression in GF mice. Increased GLP-1 levels in GF mice did not improve the incretin response but instead slowed intestinal transit. Thus, microbiota regulate the basal levels of GLP-1, and increasing these levels may be an adaptive response to insufficient energy availability in the colon that slows intestinal transit and allows for greater nutrient absorption. PMID:24237703

Wichmann, Anita; Allahyar, Ava; Greiner, Thomas U; Plovier, Hubert; Lundén, Gunnel Östergren; Larsson, Thomas; Drucker, Daniel J; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Bäckhed, Fredrik

2013-11-13

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Adhesion and absorption of Tc-99 labelled tracers for estimating the intestinal transit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid, semisolid and solid markers are used to calculate esophageal transit, gastric emptying or intestinal transit. The purpose of this study was to prove in vivo stability and wall absorption. 41 Wistar rats were fed with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (n=11), sup(99m)Tc-labeled chicken liver (n=11), sup(99m)Tc-Chelex (n=11) or sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (n=8). One to three hours later the animals were killed, the gut was dissected and rinsed with water. The water for rinsing, the activity of the intestinal wall and other organs were measured in a whole body counter. The calculated fractions (%) of intraluminal (1), wall-absorbed (W) and extraintestianl (E) activity in relation to total counts were: DPTA: (1) 89 +- 3.2, (W) 8 +- 2.1, (E) 2.3 +- 1.6. CHELEX: (1) 98.8 +- 0.6, (W) 0.9 +-0.4, (E) 0.3 +- 0.4. CHICKEN LIVER: (1) 96.9 +- 1.3, (W) 2.3 +- 1.1, (E) 0.8 +- 0.8. PERTECHNETATE: (1) 36.4 +- 12, (W) 9.5 +- 2.7, (E) 54.2 +- 13. The differences were significant between all groups (p<0.05). The most inert tracer is Chelex which, in contrast to chicken liver, is simple to handle and is different to liquid tracers in intraluminal kinetics. Clinical use is proposed. (Author)

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Espiroquetosis intestinal humana: serie clínica y revisión de la literatura Human intestinal spirochetosis: clinical series and literature review  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La espiroquetosis intestinal humana (EIH se define como la colonización del intestino grueso por espiroquetas. Se asocia a diarrea crónica. Su incidencia y prevalencia van desde 0,4 a 12% Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de EIH en el Hospital Del Salvador, de Santiago, Chile, entre los años 2003 y 2008, en pacientes con antecedentes clínicos de diarrea crónica y colonoscopia sin hallazgos patológicos, separados en dos grupos: pacientes con y sin antecedentes de infección por VIH. Material y Método: Evaluación morfológica retrospectiva de las biopsias endoscópicas de intestino grueso de los grupos seleccionados. Resultados: Se revisaron 115 biopsias, 98 correspondieron a pacientes sin infección por VIH y 17 a pacientes seropositivos para VIH. Se detectaron dos casos de espiroquetosis intestinal, ambos en pacientes sin infección por VIH, con una prevalencia de 1,7 %. Comentario: La prevalencia de EIH es similar a la publicada en países occidentales. Se requieren estudios poblacionales para determinar el real impacto epidemiológico en nuestro medio.Introduction: Human intestinal spirochetosis (HIE is defined as colonization by spirochetes of the large intestine. Is associated with chronic diarrhea. The incidence and prevalence ranges from 0.4% to 12%. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIE in the Salvador's Hospital, between 2003 and 2008 in patients with a history of chronic diarrhea and without abnormalities in colonoscopy, in 2 separate groups: patients with and without a history of HIV infection. Material and Methods: Retrospective morphology evaluation of the large bowel endoscopic biopsies to the selected groups. Results: We reviewed 115 biopsies, 98 were from HIV-negative and 17 HIV from positive patients. Two cases of intestinal spirochetosis were detected, both HIV negative, with a prevalence of 1.7%. Comment: The prevalence of HIE is similar to that reported in Western countries. Population studies are needed to determine the real epidemiological impact in our environment.

Carlo Lozano

2012-08-01

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Diet and the development of the human intestinal microbiome  

Science.gov (United States)

The important role of the gut microbiome in maintaining human health has necessitated a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of intestinal microbial communities as well as the host and environmental factors driving these dynamics. Genetics, mode of birth, infant feeding patterns, antibiotic usage, sanitary living conditions and long term dietary habits contribute to shaping the composition of the gut microbiome. This review focuses primarily on diet, as it is one of the most pivotal factors in the development of the human gut microbiome from infancy to the elderly. The infant gut microbiota is characterized by a high degree of instability, only reaching a state similar to that of adults by 2–3 years of age; consistent with the establishment of a varied solid food diet. The diet-related factors influencing the development of the infant gut microbiome include whether the child is breast or formula-fed as well as how and when solid foods are introduced. In contrast to the infant gut, the adult gut microbiome is resilient to large shifts in community structure. Several studies have shown that dietary changes induce transient fluctuations in the adult microbiome, sometimes in as little as 24 h; however, the microbial community rapidly returns to its stable state. Current knowledge of how long-term dietary habits shape the gut microbiome is limited by the lack of long-term feeding studies coupled with temporal gut microbiota characterization. However, long-term weight loss studies have been shown to alter the ratio of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the two major bacterial phyla residing in the human gastrointestinal tract. With aging, diet-related factors such as malnutrition are associated with microbiome shifts, although the cause and effect relationship between these factors has not been established. Increased pharmaceutical usage is also more prevalent in the elderly and can contribute to reduced gut microbiota stability and diversity. Foods containing prebiotic oligosaccharide components that nurture beneficial commensals in the gut community and probiotic supplements are being explored as interventions to manipulate the gut microbiome, potentially improving health status. PMID:25295033

Voreades, Noah; Kozil, Anne; Weir, Tiffany L.

2014-01-01

70

Scale-up of in vitro permeation assay data to human intestinal permeability using pore theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to establish a theoretical method for the prediction of human intestinal permeability from in vitro permeation assay. Pore radius and porosity/length and ion selectivity of the paracellular pathway were calculated using the Renkin function using permeabilities of mannitol and urea and potential difference study to evaluate paracellular permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayer; they were calculated to be 5.91 ?, 7.51 cm(-1) and 2.75, respectively. These values in the human epithelium were calculated from the reported intestinal permeability. The area factor, which can correct the difference in the transcellular permeability between Caco-2 cell monolayer and human epithelium, was obtained using the ratio of permeability of high lipophilicity compounds (human/Caco-2) and was calculated to be 13.3. Paracellular and transcellular permeabilities of 9 compounds in human epithelium were estimated on the basis of the characteristics of the paracellular pathway using physicochemical properties of compounds and the area factor, respectively. Human intestinal permeabilities were predicted by the sum of estimated transcellular and paracellular permeabilities. A linear correlation whose slope and intercept were nearly 1 and 0, respectively, was observed between predicted and reported human intestinal permeabilities. We successfully predicted human intestinal permeability from in vitro data. PMID:21596118

Kataoka, Makoto; Iwai, Katsuaki; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

2011-07-29

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Comparative proteomic analysis of cell lines and scrapings of the human intestinal epithelium  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro models are indispensable study objects in the fields of cell and molecular biology, with advantages such as accessibility, homogeneity of the cell population, reproducibility, and growth rate. The Caco-2 cell line, originating from a colon carcinoma, is a widely used in vitro model for small intestinal epithelium. Cancer cells have an altered metabolism, making it difficult to infer their representativity for the tissue from which they are derived. This study was designed to compare the protein expression pattern of Caco-2 cells with the patterns of intestinal epithelial cells from human small and large intestine. HT-29 intestinal cells, Hep G2 liver cells and TE 671 muscle cells were included too, the latter two as negative controls. Results Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed on each tissue and cell line protein sample. Principal component and cluster analysis revealed that global expression of intestinal epithelial scrapings differed from that of intestinal epithelial cell lines. Since all cultured cell lines clustered together, this finding was ascribed to an adaptation of cells to culture conditions and their tumor origin, and responsible proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. When investigating the profiles of Caco-2 cells and small intestinal cells in detail, a considerable overlap was observed. Conclusion Numerous proteins showed a similar expression in Caco-2 cells, HT-29 cells, and both the intestinal scrapings, of which some appear to be characteristic to human intestinal epithelium in vivo. In addition, several biologically significant proteins are expressed at comparable levels in Caco-2 cells and small intestinal scrapings, indicating the usability of this in vitro model. Caco-2 cells, however, appear to over-express as well as under-express certain proteins, which needs to be considered by scientists using this cell line. Hence, care should be taken to prevent misinterpretation of in vitro obtained findings when translating them to the in vivo situation.

Renes Johan

2007-04-01

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Regional distribution of solute carrier mRNA expression along the human intestinal tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal absorption of drugs, nutrients, and other compounds is mediated by uptake transporters expressed at the apical enterocyte membrane. These compounds are returned to the intestinal lumen or released into portal circulation by intestinal efflux transporters expressed at apical or basolateral membranes, respectively. One important transporter superfamily, multiple members of which are intestinally expressed, are the solute carriers (SLCs). SLC expression levels may determine the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of these transporters. In this study we characterize the distribution of 15 human SLC transporter mRNAs in histologically normal biopsies from five regions of the intestine of 10 patients. The mRNA expression levels of CNT1, CNT2, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ABST), serotonin transporter (SERT), PEPT1, and OCTN2 exhibit marked differences between different regions of the intestine: the first five are predominantly expressed in the small intestine, whereas OCTN2 exhibits strongest expression in the colon. Two transporter mRNAs studied (OCTN1, OATP2B1) are expressed at similar levels in all gut sections. In addition, ENT2 mRNA is present at low levels across the colon, but not in the small intestine. The other six SLC mRNAs studied are not expressed in the intestine. Quantitative knowledge of transporter expression levels in different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract could be useful for designing intestinal delivery strategies for orally administered drugs. Furthermore, changes in transporter expression that occur in pathological states, such as inflammatory bowel disease, can now be defined more precisely by comparison with the expression levels measured in healthy individuals. PMID:17220238

Meier, Yvonne; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Darimont, Jutta; Ismair, Manfred G; Hiller, Christian; Fried, Michael; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Vavricka, Stephan R

2007-04-01

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Practical techniques for detection of Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4) in the human Intestine  

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The human intestine has evolved in the presence of a diverse array of luminal microorganisms. In order to maintain intestinal homeostasis, mucosal immune responses to these microorganisms must be tightly regulated. The intestine needs to be able to respond to pathogenic organisms while at the same time maintain tolerance to normal commensal flora. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in this delicate balance. TLRs are transmembrane non-catalytic receptor proteins that induce activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to microorganisms by recognizing structurally conserved molecular patterns of microbes. Expression of TLRs by intestinal epithelial cell is normally down-regulated to maintain immune tolerance to the luminal microorganisms. One of the challenges of TLR research in the human intestine is that it is difficult for many experimental methods to detect very low expression of TLRs within the intestinal mucosa. Quantitative methods such as PCR are limited in their ability to detect TLR expression by specific cell types within a tissue sample, which can be important when studying the contribution of TLR signaling to pathological conditions. In this regard, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is advantageous in that one can visualize the distribution and localization of target proteins within both normal and pathologic parts of a given tissue sample. We found that a subset of human colorectal cancers over-express TLR4 by means of immunoflourescence (IF) and IHC methods. Localization of TLR4 within cancer tissue often appears to be patchy, making IHC an appropriate way to examine these changes. We will describe our current techniques to detect TLR4 in paraffin-embedded human large intestine sections. Establishing a practical IHC technique that may provide consistent results between laboratories will significantly enhance understanding of the role of TLRs in human intestinal health and disease. PMID:19378023

Ungaro, Ryan; Abreu, Maria T.; Fukata, Masayuki

2009-01-01

74

Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats  

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Full Text Available We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT on gastric emptying (GE and on gastrointestinal (GI and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65 weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05 by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05 by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05 by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.

F. de-A.A. Gondim

1998-12-01

75

The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates  

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The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray analyses demonstrated that microbiota compositions that are typically found in effluent samples from ileostomists (subjects without a colon) can also be encountered in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Phylogenetic mapping of small intestinal metagenome of three different ileostomy effluent samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine.

Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen

2012-01-01

76

Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease  

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Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

1984-08-01

77

Association between the ABO blood group and the human intestinal microbiota composition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucus layer covering the human intestinal epithelium forms a dynamic surface for host-microbial interactions. In addition to the environmental factors affecting the intestinal equilibrium, such as diet, it is well established that the microbiota composition is individually driven, but the host factors determining the composition have remained unresolved. Results In this study, we show that ABO blood group is involved in differences in relative proportion and overall profiles of intestinal microbiota. Specifically, the microbiota from the individuals harbouring the B antigen (secretor B and AB differed from the non-B antigen groups and also showed higher diversity of the Eubacterium rectale-Clostridium coccoides (EREC and Clostridium leptum (CLEPT -groups in comparison with other blood groups. Conclusions Our novel finding indicates that the ABO blood group is one of the genetically determined host factors modulating the composition of the human intestinal microbiota, thus enabling new applications in the field of personalized nutrition and medicine.

Mäkivuokko Harri

2012-06-01

78

Characterization of two cysteine proteases secreted by Blastocystis ST7, a human intestinal parasite.  

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Blastocystis spp. are unicellular anaerobic intestinal parasites of both humans and animals and the most prevalent ones found in human stool samples. Their association with various gastrointestinal disorders raises the questions of its pathogenicity and of the molecular mechanisms involved. Since secreted proteases are well-known to be implicated in intestinal parasite virulence, we intended to determine whether Blastocystis spp. possess such pathogenic factors. In silico analysis of the Blastocystis subtype 7 (ST7) genome sequence highlighted 22 genes coding proteases which were predicted to be secreted. We characterized the proteolytic activities in the secretory products of Blastocystis ST7 using specific protease inhibitors. Two cysteine proteases, a cathepsin B and a legumain, were identified in the parasite culture supernatant by gelatin zymographic SDS-PAGE gel and MS/MS analysis. These proteases might act on intestinal cells and disturb gut function. This work provides serious molecular candidates to link Blastocystis spp. and intestinal disorders. PMID:22402106

Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Texier, Catherine; Poirier, Philippe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Tan, Kevin S W; Delbac, Frédéric; El Alaoui, Hicham

2012-09-01

79

Scintigraphic determination of the effect of metoclopramide and morphine on small intestinal transit time  

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To determine if a scintigraphic method could detect pharmacologic changes in small intestinal transit time (SITT), 10 male volunteers were studied at baseline and after intravenously administered metoclopramide (10 mg) and morphine (8 mg). Five of these volunteers were studied with the hydrogen breath test method for comparison. For each of the scintigraphic studies, the volunteers were positioned supine under a large-field-of-view gamma camera after ingesting an isosmotic lactulose solution containing 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Data were collected and stored in a computer. Both gastric emptying and SITT were determined. SITT was 81 +/- 11 min (mean +/- S.E.M.; N = 10) during baseline studies, was decreased significantly to 50 +/- 6 min (N = 10; P less than 0.01) after metoclopramide, and was increased significantly to 161 +/- 15 min (N = 8; P less than 0.01) after morphine. Baseline mean values were 86.3 +/- 15 min (N = 15) for the hydrogen breath tests, 47 +/- 8 min (N = 5) for metoclopramide, and 183 +/- 16 min (N = 5) for morphine. For gastric emptying, there was no significant difference in percentage emptying at 1 hr for baseline and metochopramide (82 +/- 5% vs. 88 +/- 4%). Morphine prolonged gastric emptying at 1 hr to 63 +/- 8%. We conclude that the scintigraphic method for measuring SITT permits accurate investigation of the pharmacologic effects on intestinal motility and, in addition, may be a useful research and clinical method for SITT determination.

Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; Winchenbach, K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

1988-01-01

80

High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. Results In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. Conclusion The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

Vitali Beatrice

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Effect of codeine and loperamide on upper intestinal transit and absorption in normal subjects and patients with postvagotomy diarrhoea.  

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Patients with chronic severe diarrhoea after truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty are often difficult to treat using conventional antidiarrhoeal drugs and remain severely disabled. We examined the effect of two drugs, codeine phosphate and loperamide, on upper intestinal transit and carbohydrate absorption, measured non-invasively by serial exhaled breath hydrogen monitoring, in patients with postvagotomy diarrhoea who had previously failed to gain relief from drug therapy. Orocaecal transit was...

O Brien, J. D.; Thompson, D. G.; Mcintyre, A.; Burnham, W. R.; Walker, E.

1988-01-01

82

Characterization of monocarboxylate transporter 6: expression in human intestine and transport of the antidiabetic drug nateglinide.  

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Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 6, encoded by SLC16A5, is a member of the monocarboxylate transporter family. Nateglinide, an oral hypoglycemic agent, quickly reaches the maximal serum concentration after its premeal administration. Although the functional existence of uptake systems for nateglinide in the intestine has been demonstrated, these transport systems have not yet been identified at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the localization of MCT6 in the human small intestine and characterize the transport properties of nateglinide via MCT6. Immunohistochemical analysis of the human small intestine revealed that anti-MCT6 antiserum stained the luminal side of the epithelial cells. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, MCT6-mediated uptake of [(14)C]nateglinide was sensitive to extracellular pH and membrane potential. Furthermore, the K(t) value of nateglinide (45.9 ?M) for MCT6 was lower than those previously reported in Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles. In addition, probenecid, fluorescein, valproic acid, and salicylic acid, which are inhibitors of nateglinide uptake in Caco-2 cells and rat intestine, did not inhibit the uptake of nateglinide via MCT6. These results suggest that MCT6 may play a role in the intestinal absorption of nateglinide, although other transporters are also likely involved. PMID:23935065

Kohyama, Noriko; Shiokawa, Hisae; Ohbayashi, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yasuna; Yamamoto, Toshinori

2013-11-01

83

Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens  

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1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light schedule with two equally spaced 4-h scotoperiods (DARK 4þ4), which yielded the same total duration of darkness per 24 h. 3. Feeding behaviour was recorded weekly from 24-h video recordings of 24 groups each of 64 birds. Empty intestinal weights as well as their contents were measured weekly at 4 time points (n¼192). Digestive transit time was estimated on d 29 using a chromic oxide marker; production variables and the extent of foot pad dermatitis were also recorded. 4. In the 3 h prior to a scotoperiod, feeding activity increased in chickens from DARK 8 but not DARK 4þ4. This increase was reflected in a higher relative content of the crop in DARK 8 at this time. 5. Immediately following the scotoperiod, feeding activity peaked and, although the chickens in DARK 4þ4 expressed more feeding behaviour in the first 20 min after the scotoperiod, the chickens in DARK 8 had overall higher feeding activity across the day. However, DARK 4þ4 had a higher feed intake and weight gain. The occurrence and severity of foot pad dermatitis was similar between treatments. 6. In conclusion, broilers modify their feeding behaviour according to the prevailing light schedule. Eight consecutive hours of darkness reduced growth, but did not affect overall feed conversion efficiency, and did not appear to exacerbate hunger or foot pad dermatitis to any great extent.

Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna

2011-01-01

84

Staphylococcus aureus adheres to human intestinal mucus but can be displaced by certain lactic acid bacteria.  

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There is increasing evidence that Staphylococcus aureus may colonize the intestinal tract, especially among hospitalized patients. As Staph. aureus has been found to be associated with certain gastrointestinal diseases, it has become important to study whether this bacterium can colonize the intestinal tract and if so, whether it is possible to prevent colonization. Adhesion is the first step in colonization; this study shows that Staph. aureus adheres to mucus from resected human intestinal tissue. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly commercial probiotics, were able to reduce adhesion and viability of adherent Staph. aureus. In displacement assays the amount of adherent Staph. aureus in human intestinal mucus was reduced 39-44% by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii. Moreover, adherent Lactobacillus reuteri, Lc. lactis and P. freudenreichii reduced viability of adherent Staph. aureus by 27-36%, depending on the strain, after 2 h incubation. This was probably due to the production of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide and possibly in the case of L. reuteri to the production of reuterin. This study shows for the first time that Staph. aureus can adhere to human intestinal mucus and adherent bacteria can be displaced and killed by certain LAB strains via in situ production of antimicrobial substances. PMID:16735744

Vesterlund, Satu; Karp, Matti; Salminen, Seppo; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2006-06-01

85

Influence of postoperative epidural analgesia with bupivacaine on intestinal motility, transit time, and anastomotic healing.  

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Epidural application of bupivacaine has been suggested to have a sympatholytic effect on spinal reflex mechanisms that shortens postoperative paralysis and leads to an improved transit time. The influence on anastomitic healing remains controversial. Laparotomy was performed in eight dogs. A short segment of the distal colon was resected and five electrodes were fixed on the serosa to measure the myoelectric activity (e.g., Migrating Myoelectric Complex--MMC). After operation a peridural catheter was placed between L7 and the sacral crest. One milliliter of bupivacaine 0.25% for each 3 kg of body weight was injected every 4 hours. Barium pellets coated in wax were placed into the stomach to allow radiographic representation of transit time. After 5 days the colon anastomosis was resected to measure the bursting pressure. In the peridural analgesia group (PDA) we found one small bowel intussusception and one covered anastomotic leakage. Postoperative PDA led to early and severe myoelectric activity but did not influence the time until the first MMC occurred (44 +/- 0.8 h, PDA; 44.6 +/- 1.5 h,control). Neither the transit time to the colon (50.2 +/- 1.9h, PDA; 51.7 +/- 5.5 h, control) nor the anastomotic healing was influenced (bursting pressure: 176 +/- 21.1 mmHg, PDA; 152 +/- 27.7 mmHg, control). Postoperative epidural analgesia with bupivacaine shortens intestinal paralysis. Early myoelectric activity with a lack of propulsive activity can cause complications like small bowel intussusception. Hence early postoperative enteral nutrition after epidural analgesia is risky. Because the influence of epidural analgesia on propulsive motility remains unclear, it seems reasonable to recommend its limited use in colon surgery. PMID:11865365

Jansen, Marc; Fass, Jürgen; Tittel, Andreas; Mumme, Thorsten; Anurov, Michael; Titkova, Svetlana; Polivoda, Michael; Ottinger, Alexander; Schumpelick, Volker

2002-03-01

86

Cooperation between MEF2 and PPAR? in human intestinal ?,?-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase gene expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. ?, ?-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1 catalyzes the central cleavage of ?-carotene to all-trans retinal and is the key enzyme in the intestinal metabolism of carotenes to vitamin A. However, human and various rodent species show markedly different efficiencies in intestinal BCMO1-mediated carotene to retinoid conversion. The aim of this study is to identify potentially human-specific regulatory control mechanisms of BCMO1 gene expression. Results We identified and functionally characterized the human BCMO1 promoter sequence and determined the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene in a BCMO1 expressing human intestinal cell line, TC-7. Several functional transcription factor-binding sites were identified in the human promoter that are absent in the mouse BCMO1 promoter. We demonstrate that the proximal promoter sequence, nt -190 to +35, confers basal transcriptional activity of the human BCMO1 gene. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR binding elements resulted in decreased basal promoter activity. Mutation of both promoter elements abrogated the expression of intestinal cell BCMO1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays and transcription factor co-expression in TC-7 cells showed MEF2C and PPAR? bind to their respective DNA elements and synergistically transactivate BCMO1 expression. Conclusion We demonstrate that human intestinal cell BCMO1 expression is dependent on the functional cooperation between PPAR? and MEF2 isoforms. The findings suggest that the interaction between MEF2 and PPAR factors may provide a molecular basis for interspecies differences in the transcriptional regulation of the BCMO1 gene.

Yan Bingfang

2006-02-01

87

Identification of the transcriptional response of human intestinal mucosa to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge on the extent and dynamics of the mucosal response to commensal and probiotic species in the human intestinal lumen. This study aimed to identify the acute, time-dependent responses of intestinal mucosa to commensal Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in vivo in two placebo-controlled human intervention studies in healthy volunteers. Transcriptional changes in duodenal mucosa upon continuous intraduodenal infusion of L. plantarum WCFS1 for one- and six h, respectively, were studied using oro- and nasogastric intubations with dedicated orogastric catheters and tissue sampling by standard flexible gastroduodenoscopy. Results One- and six-h exposure of small intestinal mucosa to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced differential expression of 669 and 424 gene reporters, respectively. While short-term exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 inhibited fatty acid metabolism and cell cycle progression, cells switched to a more proliferative phase after prolonged exposure with an overall expression profile characterized by upregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, cellular growth and development. Cell death and immune responses were triggered, but cell death-executing genes or inflammatory signals were not expressed. Proteome analysis showed differential expression of several proteins. Only the microsomal protein 'microsomal triglyceride transfer protein' was regulated on both the transcriptional and the protein level in all subjects. Conclusion Overall, this study showed that intestinal exposure to L. plantarum WCFS1 induced consistent, time-dependent transcriptional responses in healthy intestinal mucosa. This extensive exploration of the human response to L. plantarum WCFS1 could eventually provide molecular support for specific or probiotic activity of this strain or species, and exemplifies the strength of the applied technology to identify the potential bio-activity of microbes in the human intestine.

Kodde Andrea

2008-08-01

88

Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT) on gastric emptying (GE) and on gastrointestinal (GI) and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65) weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between [...] C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution) was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml) and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P

F. de-A.A., Gondim; J.R.V., da-Graça; G.R., de-Oliveira; M.C.V., Rêgo; R.B.M., Gondim; F.H., Rola.

89

Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT) on gastric emptying (GE) and on gastrointestinal (GI) and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65) weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between [...] C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution) was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml) and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P

F. de-A.A., Gondim; J.R.V., da-Graça; G.R., de-Oliveira; M.C.V., Rêgo; R.B.M., Gondim; F.H., Rola.

1998-12-01

90

Morphological changes in the enteric nervous system caused by carcinoma of the human large intestine.  

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Full Text Available The innervations of the large intestine is responsible for it peristalsis and contractibility. Investigations of the enteric nervous system in many colon diseases have revealed changes in this structure. No study has been carried out on morphological changes of the enteric nervous system in the human large intestine with carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate potential changes in the structure of the enteric neurons in patients with sigmoid and rectal cancer. Material for the study was obtained from patients undergoing operations due to carcinoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum. Microscopic observation of the cancerous tumor of the human large intestine revealed changes in the enteric nervous system innervating this part of the gastrointestinal tract. In the region of the enteric plexuses located close to the tumour, disruption of their correct placement and structure was observed. The changes also consisted of the disappearance of neurons and nerve fibers forming these plexuses. In the solid cancerous tumour, elements of the enteric nervous system were not present. Destruction of the enteric nervous system in the course of carcinoma of the large intestine may cause disruption of proper intestinal function and may be responsible for part of symptoms which the patients suffer.

Janusz Godlewski

2010-06-01

91

Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study.  

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The tropical fruit Carica papaya and its seeds have proven antihelminthic and anti-amoebic activities. To determine the effectiveness of air-dried C. papaya seeds on human intestinal parasitosis, 60 asymptomatic Nigerian children with stool microscopic evidence of intestinal parasites received immediate doses (20 mL) of either an elixir composed with air-dried C. papaya seeds and honey (CPH) or honey alone (placebo) in two randomized treatment groups. Repeat stool microscopic examinations were conducted 7 days postintervention for intestinal parasites. Significantly more subjects given CPH elixir than those given honey had their stools cleared of parasites [23 of 30 (76.7%) vs. five of 30 (16.7%); z = 4.40, P = .0000109]. There were no harmful effects. The stool clearance rate for the various types of parasites encountered was between 71.4% and 100% following CPH elixir treatment compared with 0-15.4% with honey. Thus, air-dried C. papaya seeds are efficacious in treating human intestinal parasites and without significant side effects. Their consumption offers a cheap, natural, harmless, readily available monotherapy and preventive strategy against intestinal parasitosis, especially in tropical communities. Further and large-scale intervention studies to compare C. papaya with standard antiparasitic preparation are desirous. PMID:17472487

Okeniyi, John A O; Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Oyelami, Oyeku A; Adeyemi, Lateef A

2007-03-01

92

Kinematics of transition during human accelerated sprinting.  

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This study investigated kinematics of human accelerated sprinting through 50?m and examined whether there is transition and changes in acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. Twelve male sprinters performed a 60-m sprint, during which step-to-step kinematics were captured using 60 infrared cameras. To detect the transition during the acceleration phase, the mean height of the whole-body centre of gravity (CG) during the support phase was adopted as a measure. Detection methods found two transitions during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting, and the acceleration phase could thus be divided into initial, middle, and final sections. Discriminable kinematic changes were found when the sprinters crossed the detected first transition-the foot contacting the ground in front of the CG, the knee-joint starting to flex during the support phase, terminating an increase in step frequency-and second transition-the termination of changes in body postures and the start of a slight decrease in the intensity of hip-joint movements, thus validating the employed methods. In each acceleration section, different contributions of lower-extremity segments to increase in the CG forward velocity-thigh and shank for the initial section, thigh, shank, and foot for the middle section, shank and foot for the final section-were verified, establishing different acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. In conclusion, there are presumably two transitions during human maximal accelerated sprinting that divide the entire acceleration phase into three sections, and different acceleration strategies represented by the contributions of the segments for running speed are employed. PMID:24996923

Nagahara, Ryu; Matsubayashi, Takeo; Matsuo, Akifumi; Zushi, Koji

2014-01-01

93

Transcriptomic profiling of intestinal epithelial cells in response to human, bovine and commercial bovine lactoferrins.  

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Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in high concentration in human milk. It is a pleiotropic protein and involved in diverse bioactivities, such as stimulation of cell proliferation and immunomodulatory activities. Lf is partly resistant to proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, Lf may play important roles in intestinal development. Due to differences in amino acid sequences and isolation methods, Lfs from human and bovine milk as well as commercially available bovine Lf (CbLf) may differ functionally or exert their functions via various mechanisms. To provide a potential basis for further applications of CbLf, we compared effects of Lfs on intestinal transcriptomic profiling using an intestinal epithelial cell model, human intestinal epithelial crypt-like cells (HIEC). All Lfs significantly stimulated proliferation of HIEC and no significant differences were found among these three proteins. Microarray assays were used to investigate transcriptomic profiling of intestinal epithelial cells in response to Lfs. Selected genes were verified by RT-PCR with a high validation rate. Genes significantly regulated by hLf, bLf, and CbLf were 150, 395 and 453, respectively. Fifty-four genes were significantly regulated by both hLf and CbLf, whereas 129 genes were significantly modulated by bLf and CbLf. Although only a limited number of genes were regulated by all Lfs, the three Lfs positively influenced cellular development and immune functions based on pathway analysis using IPA (Ingenuity). Lfs stimulate cellular and intestinal development and immune functions via various signaling pathways, such as Wnt/?-catenin signaling, interferon signaling and IL-8 signaling. PMID:24831230

Jiang, Rulan; Lönnerdal, Bo

2014-10-01

94

Progreso en el conocimiento de la microbiota intestinal humana / Progress in the knowledge of the intestinal human microbiota  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La aparición de nuevas técnicas de secuenciación así como el desarrollo de herramientas bioinformáticas han permitido no sólo describir la composición de la comunidad bacteriana que habita el tracto gastrointestinal, sino también las funciones metabólicas de las que proveen al huésped. La mayoría de [...] los miembros de esta amplia comunidad bacteriana pertenecen a Dominio Bacteria, aunque encontramos también Archaea y formas eucariotas y virus. Únicamente entre 7 y 9 de las 55 Phyla del Dominio Bacteria conocidos están presentes en flora fecal humana. Su mayoría pertenecen además a las Divisiones Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, encontrando también Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria y Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium y Bifidobacterium son los Géneros más abundantes aunque su abundancia relativa es muy variable entre individuos. El análisis metagenómico de la flora intestinal ha permitido describir una colección de 5 millones de genes microbianos que codifican para aproximadamente 20.000 funciones biológicas relacionadas con la vida de las bacterias. El ecosistema intestinal humano puede clasificarse en torno a tres grupos de acuerdo a la abundancia relativa de tres Géneros: Bacteroides (enterotipo 1), Prevotella (enterotipo 2) y Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). Estos grupos han sido denominados "enterotipos" y su descripción sugiere que las variaciones entre individuos están estratificadas. Una vez descrita la composición bacteriana sería interesante establecer la relación entre la alteración de equilibrios ecológicos con estados de enfermedad que puedan desembocar en una novedosa vía terapéutica. Abstract in english New sequencing technologies together with the development of bioinformatics allow a description of the full spectrum of the microbial communities that inhabit the human intestinal tract, as well as their functional contributions to host health. Most community members belong to the domain Bacteria, b [...] ut Archaea, Eukaryotes (yeasts and protists), and Viruses are also present. Only 7 to 9 of the 55 known divisions or phyla of the domain Bacteria are detected in faecal or mucosal samples from the human gut. Most taxa belong to just two divisions: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and the other divisions that have been consistently found are Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium are the most abundant genera but their relative proportion is highly variable across individuals. Full metagenomic analysis has identified more than 5 million non-redundant microbial genes encoding up to 20,000 biological functions related with life in the intestinal habitat. The overall structure of predominant genera in the human gut can be assigned into three robust clusters, which are known as "enterotypes". Each of the three enterotypes is identifiable by the levels of one of three genera: Bacteroides (enterotype 1), Prevotella (enterotype 2) and Ruminococcus (enterotype 3). This suggests that microbiota variations across individuals are stratified, not continuous. Next steps include the identification of changes that may play a role in certain disease states. A better knowledge of the contributions of microbial symbionts to host health will help in the design of interventions to improve symbiosis and combat disease.

Virginia, Robles-Alonso; Francisco, Guarner.

2013-06-01

95

Intestinal transport of manganese from human milk, bovine milk and infant formula in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of manganese from extrinsically labeled human milk, bovine milk and infant formula was studied by the everted intestinal sac method. Tissue/mucosal flux data indicated that transport of manganese into the intestinal tissue was significantly greater with bovine milk and formula than from human milk. Similarly, the total flux of manganese from the mucosal to serosal surface was less when human milk was used. Smaller molecular weight manganese binding ligands isolated from the milk samples enhanced the mucosal to tissue movement of manganese as contrasted to the higher molecular weight manganese binding ligands. Most significantly the data suggest that the transport and uptake of manganese is less in the presence of human milk and its isolated manganese fractions than it is in bovine milk or infant formula. 15 references, 3 tables

96

Isolation and function of a receptor for human lactoferrin in human fetal intestinal brush-border membranes.  

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Iron absorption is known to be higher from human milk than from infant formula or bovine milk. The high bioavailability of human milk iron suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), the major iron-binding protein in human milk, may be a factor contributing to iron absorption in infants. We have isolated a human Lf receptor from solubilized human fetal intestinal brush-border membranes by affinity chromatography using immobilized human Lf. We also investigated the interaction of 125I-labeled human Lf and bovine Lf with brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from human small intestine using a rapid filtration technique. The molecular weight of the receptor was 110,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions and 37,000 under reducing conditions. Competitive binding studies demonstrated specific binding of human Lf. The binding was pH dependent, with an optimum between pH 6.5 and 7.5. Scatchard plot analysis indicated 4.3 x 10(14) binding sites/mg membrane protein with an affinity constant of 0.3 x 10(6) M-1 for human Lf. Both half-Lf and deglycosylated Lf bound to the receptor with an affinity similar to intact Lf. In contrast, little binding of bovine Lf or human transferrin to human BBMVs occurred. These results suggest that the brush-border membrane receptor for human Lf may be responsible for the high iron absorption from human milk. PMID:1659221

Kawakami, H; Lönnerdal, B

1991-11-01

97

Beneficial effect of recombinant human growth hormone on the intestinal mucosa barrier of septic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on the intestinal mucosa barrier of septic rats and explore its possible mechanism. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: control, Escherichia coli-induced sepsis (S) [...] and treatment (T) groups. Groups S and T were subdivided into subgroups 1d and 3d, respectively. Expression of liver insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA, Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels and the intestinal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and plasma GH and IGF-1 levels were determined. Histological examination of the intestine was performed and bacterial translocation was determined. rhGH significantly attenuated intestinal mucosal injuries and bacterial translocation in septic rats, markedly decreased Bax protein levels, inhibited the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and maintained the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the intestine. rhGH given after sepsis significantly improved levels of plasma GH (T1d: 1.28 ± 0.24; T3d: 2.14 ± 0.48 µg/L vs S1d: 0.74 ± 0.12; S3d: 0.60 ± 0.18 µg/L; P

C., Yi; Y., Cao; S.R., Wang; Y.Z., Xu; H., Huang; Y.X., Cui; Y., Huang.

98

Comparative quantification of human intestinal bacteria based on cPCR and LDR/LCR  

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Full Text Available AIM: To establish a multiple detection method based on comparative polymerase chain reaction (cPCR and ligase detection reaction (LDR/ligase chain reaction (LCR to quantify the intestinal bacterial components. METHODS: Comparative quantification of 16S rDNAs from different intestinal bacterial components was used to quantify multiple intestinal bacteria. The 16S rDNAs of different bacteria were amplified simultaneously by cPCR. The LDR/LCR was examined to actualize the genotyping and quantification. Two beneficial (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and three conditionally pathogenic bacteria (Enterococcus, Enterobacterium and Eubacterium were used in this detection. With cloned standard bacterial 16S rDNAs, standard curves were prepared to validate the quantitative relations between the ratio of original concentrations of two templates and the ratio of the fluorescence signals of their final ligation products. The internal controls were added to monitor the whole detection flow. The quantity ratio between two bacteria was tested. RESULTS: cPCR and LDR revealed obvious linear correlations with standard DNAs, but cPCR and LCR did not. In the sample test, the distributions of the quantity ratio between each two bacterial species were obtained. There were significant differences among these distributions in the total samples. But these distributions of quantity ratio of each two bacteria remained stable among groups divided by age or sex. CONCLUSION: The detection method in this study can be used to conduct multiple intestinal bacteria genotyping and quantification, and to monitor the human intestinal health status as well.

Jun-Hua Xiao

2012-01-01

99

Beneficial effect of recombinant human growth hormone on the intestinal mucosa barrier of septic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on the intestinal mucosa barrier of septic rats and explore its possible mechanism. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: control, Escherichia coli-induced sepsis (S) [...] and treatment (T) groups. Groups S and T were subdivided into subgroups 1d and 3d, respectively. Expression of liver insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA, Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels and the intestinal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and plasma GH and IGF-1 levels were determined. Histological examination of the intestine was performed and bacterial translocation was determined. rhGH significantly attenuated intestinal mucosal injuries and bacterial translocation in septic rats, markedly decreased Bax protein levels, inhibited the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and maintained the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the intestine. rhGH given after sepsis significantly improved levels of plasma GH (T1d: 1.28 ± 0.24; T3d: 2.14 ± 0.48 µg/L vs S1d: 0.74 ± 0.12; S3d: 0.60 ± 0.18 µg/L; P

C., Yi; Y., Cao; S.R., Wang; Y.Z., Xu; H., Huang; Y.X., Cui; Y., Huang.

2007-01-01

100

Influence of Camembert consumption on the composition and metabolism of intestinal microbiota: a study in human microbiota-associated rats.  

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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the consequence of Camembert consumption on the composition and metabolism of human intestinal microbiota. Camembert cheese was compared with milk fermented by yoghurt starters and Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic reference. The experimental model was the human microbiota-associated (HM) rat. HM rats were fed a basal diet (HMB group), a diet containing Camembert made from pasteurised milk (HMCp group) or a diet containing fermented milk (HMfm group). The level of micro-organisms from dairy products was measured in faeces using cultures on a specific medium and PCR-temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. The metabolic characteristics of the caecal microbiota were also studied: SCFA, NH3, glycosidase and reductase activities, and bile acid degradations. The results showed that micro-organisms from cheese comprised 10(5)-10(8) bacteria/g faecal sample in the HMCp group. Lactobacillus species from fermented milk were detected in HMfm rats. Consumption of cheese and fermented milk led to similar changes in bacterial metabolism: a decrease in azoreductase activity and NH3 concentration and an increase in mucolytic activities. However, specific changes were observed: in HMCp rats, the proportion of ursodeoxycholic resulting from chenodeoxycholic epimerisation was higher; in HMfm rats, alpha and beta-galactosidases were higher than in other groups and both azoreductases and nitrate reductases were lower. The results show that, as for fermented milk, Camembert consumption did not greatly modify the microbiota profile or its major metabolic activities. Ingested micro-organisms were able to survive in part during intestinal transit. These dairy products exert a potentially beneficial influence on intestinal metabolism. PMID:15469646

Lay, Christophe; Sutren, Malène; Lepercq, Pascale; Juste, Catherine; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Lhoste, Evelyne; Lemée, Riwanon; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Doré, Joël; Andrieux, Claude

2004-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Human small intestinal epithelial cells differentiated from adult intestinal stem cells as a novel system for predicting oral drug absorption in humans.  

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Adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) possess both a long-term proliferation ability and differentiation capability into enterocytes. As a novel in vitro system for the evaluation of drug absorption, we characterized a human small intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) monolayer that differentiated from adult ISCs. Continuous proliferation/differentiation from ISCs consistently conferred the capability of maturation of enterocytes to HIECs over 25 passages. The morphologically matured HIEC monolayer consisted of polarized columnar epithelia with dense microvilli, tight junctions, and desmosomes 8 days after seeding onto culture inserts. Transepithelial electrical resistance across the monolayer was 9-fold lower in HIECs (98.9 ? × cm(2)) than in Caco-2 cells (900 ? × cm(2)), which indicated that the looseness of the tight junctions in the HIEC monolayer was similar to that in the human small intestine (approximately 40 ? × cm(2)). No significant differences were observed in the overall gene expression patterns of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters between the HIEC and Caco-2 cell monolayers. Furthermore, the functions of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein in the HIEC monolayer were confirmed by the vectorial transport of marker substrates and their disappearance in the presence of specific inhibitors. The apparent drug permeability values of paracellularly transported compounds (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4000, atenolol, and terbutaline) and nucleoside transporter substrates (didanosine, ribavirin, and doxifluridine) in the HIEC monolayer were markedly higher than those of Caco-2 cells, whereas transcellularly transported drugs (pindolol and midazolam) were equally well permeated. In conclusion, the HIEC monolayer can serve as a novel and superior alternative to the conventional Caco-2 cell monolayer for predicting oral absorption in humans. PMID:25200868

Takenaka, Toru; Harada, Naomoto; Kuze, Jiro; Chiba, Masato; Iwao, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Tamihide

2014-11-01

102

Human Intestinal Cells Modulate Conjugational Transfer of Multidrug Resistance Plasmids between Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates.  

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Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co-cultured with human intestinal cells. We show that filtered media from co-cultures contain a factor that reduces conjugation efficiency. Protease treatment of the filtered media eliminates this inhibition of conjugation. This data suggests that a peptide or protein based factor is secreted on the apical side of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut.

Machado, Ana Manuel; Sommer, Morten

2014-01-01

103

Expression and significance of C-fos and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the small intestinal tissue of human fetus  

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Full Text Available Objective To explore the expression rule of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA,C-fos proteins and apoptosis genes in the small intestinal tissue of human fetus.Methods At the second-to fourth-month of gestation,the expressions of cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in 16 specimens of human fetal small intestinal tissue by using the immunohistochemical methods and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL.Results At the second to fourth month of gestation,all the PCNA and C-fos proteins were positively expressed in the small intestinal tissues and cells of human fetus.With the increase in gestational period,the positive cell number and average intensity(AI of PCNA protein increased gradually(P < 0.01.The positive cell number of C-fos protein increased first,and then decreased,while the AI of C-fos protein stably increased in the small intestinal tissues and cells of human fetus(P < 0.01.At the second to fourth month of gestation,TUNEL positive cells were seen to distribute in each layer of the small intestinal tissues of human fetus.With the increase of age,all the positive cell number and AI of TUNEL positive cells showed a tendency of decrease following increase in the small intestine of human fetus(P < 0.01.Conclusions PCNA,C-fos and apoptosis gene participate in adjusting the growth and development of the cells and tissues in the small intestine of human fetus.In the third month of gestation,especially,proliferation and apoptosis are significantly increased in the small intestinal tissue of human fetus,which may be the key period of intestinal tissue development.

Xue-hong LIU

2011-02-01

104

Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases  

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Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and rats.Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the digestibility of newly developed saccharide materials evaluated by rat small intestinal enzymes can substitute for evaluation using human enzymes.Keywords: disaccharidase, maltase, sucrase, trehalase, palatinase, digestibility

Oku T

2011-06-01

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Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ? 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (? 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat seruroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds

106

Inhibitory actions of a high fibre diet on intestinal gas transit in healthy volunteers  

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Background: Fibre treatment often produces gaseous symptoms which have been attributed to fermentation by colonic bacteria with increased gas production. Effects of fibre ingestion on intestinal gas flow are unexplored.

Gonlachanvit, S.; Coleski, R.; Owyang, C.; Hasler, Wl

2004-01-01

107

Type I Collagen as an Extracellular Matrix for the In Vitro Growth of Human Small Intestinal Epithelium  

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Background We previously reported in vitro maintenance and proliferation of human small intestinal epithelium using Matrigel, a proprietary basement membrane product. There are concerns over the applicability of Matrigel-based methods for future human therapies. We investigated type I collagen as an alternative for the culture of human intestinal epithelial cells. Methods Human small intestine was procured from fresh surgical pathology specimens. Small intestinal crypts were isolated using EDTA chelation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts were isolated from a pediatric sample and expanded in vitro. After suspension in Matrigel or type I collagen gel, crypts were co-cultured above a confluent layer of myofibroblasts. Crypts were also grown in monoculture with exposure to myofibroblast conditioned media; these were subsequently sub-cultured in vitro and expanded with a 1?2 split ratio. Cultures were assessed with light microscopy, RT-PCR, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Results Collagen supported viable human epithelium in vitro for at least one month in primary culture. Sub-cultured epithelium expanded through 12 passages over 60 days. Histologic sections revealed polarized columnar cells, with apical brush borders and basolaterally located nuclei. Collagen-based cultures gave rise to monolayer epithelial sheets at the gel-liquid interface, which were not observed with Matrigel. Immunohistochemical staining identified markers of differentiated intestinal epithelium and myofibroblasts. RT-PCR demonstrated expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in myofibroblasts and E-Cadherin, CDX2, villin 1, intestinal alkaline phosphatase, chromogranin A, lysozyme, and Lgr5 in epithelial cells. These markers were maintained through several passages. Conclusion Type I collagen gel supports long-term in vitro maintenance and expansion of fully elaborated human intestinal epithelium. Collagen-based methods yield familiar enteroid structures as well as a new pattern of sheet-like growth, and they eliminate the need for Matrigel for in vitro human intestinal epithelial growth. Future research is required to further develop this cell culture system for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25222024

Jabaji, Ziyad; Brinkley, Garrett J.; Khalil, Hassan A.; Sears, Connie M.; Lei, Nan Ye; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Martin, Martin G.; Dunn, James C. Y.

2014-01-01

108

Influence of infant diets on the ecology of the intestinal tract of human flora-associated mice.  

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The effect of diet on intestinal ecology was studied in germ-free mice that were inoculated orogastrically with predominant intestinal flora components isolated from the feces of breast-fed human infants. The flora components colonized the intestines of mice and persisted at fixed population levels. Groups of flora- associated mice were fed either human milk, bovine milk, whey-dominant formula, or formula modifications exclusively for 2 weeks, and then examined for changes in small intestinal and cecal flora composition, cecal pH, and resistance to intestinal colonization with Salmonella typhimurium. Dietary variations influenced the composition of the flora to a moderate degree but the differences were generally not statistically significant. However, the addition of bovine lactoferrin to the whey-dominant formula resulted in significantly greater counts of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Enterococcus and total aerobes in the small intestine when compared with mice fed unsupplemented formula. Bifidobacterium was present in large numbers in both the ceca and small intestines of mice fed the lactoferrin-supplemented formula. Despite similarities in intestinal flora patterns among mice fed the various diets, human milk consumption resulted in a lower pH of cecal contents and a greater resistance to colonization by Salmonella typhimurium after orogastric challenge than the consumption of the other diets. PMID:1593368

Hentges, D J; Marsh, W W; Petschow, B W; Thal, W R; Carter, M K

1992-02-01

109

Transglutaminase 2 expression is enhanced synergistically by interferon-? and tumour necrosis factor-? in human small intestine  

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Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is expressed ubiquitously, has multiple physiological functions and has also been associated with inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity and cancer. In particular, TG2 is expressed in small intestine mucosa where it is up-regulated in active coeliac disease (CD). The aim of this work was to investigate the induction of TG2 expression by proinflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-? and IL-15] and the signalling pathways involved, in human epithelial and monocytic cells and in intestinal tissue from controls and untreated CD patients. Here we report that IFN-? was the most potent inducer of TG2 expression in the small intestinal mucosa and in four [Caco-2, HT-29, Calu-6 and human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1)] of five cell lines tested. The combination of TNF-? and IFN-? produced a strong synergistic effect. The use of selective inhibitors of signalling pathways revealed that induction of TG2 by IFN-? was mediated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), while c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were required for TNF-? activation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry and Western blot analysis showed that TG2 expression was blocked completely when stimulation by either TNF-? or IFN-? was performed in the presence of nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibitors (sulphasalazine and BAY-117082). TG2 was up-regulated substantially by TNF-? and IFN-? in intestinal mucosa in untreated CD compared with controls. This study shows that IFN-?, a dominant cytokine in intestinal mucosa in active CD, is the most potent inducer of TG2, and synergism with TNF-? may contribute to exacerbate the pathogenic mechanism of CD. Selective inhibition of signalling pathways may be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22385244

Bayardo, M; Punzi, F; Bondar, C; Chopita, N; Chirdo, F

2012-01-01

110

Animal models of intestinal nematode infections of humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we discuss several established and potential animal models for human parasitic infection, with a focus oil rodent, pig and primate models and the nematodes Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara spp. Firstly we discuss the relevance of choosing a suitable animal host to fit: the particular study hypothesis, and the interaction between mathematical modelling and animal models. Secondly, we review the use of animal models for the study of nutrition-parasite interaction, evaluation of treatment and control strategies, and bacteria-parasite interactions. We show that rodent, pig and primate models are all very useful in parasitological research, and that each model has its limitations. However, based on recent experience with the pig-Ascaris and pig-Trichuris models, a more extensive use of the pig-parasite model is advocated, especially for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and helminth infection, and congenital helminth infection.

Boes, J.; Helwigh, Birgitte

2000-01-01

111

Reduced apoptosis in human intestinal cells cured of persistent poliovirus infection.  

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Cells cured of persistent virus infection can be used to investigate cellular pathways of resistance to viral cytopathic effects. Persistent poliovirus (PV) infections were established in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and spontaneously cured cell cultures were obtained. Two cell clones, cl6 and b13, cured of type 3 PV mutant infection and their parental Caco-2 cells were compared for susceptibility to PV infection, PV receptor CD155 expression, capacity to differentiate into polarized entero...

Labadie, Karine; Saulnier, Aure; Martin-latil, Sandra; Colbe?re-garapin, Florence

2007-01-01

112

Discrimination of frequency transitions by human infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Difference limens (DLs) for linear frequency transitions using a 1.0-kHz pulsed-tone standard were obtained from 6- to 9-month-old human infants in a series of three experiments. A repeating standard "yes-no" operant headturning technique and an adaptive staircase (tracking) procedure were used to obtain difference limens from a total of 71 infants. The DLs for 300-ms upward and downward linear frequency sweeps were approximately 3%-4% when the repeating standard was an unmodulated 1.0-kHz pulsed tone of 300-ms duration. These DLs for frequency sweeps were not significantly different from DLs for frequency increments and decrements using 330-ms pulsed tones [J. M. Sinnott and R. N. Aslin, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 78, 1986-1992 (1985)]. The DLs for frequency sweeps of 50 ms appended to the beginning or the end of a 250-ms unmodulated 1.0-kHz tone were approximately 6%-7%. This greater DL for brief frequency sweeps was confirmed by varying the duration but not the extent of the sweep. Finally, DLs were greater than 50% when the repeating standard was a 50-ms rising or falling frequency sweep appended to the beginning of a 250-ms unmodulated 1.0-kHz tone. These results suggest that rapid frequency transitions are much more difficult to discriminate from frequency transitions of the same category (rising or falling) than from either a frequency transition of the opposite category (falling or rising) or an unmodulated tone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2768673

Aslin, R N

1989-08-01

113

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration-time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process. PMID:25148225

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E

2014-10-01

114

Development and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Line Humanized for the Intestinal Peptide Transporter PEPT1  

Science.gov (United States)

The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is abundantly expressed in the small intestine, but not colon, of mammals and found to mediate the uptake of di/tripeptides and peptide-like drugs from the intestinal lumen. However, species differences have been observed in both the expression (and localization) of PEPT1 and its substrate affinity. With this in mind, the objectives of this study were to develop a humanized PEPT1 mouse model (huPEPT1) and to characterize hPEPT1 expression and functional activity in the intestines. Thus, after generating huPEPT1 mice in animals previously nulled for mouse Pept1, phenotypic, PCR, and immunoblot analyses were performed, along with in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion and in vivo oral pharmacokinetic studies with a model dipeptide, glycylsarcosine (GlySar). Overall, the huPEPT1 mice had normal survival rates, fertility, litter size, gender distribution, and body weight. There was no obvious behavioral or pathological phenotype. The mRNA and protein profiles indicated that huPEPT1 mice had substantial PEPT1 expression in all regions of the small intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) along with low but measurable expression in both proximal and distal segments of the colon. In agreement with PEPT1 expression, the in situ permeability of GlySar in huPEPT1 mice was similar to but lower than wildtype animals in small intestine, and greater than wildtype mice in colon. However, a species difference existed in the in situ transport kinetics of jejunal PEPT1, in which the maximal flux and Michaelis constant of GlySar were reduced 7-fold and 2- to 4-fold, respectively, in huPEPT1 compared to wildtype mice. Still, the in vivo function of intestinal PEPT1 appeared fully restored (compared to Pept1 knockout mice) as indicated by the nearly identical pharmacokinetics and plasma concentration–time profiles following a 5.0 nmol/g oral dose of GlySar to huPEPT1 and wildtype mice. This study reports, for the first time, the development and characterization of mice humanized for PEPT1. This novel transgenic huPEPT1 mouse model should prove useful in examining the role, relevance, and regulation of PEPT1 in diet and disease, and in the drug discovery process.

Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Wang, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaomei; Smith, David E.

2014-01-01

115

Correlation between oral drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells  

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Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10{sup {minus} 8} to 5 x 10{sup {minus} 5} cm/s. A good correlation was obtained between data on oral absorption in humans and the results in the Caco-2 model. Drugs that are completely absorbed in humans had permeability coefficients greater than 1 x 10{sup {minus} 6} cm/s. Drugs that are absorbed to greater than 1% but less than 100% had permeability coefficients of 0.1-1.0 x 10{sup {minus} 6} cm/s while drugs and peptides that are absorbed to less than 1% had permeability coefficients of less than or equal to 1 x 10{sup {minus} 7} cm/s. The results indicate that Caco-2 monolayers can be used as a model for studies on intestinal drug absorption.

Artursson, P.; Karlsson, J. (Uppsala Univ., (Sweden))

1991-03-29

116

Correlation between oral drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10- 8 to 5 x 10- 5 cm/s. A good correlation was obtained between data on oral absorption in humans and the results in the Caco-2 model. Drugs that are completely absorbed in humans had permeability coefficients greater than 1 x 10- 6 cm/s. Drugs that are absorbed to greater than 1% but less than 100% had permeability coefficients of 0.1-1.0 x 10- 6 cm/s while drugs and peptides that are absorbed to less than 1% had permeability coefficients of less than or equal to 1 x 10- 7 cm/s. The results indicate that Caco-2 monolayers can be used as a model for studies on intestinal drug absorption

117

Identification of isoquercitrin metabolites produced by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) and the MetaboLynx™ software combined with mass defect filtering were applied to identity the metabolites of isoquercitrin using an intestinal mixture of bacteria and 96 isolated strains from human feces. The human incubated samples collected for 72 h in the anaerobic incubator and extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS within 10 min. The parent compound and five metabolites were identified by eight isolated strains, including Bacillus sp. 17, Veillonella sp. 23 and 32 and Bacteroides sp. 40, 41, 56, 75 and 88 in vitro. The results indicate that quercetin, acetylated isoquercitrin, dehydroxylated isoquercitrin, hydroxylated quercetin and hydroxymethylated quercetin are the major metabolites of isoquercitrin. Furthermore, a possible metabolic pathway for the biotransformation of isoquercitrin was established in intestinal flora. This study will be helpful for understanding the metabolic route of isoquercitrin and the role of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of natural compounds. PMID:23018801

Lu, Linling; Qian, Dawei; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao

2013-04-01

118

[Emergence in humans of fascioliasis (from Fasciola gigantica) and intestinal distomatosis (from Fasciolopsis buski) in Laos].  

Science.gov (United States)

Distomatoses due to Fasciola spp. and Fasciolopsis buski are very common in the developing countries of Southeast Asia. The flukes in Laos have not yet been completely studied and described, however. In 2004, we began screening for these two distomatoses in the province of Savannakhet, in southern Laos. Our initial results showed that the causal agent of fascioliasis in humans and animals is Fasciola gigantica. The infestation rate of fascioliasis in cattle in slaughterhouses ranged from 17 to 57%, with higher percentages in buffalo (75-100%) than in cows (0-25%). In Laotian villages, the prevalence of human fascioliasis reached 2.4 % after a stool examination and 13.8 % after systematic serology testing. The prevalence of intestinal distomatosis from F. buski was 33.7%. The rate of villagers with hepatobiliary and intestinal events exceeded 2% but the involvement of these two forms of distomatosis varied highly, ranging from 1.7% (stool diagnosis) to 16.4% (serodiagnosis) for F. gigantica and 11.2% for F. buski. We have described the first cases of fascioliasis and intestinal distomatosis from F. buski in Laos. PMID:19359231

Quang, Thao Duong; Duong, Thanh Hai; Richard-Lenoble, Dominique; Odermatt, Peter; Khammanivong, Keomanivanh

2008-01-01

119

Transport of thalidomide by the human intestinal caco-2 monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in patients have indicated that the oral absorption of thalidomide is considerably variable at high doses (>200 mg/day). The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of racemic thalidomide using human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2) monolayers, which have been widely used to investigate drug permeability. A typical 21-day protocol was used to prepare Caco-2 monolayers. Thalidomide was determined by a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. The integrity of Caco-2 monolayer was confirmed when the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) exceeded 300 Ohmz . cm2, and the leakage of 14C-manitol was <1% per hour. Uptake of thalidomide by Caco-2 cells was very limited (up to 2.1%). The transport of thalidomide appeared to be linear up to 1 hr. Our study indicated that the permeability coefficients (Papp) of thalidomide at 2.5-300 microM from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) and from BL to AP side was 2-6 x 10(-5) cm/sec, with a marked decrease in Papp values from AP to BL at increased thalidomide concentration. The transport of thalidomide was sodium-, temperature- and pH-dependent, as replacement of extracellular sodium chloride or reducing temperature and apical pH can result in significant decreases in the Papp values. Additional data indicated that transport of thalidomide is energy-dependent, as it was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by the ATP inhibitors, sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, DL-glutamic acid, cytidine, diprodomole, papaverine, quinidine, and cyclophosphamide significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the transport of thalidomide, while the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil and other nucleosides and nucleotides such as thymidine and guanine had no effect. These results indicated that thalidomide was rapidly transported by Caco-2 monolayers, and this might involve a saturable energy-dependent transporter. PMID:16010862

Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Yan; Kestell, Phillip; Schafer, Peter; Chan, Eli; Paxton, James W

2005-01-01

120

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Human Small-Cell Lung Cancer Proliferation in vitro and in vivo  

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Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is an aggressive, rapidly growing and metastasizing, and highly fatal neoplasm. We report that vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits the proliferation of SCLC cells in culture and dramatically suppresses the growth of SCLC tumor-cell implants in athymic nude mice. In both cases, the inhibition was mediated apparently by a cAMP-dependent mechanism, because the inhibition was enhanced by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine in proportion to increases in intracellular cAMP levels, and the inhibition was abolished by selective inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. If confirmed in clinical trials, this antiproliferative action of vasoactive intestinal peptide may offer a new and promising means of suppressing SCLC in human subjects, without the toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

Maruno, Kaname; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

1998-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

A Strategy for assessing potential drug-drug interactions of a concomitant agent against a drug absorbed via an intestinal transporter in humans.  

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A strategy for assessing potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) based on a simulated intestinal concentration is described. The proposed prediction method was applied to the DDI assessment of luseogliflozin, a novel antidiabetic drug, against miglitol absorbed via the intestinal sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). The method involves four steps: collection of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of luseogliflozin for use in a computer simulation; evaluation of the validity of these parameters by verifying the goodness of fit between simulated and observed plasma profiles; simulation of the intestinal luseogliflozin concentration-time profile using the Advanced Compartment Absorption and Transit (ACAT) model in a computer program and estimation of the time spent above a value 10-fold higher than the IC50 value (TAIC) for SGLT1; and evaluation of the DDI potential of luseogliflozin by considering the percentage of TAIC against the miglitol Tmax (time for Cmax) value (TAIC/Tmax). An initial attempt to prove the validity of this method was performed in rats. The resulting TAIC/Tmax in rats was 32%, suggesting a low DDI potential of luseogliflozin against miglitol absorption. The validity was then confirmed using an in vivo interaction study in rats. In humans, luseogliflozin was expected to have no DDI potential against miglitol absorption, since the TAIC/Tmax in humans was lower than that in rats. This prediction was proven, as expected, in a clinical interaction study. In conclusion, the present strategy based on a simulation of the intestinal concentration-time profile using dynamic modeling would be useful for assessing the clinical DDI potential of a concomitant agent against drugs absorbed via an intestinal transporter. PMID:25005603

Mizuno-Yasuhira, Akiko; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Gunji, Emi; Uchida, Saeko; Takahashi, Teisuke; Kinoshita, Kohnosuke; Jingu, Shigeji; Sakai, Soichi; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

2014-09-01

122

Meta-analysis of the turnover of intestinal epithelia in preclinical animal species and humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the rapid turnover of the small intestinal epithelia, the rate at which enterocyte renewal occurs plays an important role in determining the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall. Current physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models consider enzyme and enterocyte recovery as a lumped first-order rate. An assessment of enterocyte turnover would enable enzyme and enterocyte renewal to be modeled more mechanistically. A literature review together with statistical analysis was employed to establish enterocyte turnover in human and preclinical species. A total of 85 studies was identified reporting enterocyte turnover in 1602 subjects in six species. In mice, the geometric weighted combined mean (WX) enterocyte turnover was 2.81 ± 1.14 days (n = 169). In rats, the weighted arithmetic mean enterocyte turnover was determined to be 2.37 days (n = 501). Humans exhibited a geometric WX enterocyte turnover of 3.48 ± 1.55 days for the gastrointestinal epithelia (n = 265), displaying comparable turnover to that of cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro (0.96-4.33 days). Statistical analysis indicated humans to display longer enterocyte turnover as compared with preclinical species. Extracted data were too sparse to support regional differences in small intestinal enterocyte turnover in humans despite being indicated in mice. The utilization of enterocyte turnover data, together with in vitro enzyme turnover in PBPK modeling, may improve the predictions of metabolic drug-drug interactions dependent on enzyme turnover (e.g., mechanism-based inhibition and enzyme induction) as well as absorption of nanoparticle delivery systems and intestinal metabolism in special populations exhibiting altered enterocyte turnover. PMID:25233858

Darwich, Adam S; Aslam, Umair; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

2014-12-01

123

High content analysis of cytotoxic effects of pDMAEMA on human intestinal epithelial and monocyte cultures  

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Poly(2-(dimethylamino ethyl)methacrylate) (pDMAEMA) is a cationic polymer with potential as an antimicrobial agent and as a non-viral gene delivery vector. The aim was to further elucidate the cytotoxicity of a selected pDMAEMA low molecular weight (MW) polymer against human U937 monocytes and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells using a novel multi-parameter high content analysis (HCA) assay and to investigate histological effects on isolated rat intestinal mucosae. Seven parameters of cytot...

Rawlinson, Lee-anne Betty; O Brien, Peter J.; Brayden, David James

2010-01-01

124

Human intestinal H+/peptide cotransporter. Cloning, functional expression, and chromosomal localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammalian small intestine, a H(+)-coupled peptide transporter is responsible for the absorption of small peptides arising from digestion of dietary proteins. Recently a cDNA clone encoding a H+/peptide cotransporter has been isolated from a rabbit intestinal cDNA library (Fei, Y.J., Kanai, Y., Nussberger, S., Ganapathy, V., Leibach, F.H., Romero, M.F., Singh, S.K., Boron, W. F., and Hediger, M. A. (1994) Nature 368, 563-566). Screening of a human intestinal cDNA library with a probe derived from the rabbit H+/peptide cotransporter cDNA resulted in the identification of a cDNA which when expressed in HeLa cells or in Xenopus laevis oocytes induced H(+)-dependent peptide transport activity. The predicted protein consists of 708 amino acids with 12 membrane-spanning domains and two putative sites for protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation. The cDNA-induced transport process accepts dipeptides, tripeptides, and amino beta-lactam antibiotics but not free amino acids as substrates. The human H+/peptide cotransporter exhibits a high degree of homology (81% identity and 92% similarity) to the rabbit H+/peptide cotransporter. But surprisingly these transporters show only a weak homology to the H(+)-coupled peptide transport proteins present in bacteria and yeast. Chromosomal assignment studies with somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization have located the gene encoding the cloned human H+/peptide cotransporter to chromosome 13 q33-->q34. PMID:7896779

Liang, R; Fei, Y J; Prasad, P D; Ramamoorthy, S; Han, H; Yang-Feng, T L; Hediger, M A; Ganapathy, V; Leibach, F H

1995-03-24

125

Reduced apoptosis in human intestinal cells cured of persistent poliovirus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells cured of persistent virus infection can be used to investigate cellular pathways of resistance to viral cytopathic effects. Persistent poliovirus (PV) infections were established in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and spontaneously cured cell cultures were obtained. Two cell clones, cl6 and b13, cured of type 3 PV mutant infection and their parental Caco-2 cells were compared for susceptibility to PV infection, PV receptor CD155 expression, capacity to differentiate into polarized enterocytes, and PV-, staurosporine-, and actinomycin D-induced apoptosis. Our results strongly suggest that cells that are partially resistant to apoptosis can be selected during persistent virus infection. PMID:17192301

Labadie, Karine; Saulnier, Aure; Martin-Latil, Sandra; Colbère-Garapin, Florence

2007-03-01

126

Transepithelial transport of ambroxol hydrochloride across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed i) to characterize the transepithelial transport of the mucolytic agent ambroxol hydrochloride across the intestinal barrier, ii) to classify the ambroxol according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and iii) to predict ambroxol absorption in humans. Transport of ambroxol (100, 300 and 1000 micromol/l) was studied in a human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 in apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical direction, under iso-pH 7.4 and pH-gradient (6 vs. 7.4) conditions. The relative contribution of the paracellular route was estimated using Ca2+-free transport medium. Ambroxol samples from receiver compartments were analysed by HPLC with UV detection (242 nm). Results showed that ambroxol transport is linear with time, pH-dependent and direction-independent, displays non-saturable (first-order) kinetics. Thus, the transport seems to be transcellular mediated by passive diffusion. Estimated high solubility and high permeability (P(app) = 45 x 10(-6) cm/s) of ambroxol rank it among well absorbed compounds and class I of BCS. It can be expected that the oral dose fraction of ambroxol absorbed in human intestine is high. PMID:20037197

Stetinová, Vera; Smetanová, Libuse; Kholová, Dagmar; Svoboda, Zbynek; Kvetina, Jaroslav

2009-09-01

127

Regulation of cholesterol synthesis in isolated epithelial cells of human small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the regulation of cholesterol synthesis in isolated human small intestine epithelial cells (enterocytes). It was established that the amount of cholesterol synthesized increased linearly with the incubation time and the number of cells in the incubation mixture; the synthesis was suppressed by 7-ketocholesterol. Cholic, dehydrocholic, chenodeoxycholic, glycocholic, taurocholic, taurochenodeoxycholic and taurodeoxycholic acids inhibited cholesterol synthesis in enterocytes to different degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Lithocholic acid enhanced the rate of cholesterol synthesis. Deoxycholic acid, methyl ester of cholic acid and cholesterol did not affect the process. No bile acids tested, with the exception of taurodeoxycholic acid, affected fatty acid synthesis in enterocytes. Most bile acids also decreased cholesterol synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. The results obtained make it possible to postulate that cholesterol synthesis in human enterocytes may be subject to a complex regulation by bile acids. PMID:3821390

Sviridov, D D; Safonova, I G; Talalaev, A G; Repin, V S; Smirnov, V N

1986-12-01

128

Intestinal parasite co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis cases without human immunodeficiency virus infection in a rural county in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-4.17), body mass index ? 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47-6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17-5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03-10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with intestinal parasites and duration of receiving treatment for infection with M. tuberculosis in persons with PTB. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was not higher in persons with PTB, and there was no evidence that PTB increased susceptibility to intestinal parasites in this study. However, for patients with PTB, women and patients with comorbidities were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. PMID:24166044

Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2014-01-01

129

Utilização do método videolaparoscopico na reconstituição do trânsito intestinal após a operação de Hartmann The use of videolaparoscopic approach in the intestinal transit restoration after Hartmann's procedure  

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Full Text Available O objetivo é apresentar a padronização da técnica operatória e os resultados obtidos com a utilização do acesso videolaparoscópico na reconstituição do trânsito intestinal em pacientes previamente submetidos à operação de Hartmann por causas diversas. Foram analisados prospectivamente 32 pacientes, no período de dezembro de 1991 a junho de 1997, com distribuição semelhante com relação ao sexo e com idade média de 42,4 anos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao mesmo preparo pré-operatório e à mesma técnica cirúrgica. Ocorreram três (9,3% complicações transoperatórias. Uma (3,1 % anastomose mecânica incompleta, necessitando de endossutura manual, uma (3,1 % laceração do reto com o grampeador mecânico e uma (3,1 % lesão da artéria epigástrica direita. Ocorreram ainda três (9,3% conversões, sendo uma (3,1 % devido à laceração do reto com o grampeador mecânico, outra (3.1 % pela invasão tumoral na pelve e outra (3,1 % pela presença de excessivas aderências intraperitoneais. O tempo operatório variou de 30 a 240 minutos, na média de 126,2 minutos (2,1 horas. A evolução clínica pós-operatória foi satisfatória. Nove (31,0% pacientes não referiram dor, enquanto 13 (44,8% a referiram em pequena intensidade, e apenas sete (24,0% queixaram-se de dor com maior intensidade. A dieta líquida via oral foi instituída no período médio de 1,6 dias, e a primeira evacuação ocorreu na média de 3,2 dias de pós-operatório. O período médio de hospitalização foi de 4,7 dias. Ocorreram complicações pós-operatórias em oito (27,5% pacientes. Duas (6,8% infecções da ferida do estoma, dois pacientes (6,8% com dor no ombro direito, uma (3,4% deiscência de anastomose, um (3,4% caso de peritonite por provável contaminação do material cirúrgico, uma coleção líquida pélvica e uma hérnia incisional. Em conclusão, a reconstituição do trânsito intestinal por videolaparoscopia apresentou-se segura e eficaz, podendo constituir-se no método cirúrgico de escolha, pois foi utilizada com sucesso em 90,6% dos pacientes.We present the operative technique and the results of the laparoscopic approach for Hartmann's colostomy reversal. Thirty two patients were prospectively analysed from december 1991 to june 1997. They presented a similar incidence regarding sex distribution, and a median age of 42.4 years old. Ali patients underwent the same preoperative preparation and operative technique. Three (9.3% intraoperative complications were observed: an uncompleted anastomosis (3.1%, requiring an endosuture, a rectal perforation by the mechanical stapler and a right epigastric artery lesion. There were convertion to open surgery in three (9.3% patients: one (3.1% due to rectal perforation by the mechanical staple1; one (3.1% for tumoral pelvic invasion and another because of excessive intra-peritoneal adhesions. Operative time varied from 30 to 240 minutes, with a mean time of 126;2 minutes. Nine (31.0% patients didn't present pain, while 13 (44.8% referred minimal pain and seven (24.0% complained severe pain. Oral liquid diet intake occurred within a mean time of 1.6 days and the first evacuation observed after a mean 3.2 postoperative days. Mean hospitalization time was 4.7 days. Postoperative complications occurred in eight (27.5% patients. Two (6.8% stoma wound infections, right shoulder pain in two (6.8% patients, one (3.4% anastomotic dehiscence, one peritonitis probably due to contaminationfrom surgical instruments, a liquid pelvic coliection and an incisional haernia. 1n conclusion, videolaparoscopic restoration of the intestinal transit demonstrated to be safe and effective. It could be the method of choice because of its success in 90.6 per cent of the patients.

Francisco Sérgio P. Regadas

2000-02-01

130

Human Capital Formation during Communism and Transition: Evidence from Bulgaria  

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Is it true that communist countries had well-developed human capital, or is it just a myth? What were human capital stocks at the beginning of transition to market economy? What happened to human capital formation during the transition? We attempt to answer these questions using evidence from Bulgaria. This is also a story about how a communist government had coped with labour market problems in a small closed economy. Unfortunately, during communism, there had been quite insufficient public ...

Simeonova-ganeva, Ralitsa

2005-01-01

131

Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ellagitannin and ellagic acid metabolism to urolithins in the gut shows a large human interindividual variability and this has been associated with differences in the colon microbiota. In the present study we describe the isolation of one urolithin-producing strain from the human faeces of a healthy volunteer and the ellagic acid transformation to different urolithin metabolites by two species of intestinal bacteria. The isolate belongs to a new species described as Gordonibacter urolithinfaciens, sp. nov. The type strain of the Gordonibacter genus, Gordonibacter pamelaeae DSM 19378(T), was also demonstrated to produce urolithins. Both human intestinal bacteria grew similarly in the presence and absence of ellagic acid at 30 ?M concentration. Ellagic acid catabolism and urolithin formation occurred during the stationary phase of the growth of the bacteria under anaerobic conditions. The HPLC-MS analyses showed the sequential production of pentahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-5), tetrahydroxy-urolithin (urolithin M-6) and trihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin C), while dihydroxy-urolithins (urolithin A and isourolithin A), and monohydroxy-urolithin (urolithin B) were not produced in pure cultures. Consequently, either other bacteria from the gut or the physiological conditions found in vivo are necessary for completing metabolism until the final urolithins (dihydroxy and monohydroxy urolithins) are produced. This is the first time that the urolithin production capacity of pure strains has been demonstrated. The identification of the urolithin-producing bacteria is a relevant outcome as urolithin implication in health (cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties) has been supported by different bioassays and urolithins can be used in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This study represents an initial work that opens interesting possibilities of describing enzymatic activities involved in urolithin production that can help in understanding both the human interindividual differences in polyphenol metabolism, the microbial pathways involved, and the role of polyphenols in human health. The presence of urolithin producing bacteria can indirectly affect the health benefits of ellagitannin consumption. PMID:24909569

Selma, María V; Beltrán, David; García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan C; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

2014-08-01

132

Strain-specific probiotic (Lactobacillus helveticus) inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of enterocolitis in humans, leading to diarrhoea and chronic extraintestinal diseases. Although probiotics are effective in preventing other enteric infections, beneficial microorganisms have not been extensively studied with C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to delineate the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains to reduce epithelial cell invasion by C. jejuni. Human colon T84 and embryonic intestine 407 epithelial cells were pretreated with Lactobacillus strains and then infected with two prototypic C. jejuni pathogens. Lactobacillus helveticus, strain R0052 reduced C. jejuni invasion into T84 cells by 35-41%, whereas Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 did not reduce pathogen invasion. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 also decreased invasion of one C. jejuni isolate (strain 11168) into intestine 407 cells by 55%. Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 adhered to both epithelial cell types, which suggest that competitive exclusion could contribute to protection by probiotics. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ability of selected probiotics to prevent C. jejuni-mediated disease pathogenesis depends on the pathogen strain, probiotic strain and the epithelial cell type selected. The data support the concept of probiotic strain selectivity, which is dependent on the setting in which it is being evaluated and tested. PMID:19765084

Wine, Eytan; Gareau, Mélanie G; Johnson-Henry, Kathene; Sherman, Philip M

2009-11-01

133

Expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens in human foetal large intestine  

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Full Text Available Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T antigens are simple mucintype carbohydrate antigens that may be expressed in human neoplasies due to alteration of the glycoprotein biosynthetic pathway. Utilising specific monoclonal antibodies (HB-Tn1, HB-STn1 and HB-T1, we have investigated the expression of these simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in large intestine of 8 human foetuses at early gestational age (9-10 weeks, obtained after therapeutic abortion. In all cases the expression of Tn antigen was mainly localised as a thin rim at the cell membrane and occasionally in the supranuclear region of epithelial cells, while sialosyl-Tn antigen was documented in some goblet cell vacuoles and occasionally in the cytoplasm of columnar cells. T antigen was not expressed in any case. These results indicate that Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens are expressed as early as nine weeks of gestation, further supporting the notion that they may be considered as oncodevelopmental cancerassociated antigens in the large intestine.

G Barresi

2009-12-01

134

Receptor-Mediated Transcytosis of Leptin through Human Intestinal Cells In Vitro  

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Full Text Available Gastric Leptin is absorbed by duodenal enterocytes and released on the basolateral side towards the bloodstream. We investigated in vitro some of the mechanisms of this transport. Caco-2/15 cells internalize leptin from the apical medium and release it through transcytosis in the basal medium in a time- temperature-dependent and saturable fashion. Leptin receptors are revealed on the apical brush-border membrane of the Caco-2 cells. RNA-mediated silencing of the receptor led to decreases in the uptake and basolateral release. Leptin in the basal medium was found bound to the soluble form of its receptor. An inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis (chlorpromazine decreased leptin uptake. Confocal immunocytochemistry and the use of brefeldin A and okadaic acid revealed the passage of leptin through the Golgi apparatus. We propose that leptin transcytosis by intestinal cells depends on its receptor, on clathrin-coated vesicles and transits through the Golgi apparatus.

Émile Levy

2010-01-01

135

Radiolabeled keratin: an undigestible marker for gastro-intestinal transit investigations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new marker for undigestible food is described in this paper. Labeling of keratin fibers with radioactive chromium 51 was operated by a simple process. A 90 % labeling efficiency was obtained. Assessment of in vitro chromium binding stability was performed by incubating fibers in different solutions (24 hours, 370C). Remaining activity on fibers was found to be 92+-2% in a pepsin solution, and 97+-1% in a pancreatic extract solution. Acid or basic solutions (pH 1 to pH 11) did not yield significant elution. In Man, scintigraphic views displayed a focal distribution of the radioactivity in the digestive tractus. Patient's irradiation during such an exploration was estimated by dosimetric calculation and found to be acceptable. Scintigraphic survey of fibers progression was possible throughout the whole digestive tractus, particularly in the intestine. This marker should become mainly interesting for intestinal studies, since it is one of the only two undigestible markers, with radiolabeled alpha-cellulose. Properties related to its original structure, and advantages of a simple labeling process should be valuable in a promizing way of exploration

136

Similar uptake profiles of microcystin-LR and -RR in an in vitro human intestinal model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? First description of in vitro cellular uptake of MCs into intestinal cells. ? OATP 3A1 and OATP 4A1 are expressed in Caco-2 cell membranes. ? MC-LR and MC-RR show similar uptake in Caco-2 cells. ? MCs are probably excreted from Caco-2 cells by an active mechanism. -- Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic hepatotoxins produced by various species of cyanobacteria. Their structure includes two variable amino acids (AA) leading to more than 80 MC variants. In this study, we focused on the most common variant, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and microcystin-RR (MC-RR), a variant differing by only one AA. Despite their structural similarity, MC-LR elicits higher liver toxicity than MC-RR partly due to a discrepancy in their uptake by hepatic organic anion transporters (OATP 1B1 and 1B3). However, even though ingestion is the major pathway of human exposure to MCs, intestinal absorption of MCs has been poorly addressed. Consequently, we investigated the cellular uptake of the two MC variants in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 by immunolocalization using an anti-MC antibody. Caco-2 cells were treated for 30 min to 24 h with several concentrations (1-50 ?M) of both variants. We first confirmed the localization of OATP 3A1 and 4A1 at the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells. Our study also revealed a rapid uptake of both variants in less than 1 h. The uptake profiles of the two variants did not differ in our immunostaining study neither with respect to concentration nor the time of exposure. Furthermore, we have demonstrated for the first time the nuclear localization of MC-RR and confirmed that of MC-LR. Finally, our results suggest a facilitated uptake and an active excretion of MC-LR and MC-RR in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation on the role of OATP 3A1 and 4A1 in MC uptake should be useful to clarify the mechanism of intestinal absorption of MCs and contribute in risk assessment of cyanotoxin exposure.

137

Sulfapyridine appearance in plasma after salicylazosulfapyridine. Another simple measure of intestinal transit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of sulfapyridine in plasma after oral administration of salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) was evaluated as a method for defining arrival time in the cecum, an index of small bowel transit. After direct instillation of SASP and lactulose into the cecum, the appearances of their metabolites (sulfapyridine in plasma and hydrogen in breath) were rapid (1-10 min) and simultaneous. When a mixture of SASP and lactulose was taken by mouth, times of the respective signals varied among individuals from 40 to 180 min (n = 8) but were correlated within individuals. Salicylazosulfapyridine transit times from duodenum to cecum were also very similar to simultaneous measurements of transit by scintigraphic monitoring of technetium 99m. Timing of the sulfapyridine signal corresponded to the arrival of 5%-13% of technetium 99m DTPA in the cecum. Exemplifying the use of this new technique, simultaneous administration of lactulose into the stomach and SASP into the duodenum yielded consistently longer stomach-to-cecum than duodenum-to-cecum transits, attributable to the delay caused by gastric emptying. Therapeutic doses of morphine delayed small bowel transit of SASP. Transit of SASP offers a second marker technique for the cecal arrival of the head of a bolus; the approach may be useful as an inexpensive, noninvasive measurement of transit

138

Sulfapyridine appearance in plasma after salicylazosulfapyridine. Another simple measure of intestinal transit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The appearance of sulfapyridine in plasma after oral administration of salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) was evaluated as a method for defining arrival time in the cecum, an index of small bowel transit. After direct instillation of SASP and lactulose into the cecum, the appearances of their metabolites (sulfapyridine in plasma and hydrogen in breath) were rapid (1-10 min) and simultaneous. When a mixture of SASP and lactulose was taken by mouth, times of the respective signals varied among individuals from 40 to 180 min (n = 8) but were correlated within individuals. Salicylazosulfapyridine transit times from duodenum to cecum were also very similar to simultaneous measurements of transit by scintigraphic monitoring of technetium 99m. Timing of the sulfapyridine signal corresponded to the arrival of 5%-13% of technetium 99m DTPA in the cecum. Exemplifying the use of this new technique, simultaneous administration of lactulose into the stomach and SASP into the duodenum yielded consistently longer stomach-to-cecum than duodenum-to-cecum transits, attributable to the delay caused by gastric emptying. Therapeutic doses of morphine delayed small bowel transit of SASP. Transit of SASP offers a second marker technique for the cecal arrival of the head of a bolus; the approach may be useful as an inexpensive, noninvasive measurement of transit.

Kellow, J.E.; Borody, T.J.; Phillips, S.F.; Haddad, A.C.; Brown, M.L.

1986-08-01

139

Mapping of liver-enriched transcription factors in the human intestine  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the gene expression pattern of hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6 and other liver-enriched transcription factors in various segments of the human intestine to better understand the differentiation of the gut epithelium.METHODS: Samples of healthy duodenum and jejunum were obtained from patients with pancreatic cancer whereas ileum and colon was obtained from patients undergoing right or left hemicolectomy or (rectosigmoid or rectal resection. All surgical specimens were subjected to histopathology. Excised tissue was shock-frozen and analyzed for gene expression of liver-enriched transcription factors by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain and compared to the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2. Protein expression of major liver-enriched transcription factors was determined by Western blotting while the DNA binding of HNF6 was investigated by electromobility shift assays.RESULTS: The gene expression patterning of liver-enriched transcription factors differed in the various segments of the human intestine with HNF6 gene expression being most abundant in the duodenum (P < 0.05 whereas expression of the zinc finger protein GATA4 and of the HNF6 target gene ALDH3A1 was most abundant in the jejunum (P < 0.05. Likewise, expression of FOXA2 and the splice variants 2 and 4 of HNF4? were most abundantly expressed in the jejunum (P < 0.05. Essentially, expression of transcription factors declined from the duodenum towards the colon with the most abundant expression in the jejunum and less in the ileum. The expression of HNF6 and of genes targeted by this factor, i.e. neurogenin 3 (NGN3 was most abundant in the jejunum followed by the ileum and the colon while DNA binding activity of HNF4? and of NGN3 was confirmed by electromobility shift assays to an optimized probe. Furthermore, Western blotting provided evidence of the expression of several liver-enriched transcription factors in cultures of colon epithelial cells, albeit at different levels.CONCLUSION: We describe significant local and segmental differences in the expression of liver-enriched transcription factors in the human intestine which impact epithelial cell biology of the gut.

Frank Lehner, Ulf Kulik, Juergen Klempnauer,Juergen Borlak

2010-08-01

140

Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review  

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Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

Gonçalves Marcelo Luiz Carvalho

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected [...] in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

Marcelo Luiz Carvalho, Gonçalves; Adauto, Araújo; Luiz Fernando, Ferreira.

142

Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected [...] in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

Marcelo Luiz Carvalho, Gonçalves; Adauto, Araújo; Luiz Fernando, Ferreira.

2003-01-01

143

Intestinal microbiology in early life: specific prebiotics can have similar functionalities as human-milk oligosaccharides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human milk is generally accepted as the best nutrition for newborns and has been shown to support the optimal growth and development of infants. On the basis of scientific insights from human-milk research, a specific mixture of nondigestible oligosaccharides has been developed, with the aim to improve the intestinal microbiota in early life. The mixture has been extensively studied and has been shown to be safe and to have potential health benefits that are similar to those of human milk. The specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides has been found to affect the development of early microbiota and to increase the Bifidobacterium amounts as observed in human-milk-fed infants. The resulting gut ecophysiology is characterized by high concentrations of lactate, a slightly acidic pH, and specific short-chain fatty acid profiles, which are high in acetate and low in butyrate and propionate. Here, we have summarized the main findings of dietary interventions with these specific oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota in early life. The gut ecophysiology in early life may have consequences for the metabolic, immunologic, and even neurologic development of the child because reports increasingly substantiate the important function of gut microbes in human health. This review highlights major findings in the field of early gut colonization and the potential impact of early nutrition in healthy growth and development. PMID:23824728

Oozeer, Raish; van Limpt, Kees; Ludwig, Thomas; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Martin, Rocio; Wind, Richèle D; Boehm, Günther; Knol, Jan

2013-08-01

144

Vitamin A metabolism in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line  

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The human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, described as enterocyte-like in a number of studies, was examined for its ability to carry out the metabolism of vitamin A normally required in the absorptive process. Caco-2 cells contained cellular retinol-binding protein II, a protein which is abundant in human villus-associated enterocytes and may play an important role in the absorption of vitamin A. Microsomal preparations from Caco-2 cells contained retinal reductase, acyl-CoA-retinol acyltransferase (ARAT), and lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) activites, which have previously been proposed to be involved in the metabolism of dietary vitamin A in the enterocyte. When intact Caco-2 cells were provided with {beta}-carotene, retinyl acetate, or retinyl acetate, or retinol, synthesis of retinyl palmitoleate, oleate, palmitate, and small amounts of stearate resulted. However, exogenous retinyl palmitate or stearate was not used by Caco-2 cells as a source of retinol for ester synthesis. While there was a disproportionate synthesis of monoenoic fatty acid esters of retinol in Caco-2 cells compared to the retinyl esters typically found in human chylomicrons or the esters normally synthesized in rat intestine, the pattern was consistent with the substantial amount of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 18:1 and 16:1, found in the sn-1 position of Caco-2 microsomal phosphatidylcholine, the fatty acyl donor for LRAT. Both ARAT and LRAT have been proposed to be responsible for retinyl ester synthesis in the enterocyte. These data suggest the LRAT may be the physiologically important enzyme for the esterification of retinol in Caco-2 cells.

Quick, T.C.; Ong, D.E. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

1990-12-01

145

SREBP-2 negatively regulates FXR-dependent transcription of FGF19 in human intestinal cells.  

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Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor that positively regulates transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. In the present study, we have investigated a possible involvement of SREBP-2 in human intestinal expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, which is an endocrine hormone involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Overexpression of constitutively active SREBP-2 decreased FGF19 mRNA levels in human colon-derived LS174T cells. In reporter assays, active SREBP-2 overexpression suppressed GW4064/FXR-mediated increase in reporter activities in regions containing the IR-1 motif (+848 to +5200) in the FGF19 gene. The suppressive effect disappeared in reporter activities in the region containing the IR-1 motif when the mutation was introduced into the IR-1 motif. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, binding of the FXR/retinoid X receptor ? heterodimer to the IR-1 motif was attenuated by adding active SREBP-2, but SREBP-2 binding to the IR-1 motif was not observed. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, specific binding of FXR to the IR-1-containing region of the FGF19 gene (+3214 to +3404) was increased in LS174T cells by treatment with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. Specific binding of SREBP-2 to FXR was observed in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays. These results suggest that SREBP-2 negatively regulates the FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of the FGF19 gene in human intestinal cells. PMID:24321096

Miyata, Masaaki; Hata, Tatsuya; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

2014-01-10

146

Drebrin E depletion in human intestinal epithelial cells mimics Rab8a loss of function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal epithelial cells are highly polarized and exhibit a complex architecture with a columnar shape and a specialized apical surface supporting microvilli organized in a brush border. These microvilli are rooted in a dense meshwork of acto-myosin called the terminal web. We have shown recently that Drebrin E, an F-actin-binding protein, is a key protein for the organization of the terminal web and the brush border. Drebrin E is also required for the columnar cell shape of Caco2 cells (human colonic cells). Here, we found that the subcellular localization of several apical markers including dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was strikingly modified in Drebrin E-depleted Caco2 cells. Instead of being mostly present at the apical surface, these proteins are accumulated in an enlarged subapical compartment. Using known intracellular markers, we show by both confocal and electron microscopy that this compartment is related to lysosomes. We also demonstrate that the enrichment of DPPIV in this compartment originates from apical endocytosis and that depletion of Rab8a induces an accumulation of apical proteins in a similar compartment. Consistent with this, the phenotype observed in Drebrin E knock-down Caco2 cells shares some features with a pathology called microvillar inclusion disease (MVID) involving both Myosin Vb and Rab8a. Taken together, these results suggest that Drebrin E redirects the apical recycling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells to the lysosomes, demonstrating that Drebrin E is a key regulator in apical trafficking in Caco2 cells. PMID:24399445

Vacca, Barbara; Bazellières, Elsa; Nouar, Roqiya; Harada, Akihiro; Massey-Harroche, Dominique; Le Bivic, André

2014-06-01

147

Digestive Stability, micellarization, and uptake of beta-carotene isomers by Caco-2 human intestinal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

While isomeric profiles of carotenoids found in food often differ from those in body fluids and tissues, insights about the basis for these differences remain limited. We investigated the digestive stability, relative efficiency of micellarization, and cellular accumulation of trans and cis isomers of beta-carotene (BC) using an in vitro digestion procedure coupled with human intestinal (Caco-2) cells. A meal containing applesauce, corn oil, and either water-soluble beadlets (WSB) or Dunaliella salina (DS) as a BC source was subjected to simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion. BC isomers were stable during digestion, and the efficiency of micellarization of cis-BC isomers exceeded that of all-trans-BC isomers. The cellular profile of carotenoids generally reflected that in micelles generated during digestion, and intracellular isomerization was minimal. These data suggest that cis isomers of BC are preferentially micellarized during digestion and transferred across the brush-border surface of the enterocyte from mixed micelles with similar efficiency as all-trans-BC at the concentrations of the carotenoids utilized in this study. PMID:16569076

Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lumpkin, John L; Schwartz, Steven J; Failla, Mark

2006-04-01

148

Intestinal infections in humans in the Rocky Mountain region, United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the seasonal prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the western states of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Montana, fecal samples were examined as part of routine diagnostic testing from patients experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort in August (summer) 2006, January (winter), and April (spring) 2007. Parasite identification in positive samples was confirmed using light microscopy after wet mount and trichrome staining techniques. Seventy-eight of the 1,083 patients surveyed (7.2%) in August tested positive for at least 1 species of intestinal parasite. Forty-eight of 726 (6.6%) patients and 51 of 795 (6.4%) patients tested positive for at least 1 species in January and April, respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most prevalent, followed by Giardia lamblia. Approximately 25% of the parasite occurrences were multiple infections involving fecal-oral transmitted species. Co-infections with Entamoeba spp. and Blastocystis sp. were common, suggesting a possible fecal-oral transmission for the latter parasite. Entamoeba spp. were more likely to co-occur than independently. Other species detected included Endolimax nana, Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Iodamoeba butschlii. PMID:19807196

Church, Cynthia; Neill, Andrea; Schotthoefer, Anna M

2010-02-01

149

Transcobalamin derived from bovine milk stimulates apical uptake of vitamin B12 into human intestinal epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an abundant source of bioavailable B12 wherein it is complexed with transcobalamin. In humans, transcobalamin functions primarily as a circulatory protein, which binds B12 following its absorption and delivers it to peripheral tissues via its cognate receptor, CD320. In the current study, the transcobalamin-B12 complex was purified from cows' milk and its ability to stimulate uptake of B12 into cultured bovine, mouse and human cell lines was assessed. Bovine milk-derived transcobalamin-B12 complex was absorbed by all cell types tested, suggesting that the uptake mechanism is conserved across species. Furthermore, the complex stimulated the uptake of B12 via the apical surface of differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the presence of an alternative transcobalamin-mediated uptake pathway for B12 in the human intestine other than that mediated by the gastric glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. Our findings highlight the potential for transcobalamin-B12 complex derived from bovine milk to be used as a natural bioavailable alternative to orally administered free B12 to overcome B12 malabsorption. PMID:24913691

Hine, Brad; Boggs, Irina; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Hovey, Russell C; Humphrey, Rex; Wheeler, Thomas T

2014-11-01

150

An improved prediction of the human in vivo intestinal permeability and BCS class of drugs using the in vitro permeability ratio obtained for rat intestine using an Ussing chamber system.  

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The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was developed to facilitate estimation of the in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drugs from human intestinal permeability and solubility. However, the measurement of human in vivo intestinal permeability, unlike that of solubility, is problematic and inefficient. Thus, rat in vitro intestinal permeability results obtained via the Ussing chamber technique are often used instead. However, these data could be unreliable due to difficulty in maintaining the viability of the dissected intestinal membrane in the Ussing chamber. Therefore, a more efficient method to obtain a reliable in vitro permeability is mandatory. Here, we propose a new approach by introducing a novel factor called the permeability ratio (PR). Basically, PR is a rat in vitro intestinal permeability obtained from the Ussing chamber, which is then corrected by the permeability of lucifer yellow, a paracellular permeability marker. To prove the validity of the method, 12 model drugs representing different BCS classes were tested, and the correlation with human in vivo intestinal permeability was high. More importantly, the new method perfectly classified all 12 model drugs. The results indicate that PR is a reliable factor with high correlation to human in vivo intestinal permeability, which can further be used to accurately predict the BCS classification. PMID:22934579

Li, Hong; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Shim, Won-Sik; Shim, Chang-Koo

2013-10-01

151

[Human parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis in an elderly man with intestinal hemorrhage].  

Science.gov (United States)

An elderly man with an intestinal hemorrhage from bowel diverticulosis developed human parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis. A 71-year-old man noticed occasional tarry stools and at the same time showed fever, arthralgia and severe anemia. Blood counts revealed Hgb 5.3g/dl, reticulocytes 0%, and WBC 1,900/microliters. Bone marrow examination showed hypocellular marrow with rare erythroid precursors (4.8%). A few giant proerythroblasts were found in the bone marrow smears. A diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infection was made because of detection of B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. Parvovirus B19 infection should be carefully checked for in patients with hemorrhage as well as those with hemolysis. PMID:8510339

Kamoshita, M; Ohtani, K; Hasegawa, Y; Satoh, Y; Kozima, H; Shibuya, A; Ninomiya, H; Nagasawa, T; Matsunaga, Y; Abe, T

1993-04-01

152

Digestion of the carbohydrates of banana (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) in the human small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The digestion and absorption from the small bowel of the carbohydrate of banana has been studied by feeding ileostomy subjects banana from six batches of different ripeness and measuring the amounts excreted in the effluent. Starch content of bananas depended on the ripeness being 37% of dry weight in the least ripe and 3% in the most ripe. Excretion of carbohydrate from banana in ileostomy effluent ranged from 4-19 g/day and was directly related to the starch content (r = 0.99). Up to 90% of the starch could be accounted for in the effluent. Complete recovery of nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP (dietary fiber)] was obtained. The amount of banana starch not hydrolyzed and absorbed from the human small intestine and therefore passing into the colon may be up to 8 times more than the NSP present in this food and depends on the state of ripeness when the fruit is eaten. PMID:3014853

Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H

1986-07-01

153

Substrate specificity and some properties of phenol sulfotransferase from human intestinal Caco-2 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phase 2 metabolic reactions, sulfation and glucuronidation, were studied in a human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2), which has been developed as a model of intestinal enterocytes. Phenol sulfotransferase was isolated from Caco-2 cells cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days. The enzyme catalyzed the sulfation of both p-nitrophenol and catecholamines as well as most catecholamine metabolites. The affinity (K{sub m}) of PST for dopamine was much higher than for p-nitrophenol, and the specific activity of PST with both substrates increased with the age of the cells. The thermal stability of Caco-2 PST increased with cell age and was not dependent on the acceptor substrate used. The thermolabile PST from 7-day old cells was more sensitive to NEM than was the thermostable enzyme from 21-day old cells. No UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity was detected in 7-, 14- and 21-day old Caco-2 cells with any of the methods used.

Baranczyk-Kuzma, A.; Garren, J.A.; Hidalgo, I.J.; Borchardt, R.T. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

1991-01-01

154

Primary culture of human keratinocytes planted on pig’s intestine  

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Full Text Available Tissue engineering, in the fields of skin regeneration,seeks to overcome the limitationsassociated with the use of immediate auto-grafts,since choosing the donor region of the patientconstitutes a risk for the patient himself and isinsufficient if the injury that has to be repairedis very large. The use of the pig’s small intestinesubmucosa (SIS has being proved as a fillingbiomaterial to treat injuries, because of its specialcomposition, it lowers pain and inflammationsince its first application and it favours earlymobility to the wounded area. The present studydeveloped a protocol for the primary cultureof human keratinocytes from infant foreskins,and used small intestinal submucosa (SIS likeculture substrate. Cellular adherence potentialand proliferation capability of the keratinocytesover this substrate was evaluated.

Sandra Rocío Ramírez

2008-12-01

155

The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and objective: The present project is part of the large ISAFRUIT project, where one of the objectives is to identify effects of apple and apple product on parameters related to gut health. In a previous rat study we observed changes in the intestinal microbiota of rats fed whole apples, pomace or apple pectin ([1], and we were interested in finding out if the same effect can be observed in humans. Method: The study was conducted as a randomized, controlled 5 x 28 days cross-over study with 24 healthy persons of both genders. The persons were following a pectin- and polyphenol free restriction diet during the control period, and in the four other periods it was supplied with four different apple based supplements. Between the diets there was a 2-week wash-out period still on the restriction diet. The four apple based supplements were: 1) whole apples, 2) clear apple juice (pectin-free), 3) cloudy juice (apple juice with pulp), and 4) pomace (press cake from the cloudy juice production process). Fecal samples were taken before and after each diet period. After DNA extraction, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with universal primers and specific primers for bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster XIVa was performed. Bands differing between the periods were sequenced, and qPCR was performed to verify the changes observed by DGGE. Results: Changes in the microbiota was observed by DGGE in persons consuming whole apples and pomace. In contrast, the two juice supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans.

Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea

2010-01-01

156

Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca(2+) by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals. PMID:25147231

Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Qu, Meihua; Xia, Yun; Needleman, Bradley J; Mikami, Dean J; Wood, Jackie D

2014-10-01

157

Absorption and transport of pachymic acid in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 monolayers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the absorption and transport of pachymic acid (PA isolated from the sclerotium of Poria cocos (Schw. Wolf. in human intestinal epithelium.Methods: By using Caco-2 (the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines cell monolayers as an intestinal epithelial cell model, the permeability of PA was studied from apical side (AP side to basolateral side (BL side or from BL side to AP side. The PA was measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector at maximum absorption wavelength of 210 nm. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp were then calculated and compared with those of propranolol and atenolol, which were the transcellular transport markers for high and poor permeability respectively.Results: The Papp values of PA were (9.50±2.20 10?7 cm/s from AP side to BL side, and (11.30±5.90 10?7 cm/s from BL side to AP side, respectively. Under the condition of this experiment, the Papp values were 1.45×10?5 cm/s for propranolol and 4.22×10?7 cm/s for atenolol.Conclusion: PA is transported through the Caco-2 cell monolayer in a concentration-dependent manner and the transport was linear with time. The absorption in apical to basolateral direction and secretion in basolateral to apical direction were poor and their Papp values were comparable to atenolol. Besides passive diffusion of PA, ATP is partially involved in its transport

Yan ZHENG

2008-07-01

158

Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a 125I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binding EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the 125I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subepithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 10(4)-fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of 125I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (Ka) of 1.4 x 10(-7) M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. PMID:1772651

Naidu, S S; Erdei, J; Czirók, E; Kalfas, S; Gadó, I; Thorén, A; Forsgren, A; Naidu, A S

1991-12-01

159

GIARDIA LAMBLIA: STIMULATION OF GROWTH BY HUMAN INTESTINAL MUCUS AND EPITHELIAL CELLS IN SERUMFREE MEDIUM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia lamblia trophozoites specifically colonize the upper human small intestine which is normally serum-free, but grow in vitro only in medium supplemented with serum or serum fractions. Recently, biliary lipids were shown to support the growth of G. lamblia without serum. Now...

160

Overexpression of gastrin and c-met protein involved in human gastric carcinomas and intestinal metaplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies have investigated the expression of c-met and c-erbB2 protein in human gastric adenocarcinomas, but the expression of gastrin protein in human gastric cancer and the relationship between gastrin and c-met are unknown. We have constructed a tissue microarray containing 408 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissue blocks, including tissues containing intestinal metaplasia (IM, n=72) and primary tumors (n=232), as well as normal gastric mucosa (n=104) from patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used for detecting gastrin, c-met and c-erbB2 proteins. Gastrin was detected in 13.5% (7/52) and c-met in 15.3% (11/72) of IM cases. In gastric carcinomas, 48.4% (103/213) of cases expressed gastrin, 68.8% (148/215) expressed c-met, and 5.5% (11/200) expressed c-erbB2. Gastrin and c-met protein expression were significantly higher in gastric tumor tissue than in IM (Pgastric carcinomas but not in normal gastric mucosa (Pgastric cancer with tumor stage, grade of differentiation or tumor type. These results indicate that gastrin and c-met play a role in the early process during malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa. PMID:14719064

Tang, Zhuobin; Zhao, Min; Ji, Jiafu; Yang, Guibin; Hu, Fulian; He, Jingsheng; Shen, Hui; Gao, Zhian; Zhao, Ailian; Li, Jiyou; Lu, Youyong

2004-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100?nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by ?-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250?µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies. PMID:24266793

Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

2014-08-01

162

Biotransformation of 1-nitropyrene to 1-aminopyrene and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene by the human intestinal microbiota  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) is an environmental pollutant, a potent bacterial and mammalian mutagen, and a carcinogen. The metabolism of 1-NP by the human intestinal microbiota was studied using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the colonic lumen. [3H]-1-Nitropyrene was metabolized by the intestinal microbiota to 1-aminopyrene (1-AP) and N-formyl-1-aminopyrene (FAP) as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Twenty-four hours after the addition of [3H]-1-NP, the formylated compound and 1-AP accounted for 20 and 80% of the total metabolism respectively. This percentage increased to 66% for FAP after 24 h following 10 d of chronic exposure to unlabeled 1-NP, suggesting metabolic adaptation to 1-NP by the microbiota. Both 1-AP and FAP have been shown to be nonmutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA98, which indicates that the intestinal microflora may potentially detoxify 1-NP

163

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results: We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possiblyreflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions: The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans.

Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine

2012-01-01

164

[Absorption of papaverine, laudanosine and cepharanthine across human intestine by using human Caco-2 cells monolayers model].  

Science.gov (United States)

Absorption of papaverine (PAP), laudanosine (LAU) and cepharanthine (CEP) as some chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicines in human intestine were studied. By using Caco-2 (the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell lines) cell monolayers as an intestinal epithelial cell model, the permeability of PAP, LAU and CEP were studied from apical side (AP side) to basolateral side (BL side) or from BL side to AP side. The three alkaloids were measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector. Transport parameters and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were then calculated and compared with those of propranolol as a control substance of high permeability and atenolol as a control substance of poor permeability. The Papp values of PAP, LAU and CEP were (3.524+/-0.223) x 10(-5), (2.821+/-0.050) x 10(-5) and (6.524+/-0.052) x 10(-5) cm s(-1) from AP side to BL side, and (5.095+/-0.508) x 10(-5), (2.646+/-0.146) x 10(-5) and (5.495+/-0.036) x 10(-5) cm s(-1) from BL side to AP side, respectively. Their Papp values were identical with those of propranolol, which is a transcellular transport marker. On the other hand, the efflux transport of PAP was 1.45 times higher than its influx transport with 0.69 rate of P(app A-->B)/P(app B-->A). But P(app A-->B)/P(app B-->A) values of LAU and CEP were 1.07 and 1.19, respectively, which suggested that the efflux transport have not been involved in their absorbed mechanism in Caco-2 cells monolayers. There is a good correlation between the Papp value and apparent distribution coefficient (Log D) at pH 7.35 for the three alkaloids. PAP, LAU and CEP can be absorbed across intestinal epithelial cells, and they are completely absorbed compounds. PAP may have been involved in efflux mechanism in Caco-2 cells monolayers model from the basolateral-to-apical direction. The O/W (oil/water) partition coefficient plays key role in their transmembrane permeation. PMID:18507350

Ma, Lian; Yang, Xiu-Wei

2008-02-01

165

E Durans Strain M4-5 Isolated From Human Colonic Flora Attenuates Intestinal Inflammation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of a unique high-butyrate-producing bacterial strain from human colonic flora, Enterococcus durans, in prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation. METHODS: A compartmentalized Caco-2/leukocyte coculture model was used to examine the in vitro effects of E durans and its metabolite butyrate on basal and Escherichia coli–stimulated secretion of proinflammatory immune factors (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-?) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. A murine model of dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis was used to examine in vivo effects of prevention and therapy with E durans on clinical, biochemical, and histologic parameters of inflammation. RESULTS: In the coculture model, treatment with E durans and with butyrate reduced basal as well as E coli stimulated secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-? and increased secretion of IL-10. In the in vivo murine model, preventive administration of E durans significantly ameliorated clinical disease activity index (weight loss, fecal bleeding, and stool consistency), reduced myeloperoxidase concentration in colon tissue extracts, improved histologic scores of colonic inflammation, and inhibited colonic transcription of proinflammatory immune factors. The effect of therapeutic treatment alone on these parameters was more moderate but still significant. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that E durans strain M4 to 5 and its metabolic product butyrate induce significant anti-inflammatory effects, mediated by regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune factors as well as preservation of intestine epithelial integrity, suggesting that this novel anti-inflammatory bacterium may be preferentially a useful prophylactic treatment to avoid inflammatory bowel disease.

Parlesak, Alexandr

2010-01-01

166

Artículos originales Cultivo primario de queratinocitos humanos sembrados en submucosa intestinal porcina / Primary culture of human keratinocytes planted on pig’s intestine Submucosa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el campo de la regeneración de piel, la ingeniería de tejidos busca superar las limitaciones asociadas con el uso de autoinjertos inmediatos, dado que la elección de una región donante en el paciente, constituye un riesgo para el mismo, además de ser insuficiente cuando la lesión es extensa. Se h [...] a comprobado que el empleo de la submucosa del intestino delgado de cerdo (SIS) (por la sigla en inglés small intestinal submucosa), por su especial composición, como biomaterial de relleno para tratar lesiones, disminuye el dolor y la inflamación desde su primera aplicación y favorece la movilidad temprana de la región lesionada. Con el fin de determinar la utilidad de SIS, como sustituto epidérmico, en el presente estudio se desarrolló un protocolo para el cultivo primario de queratinocitos humanos, provenientes de prepucios infantiles, sobre una matriz de SIS como soporte. Se evaluó el potencial de adherencia y la capacidad de proliferación de queratinocitos sobre este sustrato. Abstract in english Tissue engineering, in the fields of skin regeneration, seeks to overcome the limitations associated with the use of immediate auto-grafts, since choosing the donor region of the patient constitutes a risk for the patient himself and is insufficient if the injury that has to be repaired is very larg [...] e. The use of the pig’s small intestine submucosa (SIS) has being proved as a filling biomaterial to treat injuries, because of its special composition, it lowers pain and inflammation since its first application and it favours early mobility to the wounded area. The present study developed a protocol for the primary culture of human keratinocytes from infant foreskins, and used small intestinal submucosa (SIS) like culture substrate. Cellular adherence potential and proliferation capability of the keratinocytes over this substrate was evaluated.

Ángela Ximena, Amórtegui; Sandra Rocío, Ramírez.

2008-12-01

167

Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption

168

Effect of absorbable and nonabsorbable sugars on intestinal calcium absorption in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of glucose, galactose, and lactitol on intestinal calcium absorption and gastric emptying were studied in 9, 8, and 20 healthy subjects, respectively. Calcium absorption was measured by using a double-isotope technique and the kinetic parameters were obtained by a deconvolution method. The gastric emptying rate was determined with /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and was expressed as the half-time of the emptying curve. Each subject was studied under two conditions: (a) with calcium alone and (b) with calcium plus sugar. Glucose and galactose increased the calcium mean transit time and improved the total fractional calcium absorption by 30% (p less than 0.02). Lactitol decreased the mean rate of absorption (p less than 0.001) and reduced the total fractional calcium absorption by 15% (p less than 0.001). The gastric emptying rate did not appear to influence directly the kinetic parameters of calcium absorption. These results show that both glucose and galactose exert the same stimulatory effect as lactose on calcium absorption in subjects with normal lactase whereas lactitol mimics the effects of lactose in lactase-deficient patients. Thus the absorbability of sugars determines their effect on calcium absorption.

Griessen, M.; Speich, P.V.; Infante, F.; Bartholdi, P.; Cochet, B.; Donath, A.; Courvoisier, B.; Bonjour, J.P.

1989-03-01

169

What Future Expects Humanity After the Demographic Transition Time?  

CERN Document Server

The variant of phenomenological theory of humankind future existence after time of demographic transition based on treating the time of demographic transition as a point of phase transition and taking into account an appearing of the new phase of mankind is proposed. The theory based on physical phenomenological theories of phase transitions and classical equations for system predatory-preys for two phases of mankind, take into account assumption about a multifractal nature of the set of number of people in temporal axis and contains control parameters. The theory includes scenario of destroying of existent now human population by new phase of humanity and scenario of old and new phases co-existence. In particular cases when the new phase of mankind is absent the equations of theory may be formulated as equations of Kapitza, Foerster, Hoerner, Kobelev and Nugaeva, Johansen and Sornette phenomenological theories of growth of mankind.

Kobelev, L Yu

2000-01-01

170

Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on small intestinal glucose absorption in healthy human subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported that the artificial sweetener, sucralose, stimulates glucose absorption in rodents by enhancing apical availability of the transporter GLUT2. We evaluated whether exposure of the proximal small intestine to sucralose affects glucose absorption and/or the glycaemic response to an intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusion in healthy human subjects. Ten healthy subjects were studied on two separate occasions in a single-blind, randomised order. Each subject received an ID infusion of sucralose (4 mM in 0.9% saline) or control (0.9% saline) at 4 ml/min for 150 min (T = - 30 to 120 min). After 30 min (T = 0), glucose (25 %) and its non-metabolised analogue, 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG; 2.5 %), were co-infused intraduodenally (T = 0-120 min; 4.2 kJ/min (1 kcal/min)). Blood was sampled at frequent intervals. Blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serum 3-OMG concentrations increased during ID glucose/3-OMG infusion (P OMG concentrations between sucralose and control infusions. In conclusion, sucralose does not appear to modify the rate of glucose absorption or the glycaemic or incretin response to ID glucose infusion when given acutely in healthy human subjects. PMID:20420761

Ma, Jing; Chang, Jessica; Checklin, Helen L; Young, Richard L; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

2010-09-01

171

Molecular paleoparasitological hybridization approach as effective tool for diagnosing human intestinal parasites from scarce archaeological remains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

2014-01-01

172

Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iniguez, Alena Mayo

2014-01-01

173

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces transactivation of EGFR and HER2 in human breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the cross-talk between receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the human epidermal growth factor family of tyrosine kinase receptors (HER) in oestrogen-dependent (T47D) and oestrogen-independent (MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cells. VIP treatment slowly increased the expression levels of EGFR but it rapidly augmented phosphorylation of EGFR and HER2 in both cell lines. This pattern of HERs transactivation was blocked by the specific VIP antagonist JV-1-53, supporting the direct involvement of VIP receptors in formation of P-EGFR and P-HER2. VIP-induced transactivation was also abolished by H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), PP2 (Src inhibitor) or TAPI-1 (inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases), following a differential pattern. These results shed a new light on the specific signalling pathways involved in EGFR/HER2 transactivation by VPAC receptors and suggest the potential usefulness of VIP receptor antagonists together with current antibodies against EGFR/HER2 and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors for breast cancer therapy. PMID:19101605

Valdehita, Ana; Bajo, Ana M; Schally, Andrew V; Varga, Jozsef L; Carmena, María J; Prieto, Juan C

2009-04-10

174

Digoxin inhibition of relaxation induced by prostacyclin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in small human placental arteries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Small chorionic plate arteries were obtained from human placentae following normal vaginal delivery. Tubal vascular preparations were dissected, mounted in organ baths, and their isometric tension was recorded. Digoxin (10(-6) M) caused a rise in basic tension, reaching a maximum of 17 per cent of contractions induced by potassium (124 mM) depolarization. Pretreatment with digoxin did not significantly influence the concentration-dependent contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). In preparations contracted with PGF2 alpha, cumulative addition of prostacyclin (PGI2) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) produced concentration dependent relaxations. Digoxin (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) inhibited and finally abolished these relaxant effects of PGI2 and VIP in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment by digoxin (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) diminished the relaxant effect of sodium nitroprusside, but the effect was less pronounced than that on PGI2- and VIP-induced relaxation. As PGI2 and VIP may be of importance for the maintenance of a low resistance of the fetal placental vascular bed, the finding that digoxin decreases the vasodilating effects of these agents might imply effects on placental resistance of cardiac glycosides when used in late human pregnancy.

Maigaard, S; Forman, Axel

1985-01-01

175

Nanoparticle formulation of a poorly soluble cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist improves absorption by rat and human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inclusion of nanoparticles dispersed in a hydrophilic matrix is one of the formulation strategies to improve the bioavailability of orally administered Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II and IV drugs by increasing their dissolution rate in the intestine. To confirm that the increased dissolution rate results in increased bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo animal experiments are performed, however, translation to the human situation is hazardous. In this study, we used a range of in vitro and ex vivo methods, including methods applying human tissue, to predict the in vivo oral bioavailability of a model BCS class II CB-1 antagonist, formulated as a nanoparticle solid dispersion. The enhanced dissolution rate from the nanoparticle formulation resulted in an increased metabolite formation in both rat and human precision-cut intestinal slices, suggesting increased uptake and intracellular drug concentration in the enterocytes. In Ussing chamber experiments with human tissue, both the metabolite formation and apical efflux of the metabolite were increased for the nanoparticulate solid dispersion compared with a physical mixture, in line with the results in intestinal slices. The pharmacokinetics of the different formulations was studied in rats in vivo. The nanoparticle formulation indeed improved the absorption of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB-1) antagonist and the delivery into the brain compared with the physical mixture. In conclusion, the combined approach provides a valuable set of tools to investigate the effects of formulation on the absorption of poorly soluble compounds in human intestine and may provide relevant information on the oral bioavailability in humans early in the development process. PMID:23733277

Siissalo, Sanna; de Waard, Hans; de Jager, Marina H; Hayeshi, Rose; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Dinter-Heidorn, Heike; van Dam, Annie; Proost, Johannes H; Groothuis, Geny M M; de Graaf, Inge A M

2013-08-01

176

Simultaneous assessment of lipid classes and bile acids in human intestinal fluid by solid-phase extraction and HPLC methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a method for the determination of lipid classes in intestinal fluids, including bile acids (BAs). A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using C18 and silica columns for the separation of BAs, phospholipids (PLs), and neutral lipids (NLs), including free fatty acids, has been developed and validated. Fed-state small intestinal fluid collected from humans was treated with orlistat to inhibit lipolysis and mixed with acetic acid and methanol before SPE to maximize lipid recoveries. BAs, PLs, and NLs were isolated using lipophilic and polar solvents to promote elution from the SPE columns. The different lipid classes were subsequently analyzed using three separately optimized HPLC methods with evaporative light-scattering detectors. High recoveries (>90%) of all lipids evaluated were observed, with low coefficients of variation (HPLC methods developed were highly reproducible and allowed baseline separation of nearly all lipid classes investigated. In conclusion, these methods provide a means of lipid class analysis of NLs, PLs, and BAs in human fed-state small intestinal fluid, with potential use in other fluids from the intestinal tract and animals. PMID:17062898

Persson, Eva; Löfgren, Lars; Hansson, Göran; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lennernäs, Hans; Nilsson, Ralf

2007-01-01

177

Weakly beta-haemolytic human intestinal spirochaetes antagonize the haemolytic activity of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin producer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of haemolytic antagonism between weakly beta-haemolytic human intestinal spirochaetes (wbetaHIS) related to human intestinal spirochaetosis and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin producer was investigated. A reduction of the clostridial haemolytic activity and a distortion of the haemolytic halo of clostridial alpha-toxin surrounded by a small zone of poorly cooperative haemolysis was clearly observed on the level of the spirochaetal growth area when 40 out of 41 wbetaHIS were cultivated in sheep blood agar plates together with Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin producer. This phenomenon of haemolytic antagonism was observed only when wbetaHIS grew 72-96 hours sooner than C. perfringens and after the inoculum of the latter at a distance of 0 to 10 mm from wbetaHIS the plates were anaerobically incubated for an additional 48 hours and the bacteria were used at concentrations ranging from 10(7) to 10(4) CFU/ml. These results were also observed between C. perfringens and weakly beta-haemolytic intestinal spirochaetes related to animal intestinal spirochaetosis including avian strains and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli of porcine origin. PMID:11346295

Calderaro, A; Dettori, G; Grillo, R; Cattani, P; Ragni, P; Guégan, R; Fadda, G; Chezzi, C

2001-04-01

178

Assessment of the mode of action underlying development of rodent small intestinal tumors following oral exposure to hexavalent chromium and relevance to humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Chronic exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in drinking water causes intestinal adenomas and carcinomas in mice, but not in rats. Cr(VI) causes damage to intestinal villi and crypt hyperplasia in mice after only one week of exposure. After two years of exposure, intestinal damage and crypt hyperplasia are evident in mice (but not rats), as are intestinal tumors. Although Cr(VI) has genotoxic properties, these findings suggest that intestinal tumors in mice arise as a result of chronic mucosal injury. To better understand the mode of action (MOA) of Cr(VI) in the intestine, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted to collect histological, biochemical, toxicogenomic and pharmacokinetic data in intestinal tissues. Using MOA analyses and human relevance frameworks proposed by national and international regulatory agencies, the weight of evidence supports a cytotoxic MOA with the following key events: (a) absorption of Cr(VI) from the intestinal lumen, (b) toxicity to intestinal villi, (c) crypt regenerative hyperplasia and (d) clonal expansion of mutations within the crypt stem cells, resulting in late onset tumorigenesis. This article summarizes the data supporting each key event in the MOA, as well as data that argue against a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal tumors. PMID:23445218

Thompson, Chad M; Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Haws, Laurie C; Kirman, Christopher R; Harris, Mark A

2013-03-01

179

Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a 125I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binging EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the 125I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subephithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 104eins and carbohydrates tested (in 104-fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of 125I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (Ka) of 1.4 x 10-7 M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. (au)

180

Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a {sup 125}I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binging EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the {sup 125}I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subephithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 10{sup 4}-fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of {sup 125}I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 1.4 x 10{sup -7} M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. (au).

Naidu, S.S.; Erdei, J.; Forsgren, A.; Naidu, A.S. (Departments of Medical Microbiology, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Czirok, E.; Gado, I. (National Institute of Hygiene, Budapest (Hungary)); Kalfas, S. (School of Dentistry, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden)); Thoren, A. (Infectious Diseases, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden))

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Phase Transition in a Healthy Human Heart Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

A healthy human heart rate displays complex fluctuations which share characteristics of physical systems in a critical state. We demonstrate that the human heart rate in healthy individuals undergoes a dramatic breakdown of criticality characteristics, reminiscent of continuous second order phase transitions. By studying the germane determinants, we show that the hallmark of criticality—highly correlated fluctuations—is observed only during usual daily activity, and a breakdown of these characteristics occurs in prolonged, strenuous exercise and sleep. This finding is the first reported discovery of the dynamical phase transition phenomenon in a biological control system and will be a key to understanding the heart rate control system in health and disease.

Kiyono, Ken; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Aoyagi, Naoko; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

2005-07-01

182

Nuclear localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in human breast cancer.  

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Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors (VPACs) are involved in proliferation, survival, and differentiation in human breast cancer cells. Its mechanism of action is traditionally thought to be through specific plasma membrane receptors. There is compelling evidence for a novel intracrine mode of genomic regulation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that implies both endocytosis and nuclear translocation of peripheral GPCR and/or the activation of nuclear-located GPCRs by endogenously-produced, non-secreted ligands. Regarding to VPAC receptors, which are GPCRs, there is only a report suggesting them as a dynamic system for signaling from plasma membrane and nuclear membrane complex. In this study, we show that VPAC(1) receptor is localized in cell nuclear fraction whereas VPAC(2) receptor presents an extranuclear localization and its protein expression is lower than that of VPAC(1) receptor in human breast tissue samples. Both receptors as well as VIP are overexpressed in breast cancer as compared to non-tumor tissue. Moreover, we report the markedly nuclear localization of VPAC(1) receptors in estrogen-dependent (T47D) and independent (MDA-MB-468) human breast cancer cell lines. VPAC(1) receptors are functional in plasma membrane and nucleus as shown by VIP stimulation of cAMP production in both cell lines. In addition, VIP increases its own intracellular and extracellular levels, and could be involved in the regulation of VPAC(1)-receptor traffic from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These results support new concepts on function and regulation of nuclear GPCRs which could have an impact on development of new therapeutic drugs. PMID:20691743

Valdehita, Ana; Bajo, Ana M; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Arenas, M Isabel; Vacas, Eva; Valenzuela, Pedro; Ruíz-Villaespesa, Antonio; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

2010-11-01

183

Intestine Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Intestine Transplant Although it is possible for a living donor to donate an intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ from a deceased donor. ...

184

Design of species-specific primers to identify 13 species of Clostridium harbored in human intestinal tracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Clostridium is dominant in human intestinal tracts and plays an important role in human health. We designed species-specific primers to identify 13 species of Clostridium (C. perfringens, C. paraputrificum, C. bifermentans, C. difficile, C. clostridiiforme, C. nexile, C. sphenoides, C. indolis, C. ramosum, C. cocleatum, C. butyricum, C. sordellii, and C. innocuum) easily and rapidly. The PCR annealing temperature was set at a uniform 60 C for application to all strains at the same time. To confirm the specificities of these primers, 85 intestinal bacteria in total, including type strains, reference strains, and isolates were used. Ten primers (including those for C. perfringens to C. cocleatum) indicated high specificities. Although there were some cross-reactions with the other three primers, the target species were distinguishable from other bacteria by the different sizes of PCR products. PMID:12139395

Kikuchi, Eisaku; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Narushima, Seiko; Itoh, Kikuji

2002-01-01

185

CD24 and CD44 mark human intestinal epithelial cell populations with characteristics of active and facultative stem cells  

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Recent seminal studies have rapidly advanced the understanding of intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) biology in murine models. However, the lack of techniques suitable for isolation and subsequent downstream analysis of IESCs from human tissue has hindered the application of these findings toward the development of novel diagnostics and therapies with direct clinical relevance. This study demonstrates that the cluster of differentiation genes CD24 and CD44 are differentially expressed across LGR5 positive “active” stem cells as well as HOPX positive “facultative” stem cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting enables differential enrichment of LGR5 cells (CD24?/CD44+) and HOPX (CD24+/CD44+) cells for gene expression analysis and culture. These findings provide the fundamental methodology and basic cell surface signature necessary for isolating and studying intestinal stem cell populations in human physiology and disease. PMID:23553902

Gracz, Adam D.; Fuller, Megan K.; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C.Y.; Martin, Martin G.; Magness, Scott T.

2013-01-01

186

Heparin induces the expression of specific matrix proteins by human intestinal smooth muscle cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human intestinal smooth muscle (HISM) cells have recently been identified as the major cell type responsible for stricture formation in Crohn's disease. Heparin, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, has been shown to be a key modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth both in vivo and in vitro and to affect the phenotypic expression of proteins made by VSMC. Heparin has also been shown to effect the growth of HISM cells and in this report the authors demonstrate that heparin also has very specific effects on proteins released by HISM cells in vitro. Examination of the proteins in the culture medium of heparin-treated HISM cells observed at 3 time points following sparse plating and proliferation revealed an increase in 35S-methionine-labeled 200, 37, and 35 kd proteins. A transient effect on a 48 kd protein was observed in substrate-attached material left on the culture dish after the cells were removed with EGTA. No effects on intracellular labeled proteins could be demonstrated. The protein phenotype of HISM cells exposed to heparin appears very similar to that observed in VSMC. The release of specific proteins following exposure to heparin does not appear to be species specific. This response to heparin may reflect a significant influence of this glycosaminoglycan on the phenotypic expression of these cells

187

[Human large intestine adenocarcinoma cells (CaCo-2) in the process of cultivation].  

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Using cytomorphometry and cytophotometry cells of human large intestine adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) were studied under condition of a 10 day cultivation. A reverse dependence was established between proliferative activity and monolayer density. The increase of the latter inhibits proliferation and promotes the formation of islets of polymorph cells. 2c-cells could be seen only at the beginning of culture growth; a larger part of cells polyploidized by cell blocking in G2-phase. These cells do not divide, which is testified by the absence of 2c-cells, but some part of 4c-cells start the next cycle, accumulates 8c-DNA and then divides, replenishing the 4c-cells population. In the process of cultivation, we observed an increase in the number and total volume of nucleoli in the nuclei, and a rise in DNA amount in the peri-nucleolar chromatin. The formation of numerous 4c-cells with multi-nucleolar nuclei may define an increase of functional activity of CaCo-2 culture as the whole, whereas the formation of separated groups of such cells in the monolayer may denote a possible initiation of their differentiation. PMID:16841493

Karalova, E M; Abroian, L O; Akopian, L A; Gasparian, M G; Karalian, Z A; Dzhagatspanian, N G; Ter-Pogosian, Z R; Kamalian, L A; Magakian, Iu A

2006-01-01

188

Effects of food lectins on the transport system of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.  

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The effects of 16 lectins isolated from foodstuff on the transport system across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers were investigated by using four fluorescent markers: lucifer yellow (LY) for the paracellular pathway, fluorescein (FL) for the monocarboxylic acid transporter-mediated pathway, rhodamine 123 for the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux pathway, and calcein for the multidrug resistance associated protein-related efflux pathway. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) values for the monolayers were also measured. WGA from wheat germ, ABA from white mushroom, AOL from Aspergillus oryzae, and CSL3 from chum salmon eggs (each at 100 µg/mL) decreased the TER value by 20-40% which resulted in increased LY transport. These lectins, as well as such other lectins as SBA from soybean, RBA from rice bran, and Con A from jack bean, affected other transport pathways too. These results indicate that the lectins modulated the transepithelial transport system in different ways, probably because of their specific binding characteristics toward Caco-2 cell monolayers. PMID:24018688

Yamamoto, Shintaro; Tomiyama, Mai; Nemoto, Ryo; Naganuma, Takako; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji

2013-01-01

189

Toxicity of commercially available engineered nanoparticles to Caco-2 and SW480 human intestinal epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), especially via drinking water, are unknown. Using NPs spiked into synthetic water and cell culture media, we investigated cell death, oxidative stress, and inflammatory effects of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on human intestinal Caco-2 and SW480 cells. ZnO NPs were cytotoxic to both cell lines, while Ag and TiO2 NPs were toxic only at 100 mg/L to Caco-2 and SW480, respectively. ZnO NPs led to significant cell death in synthetic freshwaters with 1 % phosphate-buffered saline in both cell lines, while Ag and TiO2 NPs in buffered water led to cell death in SW480 cells. NP exposures did not yield significant increased reactive oxygen species generation but all NP exposures led to increased IL-8 cytokine generation in both cell lines. These results indicate cell stress and cell death from NP exposures, with a varied response based on NP composition. PMID:23468361

Abbott Chalew, Talia E; Schwab, Kellogg J

2013-04-01

190

Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

Rina G Kaminsky

2004-11-01

191

Butyrate stimulates IL-32? expression in human intestinal epithelial cell lines  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of butyrate on interleukin (IL-32? expression in epithelial cell lines.METHODS: The human intestinal epithelial cell lines HT-29, SW480, and T84 were used. Intracellular IL-32? was determined by Western blotting analyses. IL-32? mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: Acetate and propionate had no effects on IL-32? mRNA expression. Butyrate significantly enhanced IL-32? expression in all cell lines. Butyrate also up-regulated IL-1?-induced IL-32? mRNA expression. Butyrate did not modulate the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, a mediator of IL-32? expression. Like butyrate, trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, also enhanced IL-1?-induced IL-32? mRNA expression.CONCLUSION: Butyrate stimulated IL-32? expression in epithelial cell lines. An epigenetic mechanism, such as histone hyperacetylation, might be involved in the action of butyrate on IL-32? expression.

Ayako Kobori, Shigeki Bamba, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Hiromitsu Ban, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa, Yasuharu Saito, Yoshihide Fujiyama, Akira Andoh

2010-05-01

192

[Studies on biotransformation of chemical constituents of tongmai formula by human intestinal flora].  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the chemical constituents in Tongmai formula (TMF) after biotransformation by human intestinal flora (HIF), water extract of TMF was anaerobically incubated with HIF at 37 degrees C. Column chromatographic methods over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography as well as recrystallization were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents in TMF after biotransformation by HIF. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. Twenty-six compounds were obtained and identified as phenylpropionic acid (1), 6"-O-acetylpuerarin (2), formononetin(3), daidzein(4), p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (5), 3-indolepropionic acid (6), genistein (7), isoformononetin (8), isoononin (9), a mixture of (-)-puerol B-2"-O-glucopyranoside (10a) and (+) -puerol B-2"-O-glucopyranoside (10b), 8-hydroxydaidzein (11), puerol A (12), 3'-methoxy-6"-O-acetylpuerarin (13), 6"-O-acetyldaidzin (14), 3'-methoxydaidzin (15), puerol B (16), 3-methyluracil (17), genistin (18), daidzin (19), 3'-methoxypuerarin (20), mirificin (21), swertiamarin (22) , daidzein-7, 4'-O-glucoside (23), adenine (24), 3'-hydroxypuerarin (25), and puerarin (26). After biotransformation by HIF, the glycosides in TMF were transformed into aglycone and/or less glycosyl compounds along with some hydroxylation and demethylation reactions. Therefore, the glycosides in the TMF are the pro-drug. PMID:24490564

Wu, Shuai; Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

2013-10-01

193

Prediction of Human Intestinal Absorption by GA Feature Selection and Support Vector Machine Regression  

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Full Text Available QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships models for the prediction of human intestinal absorption (HIA were built with molecular descriptors calculated by ADRIANA.Code, Cerius2 and a combination of them. A dataset of 552 compounds covering a wide range of current drugs with experimental HIA values was investigated. A Genetic Algorithm feature selection method was applied to select proper descriptors. A Kohonen's self-organizing Neural Network (KohNN map was used to split the whole dataset into a training set including 380 compounds and a test set consisting of 172 compounds. First, the six selected descriptors from ADRIANA.Code and the six selected descriptors from Cerius2 were used as the input descriptors for building quantitative models using Partial Least Square (PLS analysis and Support Vector Machine (SVM Regression. Then, another two models were built based on nine descriptors selected by a combination of ADRIANA.Code and Cerius2 descriptors using PLS and SVM, respectively. For the three SVM models, correlation coefficients (r of 0.87, 0.89 and 0.88 were achieved; and standard deviations (s of 10.98, 9.72 and 9.14 were obtained for the test set.

Zongyuan Cai

2008-10-01

194

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication, Intracellular Trafficking, and Pathogenicity in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

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Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the most important vector-borne viruses in Europe and Asia. Its transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. However, consuming milk products from infected livestock animals caused TBEV cases. To better understand TBEV transmission via the alimentary route, we studied viral infection of human intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were used to investigate pathological effects of TBEV infection. TBEV-infected Caco-2 monolayers sh...

Yu, Chao; Achazi, Katharina; Mo?ller, Lars; Schulzke, Jo?rg D.; Niedrig, Matthias; Bu?cker, Roland

2014-01-01

195

Proinflammatory V?2+ T cells populate the human intestinal mucosa and enhance IFN-? production by colonic ?? T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In nonhuman primates, V?9V?2(+) (V?2)T cells proliferate and accumulate in mucosal tissues following microbial activation. Human V?2T cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial species that colonize the gut, but the role played by V?2T cells in intestinal immunity is unknown. We hypothesized that circulating V?2T cells can populate the human intestine and contribute to mucosal inflammation. Cell suspensions prepared from peripheral blood and intestinal biopsies were stimulated with microbial phosphoantigen (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-4-yl 4-diphosphate [HDMAPP]) and analyzed by flow cytometry to determine V?2T cell phenotype, cytokine production, and proliferative potential. Circulating V?2T cells expressed gut-homing integrin ?4?7 (>70%), which was coexpressed with skin-associated cutaneous leukocyte Ag by up to 15% of the total population. However, V?2T cell activation with HDMAPP and exposure to retinoic acid (signaling via retinoic acid receptor ?) increased ?4?7 expression and enhanced binding to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 in vitro while simultaneously suppressing cutaneous leukocyte Ag, thereby generating a committed gut-tropic phenotype. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry identified frequent V?2T cells that migrated out of human intestinal biopsies and comprised both CD103(+) and CD103(-) subsets that produced TNF-? and IFN-? upon phosphoantigen exposure, with more frequent cytokine-producing cells in the CD103(-) population. Activated intestinal V?2T cells expressed CD70 and HLA-DR but were unable to drive the proliferation of allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells. Instead, phosphoantigen-activated CD103(-) V?2T cells increased T-bet expression and enhanced IFN-? production by autologous colonic ?? T cells via an IFN-?-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate that circulating V?2T cells display enhanced gut-homing potential upon microbial activation and populate the human intestinal mucosa, generating functionally distinct CD103(+) and CD103(-) subsets that can promote inflammation by colonic ?? T cells. PMID:23904167

McCarthy, Neil E; Bashir, Zora; Vossenkämper, Anna; Hedin, Charlotte R; Giles, Edward M; Bhattacharjee, Shaumick; Brown, Sabrina G; Sanders, Theodore J; Whelan, Kevin; MacDonald, Thomas T; Lindsay, James O; Stagg, Andrew J

2013-09-01

196

Distribution characteristics of entrapped recombinant human erythropoietin in liposomes and its intestinal absorption in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) is frequently administered by intravenous (i.v.) injection for the clinical treatment of renal anemia. Oral (per os; p.o.) administration is desired as an alternative route to i.v. administration, and liposomes have been chosen as a drug carrier. We found previously that after a p.o. administration to rats of Epo entrapped in liposomes before gel filtration, the Epo was absorbed, but variability in the number of days of appearance and in the levels of pharmacological effects, i.e. , the peak of circulating reticulocyte counts (RTC), was observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution characteristics of Epo in liposomes and intestinal absorption of liposomal Epo in rats by using purified Epo entrapped in liposomes after gel filtration (Epo/liposomes). The distribution characteristics of Epo/liposomes were determined by measuring the Epo in liposomes by a radioimmunoassay, high-performance liquid chromatography and zeta potential measurements. We observed that the protein part of Epo was mostly entrapped in liposomes, and was not adsorbed by the liposomal membrane at middle and high Epo p.o. doses, but the zeta potential of the Epo/liposomes increased negatively with the increase in the Epo p.o. doses. These results suggest that the sialic acid part of Epo entrapped in liposomes may project out from liposomes, depending on the entrapped Epo concentration. Little Epo was adsorbed or penetrated into liposomes when it was added to empty liposomes. After the p. o. administration of Epo/liposomes, the peak of RTC appeared at a 2-day delay on day 6, without variation and without dose dependency in comparison with that after i.v. administration. These results suggest that one of the reasons for the variability may be because the non-entrapped Epo and/or Epo/liposomes itself affected the intestinal absorption of Epo/liposomes. In conclusion, Epo/liposomes without nonentrapped Epo may be clinically useful for the oral administration of Epo. PMID:10425361

Maitani, Y; Moriya, H; Shimoda, N; Takayama, K; Nagai, T

1999-08-01

197

Characterization of calcium transport by basolateral membrane vesicles of human small intestine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present studies investigated the mechanism of Ca2+ transport across basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) prepared from human small intestine. Ca2+ uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evident by osmolality study and by the demonstration of Ca2+ efflux from the intravesicular space by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Ca2+ uptake was stimulated by Mg2+-ATP. Kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake revealed a Michaelis constant (Km) of 0.02±0.01 ?M and a maximum rate of uptake (Vmax) of 1.00±0.03 nmol·mg protein-1·min-1. Ca2+ uptake in the presence of Mg2+ was inhibited by 75%. The Km of ATP concentration required for half-maximal Ca2+ uptake was 0.50±0.1 mM. Basolateral membranes depleted of calmodulin by EDTA osmotic shock decreased ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake by 65%. Trifluoperazine, an anticalmodulin drug, inhibited ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake by 50%, while no inhibition was noted in calmodulin-depleted membranes. Efflux of Ca2+ in the BLMVs was stimulated by trans-Na+. Na+-dependent Ca2+ uptake was saturable with respect to Ca2+ concentration and exhibited a Km of 0.09±0.03 ?M and a Vmax of 1.08±0.01 nmol·mg protein-1·min-1. These results are consisteup>. These results are consistent with the existence of a Na+-Ca2+ exchange system and ATP and Mg2+-dependent, calmodulin-regulated Ca2+, transport mechanism in BLMVs of human enterocytes

198

Conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to 5-fluorouracil by human intestinal microflora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

5-Fluorocytosine (FC) is used to treat systemic fungal infections in man. Its clinical effectiveness has been limited by hematologic toxicity which may be secondary to the formation of 5-fluorouracil (FU). It is unclear how FU is formed since human cells lack cytosine deaminase. The present study examined if intestinal microflora (IMF) could convert FC to FU in man. An in vitro semicontinuous culture system was inoculated with human feces and maintained with sterile nutrient suspension. The microbial community was assessed for cell count and anaerobes as well as formation of volatile fatty acids and CH4. The system approximated that believed to occur in vivo. The study was initiated with addition of purified [6-14C]-FC. Unlabelled FC was then added to the system daily for 2 weeks following which [6-14C]-FC was again added. Following each addition of [6-14C]-FC, samples were removed at 2,4,8,24,48,72, and 96 hr. Utilizing HPLC, FC and FU could be separated with quantitation of radioactivity in each peak. Following the initial dose, no detectable FU was observed during the first 8 hr, but after 24 hr increasing levels were detected (9.42 ?g FU/ml after 4 days). Following chronic administration of FC, increased levles of FU were noted without an 8 hr lag time in the production of FU (31.86 ?g FU/ml after 4 days). In summary, these studies demonstrate that IMF can convert FC to FU possibly accounting for toxicity observed following administration of FC

199

Comparison of DNA extraction kits for PCR-DGGE analysis of human intestinal microbial communities from fecal specimens  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of diet on intestinal microflora has been investigated mainly using conventional microbiological approaches. Although these studies have advanced knowledge on human intestinal microflora, it is imperative that new methods are applied to facilitate scientific progress. Culture-independent molecular fingerprinting method of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE has been used to study microbial communities in a variety of environmental samples. However, these protocols must be optimized prior to their application in order to enhance the quality and accuracy of downstream analyses. In this study, the relative efficacy of four commercial DNA extraction kits (Mobio Ultra Clean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit, M; QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit, Q; FastDNA® SPIN Kit, FSp; FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil, FSo were evaluated. Further, PCR-DGGE technique was also assessed for its feasibility in detecting differences in human intestinal bacterial fingerprint profiles. Method Total DNA was extracted from varying weights of human fecal specimens using four different kits, followed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, and DGGE separation of the amplicons. Results Regardless of kit, maximum DNA yield was obtained using 10 to 50 mg (wet wt of fecal specimens and similar DGGE profiles were obtained. However, kits FSp and FSo extracted significantly larger amounts of DNA per g dry fecal specimens and produced more bands on their DGGE profiles than kits M and Q due to their use of bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking step. DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR products was suitable for capturing the profiles of human intestinal microbial community and enabled rapid comparative assessment of inter- and intra-subject differences. Conclusion We conclude that extraction kits that incorporated bead-containing lysing matrix and vigorous shaking produced high quality DNA from human fecal specimens (10 to 50 mg, wet wt that can be resolved as bacterial community fingerprints using PCR-DGGE technique. Subsequently, PCR-DGGE technique can be applied for studying variations in human intestinal microbial communities.

Nakatsu Cindy H

2010-05-01

200

Species difference in the effect of grapefruit juice on intestinal absorption of talinolol between human and rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioavailability of talinolol, a beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, was enhanced by coadministration with grapefruit juice (GFJ) in rats, whereas GFJ ingestion markedly reduced the absorption of talinolol in humans. Because our recent study indicated that the inhibitory effect of GFJ on organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)- and P-gp-mediated talinolol absorption depends on the concentration of naringin in ingested GFJ, the apparent inconsistent findings may be explained by the species difference in the affinity of naringin for OATP/Oatp and P-gp multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1/Mdr1) between humans and rats. Although human MDR1-mediated talinolol transport was not inhibited by 2000 microM naringin, naringin inhibited human OATP1A2-, rat Oatp1a5-, and rat Mdr1a-mediated talinolol transport with IC(50) values of 343, 12.7, and 604 microM, respectively, in LLC-PK1 cell and Xenopus laevis oocyte systems. Because the naringin concentration in commercially prepared GFJ was found to be approximately 1200 microM, these results suggested that GFJ would reduce the intestinal absorption of talinolol through inhibition of OATP1A2-mediated talinolol uptake in humans, whereas an increase of talinolol absorption is mainly through inhibition of Mdr1a-mediated efflux in rats. The rat intestinal permeability of talinolol measured by the in situ closed loop method was indeed significantly increased in the presence of GFJ, whereas a significant decrease was observed with 6-fold diluted GFJ, in which the naringin concentration was approximately 200 microM. The present study indicated that the species difference in the effect of GFJ on intestinal absorption of talinolol between humans and rats may be due to differences in the affinity of naringin for OATP/Oatp and MDR1/Mdr1 transporters between the two species. PMID:19779132

Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Kuraoka, Erika; Spahn-Langguth, Hildegard; Nakanishi, Takeo; Langguth, Peter; Tamai, Ikumi

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Cronobacter spp. (previously Enterobacter sakazakii) invade and translocate across both cultured human intestinal epithelial cells and human brain microvascular endothelial cells.  

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The mechanism of Cronobacter pathogenesis in neonatal meningitis and potential virulence factors (aside from host cell invasion ability) remain largely unknown. To ascertain whether Cronobacter can invade and transcytose across intestinal epithelial cells, enter into the blood stream and then transcytose across the blood-brain-barrier, we have utilized human intestinal INT407 and Caco-2 cells and brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) monolayers on Transwell filters as experimental model systems. Our data indicate a wide range of heterogeneity with respect to invasion efficiency among twenty-three Cronobacter isolates screened. For selected isolates, we observed significant levels of transcytosis for Cronobacter sakazakii across tight monolayers of both Caco-2 and HBMEC, mimicking in vivo ability to cross the intestine as well as the blood brain barrier, and at a frequency equivalent to that of a control meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1 strain. Finally, EM analysis demonstrated intracellular Cronobacter bacteria within host vacuoles in HBMEC, as well as transcytosed bacteria at the basolateral surface. These data reveal that certain Cronobacter isolates can invade and translocate across both cultured human intestinal epithelial cells and HBMEC, thus demonstrating a potential path for neonatal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) following oral ingestion. PMID:22023990

Giri, Chandrakant P; Shima, Kensuke; Tall, Ben D; Curtis, Sherill; Sathyamoorthy, Venugopal; Hanisch, Brock; Kim, Kwang S; Kopecko, Dennis J

2012-02-01

202

Gelatin tannate reduces the proinflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide in human intestinal epithelial cells  

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Full Text Available Giuseppina Frasca1, Venera Cardile1, Carmelo Puglia2, Claudia Bonina2, Francesco Bonina21Department of Biomedical Sciences, (Physiology, 2Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, ItalyBackground: Gelatin tannate is a mixture of tannic acid and gelatin. Tannic acid has astringent properties, due to its capacity to form protein–macromolecular complexes, as well as antibacterial and antioxidant properties. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of gelatin tannate by quantifying the suppression of key molecules produced during inflammatory events in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human intestinal cells. Methods: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression was determined by Western blot analysis; interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in Caco-2 cells 24 hours after treatment with LPS (1 ?g/mL in presence of different concentrations of gelatin tannate. Results: ICAM-1 is induced on a wide variety of cells by inflammatory stimuli such as LPS. Our results have shown gelatin tannate as a potent inhibitor of ICAM-1 expression in LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells. IL-8 and TNF-? are important inflammatory mediators, recruiting neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. Together with LPS, adding gelatin tannate at different concentrations induced a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-8 and TNF-? released by Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that gelatin tannate exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the specific cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in several inflammatory disorders.Keywords: Caco-2, ICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-?

Frasca G

2012-05-01

203

Glucuronide and glucoside conjugation of mycophenolic acid by human liver, kidney and intestinal microsomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is primarily metabolized to a phenolic glucuronide (MPAG) as well as to two further minor metabolites: an acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) and a phenolic glucoside (MPAG1s). This study presents investigations of the formation of these metabolites by human liver (HLM), kidney (HKM), and intestinal (HIM) microsomes, as well as by recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. HLM (n=5), HKM (n=6), HIM (n=5) and recombinant UGTs were incubated in the presence of either UDP-glucuronic acid or UDP-glucose and various concentrations of MPA. Metabolite formation was followed by h.p.l.c. All microsomes investigated formed both MPAG and AcMPAG. Whereas the efficiency of MPAG formation was greater with HKM compared to HLM, AcMPAG formation was greater with HLM than HKM. HIM showed the lowest glucuronidation efficiency and the greatest interindividual variation. The capacity for MPAGls formation was highest in HKM, while no glucoside was detected with HIM. HKM produced a second metabolite when incubated with MPA and UDP-glucose, which was labile to alkaline treatment. Mass spectrometry of this metabolite in the negative ion mode revealed a molecular ion of m/z 481 compatible with an acyl glucoside conjugate of MPA. All recombinant UGTs investigated were able to glucuronidate MPA with KM values ranging from 115.3 to 275.7??M?l?1 and Vmax values between 29 and 106?pM?min?1?mg protein?1. Even though the liver is the most important site of MPA glucuronidation, extrahepatic tissues particularly the kidney may play a significant role in the overall biotransformation of MPA in man. Only kidney microsomes formed a putative acyl glucoside of MPA. PMID:11226133

Shipkova, M; Strassburg, C P; Braun, F; Streit, F; Grone, H-J; Armstrong, V W; Tukey, R H; Oellerich, M; Wieland, E

2001-01-01

204

Production of enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds through biotransformation by human intestinal bacteria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of enterolignans, e.g., enterodiol (END and particularly its oxidation product, enterolactone (ENL, on prevention of hormone-dependent diseases, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, hyperlipemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer and menopausal syndrome, have attracted much attention. To date, the main way to obtain END and ENL is chemical synthesis, which is expensive and inevitably leads to environmental pollution. To explore a more economic and eco-friendly production method, we explored biotransformation of enterolignans from precursors contained in defatted flaxseeds by human intestinal bacteria. Results We cultured fecal specimens from healthy young adults in media containing defatted flaxseeds and detected END from the culture supernatant. Following selection through successive subcultures of the fecal microbiota with defatted flaxseeds as the only carbon source, we obtained a bacterial consortium, designated as END-49, which contained the smallest number of bacterial types still capable of metabolizing defatted flaxseeds to produce END. Based on analysis with pulsed field gel electrophoresis, END-49 was found to consist of five genomically distinct bacterial lineages, designated Group I-V, with Group I strains dominating the culture. None of the individual Group I-V strains produced END, demonstrating that the biotransformation of substrates in defatted flaxseeds into END is a joint work by different members of the END-49 bacterial consortium. Interestingly, Group I strains produced secoisolariciresinol, an important intermediate of END production; 16S rRNA analysis of one Group I strain established its close relatedness with Klebsiella. Genomic analysis is under way to identify all members in END-49 involved in the biotransformation and the actual pathway leading to END-production. Conclusion Biotransformation is a very economic, efficient and environmentally friendly way of mass-producing enterodiol from defatted flaxseeds.

Ma Miao

2010-04-01

205

PKQuest: measurement of intestinal absorption and first pass metabolism – application to human ethanol pharmacokinetics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background PKQuest, a new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK program, is applied to human ethanol data. The classical definition of first pass metabolism (FPM based on the differences in the area under the curve (AUC for identical intravenous and oral doses is invalid if the metabolism is non-linear (e.g. ethanol. Uncertainties in the measurement of FPM have led to controversy about the magnitude of gastric alcohol metabolism. PKQuest implements a new, rigorous definition of FPM based on finding the equivalent intravenous input function that would produce a blood time course identical to that observed for the oral intake. This input function equals the peripheral availability (PA and the FPM is defined by: FPM = Total oral dose – PA. PKQuest also provides a quantitative measurement of the time course of intestinal absorption. Methods PKQuest was applied to previously published ethanol pharmacokinetic data. Results The rate of ethanol absorption is primarily limited by the rate of gastric emptying. For oral ethanol with a meal: absorption is slow (? 3 hours and the fractional PKQuest FPM was 36% (0.15 gm/Kg dose and 7% (0.3 gm/Kg. In contrast, fasting oral ethanol absorption is fast (? 50 minutes and FPM is small. Conclusions The standard AUC and one compartment methods significantly overestimate the FPM. Gastric ethanol metabolism is not significant. Ingestion of a coincident meal with the ethanol can reduce the peak blood level by about 4 fold at low doses. PKQuest and all the examples are freely available on the web at http://www.pkquest.com.

Levitt David G

2002-08-01

206

Anatomical study on The Arm Greater Yang Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in Human  

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Full Text Available This study was carried to identify the component of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in human, dividing the regional muscle group into outer, middle, and inner layer. the inner part of body surface were opened widely to demonstrate muscles, nerve, blood vessels and the others, displaying the inner structure of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle. We obtained the results as follows; 1. Small Intestine Meridian Muscle is composed of the muscle, nerve and blood vessels. 2. In human anatomy, it is present the difference between a term of nerve or blood vessels which control the muscle of Meridian Muscle and those which pass near by Meridian Muscle. 3. The inner composition of meridian muscle in human arm is as follows ; 1 Muscle ; Abd. digiti minimi muscle(SI-2, 3, 4, pisometacarpal lig.(SI-4, ext. retinaculum. ext. carpi ulnaris m. tendon.(SI-5, 6, ulnar collateral lig.(SI-5, ext. digiti minimi m. tendon(SI-6, ext. carpi ulnaris(SI-7, triceps brachii(SI-9, teres major(SI-9, deltoid(SI-10, infraspinatus(SI-10, 11, trapezius(Sl-12, 13, 14, 15, supraspinatus(SI-12, 13, lesser rhomboid(SI-14, erector spinae(SI-14, 15, levator scapular(SI-15, sternocleidomastoid(SI-16, 17, splenius capitis(SI-16, semispinalis capitis(SI-16, digasuicus(SI-17, zygomaticus major(Il-18, masseter(SI-18, auriculoris anterior(SI-19 2 Nerve ; Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve(SI-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, br. of mod. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6, 7, br. of post. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6,7, br. of radial n.(SI-7, ulnar n.(SI-8, br. of axillary n.(SI-9, radial n.(SI-9, subscapular n. br.(SI-9, cutaneous n. br. from C7, 8(SI-10, 14, suprascapular n.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, intercostal n. br. from T2(SI-11, lat. supraclavicular n. br.(SI-12, intercostal n. br. from C8, T1(SI-12, accessory n. br.(SI-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, intercostal n. br. from T1,2(SI-13, dorsal scapular n.(SI-14, 15, cutaneous n. br. from C6, C7(SI-15, transverse cervical n.(SI-16, lesser occipital n. & great auricular n. from cervical plexus(SI-16, cervical n. from C2,3(SI-16, fascial n. br.(SI-17, great auricular n. br.(SI-17, cervical n. br. from C2(SI-17, vagus n.(SI-17,hypoglossal n.(SI-17, glossopharyngeal n.(SI-17, sympathetic trunk(SI-17, zygomatic br. of fascial n.(SI-18, maxillary n. br.(SI-18, auriculotemporal n.(SI-19, temporal br. of fascial n.(SI-19 3 Blood vessels ; Dorsal digital vein.(SI-1, dorsal br. of proper palmar digital artery(SI-1, br. of dorsal metacarpal a. & v.(SI-2, 3, 4, dorsal carpal br. of ulnar a.(SI-4, 5, post. interosseous a. br.(SI-6,7, post. ulnar recurrent a.(SI-8, circuirflex scapular a.(SI-9, 11 , post. circumflex humeral a. br.(SI-10, suprascapular a.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13, first intercostal a. br.(SI-12, 14, transverse cervical a. br.(SI-12,13,14,15, second intercostal a. br.(SI-13, dorsal scapular a. br.(SI-13, 14, 15, ext. jugular v.(SI-16, 17, occipital a. br.(SI-16, Ext. jugular v. br.(SI-17, post. auricular a.(SI-17, int. jugular v.(SI-17, int. carotid a.(SI-17, transverse fascial a. & v.(SI-18,maxillary a. br.(SI-18, superficial temporal a. & v.(SI-19.

Kyoung-Sik, Park

2004-06-01

207

Dipeptide model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter. Affinity for and transport via hPepT1 in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line  

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The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a drug delivery target via increasing the intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by designing peptidomimetic prodrugs. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro-moieties for benzyl alcohol have been shown to maintain affinity for hPepT1. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if modifications of the benzyl alcohol model drug influence the corresponding D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala model prodrugs' affinity for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells. A second aim was to investigate the transepithelial transport and hydrolysis parameters for D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In the present study, all investigated D-Asp-Ala and D-Glu-Ala model prodrugs retained various degrees of affinity for hPepT1 in Caco-2 cells. These affinities are used to establish a QSAR of our benzyl alcohol modified model prodrugs, aided at elucidating the observed differences in model prodrug affinity for hPepT1; additionally, these data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the side-chain model drug is the major determinant in the compounds affinity for hPepT1. Transepithelial transport studies performed using Caco-2 cells of D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala showed that the K(m) for transepithelial transport was not significantly different for the two compounds. The maximal transport rate of the carrier-mediated flux component does not differ between the two model prodrugs either. The transepithelial transport of D-Asp(BnO)-Ala and D-Glu(BnO)-Ala follows simple kinetics, and the release of benzyl alcohol is pH-dependent, but unaffected by 1 mM of the esterase inhibitor Paraoxon in 80% human plasma and Caco-2 cell homogenate.

Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R

2001-01-01

208

Characterization of calcium transport by basolateral membrane vesicles of human small intestine  

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The present studies investigated the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+} transport across basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMVs) prepared from human small intestine. Ca{sup 2+} uptake represented transport into the intravesicular space as evident by osmolality study and by the demonstration of Ca{sup 2+} efflux from the intravesicular space by Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187. Ca{sup 2+} uptake was stimulated by Mg{sup 2+}-ATP. Kinetic parameters for ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake revealed a Michaelis constant (K{sub m}) of 0.02{plus minus}0.01 {mu}M and a maximum rate of uptake (V{sub max}) of 1.00{plus minus}0.03 nmol{center dot}mg protein{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}. Ca{sup 2+} uptake in the presence of Mg{sup 2+} was inhibited by 75%. The K{sub m} of ATP concentration required for half-maximal Ca{sup 2+} uptake was 0.50{plus minus}0.1 mM. Basolateral membranes depleted of calmodulin by EDTA osmotic shock decreased ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake by 65%. Trifluoperazine, an anticalmodulin drug, inhibited ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake by 50%, while no inhibition was noted in calmodulin-depleted membranes. Efflux of Ca{sup 2+} in the BLMVs was stimulated by trans-Na{sup +}. Na{sup +}-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake was saturable with respect to Ca{sup 2+} concentration and exhibited a K{sub m} of 0.09{plus minus}0.03 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 1.08{plus minus}0.01 nmol{center dot}mg protein{sup {minus}1}{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}. These results are consistent with the existence of a Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange system and ATP and Mg{sup 2+}-dependent, calmodulin-regulated Ca{sup 2+}, transport mechanism in BLMVs of human enterocytes.

Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Toshiko; Ghishan, F.K. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

1988-10-01

209

Ontogeny of human hepatic and intestinal transporter gene expression during childhood: age matters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many drugs prescribed to children are drug transporter substrates. Drug transporters are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular uptake or efflux of drugs and are important to drug absorption and elimination. Very limited data are available on the effect of age on transporter expression. Our study assessed age-related gene expression of hepatic and intestinal drug transporters. Multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and OATP1B3 expression was determined in postmortem liver samples (fetal n = 6, neonatal n = 19, infant n = 7, child n = 2, adult n = 11) and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) expression in 61 pediatric liver samples. Intestinal expression of MDR1, MRP2, and OATP2B1 was determined in surgical small bowel samples (neonates n = 15, infants n = 3, adults n = 14). Using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, we measured fetal and pediatric gene expression relative to 18S rRNA (liver) and villin (intestines), and we compared it with adults using the 2(-??Ct) method. Hepatic expression of MRP2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in all pediatric age groups was significantly lower than in adults. Hepatic MDR1 mRNA expression in fetuses, neonates, and infants was significantly lower than in adults. Neonatal intestinal expressions of MDR1 and MRP2 were comparable to those in adults. Intestinal OATP2B1 expression in neonates was significantly higher than in adults. We provide new data that show organ- and transporter-dependent differences in hepatic and intestinal drug transporter expression in an age-dependent fashion. This suggests that substrate drug absorption mediated by these transporters may be subject to age-related variation in a transporter dependent pattern. PMID:24829289

Mooij, Miriam G; Schwarz, Ute I; de Koning, Barbara A E; Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Roger; Samsom, Janneke N; Spaans, Edwin; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Tibboel, Dick; Kim, Richard B; de Wildt, Saskia N

2014-08-01

210

Comparative analysis of the cytotoxic effects of okadaic acid-group toxins on human intestinal cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2) are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation), DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX), inflammation (translocation of NF-?B) and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production). Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2. PMID:25196936

Ferron, Pierre-Jean; Hogeveen, Kevin; Fessard, Valérie; Le Hégarat, Ludovic

2014-08-01

211

Comparative Analysis of the Cytotoxic Effects of Okadaic Acid-Group Toxins on Human Intestinal Cell Lines  

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Full Text Available The phycotoxin, okadaic acid (OA and dinophysistoxin 1 and 2 (DTX-1 and -2 are protein phosphatase PP2A and PP1 inhibitors involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Data on the toxicity of the OA-group toxins show some differences with respect to the in vivo acute toxicity between the toxin members. In order to investigate whether OA and congeners DTX-1 and -2 may induce different mechanisms of action during acute toxicity on the human intestine, we compared their toxicological effects in two in vitro intestinal cell models: the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and the intestinal muco-secreting cell line, HT29-MTX. Using a high content analysis approach, we evaluated various cytotoxicity parameters, including apoptosis (caspase-3 activation, DNA damage (phosphorylation of histone H2AX, inflammation (translocation of NF-?B and cell proliferation (Ki-67 production. Investigation of the kinetics of the cellular responses demonstrated that the three toxins induced a pro-inflammatory response followed by cell cycle disruption in both cell lines, leading to apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the three toxins induce similar effects, as no major differences in the cytotoxic responses could be detected. However DTX-1 induced cytotoxic effects at five-fold lower concentrations than for OA and DTX-2.

Pierre-Jean Ferron

2014-08-01

212

Intestinal Coccidia  

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Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This intestinal parasite is in most parts of the world. Sometimes it is noun traveller diarrhea Syndrom. The egg shapes of Oocyst are disporic tetrazoic. It is transmitted by vegetables and fruits. Trophozoite pass through schizogony step and repeats it several times. In the end of the cycle gametogony is done and the sexual forms will be repelled the human intestine. Symptoms are persistent diarrhoea, epigastric pain, headache, fever, vomitting and leanness, especially when physiologic disorder condition is seen in patient or they are in traveling. Misdiagnosis is a problem in laboratories but floatation method with zinc sulfate or sugar syrup is recommended. Sarcocystis: Sporocyst of S.hominis and S. suihominis is in the human feces, and the cyst form is in pig and cow muscles. It founds in tha tongue, pharynx and oesophagus muscles of habitant buffalo in Iran. Because of the large size of the cyst (1cm, it is seen with naked eyes and the risk of human infection is rare. If human eats raw or uncooked cow and pig meat, he will be infected with it. Sexual cycle is in the human body and sporocyst is repelled by the intestine. The disease may or may not have any symptoms. The symptoms are diarrhoea, stomach cramp, jejenuom and ileum necrosis. Diagnosis is based on concentrated floatation. The prevalence rate is too much in domestic animals.

MJ Ggaravi

2007-06-01

213

Expression of thirty-six drug transporter genes in human intestine, liver, kidney, and organotypic cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to quantitatively assess the mRNA expression of 36 important drug transporters in human jejunum, colon, liver, and kidney. Expression of these transporters in human organs was compared with expression in commonly used cell lines (Caco-2, HepG2, and Caki-1) originating from these organs to assess their value as in vitro transporter system models, and was also compared with data obtained from the literature on expression in rat tissues to assess species differences. Transporters that were highly expressed in the intestine included HPT1, PEPT1, BCRP, MRP2, and MDR1, whereas, in the liver, OCT1, MRP2, OATP-C, NTCP and BSEP were the main transporters. In the kidney, OAT1 was expressed at the highest levels, followed by OAT3, OAT4, MCT5, MDR1, MRP2, OCT2, and OCTN2. The best agreement between human tissue and the representative cell line was observed for human jejunum and Caco-2 cells. Expression in liver and kidney ortholog cell lines was not correlated with that in the associated tissue. Comparisons with rat transporter gene expression revealed significant species differences. Our results allowed a comprehensive quantitative comparison of drug transporter expression in human intestine, liver, and kidney. We suggest that it would be beneficial for predictive pharmacokinetic research to focus on the most highly expressed transporters. We hope that our comparison of rat and human tissue will help to explain the observed species differences in in vivo models, increase understanding of the impact of active transport processes on pharmacokinetics and distribution, and improve the quality of predictions from animal studies to humans. PMID:17496207

Hilgendorf, Constanze; Ahlin, Gustav; Seithel, Annick; Artursson, Per; Ungell, Anna-Lena; Karlsson, Johan

2007-08-01

214

Human factors issues for resolving adverse effects of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the United States National Research Council, United States Federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded performance in advanced human-machine systems (e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. Recent history demonstrates that: (1) humans often react adversely to their diminishing roles in advanced human-machine systems, and therefore (2) new allocation models and strategies are required if humans are to be willing and able to assume diminishing and shifting roles assigned to them in these systems, and are to accept new technologies making up these systems. Problems associated with theses diminishing and shifting human roles are characterized as work underload and workload transitions. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards, and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved.

Ryan, T.G.

1995-10-01

215

Mechanism of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid formation in human faecal suspensions and pure cultures of intestinal bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faecal bacteria from four human donors and six species of human intestinal bacteria known to metabolize linoleic acid (LA) were incubated with LA in deuterium oxide-enriched medium to investigate the mechanisms of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) formation. The main CLA products in faecal suspensions, rumenic acid (cis-9,trans-11-CLA; RA) and trans-9,trans-11-CLA, were labelled at C-13, as were other 9,11 geometric isomers. Traces of trans-10,cis-12-CLA formed were labelled to a much lower extent. In pure culture, Bifidobacterium breve NCFB 2258 formed labelled RA and trans-9,trans-11-CLA, while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 16.4, Roseburia hominis A2-183T, Roseburia inulinivorans A2-192T and Ruminococcus obeum-like strain A2-162 converted LA to VA, labelled in a manner indicating that VA was formed via C-13-labelled RA. Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii DSM 4902T, a possible probiotic, formed mainly RA with smaller amounts of trans-10,cis-12-CLA and trans-9,trans-11-CLA, labelled the same as in the mixed microbiota. Ricinoleic acid (12-OH-cis-9-18 : 1) did not form CLA in the mixed microbiota, in contrast to CLA formation described for Lactobacillus plantarum. These results were similar to those reported for the mixed microbiota of the rumen. Thus, although the bacterial genera and species responsible for biohydrogenation in the rumen and the human intestine differ, and a second route of RA formation via a 10-OH-18 : 1 is present in the intestine, the overall labelling patterns of different CLA isomers formation are common to both gut ecosystems. A hydrogen-abstraction enzymic mechanism is proposed that may explain the role of a 10-OH-18 : 1 intermediate in 9,11-CLA formation in pure and mixed cultures. PMID:19118369

McIntosh, Freda M; Shingfield, Kevin J; Devillard, Estelle; Russell, Wendy R; Wallace, R John

2009-01-01

216

Pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins of prevalent motile commensal bacteria are variably abundant in the intestinal microbiome of elderly humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some Eubacterium and Roseburia species are among the most prevalent motile bacteria present in the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. These flagellate species contribute "cell motility" category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome. We reviewed and revised the annotation of motility genes in the genomes of six Eubacterium and Roseburia species that occur in the human intestinal microbiota and examined their respective locus organization by comparative genomics. Motility gene order was generally conserved across these loci. Five of these species harbored multiple genes for predicted flagellins. Flagellin proteins were isolated from R. inulinivorans strain A2-194 and from E. rectale strains A1-86 and M104/1. The amino-termini sequences of the R. inulinivorans and E. rectale A1-86 proteins were almost identical. These protein preparations stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human intestinal epithelial cell lines, suggesting that these flagellins were pro-inflammatory. Flagellins from the other four species were predicted to be pro-inflammatory on the basis of alignment to the consensus sequence of pro-inflammatory flagellins from the ?- and ?- proteobacteria. Many fliC genes were deduced to be under the control of ?(28). The relative abundance of the target Eubacterium and Roseburia species varied across shotgun metagenomes from 27 elderly individuals. Genes involved in the flagellum biogenesis pathways of these species were variably abundant in these metagenomes, suggesting that the current depth of coverage used for metagenomic sequencing (3.13-4.79 Gb total sequence in our study) insufficiently captures the functional diversity of genomes present at low (?1%) relative abundance. E. rectale and R. inulinivorans thus appear to synthesize complex flagella composed of flagellin proteins that stimulate IL-8 production. A greater depth of sequencing, improved evenness of sequencing and improved metagenome assembly from short reads will be required to facilitate in silico analyses of complete complex biochemical pathways for low-abundance target species from shotgun metagenomes. PMID:23935906

Neville, B Anne; Sheridan, Paul O; Harris, Hugh M B; Coughlan, Simone; Flint, Harry J; Duncan, Sylvia H; Jeffery, Ian B; Claesson, Marcus J; Ross, R Paul; Scott, Karen P; O'Toole, Paul W

2013-01-01

217

Polarized secretion of newly synthesized lipoproteins by the Caco-2 human intestinal cell line  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lipoprotein secretion by Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal cell line, was studied in cells grown on inserts containing a Millipore filter (0.45 micron), separating secretory products from the apical and basolateral membranes into separate chambers. Under these conditions, as observed by electron microscopy, the cells formed a monolayer of columnar epithelial cells with microvilli on the apical surface and tight junctions between cells. The electrical resistances of the cell monolayers were 250-500 ohms/cm2. Both /sup 14/C-labeled lipids and /sup 35/S-labeled proteins were used to assess lipoprotein secretion. After a 24-hr incubation with (/sup 14/C)oleic acid, 60-80% of the secreted triglyceride (TG) was in the basolateral chamber; 40% of the TG was present in the d less than 1.006 g/ml (chylomicron + VLDL) fraction and 50% in the 1.006 less than d less than 1.063 g/ml (LDL) fraction. After a 4-hr incubation with (/sup 35/S)methionine, apolipoproteins were found to be major secretory products with 75-100% secreted to the basolateral chamber. Apolipoproteins B-100, B-48, E, A-I, A-IV, and C-III were identified by immunoprecipitation. The d less than 1.006 g/ml fraction was found to contain all of the major apolipoproteins, while the LDL fraction contained primarily apoB-100 and apoE; the HDL (1.063 less than d less than 1.21 g/ml) fraction principally contained apoA-I and apoA-IV. Mn-heparin precipitated all of the (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled apoB-100 and B-48 and a majority of the other apolipoproteins, and 80% of the (/sup 14/C)oleic acid-labeled triglyceride, but only 15% of the phospholipid, demonstrating that Caco-2 cells secrete triglyceride-rich lipoproteins containing apoB.

Traber, M.G.; Kayden, H.J.; Rindler, M.J.

1987-11-01

218

[Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. II. Sao Tomé and Principe].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1983 the authors carried out a survey in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe, analysing 1050 specimens of stools collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random and in a number proportional to the distribution of the population in the regions of the country (about 1% of the population was examined). The examined subjects were divided into 3 age groups (0-3, 4-12, more than 12 years old), to have homogeneous groups in relation principally to modalities of life and nutritional patterns. There were 488 male subjects and 562 females. The survey was preceded by a sensitization of the people to the problem of intestinal parasites and by two preliminary surveys about the number of existing latrines and about people's believes and attitudes in relation to helmintiasis. The tests were made according to the modified Ritchie technique on fecal specimens preserved with 10% formol solution. The following results were found: a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli, 43.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 9.0%; Giardia intestinalis, 8.8%; Endolimax nana, 7.0%; E. histolytica, 5.5%; E. hartmanni, 2.5%; Chilomastix mesnili, 2.3%; Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.2%; Balantidium coli, 0.1%. b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura, 87.7%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 64.3%; Ancylostomatidae, 40.5%; Strongyloides stercoralis, 6.8%; Hymenolepis diminuta, 0.3%; H. nana, 0.2%; Schistosoma haematobium, 0.2%. In 28.2% of the specimens (with more than 50% of subjects in some villages) eggs of Heterophyidae were found, very similar to Metagonimus yokogawai, but not yet identified by us, with the following characteristics: elliptical shape, average size 25 mu (22.2-27.7) X 18.5 mu (17-21), thick wall, operculum difficult to see, not sticking out from the outline but visible by focusing being in a different refractiveness, presence of a small polar knob, colour slightly brownish, asymmetric miracidium. Further investigations are necessary to identify the species of this trematode and to understand if it is a true human parasite or a pseudoparasite. The general results show the existence of a heavy fecal pollution all over the territory of the D.R. of São Tomé and Principe, connected with unhygienic life conditions, dangerous for health. This suggests to start urgently a sanitation program. PMID:3508506

Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Pezzino, G

1987-04-01

219

D-cycloserine transport in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells: mediation by a H(+)-coupled amino acid transporter.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. The ability of D-cycloserine to act as a substrate for H+/amino acid symport has been tested in epithelial layers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. 2. In Na(+)-free media with the apical bathing media held at pH 6.0, D-cycloserine (20 mM) is an effective inhibitor of net transepithelial transport (Jnet) of L-alanine (100 microM) and its accumulation (across the apical membrane) in a similar manner to amino acid substrates (L-alanine, beta-alanine, L-proline and glycine). In contrast L-vali...

Thwaites, D. T.; Armstrong, G.; Hirst, B. H.; Simmons, N. L.

1995-01-01

220

Ginsenoside-mediated blockade of 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inactivation in human liver and intestine in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The beneficial effects of vitamin D3 are exerted through 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1?,25(OH)2D3], the dihydroxy metabolite of vitamin D3. Hepatic and intestinal biotransformation of 1?,25(OH)2D3 and modifiers of metabolic capacity could be important determinants of bioavailability in serum and tissues. Ginsenosides and their aglycones, mainly 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (aPPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (aPPT), are routinely ingested as health supplements. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of ginsenosides and their aglycones to block hepatic and intestinal inactivation of 1?,25(OH)2D3, which is the most potent ligand of vitamin D receptor. In vitro biotransformation reactions were initiated with NADPH regenerating solutions following initial preincubation of pooled human hepatic or intestinal microsomal protein or human recombinant CYP3A4 supersomes with 1?,25(OH)2D3 or midazolam. Formation of hydroxylated metabolites of 1?,25(OH)2D3 or midazolam was analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Co-incubation of 1?,25(OH)2D3 with various ginsenosides (Rg1, Rh2, aPPD, aPPT and total ginsenosides) led to differential inhibition (30-100%) of its hydroxylation. Results suggest that aPPD, aPPT and Rh2 strongly attenuated the hydroxylation of 1?,25(OH)2D3. Follow up inhibition studies with aPPD and aPPT at varying concentrations (0.5-100?M) led to up to 91-100% inhibition of formation of hydroxylated metabolites of 1?,25(OH)2D3 thus preventing inactivation of active vitamin D3. The IC50 values of aPPD or aPPT for the most abundant hydroxylated metabolites of 1?,25(OH)2D3 ranged from 3.3 to 9.0?M in human microsomes. The inhibitory mechanism of aPPD or aPPT for CYP3A4-mediated biotransformation of 1?,25(OH)2D3 was competitive in nature (apparent Ki: 1.7-2.9?M). Similar inhibitory effects were also observed upon addition of aPPD or aPPT into midazolam hydroxylation assay. In summary, our results suggest that ginsenosides, specifically aPPD and aPPT, inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated catabolism of active vitamin D3 in human liver and intestine, potentially providing additional vitamin D-related benefits to patients with cancer, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. PMID:24486455

Deb, Subrata; Chin, Mei Yieng; Adomat, Hans; Guns, Emma S Tomlinson

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the human population of León, Nicaragua.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal parasites appear to be prevalent in Nicaragua, which motivated a more extensive prevalence study in which socioeconomic conditions such as degree of crowding, quality of water supply, type of floor and disposal of excretion, were considered. The study was performed on 1267 stool samples from about 8% of the citizens of the city of León. The overall prevalence of intestinal pathogenic parasites among the 1267 individuals was found to be 47.2%. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was 18.6% followed by Giardia (15.9%) and Ascaris (13.4%). Other helminths such as hookworms and Strongyloides sp. were found at very low rates. Giardia, in contrast to worm infections, was prevalent already in children under 5 years of age. E. histolytica/dispar increased with age and remained high. Of 595 individuals with intestinal parasites 81% were living in 'poor' conditions and in 13 clusters of households, a lower prevalence of parasites was seen in households characterised as having good socioeconomic conditions. However, several variables appear to be important in determining the prevalence of the individual intestinal protozoa and helminths encountered. PMID:9210962

Téllez, A; Morales, W; Rivera, T; Meyer, E; Leiva, B; Linder, E

1997-09-10

222

Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, acutely inhibits intestinal lipoprotein particle secretion in healthy humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, an antidiabetic agent, which lowers blood glucose levels, also reduces postprandial lipid excursion after a mixed meal. The underlying mechanism of this effect, however, is not clear. This study examined the production and clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles from the liver and intestine in healthy volunteers in response to a single oral dose of sitagliptin. Using stable isotope tracer techniques and with control of pancreatic hormone levels, the kinetics of lipoprotein particles of intestinal and hepatic origin were measured. Compared with placebo, sitagliptin decreased intestinal lipoprotein concentration by inhibiting particle production, independent of changes in pancreatic hormones, and circulating levels of glucose and free fatty acids. Fractional clearance of particles of both intestinal and hepatic origin, and production of particles of hepatic origin, were not affected. This pleiotropic effect of sitagliptin may explain the reduction in postprandial lipemia seen in clinical trials of this agent and may provide metabolic benefits beyond lowering of glucose levels. PMID:24584549

Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Morgantini, Cecilia; Patterson, Bruce W; Lewis, Gary F

2014-07-01

223

Transcriptional regulation of the human Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger NHE3 by serotonin in intestinal epithelial cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serotonin (5-HT) decreases NHE2 and NHE3 activities under acute conditions in human intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on expression of the human NHE3 gene and the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation in differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, C2BBe1, with 5-HT (20 {mu}M) resulted in a significant decrease in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression. In transient transfection studies, 5-HT repressed the NHE3 promoter activity by {approx}55%. The repression of the NHE3 promoter activity in response to 5-HT was accompanied by reduced DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter without alteration in their nuclear levels. Pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the promoter activity. Our data indicate that 5-HT suppresses the transcriptional activity of the NHE3 promoter and this effect may be mediated by PKC{alpha} and modulation of DNA-binding affinities of Sp1 and Sp3.

Amin, Md Ruhul; Ghannad, Leda; Othman, Ahmad; Gill, Ravinder K. [Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy [Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Jesse Brown VAMC, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Malakooti, Jaleh, E-mail: malakoot@uic.edu [Section of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

2009-05-08

224

Transcriptional regulation of the human Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 by serotonin in intestinal epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serotonin (5-HT) decreases NHE2 and NHE3 activities under acute conditions in human intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we have investigated the effects of 5-HT on expression of the human NHE3 gene and the mechanisms underlying its transcriptional regulation in differentiated C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of the human intestinal epithelial cell line, C2BBe1, with 5-HT (20 ?M) resulted in a significant decrease in NHE3 mRNA and protein expression. In transient transfection studies, 5-HT repressed the NHE3 promoter activity by ?55%. The repression of the NHE3 promoter activity in response to 5-HT was accompanied by reduced DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to the NHE3 promoter without alteration in their nuclear levels. Pharmacological inhibitors of protein kinase C reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on the promoter activity. Our data indicate that 5-HT suppresses the transcriptional activity of the NHE3 promoter and this effect may be mediated by PKC? and modulation of DNA-binding affinities of Sp1 and Sp3.

225

A revised model for electron dosimetry in the human small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the absorbed dose was calculated to the small intestine (SI) wall of an adult human from electrons in its lumen contents. The effects on dose due to variations in the lumen radius and wall-thickness also were studied. The SI model was based on values gleaned from anatomic and histologic reviews of the adult human SI. Histologic and radiological analyses of the SI suggested the microscopic intricacy of this walled organ could be avoided for dosimetric purposes and a set of concentric cylinders could be used to model the SI. The model was input into the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) version 4A computational package, which was used to simulate energy deposition in the SI by electrons of fifty discrete energies ranging 10-500 keV. The source electrons as well as all resulting particles, such as knock-on electrons, bremsstrahlung, and electrons created from bremsstrahlung interactions, were transported until the particle energies fell below the 1 keV low-energy cutoff. Detailed physics treatments for secondary photons were made. With a reasonable number of histories, appropriate variance reduction techniques were used to improve the precision of the Monte Carlo calculations. The model used very small tally regions, which ranged in thickness from 0.5 microm to 200 microm depending on the electron energy studied and tally location in the wall. Relative errors associated with these calculations were maintained at less than 5%. The large number of tally results across the wall for each of the energies studied enabled the construction of the energy-specific depth dose curves in the wall. Each of these curves was consistent with the anticipated energy deposition pattern. These curves showed that only a small fraction of the energy absorbed at the contents-mucus interface reaches the stem cell layers because the cells are located deep in the mucosa. This fraction was found to vary from 1.66 x 10(-6) to 1.21 x 10(-1) over the energy range 10-500 keV. These results demonstrated the interface dose, which has been routinely reported as the "wall" dose, is a significant overestimate of the actual dose to the stem cells. The dose uncertainties associated with variations of the critical cell depth were shown to be very high for electrons whose CSDA ranges in the soft tissue exceeded the depth of the critical cells. This study showed that the uncertainty in the wall-thickness had no effect on depth doses while variation in the lumen radius significantly changes depth doses. The results suggest that these changes could be approximated by the inverse square of the lumen radius. PMID:15596987

Bhuiyan, N U; Poston, J W

2005-01-01

226

Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides modulate intestinal microbiota and metabolic parameters of humanized gnotobiotic diet induced obesity mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prebiotic fibres like short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) are known to selectively modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota and especially to stimulate Bifidobacteria. In parallel, the involvement of intestinal microbiota in host metabolic regulation has been recently highlighted. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of scFOS on the composition of the faecal microbiota and on metabolic parameters in an animal model of diet-induced obesity harbouring a human-type microbiota. Forty eight axenic C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with a sample of faecal human microbiota and randomly assigned to one of 3 diets for 7 weeks: a control diet, a high fat diet (HF, 60% of energy derived from fat)) or an isocaloric HF diet containing 10% of scFOS (HF-scFOS). Mice fed with the two HF gained at least 21% more weight than mice from the control group. Addition of scFOS partially abolished the deposition of fat mass but significantly increased the weight of the caecum. The analysis of the taxonomic composition of the faecal microbiota by FISH technique revealed that the addition of scFOS induced a significant increase of faecal Bifidobacteria and the Clostridium coccoides group whereas it decreased the Clostridium leptum group. In addition to modifying the composition of the faecal microbiota, scFOS most prominently affected the faecal metabolome (e.g. bile acids derivatives, hydroxyl monoenoic fatty acids) as well as urine, plasma hydrophilic and plasma lipid metabolomes. The increase in C. coccoides and the decrease in C. leptum, were highly correlated to these metabolic changes, including insulinaemia, as well as to the weight of the caecum (empty and full) but not the increase in Bifidobacteria. In conclusion scFOS induce profound metabolic changes by modulating the composition and the activity of the intestinal microbiota, that may partly explain their effect on the reduction of insulinaemia. PMID:23951074

Respondek, Frederique; Gerard, Philippe; Bossis, Mathilde; Boschat, Laura; Bruneau, Aurélia; Rabot, Sylvie; Wagner, Anne; Martin, Jean-Charles

2013-01-01

227

Isquemia intestinal / Intestinal ischemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La isquemia intestinal está considerada como la causa más letal del síndrome de abdomen agudo; su consecuencia, el infarto del intestino delgado, ocurre por fenómenos tromboembólicos e isquemia no oclusiva. El objetivo del presente artículo es proporcionar una revisión bibliográfica actualizada acer [...] ca del tema y facilitar la actuación del cirujano ante este problema de salud de repercusión sistémica y que no es tan infrecuente como se piensa Abstract in english The intestinal ischemia is considered as the most lethal cause in the acute abdomen syndrome; its consequence, the small intestine infarction, takes place due to thromboembolic phenomena and non occlusive ischemia. The objective of the present work is to provide an updated literature review about th [...] e topic and to facilitate the surgeon's performance in front of this health problem of systemic repercussion which is not as uncommon as it is thought

Ileana, Guerra Macías; Zenén, Rodríguez Fernández.

228

Geometrical guidance and trapping transition of human sperm cells  

CERN Document Server

The guidance of human sperm cells under confinement in quasi 2D microchambers is investigated using a purely physical method to control their distribution. Transport property measurements and simulations are performed with dilute sperm populations, for which effects of geometrical guidance and concentration are studied in detail. In particular, a trapping transition at convex angular wall features is identified and analyzed. We also show that highly efficient microratchets can be fabricated by using curved asymmetric obstacles to take advantage of the spermatozoa specific swimming strategy.

Guidobaldi, A; Berdakin, I; Moshchalkov, V V; Condat, C A; Marconi, V I; Giojalas, L; Silhanek, A V

2014-01-01

229

Pilot study of diet and microbiota: interactive associations of fibers and polyphenols with human intestinal bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have addressed the use of dietary fibers in the modulation of intestinal microbiota; however, information about other highly correlated components in foods, such as polyphenols, is scarce. The aim of this work was to explore the association between the intake of fibers and polyphenols from a regular diet and fecal microbiota composition in 38 healthy adults. Food intake was recorded using an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Quantification of microbial populations in feces was performed by quantitative PCR. A negative association was found between the intake of pectins and flavanones from oranges and the levels of Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum. By contrast, white bread, providing hemicellulose and resistant starch, was directly associated with Lactobacillus. Because some effects on intestinal microbiota attributed to isolated fibers or polyphenols might be modified by other components present in the same food, future research should be focused on diet rather than individual compounds. PMID:24877654

Cuervo, Adriana; Valdés, Lorena; Salazar, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; González, Sonia

2014-06-11

230

Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Suppresses Cytokine-Induced Inflammatory Response in Human Intestinal Cells: Comparison with 5-Aminosalicylic Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential use of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases has been extensively investigated although the mechanisms involved in cellular signaling need to be further elucidated. Cyanidin-3-glucoside is a typical anthocyanin of many pigmented fruits and vegetables widespread in the human diet. In the present study, the protection afforded by cyanidin-3-glucoside against cytokine-triggered inflammatory response was evaluated in the human intestinal HT-29 cell line, in comparison with 5-aminosalicylic acid, a well-established anti-inflammatory drug, used in inflammatory bowel disease. For this purpose, some key inflammatory mediators and inflammatory enzymes were examined. Our data showed that cyanidin-3-glucoside reduced cytokine-induced inflammation in intestinal cells, in terms of NO, PGE2 and IL-8 production and of iNOS and COX-2 expressions, at a much lower concentration than 5-aminosalicylic acid, suggesting a higher anti-inflammatory efficiency. Interestingly, cyanidin-3-glucoside and 5-aminosalicylic acid neither prevented IkB-? degradation nor the activation of NF-kB, but significantly reduced cytokine-induced levels of activated STAT1 accumulated in the cell nucleus. In addition, we established that phosphorylated p38 MAPK was not involved in the protective effect of cyanidin-3-glucoside or 5-aminosalicylic acid. Taking into account the high concentrations of dietary anthocyanins potentially reached in the gastrointestinal tract, cyanidin-3-glucoside may be envisaged as a promising nutraceutical giving complementary benefits in the context of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24039842

Serra, Diana; Paixao, Joana; Nunes, Carla; Dinis, Teresa C. P.; Almeida, Leonor M.

2013-01-01

231

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase controls human intestinal epithelial cell differentiation by promoting adherens junction assembly and p38 MAPK activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The signaling pathways mediating human intestinal epithelial cell differentiation remain largely undefined. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important modulator of extracellular signals, including those elicited by E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which plays an important role in maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of epithelia. In this study, we analyzed the involvement of PI3K in the differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells. We showed that inhibition of PI3K signaling in Caco-2/15 cells repressed sucrase-isomaltase and villin protein expression. Morphological differentiation of enterocyte-like features in Caco-2/15 cells such as epithelial cell polarity and brush-border formation were strongly attenuated by PI3K inhibition. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PI3K was recruited to and activated by E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts in confluent Caco-2/15 cells, and this activation appears to be essential for the integrity of adherens junctions and association with the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that the assembly of calcium-dependent adherens junctions led to a rapid and remarkable increase in the state of activation of Akt and p38 MAPK pathways and that this increase was blocked in the presence of anti-E-cadherin antibodies and PI3K inhibitor. Therefore, our results indicate that PI3K promotes assembly of adherens junctions, which, in turn, control p38 MAPK activation and enterocyte differentiation. PMID:11756422

Laprise, Patrick; Chailler, Pierre; Houde, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Boucher, Marie-Josée; Rivard, Nathalie

2002-03-01

232

Metabolism of constituents in Huangqin-Tang, a prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, by human intestinal flora.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of studies on the metabolism of active components of Huangqin-Tang by human intestinal flora (HIF), Huangqin-Tang and all individual herbs in the decoctions were incubated with a human fecal suspension separately. By using a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method which was previously established in our laboratory, the metabolites in both the compound prescription and all the single herb decoctions were identified and determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. We found that the constituents of Huangqin-Tang, incluing baicalin (baicalein 7-glucuronide; BG), wogonoside (wogoninoglucuronide; WG), oroxylin-A-glucuronide (OG) from Scutellariae Radix, paeoniflorin (PF) from Paeoniae Radix, liquiritin (liquiritigenin 4'-O-glucoside; LG), isoliquirtin (isoliquiritigenin 4-glucoside; ILG) and glycyrrhizic acid (GL) from Glycyhhizea Radix, were converted to their metabolites baicalein (B), wogonin (W), oroxylin-A (O), paeonimetabolin-I (PM-I), liquiritigenin (L), isoliquiritigenin (IL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) by HIF. The contents of the metabolites in Huangqin-Tang and in each single herb decoction increased significantly after incubation with intestinal flora. Comparing with single herb decoctions, the transformation of BG, WG, OG, LG and ILG in the compound prescription was promoted, however, that of PF and GL was inhibited. All the results suggested that the glycosides of many medicinal herbs could be converted to aglycones by HIF, and the metabolism of most glycosides was improved in the compound prescription. PMID:12033492

Zuo, Feng; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Yan, Mei-Zhen; Liu, Mei-Lan; Xiong, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Qing; Song, Hong-Yue; Ye, Wen-Hua

2002-05-01

233

Monensin inhibits canonical Wnt signaling in human colorectal cancer cells and suppresses tumor growth in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wnt signaling pathway is required during embryonic development and for the maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. However, aberrant activation of the pathway is implicated in a number of human disorders, including cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, liver, melanoma, and hematologic malignancies. In this study, we identified monensin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic, as a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling. The inhibitory effect of monensin on the Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascade was observed in mammalian cells stimulated with Wnt ligands, glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, and in cells transfected with ?-catenin expression constructs. Furthermore, monensin suppressed the Wnt-dependent tail fin regeneration in zebrafish and Wnt- or ?-catenin-induced formation of secondary body axis in Xenopus embryos. In Wnt3a-activated HEK293 cells, monensin blocked the phoshorylation of Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 and promoted its degradation. In human colorectal carcinoma cells displaying deregulated Wnt signaling, monensin reduced the intracellular levels of ?-catenin. The reduction attenuated the expression of Wnt signaling target genes such as cyclin D1 and SP5 and decreased the cell proliferation rate. In multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice, daily administration of monensin suppressed progression of the intestinal tumors without any sign of toxicity on normal mucosa. Our data suggest monensin as a prospective anticancer drug for therapy of neoplasia with deregulated Wnt signaling. PMID:24552772

Tumova, Lucie; Pombinho, Antonio R; Vojtechova, Martina; Stancikova, Jitka; Gradl, Dietmar; Krausova, Michaela; Sloncova, Eva; Horazna, Monika; Kriz, Vitezslav; Machonova, Olga; Jindrich, Jindrich; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Bartunek, Petr; Korinek, Vladimir

2014-04-01

234

Adherence of Probiotic Bacteria to Human Intestinal Mucus in Healthy Infants and during Rotavirus Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concentration of fecal mucin and the adhesion of specific probiotics and their combinations in the intestinal mucus of infants during and after rotavirus diarrhea and in healthy children were determined. Mucus was prepared from fecal samples from 20 infants during and after rotavirus diarrhea and from 10 healthy age-matched children. Mucin concentration was determined, and the adhesion of five probiotics—Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Lactobacillus paracasei F1...

Juntunen, M.; Kirjavainen, P. V.; Ouwehand, A. C.; Salminen, S. J.; Isolauri, E.

2001-01-01

235

Human intestinal P-glycoprotein activity estimated by the model substrate digoxin  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) plays a part in the intestinal uptake of xenobiotics and has been associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to examine Pgp activity in relation to age, gender, medical treatment (rifampicin or ketoconazole) and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G2677T and C3435T using the model drug digoxin.

Larsen, U L; Hyldahl Olesen, L

2007-01-01

236

Multiple forms of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: chemical and enzymatic properties, and circulating clearances of the fast- and slow-moving enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two forms of alkaline phosphatase orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum, EC 3.1.3.1) have been purified from human small intestine by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and tyraminyl derivative affinity gel, and by preparative disc gel electrophoresis. Intestinal phosphatases were electrophoretically separated into two components, fast- and slow-moving enzymes, with apparent molecular weights of 140000 and 168000 and with subunit weights of 68000 and 80000, respectively. Organ distribution of injected 125I-labelled enzymes indicates that the desialylated hepatic enzyme was selectively distributed in liver, while the degalactosylated intestinal enzyme was incorporated into liver, lymph fluid, and small intestine. These results suggest that the pathway of circulating clearance of alkaline phosphatase has several routes. (Auth.)

237

Immunomodulatory effect of a wild blueberry anthocyanin-rich extract in human Caco-2 intestinal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal inflammation is a natural process crucial for the maintenance of gut functioning. However, abnormal or prolonged inflammatory responses may lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases, typically treated by means of pharmacological interventions. Dietary strategies for the prevention of inflammation are a safer alternative to pharmacotherapy. Anthocyanins and other polyphenols have been documented to display anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, three bioactive fractions (anthocyanin, phenolic, and water-soluble fractions) were extracted from a wild blueberry powder. The Caco-2 intestinal model was used to test the immunomodulatory effect of the above fractions. Only the anthocyanin-rich fraction reduced the activation of NF-?B, induced by IL-1? in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Specifically, concentrations of 50 and 100 ?g mL(-1) decreased NF-?B activation by 68.9 and 85.2%, respectively (p ? 0.05). These preliminary results provide further support for the role of food bioactives as potential dietary anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25075866

Taverniti, Valentina; Fracassetti, Daniela; Del Bo', Cristian; Lanti, Claudia; Minuzzo, Mario; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia; Guglielmetti, Simone

2014-08-20

238

Polarity of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in a human intestinal cell line (CACO-2)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Free fatty acids (ffa) can enter the intestinal cell via the apical (AP) or basolateral (BL) membrane. The authors are using the Caco-2 intestinal cell line to examine the polarity of ffa uptake and metabolism in the enterocyte. Cells are grown on permeable polycarbonate Transwell filters in order to obtain access to both AP and BL compartments. Differentiated Caco-2 cells form tight polarized monolayers which express small intestine-specific enzymes and are impermeable to the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow. Submicellar concentrations of {sup 3}H-palmitic acid (2uM) were added to AP or BL sides of Caco-2 monolayers at 37{degrees}C and cells were incubated for various times between 2 and 120 minutes. Total AP and BL uptake is similar; however, when relative membrane surface areas are accounted for, AP uptake is about 2-fold higher. The metabolism of AP and BL ffa is not significantly different: triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine account for most of the metabolites (32{plus minus}4 and 24{plus minus}2% respectively at 5 minutes). Little ffa oxidation is observed. Preincubation with albumin-bound 2-monoolein (100uM) and palmitate (50uM) increases the level of TG metabolites. The results suggest that in this cell line the uptake of AP ffa may be greater than BL ffa, but that AP (dietary) ffa and BL (plasma) ffa are metabolized similarly.

Trotter, P.J.; Storch, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1990-02-26

239

Polarity of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in a human intestinal cell line (CACO-2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free fatty acids (ffa) can enter the intestinal cell via the apical (AP) or basolateral (BL) membrane. The authors are using the Caco-2 intestinal cell line to examine the polarity of ffa uptake and metabolism in the enterocyte. Cells are grown on permeable polycarbonate Transwell filters in order to obtain access to both AP and BL compartments. Differentiated Caco-2 cells form tight polarized monolayers which express small intestine-specific enzymes and are impermeable to the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow. Submicellar concentrations of 3H-palmitic acid (2uM) were added to AP or BL sides of Caco-2 monolayers at 37 degrees C and cells were incubated for various times between 2 and 120 minutes. Total AP and BL uptake is similar; however, when relative membrane surface areas are accounted for, AP uptake is about 2-fold higher. The metabolism of AP and BL ffa is not significantly different: triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine account for most of the metabolites (32±4 and 24±2% respectively at 5 minutes). Little ffa oxidation is observed. Preincubation with albumin-bound 2-monoolein (100uM) and palmitate (50uM) increases the level of TG metabolites. The results suggest that in this cell line the uptake of AP ffa may be greater than BL ffa, but that AP (dietary) ffa and BL (plasma) ffa are metabolized similarly

240

Enhancement of Intestinal Motility and Transit Time in Streptozotozin-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Ocimum gratissimum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: Acute changes in the blood glucose concentration have a substantial effect on intestinal motility in both diabetic and healthy subjects. This research work was therefore designed to assess the effect of DM on GIT motor activity and the impact of treatment with OG on same. Methodology: The phytoconstituents and median lethal dose of the plant extract was determined before administration. Eighteen rats were used; the animals were divided into three groups of six rats each. Group 1 serv...

Akpan, Okon Uduak; Odeh, Obembe Agona; Otu, Ita Sunday; Eme E, Osim

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Secretor genotype (FUT2 gene) is strongly associated with the composition of Bifidobacteria in the human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in human health, and its composition is determined by several factors, such as diet and host genotype. However, thus far it has remained unknown which host genes are determinants for the microbiota composition. We studied the diversity and abundance of dominant bacteria and bifidobacteria from the faecal samples of 71 healthy individuals. In this cohort, 14 were non-secretor individuals and the remainders were secretors. The secretor status is defined by the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucus and other secretions. It is determined by fucosyltransferase 2 enzyme, encoded by the FUT2 gene. Non-functional enzyme resulting from a nonsense mutation in the FUT2 gene leads to the non-secretor phenotype. PCR-DGGE and qPCR methods were applied for the intestinal microbiota analysis. Principal component analysis of bifidobacterial DGGE profiles showed that the samples of non-secretor individuals formed a separate cluster within the secretor samples. Moreover, bifidobacterial diversity (p.0001), richness (p.0003), and abundance (p.05) were significantly reduced in the samples from the non-secretor individuals as compared with those from the secretor individuals. The non-secretor individuals lacked, or were rarely colonized by, several genotypes related to B. bifidum, B. adolescentis and B. catenulatum/pseudocatenulatum. In contrast to bifidobacteria, several bacterial genotypes were more common and the richness (p.04) of dominant bacteria as detected by PCR-DGGE was higher in the non-secretor individuals than in the secretor individuals. We showed that the diversity and composition of the human bifidobacterial population is strongly associated with the histo-blood group ABH secretor/non-secretor status, which consequently appears to be one of the host genetic determinants for the composition of the intestinal microbiota. This association can be explained by the difference between the secretor and non-secretor individuals in their expression of ABH and Lewis glycan epitopes in the mucosa. PMID:21625510

Wacklin, Pirjo; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Alakulppi, Noora; Nikkilä, Janne; Tenkanen, Heli; Räbinä, Jarkko; Partanen, Jukka; Aranko, Kari; Mättö, Jaana

2011-01-01

242

Expression and function of the lipocalin-2 (24p3/NGAL) receptor in rodent and human intestinal epithelia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lipocalin 2//NGAL/24p3 receptor (NGAL-R/24p3-R) is expressed in rodent distal nephron where it mediates protein endocytosis. The mechanisms of apical endocytosis and transcytosis of proteins and peptides in the intestine are poorly understood. In the present study, the expression and localization of rodent 24p3-R (r24p3-R) and human NGAL-R (hNGAL-R) was investigated in intestinal segments by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. r24p3-R/hNGAL-R was also studied in human Caco-2 BBE cells and CHO cells transiently transfected with r24p3-R by immunofluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and immunoblotting of plasma membrane enriched vesicles (PM). To assay function, endocytosis/transcytosis of putative ligands phytochelatin (PC?), metallothionein (MT) and transferrin (Tf) was assayed by measuring internalization of fluorescence-labelled ligands in Caco-2 BBE cells grown on plastic or as monolayers on Transwell inserts. The binding affinity of Alexa 488-PC? to colon-like Caco-2 BBE PM was quantified by microscale thermophoresis (MST). r24p3-R/hNGAL-R expression was detected apically in all intestinal segments but showed the highest expression in ileum and colon. Colon-like, but not duodenum-like, Caco-2 BBE cells expressed hNGAL-R on their surface. Colon-like Caco-2 BBE cells or r24p3-R transfected CHO cells internalized fluorescence-labelled PC? or MT with half-maximal saturation at submicromolar concentrations. Uptake of PC? and MT (0.7 µM) by Caco-2 BBE cells was partially blocked by hNGAL (500 pM) and an EC?? of 18.6 ± 12.2 nM was determined for binding of Alexa 488-PC? to PM vesicles by MST. Transwell experiments showed rapid (0.5-2 h) apical uptake and basolateral delivery of fluorescent PC?/MT/Tf (0.7 µM). Apical uptake of ligands was significantly blocked by 500 pM hNGAL. hNGAL-R dependent uptake was more prominent with MT but transcytosis efficiency was reduced compared to PC? and Tf. Hence, r24p3-R/hNGAL-R may represent a high-affinity multi-ligand receptor for apical internalization and transcytosis of intact proteins/peptides by the lower intestine.

Langelueddecke, Christian; Roussa, Eleni

2013-01-01

243

Substrate specificity of carboxylesterase isozymes and their contribution to hydrolase activity in human liver and small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrolase activity from human liver and small intestine microsomes was compared with that of recombinant human carboxylesterases, hCE-1 and hCE-2. Although both hCE-1 and hCE-2 are present in human liver, the dominant component was found to be hCE-1, whereas the hydrolase activity of the human small intestine was found to be predominantly hCE-2. hCE-2 has a limited ability to hydrolyze large acyl compound substrates. Interestingly, propranolol derivatives, good substrates for hCE-2, were easily hydrolyzed by substitution of the methyl group on the 2-position of the acyl moiety, but were barely hydrolyzed when the methyl group was substituted on the 3-position. These findings suggest that hCE-2 does not easily form acylated intermediates because of conformational interference in its active site. In contrast, hCE-1 could hydrolyze a variety of substrates. The hydrolytic activity of hCE-2 increased with increasing alcohol chain length in benzoic acid derivative substrates, whereas hCE-1 preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of substrates with short alcohol chains. Kinetic data showed that the determining factor for the rate of hydrolysis of p-aminobenzoic acid esters was V(max) for hCE-1 and K(m) for hCE-2. Furthermore, the addition of hydrophobic alcohols to the reaction mixture with p-aminobenzoic acid propyl ester induced high and low levels of transesterification by hCE-1 and hCE-2, respectively. When considering the substrate specificities of hCE-1, it is necessary to consider the transesterification ability of hCE-1, in addition to the binding structure of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme. PMID:16837570

Imai, Teruko; Taketani, Megumi; Shii, Mayumi; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Chiba, Kan

2006-10-01

244

Protective effects of free radical scavenger edaravone against xanthine oxidase-mediated permeability increases in human intestinal epithelial cell monolayer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The barrier function of the intestinal mucosa can be disturbed under a variety of pathologic insults. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in intestinal mucosal injury. This in vitro study examines the hypothesis that a free radical scavenger, edaravone (ED), ameliorates gut epithelial permeability increase caused by xanthine oxidase (XO)-mediated oxidative stress in a cell monolayer model. Human intestinal epithelial (HIE) cells were grown as monolayer in bicameral chambers. Twenty milliunits per milliliter of XO+0.25 mM of xanthine (XO+X group) or saline (control) were administered into the basal chambers. Another set of chambers was treated with XO+X and 0.6 mg/ml of ED (XO+X+ED group). The permeability was assessed by quantifying the transepithelial passage of fluorescence in isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. In another series of experiments, Escherichia coli C-25 was also applied in an apical chamber to evaluate the bacterial translocation through the monolayer. The concentration of the fluorescence in isothiocyanate-labeled dextran in the basal chamber of the control group was significantly higher than the control (705 +/- 50.2 vs 155 +/- 45.4 mg/dl, P < .01). Treatment with ED prevented this permeability increase induced by the oxidative stress (P < .01). The incidence of bacterial translocation through the HIE monolayer in XO+X group was also higher than that of the control group (75 vs 13%, P < .05). Increased HIE cell monolayer permeability mediated by xanthine and XO was significantly attenuated with ED. This synthesized radical scavenger may have potential clinical applications against gut mucosal barrier dysfunction. PMID:19165103

Mukojima, Ken; Mishima, Shiro; Oda, Jun; Homma, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hirokazu; Ohta, Shoichi; Yukioka, Tetsuo

2009-01-01

245

Soluble CD14 is essential for lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of human intestinal mast cells from macroscopically normal as well as Crohn's disease tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mast cells are now considered sentinels in immunity. Given their location underneath the gastrointestinal barrier, mast cells are entrusted with the task of tolerating commensal microorganisms and eliminating potential pathogens in the gut microbiota. The aim of our study was to analyse the responsiveness of mast cells isolated from macroscopically normal and Crohn's disease-affected intestine to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To determine the LPS-mediated signalling, human intestinal mast cells were treated with LPS alone or in combination with soluble CD14 due to their lack of surface CD14 expression. LPS alone failed to stimulate cytokine expression in human intestinal mast cells from both macroscopically normal and Crohn's disease tissue. Upon administration of LPS and soluble CD14, there was a dose- and time-dependent induction of cytokine and chemokine expression. Moreover, CXCL8 and interleukin-1? protein expression was induced in response to activation with LPS plus soluble CD14. Expression of cytokines and chemokines was at similar levels in mast cells from macroscopically normal and Crohn's disease-affected intestine after LPS/soluble CD14 treatment. In conclusion, human intestinal mast cells appear to tolerate LPS per se. The LPS-mediated activation in mast cells may be provoked by soluble CD14 distributed by other LPS-triggered cells at the gastrointestinal barrier. PMID:24697307

Brenner, Sibylle A; Zacheja, Steffi; Schäffer, Michael; Feilhauer, Katharina; Bischoff, Stephan C; Lorentz, Axel

2014-10-01

246

Absorção intestinal de D-xilose em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana / Intestinal absorption of D-xilose in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivos - Avaliar a absorção intestinal em crianças de 18 meses a 14 anos infectadas pelo HIV, atendidas em uma unidade de ambulatório e verificar se existe associação entre má absorção, diarréia, estado nutricional, alteração imunológica, parasitas entéricos clássicos e Cryptosporidium. Metodolog [...] ia - A absorção intestinal foi investigada utilizando-se a medida da D-xilose sérica. Amostras fecais foram colhidas para a pesquisa de pátogenos entéricos clássicos e Cryptosporidium. O tamanho da amostra foi calculado considerando a prevalência de 30% com precisão de 5% de alteração na absorção da D-xilose em crianças infectadas pelo HIV. Os procedimentos estatísticos utilizados foram: medidas descritivas, análise de correspondência múltipla e regressão logística. Resultados - Das 104 crianças estudadas, somente 8 (7,7%) apresentaram o teste da D-xilose alterado e 33 (31,73%) foram positivas para Cryptosporidium. A análise de correspondência múltipla aplicada aos dados encontrados sugeriu a associação entre o teste da D-xilose alterado e a presença de Cryptosporidium. Não se encontrou associação entre o teste alterado e diarréia, estado nutricional, alteração imunológica e parasistas entéricos clássicos. Conclusões - A má absorção intestinal avaliada pelo teste da D-xilose foi infreqüente nas crianças HIV positivas estudadas. O comprometimento intestinal, quando presente, parece estar relacionado com a presença de Cryptosporidium, porém não com diarréia, estado nutricional, alteração imunológica e parasistas entéricos clássicos. Abstract in english Aim - To evaluate the intestinal absorption in HIV-infected children children 14 months to 14 years and to investigate its relationship to diarrhea, nutritional status, immune dysfunction, classical enteric parasites and Cryptosporidium. Methods - Intestinal absorption was investigated by measuring [...] serum D-xylose. Fecal samples were investigated for classical pathogens and Cryptosporidium. The sample size was calculated considering a 30% prevalence of altered D-xylose absorption in HIV-infected children with a 5% accuracy. Statistical procedures used were: descriptive measurements, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression. Results - D-xylose absorption was altered in only 8 out of 104 (7,7%) and Cryptosporidium was positive in 33 out of 104 (31,73%) HIV-infected children. The multiple correspondence analysis suggested an association between an altered D-xylose test and Cryptosporidium. D-xylose malabsorption was not associated with diarrhea, nutritional status, immune disfunction and classic enteric parasites. Conclusions - Intestinal malabsorption evaluated through the D-xylose test was an uncommon finding in HIV-infected children. Intestinal dysfunction when present seems to be related to Cryptosporidium, but not to diarrhea, nutritional status, immune disfunction and classic enteric parasites.

Nilza Medeiros, PERIN; Maria Marlene de Souza, PIRES; Sílvia Modesto, NASSAR.

247

Scintigraphy of the small intestine: a simplified standard for study of transit with reference to normal values  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of small bowel transit, which should preferably be performed using non-invasive techniques, is complex owing to the anatomical position of the small bowel. In order to avoid any influence of the gastric emptying rate on scintigraphic results, we have used {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA, an intravenous tracer that is excreted in bile and thereby delivered directly into the duodenum. Thirty healthy subjects were studied after an overnight fast. Immediately after administration of 120 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA, dynamic 1-min image acquisitions were begun. The duodenum and caecum were easily identified on the digitised images. Small bowel transit time was determined from the difference in the arrival times of the radiopharmaceutical in the proximal duodenum and caecum, as assessed by evaluation of the count rate against background activity (Scint 1) and by the visual appearance of activity (Scint 2). Hydrogen breath test was performed simultaneously to evaluate scintigraphic transit. Scintigraphic transit tests were also performed in 23 patients with motility disorders who had undergone manometry of the small bowel. In healthy subjects, the transit time of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA was 77.9{+-}31.1 min (Scint 1) or 79.3{+-}30.9 min (Scint 2) and the lactulose transit time was 100.1{+-}43.4 min. Seventeen of the 23 patients had a dysmotility pattern verified by manometry, and in 14 of these patients, {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA transit was prolonged. {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA small bowel transit is a readily available method for the detection of transit abnormalities in the clinical setting. The method is clinically feasible and the transit time of {sup 99m}Tc-HIDA shows a good correlation with results of the hydrogen breath test (lactulose transit time) in healthy volunteers. (orig.)

Grybaeck, P.; Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Blomquist, L.; Hellstroem, P.M. [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Schnell, P.O. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

2002-01-01

248

Human cysticercosis and intestinal parasitism amongst the Ekari people of Irian Jaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A random sample of 242 people showed that 42 had palpable cysts of Taenia solium. Faecal examination recovered eggs of T. solium in seven (3%), while Trichuris (83%), Ascaris (83%), hookworms (76%), Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) and Strongyloides sp. (29%), Entamoeba histolytica (14%), Entamoeba coli (22%), Entamoeba hartmanni (7%), Entamoeba polecki (7%), Balantidium coli (9%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (21%) were the most common other intestinal parasites encountered. ELISA tests, using antigens prepared from adults and eggs of T. solium and from cysticerci of T. saginata were not very sensitive, the last diagnosing less than half of known positives while still retaining good specificity. PMID:3430662

Muller, R; Lillywhite, J; Bending, J J; Catford, J C

1987-12-01

249

Analysis of the human intestinal epithelial cell transcriptional response to Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium lactis and Escherichia coli  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The complex microbial population residing in the human gastrointestinal tract consists of commensal, potential pathogenic and beneficial species, which are probably perceived differently by the host and consequently could be expected to trigger specific transcriptional responses. In this study, a comparative analysis of the global in vitro transcriptional response of human intestinal epithelial cells to Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMTM, L. salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420 and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) was conducted. Of particular note, L. salivarius Ls-33 DCE-induced changes were overall more similar to those of B. lactis 420 than to L. acidophilus NCFMTM, which was consistent with previously observed in vivo immunomodulation properties. In gene ontology and pathway analyses, both specific and unspecific changes were observed. Common to all was the regulation of apoptosis and adipogenesis, and lipid metabolism related regulation by the probiotics. Specific changes, such as regulation of cell-cell adhesion by B. lactis 420, superoxide metabolism by L. salivarius Ls-33 and regulation of MAPK pathway by L. acidophilus NCFMTM, were noted. Furthermore, fundamental differences were observed between the pathogenic and probiotic treatments in the Toll-like receptor pathway, especially for adapter molecules with a lowered level of transcriptional activation of MyD88, TRIF, IRAK1 and TRAF6 by probiotics compared to EHEC. Results provided insights into the relationship between probiotics and human intestinal epithelial cells, notably with regard to strain-specific responses, and highlighted the differences between transcriptional responses to pathogenic and probiotic bacteria. Keyword: Epithelial cells,Microarray,Probiotics,Escherichia coli,Cell line models

Putaala, H.; Barrangou, R.

2010-01-01

250

Hes1 promotes the IL-22-mediated antimicrobial response by enhancing STAT3-dependent transcription in human intestinal epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Hes1 enhances IL-22-STAT3 signaling in human intestinal epithelial cells. •Hes1 enhances REG family gene induction by IL-22-STAT3 signaling. •Protein level of Hes1 restricts the response to IL-22. •Present regulation of a cytokine signal represents a new mode of Hes1 function. -- Abstract: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a ?-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs

251

Interleukin-17 is a potent immuno-modulator and regulator of normal human intestinal epithelial cell growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upregulation of the T-cell derived cytokine interleukin (IL-17) was reported in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disorders. In this study, we analyzed the effect of IL-17 on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) turnover and functions. Proliferation and apoptosis in response to IL-17 was monitored in HIEC (cell counts, [3H]thymidine incorporation method, and annexinV-PI-apoptosis assay). Signalling pathways were analyzed by Western blots, electromobility shift assay, and immunofluorescence studies. IL-17 proved to be a potent inhibitor of HIEC proliferation without any pro-apoptotic/necrotic effect. The growth inhibitory effect of IL-17 was mediated via the p38 stress kinase. Consequently, the p38-SAPkinase-inhibitor SB203580 abrogated this anti-mitotic effect. In parallel, IL-17 provoked the degradation of I?B?, allowing nuclear translocation of the p65 NF-?B subunit and induction of the NF-?B-controlled genes IL-6 and -8. IL-17 potently blocks epithelial cell turnover while at the same time amplifying an inflammatory response in a positive feedback manner

252

Butyrate produced by commensal bacteria potentiates phorbol esters induced AP-1 response in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human intestine is a balanced ecosystem well suited for bacterial survival, colonization and growth, which has evolved to be beneficial both for the host and the commensal bacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of bacterial metabolites produced by commensal bacteria on AP-1 signaling pathway, which has a plethora of effects on host physiology. Using intestinal epithelial cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2, stably transfected with AP-1-dependent luciferase reporter gene, we tested the effect of culture supernatant from 49 commensal strains. We observed that several bacteria were able to activate the AP-1 pathway and this was correlated to the amount of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced. Besides being a major source of energy for epithelial cells, SCFAs have been shown to regulate several signaling pathways in these cells. We show that propionate and butyrate are potent activators of the AP-1 pathway, butyrate being the more efficient of the two. We also observed a strong synergistic activation of AP-1 pathway when using butyrate with PMA, a PKC activator. Moreover, butyrate enhanced the PMA-induced expression of c-fos and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but not p38 and JNK. In conclusion, we showed that SCFAs especially butyrate regulate the AP-1 signaling pathway, a feature that may contribute to the physiological impact of the gut microbiota on the host. Our results provide support for the involvement of butyrate in modulating the action of PKC in colon cancer cells. PMID:23300800

Nepelska, Malgorzata; Cultrone, Antonietta; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Le Roux, Karine; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Vermulugesan; Blottière, Hervé M

2012-01-01

253

Association between the human herpesvirus 8 and the diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small intestine in common variable immunodeficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the more frequent primary immunodeficiency in clinical field and its presentation forms are very variable. We describe the case of a women presenting with adult CVID with chronic diarrhea syndrome, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathies, where the more marked immunologic features were a deep hypogammaglobulinemia of the three major kinds of immunoglobulins and numerical decrease of B cells (CD19+) and NK cells (CD3-CD56+) in peripheral blood. Biopsy of small intestine obtained by video-assisted panendoscope, showed the presence of a multinodular lymphoid hyperplasia with partial atrophy of hairinesses. Immunohistochemistry showed that nodules were high germinal centers with distribution of B cells (CD20+) and T cells (CD3+), similar to that of normal follicle. There was not differential expression of the K and ? light chains. The real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method detected many copies from the genome of type 8 human herpesvirus (VHH-8) (133 copies/?L of DNA) in biopsy of intestinal nodule DNA. VHH-8 infection may to be a significant factor in pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients presenting with CVID

254

Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2013-02-01

255

Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with ?-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

256

[Intestinal failure].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal failure is defined as the reduction in the functioning gut mass below the minimal amount necessary for the absorption of nutrients and a normal nutritional status. The main cause of chronic intestinal failure in adults is short bowel syndrome secondary to mesenteric ischemia. In short bowel the remnant bowel length is inferior to 200 cm. The two other causes of intestinal failure are extensive small bowel mucosal diseases and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The reference treatment of severe chronic intestinal failure is home parenteral nutrition. The main alternate for irreversible intestinal failure is small bowel transplantation, isolated or combined to liver transplantation. PMID:11458613

Crenn, P

2001-05-15

257

Heparin modulates human intestinal smooth muscle (HISM) cell proliferation and matrix production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(HISM) cell proliferation and collagen production may play a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal stricture in Crohn's disease. The present studies were performed to evaluate the effects of heparin, a known modulator of vascular smooth muscle cells, on HISM cell proliferation and collagen production. Heparin (100 ?g/ml) was added daily to HISM cell cultures for cell proliferation studies and for 24 hours at various time points during culture for collagen synthesis studies. Collagen synthesis was determined by the uptake of 3H proline into collagenase-sensitive protein. Heparin completely inhibited cell proliferation for 7 days, after which cell numbers increased but at a slower rate than controls. Cells released from heparin inhibition demonstrated catch-up growth to control levels. Collagen production was significantly inhibited by 24 hours exposure to heparin but only at those times during culture when collagen synthesis was maximal (8 to 12 days). Non-collagen protein synthesis was inhibited by heparin at all time points during culture. Heparin through its modulation of HISM cells may play an important role in the control of the extracellular matrix of the intestinal wall

258

Epidemiological study of human intestinal parasitosis in the Hospital of Oran (Algeria  

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Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patient addressed to the hospital of Oran and to identify parasites causing this infection. Design: The survey was made on 1042 individuals, external and hospitalized, having between one month and 80 years old, addressed te H.U.C. of Oran. For every patient, an analysis of stool sample was done including direct and complementary methods. Results: The prevalence is about 19,96%. Adultes (71,15% are more parasited than children (28,84%. The sex ratio is equal to 1. It is essentially Protozoa parasitism with 95,7% and Helminth represent only 4,3%. The intestinal parasites founded are : Blastocystis hominis 47,17% Entamoeba coli 18,95%, Giardia intestinalis 15,32%, Endolimax nana 5,24%, Entamoeba histolytica 4 ,83%, Pseudolimax butschlii 4,43%, Enterobius vermicularis 2,82%, Cryptosporidium sp 0,4%, Ascaris lumbricoides 0,4% and Taenia saginata 0,4%. Statistically, it was no significant to the distribution of parasites species by sex. But according to age, it was significant for Giardia intestinalis which infects more children than adults, for Endolimax nana and Blastocystis hominis with the most infection of adults. Conclusion: The majority of parasites listed are not pathological. Their epidemiology is linked to faulty hygiene; this is why developing countries are the most concerned.

A. Benouis

2013-04-01

259

Amebiasis intestinal / Intestinal amebiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le pe [...] rmiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica) y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar), ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad. Abstract in english Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex patho [...] genic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica), and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar), have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

JULIO CÉSAR, GÓMEZ; JORGE ALBERTO, CORTÉS; SONIA ISABEL, CUERVO; MYRIAM CONSUELO, LÓPEZ.

260

Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

2007-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Endometriosis intestinal / Intestinal endometriosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad e [...] n el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada). En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo. Abstract in english Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnorm [...] ality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation). In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment, this will depend on the clinical features and the age of the patient, as well as her wishes with regard to pregnancy.

C.I., González; M., Cires; F.J., Jiménez; T., Rubio.

262

Application of Sequence-Dependent Electrophoresis Fingerprinting in Exploring Biodiversity and Population Dynamics of Human Intestinal Microbiota: What Can Be Revealed?  

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Full Text Available Sequence-dependent electrophoresis (SDE fingerprinting techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE have become commonplace in the field of molecular microbial ecology. The success of the SDE technology lays in the fact that it allows visualization of the predominant members of complex microbial ecosystems independent of their culturability and without prior knowledge on the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem. Mainly using the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene as PCR amplification target, SDE-based community fingerprinting turned into one of the leading molecular tools to unravel the diversity and population dynamics of human intestinal microbiota. The first part of this review covers the methodological concept of SDE fingerprinting and the technical hurdles for analyzing intestinal samples. Subsequently, the current state-of-the-art of DGGE and related techniques to analyze human intestinal microbiota from healthy individuals and from patients with intestinal disorders is surveyed. In addition, the applicability of SDE analysis to monitor intestinal population changes upon nutritional or therapeutic interventions is critically evaluated.

Peter Vandamme

2008-12-01

263

Characteristic hydrolyzing of megalosaccharide by human salivary ?-amylase and small intestinal enzymes, and its bioavailability in healthy subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The digestibility of Megalosaccharide® (newly developed carbohydrate comprising ?-1,4-glucosaccharide) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Isomaltosyl-megalosaccharide® (IMS) and nigerosyl-megalosaccharide® (NMS) contain 20% and 50% of the megalosaccharide fraction (degree of polymerization (DP) 10-35), respectively. IMS was hydrolyzed readily by ?-amylase to oligosaccharides (DP???7), and a small amount of glucose was produced from oligosaccharides by small intestinal enzymes (SIEs). NMS was partially hydrolyzed by ?-amylase to oligosaccharides, and a small amount of glucose produced by SIEs. When IMS and NMS were treated by SIEs after treatment with human saliva ?-amylase for a few minutes, IMS and NMS were hydrolyzed readily to glucose. Plasma levels of glucose and insulin upon ingestion of 50?g of IMS or NMS were elevated the same as those for 50?g of glucose, and breath hydrogen was not excreted. These results suggest that IMS and NMS are digestible carbohydrates. PMID:24725210

Nakamura, Sadako; Takami, Masayuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Oku, Tsuneyuki

2014-09-01

264

Release of small phenolic compounds from brewer's spent grain and its lignin fractions by human intestinal microbiota in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brewer's spent grain (BSG), the major side-stream from brewing, is rich in protein, lignin, and nonstarch polysaccharides. Lignin is a polyphenolic macromolecule considered resilient toward breakdown and utilization by colon microbiota, although some indications of release of small phenolic components from lignin in animals have been shown. The aim of this study was to investigate if the human intestinal microbiota can release lignans and small phenolic compounds from whole BSG, a lignin-enriched insoluble fraction from BSG and a deferuloylated fraction, in a metabolic in vitro colon model. The formation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) was also investigated. More lignin-related monomers and dilignols were detected from the lignin-enriched fraction than from BSG or deferuloylated BSG. SCFA formation was not suppressed by any of the fractions. It was shown that small lignin-like compounds were released from these samples in the in vitro colon model, originating most likely from lignin. PMID:24028071

Aura, Anna-Marja; Niemi, Piritta; Mattila, Ismo; Niemelä, Klaus; Smeds, Annika; Tamminen, Tarja; Faulds, Craig; Buchert, Johanna; Poutanen, Kaisa

2013-10-01

265

Phase transitions in human IgG solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Protein condensations, such as crystallization, liquid-liquid phase separation, aggregation, and gelation, have been observed in concentrated antibody solutions under various solution conditions. While most IgG antibodies are quite soluble, a few outliers can undergo condensation under physiological conditions. Condensation of IgGs can cause serious consequences in some human diseases and in biopharmaceutical formulations. The phase transitions underlying protein condensations in concentrated IgG solutions is also of fundamental interest for the understanding of the phase behavior of non-spherical protein molecules. Due to the high solubility of generic IgGs, the phase behavior of IgG solutions has not yet been well studied. In this work, we present an experimental approach to study IgG solutions in which the phase transitions are hidden below the freezing point of the solution. Using this method, we have investigated liquid-liquid phase separation of six human myeloma IgGs and two recombinant pharmaceutical human IgGs. We have also studied the relation between crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation of two human cryoglobulin IgGs. Our experimental results reveal several important features of the generic phase behavior of IgG solutions: (1) the shape of the coexistence curve is similar for all IgGs but quite different from that of quasi-spherical proteins; (2) all IgGs have critical points located at roughly the same protein concentration at ~100 mg/ml while their critical temperatures vary significantly; and (3) the liquid-liquid phase separation in IgG solutions is metastable with respect to crystallization. These features of phase behavior of IgG solutions reflect the fact that all IgGs have nearly identical molecular geometry but quite diverse net inter-protein interaction energies. This work provides a foundation for further experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of generic IgGs as well as outliers with large propensity to condense. The investigation of the phase diagram of IgG solutions is of great importance for the understanding of immunoglobulin deposition diseases as well as for the understanding of the colloidal stability of IgG pharmaceutical formulations.

Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil F.; Laubach, Jacob P.; Hideshima, Teru; Richardson, Paul G.; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Benedek, George B.

2013-09-01

266

Differences between human and rat intestinal and hepatic bisphenol A glucuronidation and the influence of alamethicin on in vitro kinetic measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which membrane-disrupting agents, such as alamethicin, may alter cofactor transport and influence in vitro kinetic measurements of glucuronidation is a major concern regarding the characterization and extrapolation of inter- and intraspecies pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA). An additional concern is the omission of a BPA intestinal metabolism component in current pharmacokinetic models used to assess oral exposure. In this study, BPA glucuronidation in native hepatic microsomes from female rat and female human liver displayed higher V(max) values than that in males. In the presence of alamethicin, all hepatic V(max) values increased; however, this increase was disproportionately greater in males and gender differences were no longer observed. Female rats exhibited a much higher K(m) than all other species and genders; the addition of alamethicin had little influence on K(m) values for any of the test systems. The dissimilar K(m) measured for female rat suggests that different UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme(s) are involved in BPA glucuronidation. The presence of different UGTs in female rat was confirmed using Hill coefficients measured from diclofenac-mediated chemical inhibition assays within hepatic microsomes and purified human UGT2B7 and UGT2B15. Mixed-gender human intestinal microsomes showed little BPA glucuronidation reactivity compared with those from male rat intestine. Male rat intestinal microsomes in the presence of alamethicin exhibited a V(max) that was nearly 30-fold higher than that for mixed human microsomes. The species and gender metabolic differences we observed between rat and human liver and intestine provide key information for delineating BPA pharmacokinetics needed for human health risk assessment. PMID:20736320

Mazur, Christopher S; Kenneke, John F; Hess-Wilson, Janet K; Lipscomb, John C

2010-12-01

267

Intestinal capillariasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops. PMID:1576584

Cross, J H

1992-04-01

268

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase by a plant-derived dihydroisosteviol in human intestinal epithelial cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous study has shown that dihydroisosteviol (DHIS), a derivative of stevioside isolated from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated transepithelial chloride secretion across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells and prevents cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in mouse closed loop models. In this study, we aimed to investigate a mechanism by which DHIS inhibits CFTR activity. Apical chloride current measurements in Fisher rat thyroid cells stably transfected with wild-type human CFTR (FRT-CFTR cells) and T84 cells were used to investigate mechanism of CFTR inhibition by DHIS. In addition, effect of DHIS on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was investigated using Western blot analysis. Surprisingly, it was found that DHIS failed to inhibit CFTR-mediated apical chloride current in FRT-CFTR cells. In contrast, DHIS effectively inhibited CFTR-mediated apical chloride current induced by a cell permeable cAMP analog CPT-cAMP and a direct CFTR activator genistein in T84 cell monolayers. Interestingly, this inhibitory effect of DHIS on CFTR was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. AICAR, a known AMPK activator, was able to inhibit CFTR activity in both FRT-CFTR and T84 cells. Western blot analysis showed that DHIS induced AMPK activation in T84 cells, but not in FRT-CFTR cells. Our results indicate that DHIS inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in T84 cells, in part, by activation of AMPK activity. DHIS therefore represents a novel candidate of AMPK activators. PMID:23343619

Muanprasat, Chatchai; Sirianant, Lalida; Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Homvisasevongsa, Sureeporn; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

2013-01-01

269

Moderate consumption of red wine can modulate human intestinal inflammatory response.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 24 immune markers were analyzed in feces from healthy volunteers (n = 34) before and after consumption of a red wine (12% ethanol, 1758 mg/L total polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Analysis of the data permitted the differentiation of a six-volunteer subgroup showing unusually high basal values of cytokines. For this subgroup, consumption of wine significantly (P wine consumption for the rest of the volunteers. Additionally, significant and negative correlations among cytokines IFN-?, IL-8, and IL-6 and the total fecal content of phenolic metabolites were found for the high-cytokines-values subgroup, before wine intake. This study shows, for the first time, that moderate consumption of red wine could modulate inflammatory intestinal response in vivo. PMID:25263395

Muñoz-González, Irene; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

2014-10-29

270

Inhibition of intestinal absorption and decorporation of radiocaesium in humans by hexacyanoferrates(II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of hexacyanoferrate (II) preparations, KFe[Fe(CN)6], (KFeHCF) anol Fe4[Fe(N)6 ]3, (FeHCF) on intestinal radiocaesium absorption was studied in two male volunteers. The 134Cs absorption was decreased from 100 to 3-10% when 500-1000 mg KFeHCF or FeHCF were administered 10 min before the 134Cs-labelled test meal. However, when HCF was administered simultaneously with the test meal, the 134Cs absorption was decreased to only 38-63%. The biological half-time of previously absorbed 134Cs was reduced from 106 (73) to 44 (46) days by daily administration of 3 times 0.5 g KFeHCF. The 134Cs dose conversion factors lie below the values recommended by IRCP 30, indicating that the IRCP model represents a cautious description of the Cs biokinetics in our study. (author)

271

Isoperistaltic intestinal lengthening for short bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of improvements in supportive care, many infants now survive massive intestinal loss and have short bowel syndrome. Unfortunately, some survivors are left with an insufficient amount of intestine and cannot be weaned from total parenteral nutrition. An isoperistaltic intestinal lengthening procedure was used to treat surgically two such infants with 25 centimeters of remaining small intestine and absent ileocecal valves. This surgical technique longitudinally divides the short, dilated small intestine into two smaller, parallel lumens that are anastomosed end to end. This procedure preserves all mucosa, prolongs transit time by doubling intestinal length and corrects the ineffective peristalsis by tapering the dilated intestine. The lengthening technique can be performed because of the anatomic division of the intestinal vasculature within two leaves of the mesentery. Longitudinal division between the two leaves maintains vasculature to each side of the intestine. The isoperistaltic intestinal lengthening procedure, as it was successfully applied to two infants, is described in detail. PMID:1985340

Pokorny, W J; Fowler, C L

1991-01-01

272

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum-free conditions with VIP and PHM in varying concentrations (0.1, 10, 1000 nmol/l). [3H]Thymidine incorporation in the cells and oestradiol as well as progesterone concentrations in the culture medium were measured. The mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of VIP and PHM were 6.8 +/- 0.1 and 7.7 +/- 0.8 pmol/l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities. We conclude that VIP and PHM are present in human preovulatory follicular fluid and that VIP stimulates DNA synthesis and oestradiol secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. This indicates that VIP and perhaps PHM participate in the local nervous regulation of human ovarian function.

Gräs, S; Ovesen, Per Glud

1994-01-01

273

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum-free conditions with VIP and PHM in varying concentrations (0.1, 10, 1000 nmol/l). [3H]Thymidine incorporation in the cells and oestradiol as well as progesterone concentrations in the culture medium were measured. The mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of VIP and PHM were 6.8 +/- 0.1 and 7.7 +/- 0.8 pmol/l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities. We conclude that VIP and PHM are present in human preovulatory follicular fluid and that VIP stimulates DNA synthesis and oestradiol secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. This indicates that VIP and perhaps PHM participate in the local nervous regulation of human ovarian function.

Gräs, S; Ovesen, P

1994-01-01

274

Survival of bifidobacteria ingested via fermented milk during their passage through the human small intestine: an in vivo study using intestinal perfusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of a strain of Bifidobacterium sp to survive passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract when ingested in fermented milk was investigated in six fasting healthy adults by using in vivo ileal perfusion. After ingestion of 10.0 +/- 0.5 log10 bifidobacteria in 400 g fermented milk, ileal flow of bifidobacteria increased significantly and reached a maximum of 8.8 +/- 0.2 log10 bifidobacteria/h 1.7 +/- 0.4 h after ingestion of fermented milk. The average number of bifidobacteria recovered from the terminal ileum during the 8 h after fermented-milk ingestion was 9.0 +/- 0.1 log10 and constituted 23.5 +/- 10.4% of the number ingested. These results indicate that in healthy adults Bifidobacterium sp survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract when ingested in fermented milk. Further studies are needed to investigate the behavior of these exogenous bacteria in the colonic lumen and to explore their effects on the physiology of the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:1728822

Pochart, P; Marteau, P; Bouhnik, Y; Goderel, I; Bourlioux, P; Rambaud, J C

1992-01-01

275

The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species weredetected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community.

Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin

2014-01-01

276

The human neonatal small intestine has the potential for arginine synthesis; developmental changes in the expression of arginine-synthesizing and -catabolizing enzymes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk contains too little arginine for normal growth, but its precursors proline and glutamine are abundant; the small intestine of rodents and piglets produces arginine from proline during the suckling period; and parenterally fed premature human neonates frequently suffer from hypoargininemia. These findings raise the question whether the neonatal human small intestine also expresses the enzymes that enable the synthesis of arginine from proline and/or glutamine. Carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS, arginase-1 (ARG1, arginase-2 (ARG2, and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS were visualized by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in 89 small-intestinal specimens. Results Between 23 weeks of gestation and 3 years after birth, CPS- and ASS-protein content in enterocytes was high and then declined to reach adult levels at 5 years. OAT levels declined more gradually, whereas ARG-1 was not expressed. ARG-2 expression increased neonatally to adult levels. Neurons in the enteric plexus strongly expressed ASS, OAT, NOS1 and ARG2, while varicose nerve fibers in the circular layer of the muscularis propria stained for ASS and NOS1 only. The endothelium of small arterioles expressed ASS and NOS3, while their smooth-muscle layer expressed OAT and ARG2. Conclusion The human small intestine acquires the potential to produce arginine well before fetuses become viable outside the uterus. The perinatal human intestine therefore resembles that of rodents and pigs. Enteral ASS behaves as a typical suckling enzyme because its expression all but disappears in the putative weaning period of human infants.

Ruijter Jan M

2008-11-01

277

Contributions of NanI Sialidase to Caco-2 Cell Adherence by Clostridium perfringens Type A and C Strains Causing Human Intestinal Disease.  

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Previous studies showed that Clostridium perfringens type D animal disease strain CN3718 uses NanI sialidase for adhering to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. The current study analyzed whether NanI is similarly important when type A and C human intestinal disease strains attach to Caco-2 cells. A PCR survey determined that the nanI gene was absent from typical type A food poisoning (FP) strains carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (CPE) gene or the genetically related type C Darmbrand (Db) strains. However, the nanI gene was present in type A strains from healthy humans, type A strains causing CPE-associated antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) or sporadic diarrhea (SD), and type C Pig-Bel strains. Consistent with NanI sialidase being the major C. perfringens sialidase when produced, FP and Db strains had little supernatant sialidase activity compared to other type A or C human intestinal strains. All type A and C human intestinal strains bound to Caco-2 cells, but NanI-producing strains had higher attachment levels. When produced, NanI can contribute to host cell attachment of human intestinal disease strains, since a nanI null mutant constructed in type A SD strain F4969 had lower Caco-2 cell adhesion than wild-type F4969 or a complemented strain. Further supporting a role for NanI in host cell attachment, sialidase inhibitors reduced F4969 adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that NanI may contribute to the intestinal attachment and colonization needed for the chronic diarrhea of CPE-associated AAD and SD, but this sialidase appears to be dispensable for the acute pathogenesis of type A FP or type C enteritis necroticans. PMID:25135687

Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

2014-11-01

278

Esquistosomiasis intestinal / Intestinal schistosomiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la esquistosomiasis es una enfermedad parasitaria crónica causada por trematodos del género Schistosoma. La esquistosomiasis es prevalente en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Los síntomas de la esquistosomiasis son causados por la reacción del organismo a los huevos del gusano. [...] Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 21 años, que ingresa en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos con cuadro de diarreas con sangre, deshidratación y mal estado general, con empeoramiento clínico progresivo. Conclusiones: la esquistosomiasis intestinal es una enfermedad frecuente en Nampula, Mozambique; la enfermedad debe ser sospechada en pacientes con diarreas sanguinolentas y/o hematuria a fin de realizar el diagnóstico oportuno e iniciar tratamiento con prazicuantel, con lo cual se obtiene curación de la enfermedad en la mayoría de los pacientes oportunamente tratados. Abstract in english Introduction: intestinal schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes and genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis prevails in tropical and subtropical regions. The symptoms are caused by the reaction of organism to the worm eggs. Case report: the case of a male aged 21 was admitted [...] to the Intensive Care Unit presenting bloody diarrhea, dehydration, and bad general status with progressive clinical worsening. Conclusions: intestinal schistosomiasis is a frequent disease in Nampula, Mozambique; the disease might be suspected in patients with bloody diarrhea and/or hematuria aimed at making the opportune diagnosis and starting the treatment with the specific and updated medication praziquantel, favoring the cure for the disease on the majority of patients properly treated.

José Abel, García Acosta; Ariel Efrain, Delgado Rodríguez.

2014-08-01

279

Esquistosomiasis intestinal / Intestinal schistosomiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la esquistosomiasis es una enfermedad parasitaria crónica causada por trematodos del género Schistosoma. La esquistosomiasis es prevalente en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Los síntomas de la esquistosomiasis son causados por la reacción del organismo a los huevos del gusano. [...] Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 21 años, que ingresa en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos con cuadro de diarreas con sangre, deshidratación y mal estado general, con empeoramiento clínico progresivo. Conclusiones: la esquistosomiasis intestinal es una enfermedad frecuente en Nampula, Mozambique; la enfermedad debe ser sospechada en pacientes con diarreas sanguinolentas y/o hematuria a fin de realizar el diagnóstico oportuno e iniciar tratamiento con prazicuantel, con lo cual se obtiene curación de la enfermedad en la mayoría de los pacientes oportunamente tratados. Abstract in english Introduction: intestinal schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes and genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis prevails in tropical and subtropical regions. The symptoms are caused by the reaction of organism to the worm eggs. Case report: the case of a male aged 21 was admitted [...] to the Intensive Care Unit presenting bloody diarrhea, dehydration, and bad general status with progressive clinical worsening. Conclusions: intestinal schistosomiasis is a frequent disease in Nampula, Mozambique; the disease might be suspected in patients with bloody diarrhea and/or hematuria aimed at making the opportune diagnosis and starting the treatment with the specific and updated medication praziquantel, favoring the cure for the disease on the majority of patients properly treated.

José Abel, García Acosta; Ariel Efrain, Delgado Rodríguez.

280

Intestinal spirochetosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A espiroquetose intestinal está definida histologicamente como a presença de micro-organismos da família spirochetaceae ligadas ao ápice das células do epitélio cólico. A doença pode ser provocada por um grupo heterogêneo de bactérias. Em humanos, a Brachyspira aalborgi e a Brachyspira pilosicoli pr [...] edominam. A incidência varia desde 1%, nos países desenvolvidos, até 34% nas áreas mais pobres, atingindo taxas de colonização de 62,5%, em homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) e vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) positivo. O significado clínico dessa colonização ainda é incerto e a maioria dos infectados permanece assintomática. Quando há sintomas gastrointestinais, o tratamento com metronidazol é efetivo. Por razões desconhecidas, HSH positivos para o HIV, apresentam mais infestação sintomática. A infecção pelo Treponema pallidum dever ser excluída, pois os tratamentos são diferentes e as complicações por essa última são mais graves e definitivas. Abstract in english The intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is a histologically defined by the presence of spirochetal microorganisms connected to the apical cell membrane of the colorectal epithelium. The disease is caused by a heterogeneous group of bacteria. In humans, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli are p [...] revalent. The incidence ranges from 1% in developed countries to 34% in poorer areas. It affects 62.5% of colonized areas, as well as men who have intercourse with men (MSM) and those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected. Clinical significance of such colonization is still not clear. Most infected people are asymptomatic. At the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, treatment with metronidazole is effective. Due to unknown reasons, MSM and HIV-positive men are more likely to be symptomatic. Treponema pallidum infection must be excluded, since this agent may cause serious and permanent complications, and because the treatment is different.

Luis Roberto Manzione, Nadal; Sidney Roberto, Nadal.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Intestinal spirochetosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A espiroquetose intestinal está definida histologicamente como a presença de micro-organismos da família spirochetaceae ligadas ao ápice das células do epitélio cólico. A doença pode ser provocada por um grupo heterogêneo de bactérias. Em humanos, a Brachyspira aalborgi e a Brachyspira pilosicoli pr [...] edominam. A incidência varia desde 1%, nos países desenvolvidos, até 34% nas áreas mais pobres, atingindo taxas de colonização de 62,5%, em homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH) e vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) positivo. O significado clínico dessa colonização ainda é incerto e a maioria dos infectados permanece assintomática. Quando há sintomas gastrointestinais, o tratamento com metronidazol é efetivo. Por razões desconhecidas, HSH positivos para o HIV, apresentam mais infestação sintomática. A infecção pelo Treponema pallidum dever ser excluída, pois os tratamentos são diferentes e as complicações por essa última são mais graves e definitivas. Abstract in english The intestinal spirochetosis (IS) is a histologically defined by the presence of spirochetal microorganisms connected to the apical cell membrane of the colorectal epithelium. The disease is caused by a heterogeneous group of bacteria. In humans, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira pilosicoli are p [...] revalent. The incidence ranges from 1% in developed countries to 34% in poorer areas. It affects 62.5% of colonized areas, as well as men who have intercourse with men (MSM) and those with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected. Clinical significance of such colonization is still not clear. Most infected people are asymptomatic. At the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, treatment with metronidazole is effective. Due to unknown reasons, MSM and HIV-positive men are more likely to be symptomatic. Treponema pallidum infection must be excluded, since this agent may cause serious and permanent complications, and because the treatment is different.

Luis Roberto Manzione, Nadal; Sidney Roberto, Nadal.

282

Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data  

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Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae. These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria may be involved in the metabolism of dietary and endogenous lipids, and provide a scientific rationale for further human studies to explore the role of intestinal microbes in host lipid metabolism.

Leo Lahti

2013-02-01

283

Impact of probiotic drugs, based on Enterobacter faecium autostrains, on human intestinal microflora in confined habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of research: Investigation of influence of probiotic drugs based on autostrains of Enter-obacter faecium, selected from the crew in long term isolation experiment in confined habitat. It is known that during long-term presence in confined habitat the risk of infectious diseases increases. One of the main infectious risk occurs during first 20 days of isolation as a result of exchange of strains and stress-mediated disbacterioses. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate activities of probiotics to avoid this risk. Furthermore, in case of super long term autonomous flight there should be possibilities of application of autochthonous microflora strains as pro-biotics to strengthen colonial resistance of crews. Materials and methods: In the experiment there were used probiotic drugs based on autostrains of E. faecium, selected from the crew before the experiment. Probiotic drugs were consumed during 30 days since the beginning of the experiment with the break of consumption between 10th to 19th day. Results: Comparing the state of intestinal microflora of the crew on the baseline and 14th day of experiment re-vealed remarkable changes of microflora: the increasing of concentration of bifidobacteria and E. faecium (approximately 10 times), elimination of hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, reduction of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative non-fermenting rods, lactobacilli and normal E.coli. On the 45th day of isolation, 15 days after finishing of auto-strains administration, there fere signs of restoration of disbacteriosis: the quantitative decreasing lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and normal E.coli, increasing of the rate of S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. Conclusion: Thus we managed to avoid risk of pathogenicity potential growth in first 2 decades of isolation. Application of probiotic, based on the autostrains of E. faecium leads to insignificant changes of concentration of lactobacteries, bifidobacteries, normal E. coli and to pronounced reduction of concentration of . hemolytic streptococcus, yeasts, S.aureus, hemolytic gramnegative nonfermentive rods. This results give an opportunity to use this drug to prevent the violations in intestine microflora in altered habitat conditions.

Viacheslav, Ilyin; Batov, Alexey; Usanova, Nonna

284

Cobalamin malabsorption due to nondegradation of R proteins in the human intestine. Inhibited cobalamin absorption in exocrine pancreatic dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo studies demonstrate that the pancreatic enzymes and the ionic environment in the upper gastrointestinal tract are essential determining factors for transport and absorption of cobalamin in man. Jejunal fluid was aspirated from healthy human volunteers after administration of cyano[57Co]cobalamin preparations. Immunochemical analysis of the aspirates demonstrated that all isotopic vitamin was transferred to a protein that is identical to the gastric intrinsic factor in terms of molecular mass (57,500), ionic nature (mean pI, 5.09), and reactivity with anti-intrinsic factor sera. However, in the aspirates from patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction the vitamin was found to be coupled > 60% to a protein identical to R proteins in terms of molecular mass (125,000), ionic nature (mean pI, 3.51), and reactivity with anti-R protein and anti-intrinsic factor sera. The preferential transfer of cobalamin to R proteins in the patients and to intrinsic factor in healthy subjects was associated, respectively, with low and normal levels of pancreatic enzymes in the intestine and these in turn were paralleled respectively by impaired and normal ileal absorption of cobalamin. These findings confirm the suggestion that the formation of unabsorbable cobalamin complexes may be the reason of impaired vitamin absorption in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Observations made with other selected patients demonstrate: (a) that decreased enzyme activity and nondegradation of R proteins may also be due to nonactivation of pancreatic zymogens in an acidic pH of the intestinal juice the vitamin transported to the jejunum couples to intrinsic factor when pancreatic function is normal, and to intrinsic factor and R protein in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The observations made with these selected patients may explain why not all patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency develop imparied cobalamin absorption, and also why the malabsorption is corrected by the administration of bicarbonate in certain patients. PMID:7400324

Marcoullis, G; Parmentier, Y; Nicolas, J P; Jimenez, M; Gerard, P

1980-09-01

285

High content analysis of cytotoxic effects of pDMAEMA on human intestinal epithelial and monocyte cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(2-(dimethylamino ethyl)methacrylate) (pDMAEMA) is a cationic polymer with potential as an antimicrobial agent and as a non-viral gene delivery vector. The aim was to further elucidate the cytotoxicity of a selected pDMAEMA low molecular weight (MW) polymer against human U937 monocytes and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells using a novel multi-parameter high content analysis (HCA) assay and to investigate histological effects on isolated rat intestinal mucosae. Seven parameters of cytotoxicity were measured: nuclear intensity (NI), nuclear area (NA), intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), plasma membrane permeability (PMP), cell number (CN) and phospholipidosis. Histological effects of pDMAEMA on excised rat ileal and colonic mucosae were investigated in Ussing chambers. Following 24-72 h exposure, 25-50 microg/ml pDMAEMA induced necrosis in U937 cells, while 100-250 microg/ml induced apoptosis in Caco-2. pDMAEMA increased NA and NI and decreased [Ca(2+)]i, PMP, MMP and CN in U937 cells. In Caco-2, it increased NI and [Ca(2+)]i, but decreased NA, PMP, MMP and CN. Phospholipidosis was not observed in either cell line. pDMAEMA (10 mg/ml) did not induce any histological damage on rat colonic tissue and only mild damage to ileal tissue following exposure for 60 min. In conclusion, HCA reveals that pDMAEMA induces cytotoxicity in different ways on different cell types at different concentrations. HCA has potential for high throughput toxicity screening in drug formulation programmes. PMID:20457190

Rawlinson, Lee-Anne B; O'Brien, Peter J; Brayden, David J

2010-08-17

286

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 increases the expression of the CaT1 epithelial calcium channel in the Caco-2 human intestinal cell line  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The active hormonal form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is the primary regulator of intestinal calcium absorption efficiency. In vitamin D deficiency, intestinal calcium absorption is low leading to an increased risk of developing negative calcium balance and bone loss. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has been shown to stimulate calcium absorption in experimental animals and in human subjects. However, the molecular details of calcium transport across the enterocyte are not fully defined. Recently, two novel epithelial calcium channels (CaT1/ECaC2 and ECaC1/CaT2 have been cloned and suggested to be important in regulating intestinal calcium absorption. However, to date neither gene has been shown to be regulated by vitamin D status. We have previously shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin stimulates transcellular calcium transport in Caco-2 cells, a human intestinal cell line. Results In the current study, we have demonstrated that Caco-2 cells express low but detectable levels of CaT1 mRNA in the absence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D treatment. CaT1 mRNA expression is rapidly up regulated (4-fold increase at 4 h and 10-fold at 24 h by treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (10-7 moles/L. Moreover, the increase in CaT1 mRNA expression preceded by several hours the vitamin D induction of calbindin D9K, a putative cytosolic calcium transport protein. Conclusion These observations are the first to demonstrate regulation of CaT1 expression by vitamin D and are consistent with a new model of intestinal calcium absorption wherein vitamin D-mediated changes in brush border membrane CaT1 levels could be the primary gatekeeper regulating homeostatic modulation of intestinal calcium absorption efficiency.

Taparia Shveta

2001-08-01

287

Identification of TRPM7 channels in human intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the characteristics of slow electrical waves and the presence of transient receptor potential melastatin-type 7 (TRPM7 in the human gastrointestinal (GI tract.METHODS: Conventional microelectrode techniques were used to record intracellular electrical responses from human GI smooth muscle tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify TRPM7 channels in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs.RESULTS: The human GI tract generated slow electrical waves and had ICCs which functioned as pacemaker cells. Flufenamic acid, a nonselective cation channel blocker, and 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and La3+, TRPM7 channel blockers, inhibited the slow waves. Also, TRPM7 channels were expressed in ICCs in human tissue.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the human GI tract generates slow waves and that TRPM7 channels expressed in the ICCs may be involved in the generation of the slow waves.

Byung Joo Kim, Kyu Joo Park, Hyung Woo Kim, Seok Choi, Jae Yeoul Jun, In Youb Chang, Ju-Hong Jeon, Insuk So, Seon Jeong Kim

2009-12-01

288

Spectroscopic evidence for site-specific cellular activity in the tubular gland in human intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intestinal crypts contain mucus-secreting goblet cells in large numbers. In the tubular gland (crypt), the cells are generated at the bottom and end their life cycle at the top. Recently, FTIR microspectroscopy (FTIR-MC) has been applied in biology and medicine. The characterization of various cellular types using FTIR-MC and its subsequent application for the diagnosis of cancer is becoming a reality. In this report, we investigate the differential cellular activity in the normal tubular gland using FTIR-MC. Our results indicate that the absorbance for the cells in the bottom of the crypt is always higher than those in the upper portion. There are spectral pattern changes and frequency shifts for cells at the bottom and top sites of the normal crypt. Also, the comparison of a normal crypt with a malignant one has been made. This is the first spectroscopic evidence in the literature showing the difference in the cellular activity at different sites in the tubular gland. The reasons for our observations and their implications are discussed. PMID:11908852

Ramesh, Jagannathan; Argov, Shmuel; Salman, Ahmad; Yuzhelevski, Marina; Sinelnikov, Igor; Goldstein, Jed; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mordechai, Shaul

2002-02-01

289

Quantitation of human MAO A and B in liver, intestine and placenta: Reassessment of activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monoamine oxidases (MAO) oxidize a variety of exogenous and endogenous amines including neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine as well as the potent dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The two forms of MAO (A and B) differ in molecular weight and inhibitor selectivity, and are differentially expressed in the nervous system and many other tissues. Although some substrates are preferentially oxidized by one form of MAO, substrates that can be oxidized by only one MAO form have not been reported. How well each MAO oxidizes various substrates has not been thoroughly characterized because of difficulties in separating and quantitating MAO A and B active sites. By immunoblotting SDS-polyacrylamide gels of mitochondrial extracts with monoclonal antibodies specific for each form of MAO, MAO B protein was detected in intestine and placenta, tissues that have been reported to contain MAO A activity. An improved procedure was developed for quantitating the ratio and amounts of MAO A and B active sites, using the ligand [3H]-pargyline to label MAO and specific monoclonal antibodies to separate MAO A from B. Data from liver, placenta and platelets were used to re-evaluate the molecular activity of both MAO A and B for six commonly studied substrates

290

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion in human breast cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptors (VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors) are involved in promotion and growth of many human tumours including breast cancer. Here we investigated whether VIP regulates the expression of the main angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in human oestrogen-dependent (T47D) and oestrogen-independent (MDA-MB-4687) breast cancer cells. Semiquantitative and quantitative real-time RT-PCRs were used at mRNA level whereas enzyme immunoanalysis was performed at protein level. Both cancer cell lines expressed VIP and VPAC(1) (but not VPAC(2)) receptors that were functional as shown by VIP stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. VIP induced VEGF expression at both mRNA and protein levels following a time-dependent pattern. The responses were faster in T47D than in MDA-MB-468 cells. The observed VIP regulation of VEGF expression appears to be modulated at least by the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signalling systems as shown by studies of adenylate cyclase stimulation and using specific kinase inhibitors such as H89 and wortmannin. These actions suggest a proangiogenic potential of VIP in breast cancer. PMID:17683807

Valdehita, Ana; Carmena, María J; Collado, Beatriz; Prieto, Juan C; Bajo, Ana M

2007-12-01

291

Absorption of black currant anthocyanins by monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells mounted in ussing type chambers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthocyanins (ACNs) have been reported to have multiple biological properties imparting benefits to human health. Their role in human nutrition, however, needs to be related to biokinetic data, such as bioavailability. The purpose of the present study was to focus on the potential absorption of black currant ( Ribes nigrum L.) ACNs. Caco-2 monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the absorptive intestinal epithelium. For absorption studies, Caco-2 cells grown on permeable filters were mounted into Ussing type chambers. The monolayer integrity was monitored by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Luminal to serosal transport of ACNs was examined by comparing ACN disappearance from the luminal solution of Ussing chambers not containing any inserts (control chambers) with that of Ussing chambers containing inserts. ACNs (C total ACN approximately 180 microM) were not detected in any serosal solution. However, it was shown that ACNs disappeared from the luminal side, not due to ACN degradation processes but rather--at least in part--due to physiological actions of the cells. The luminal net disappearance of ACNs was calculated (max(t20 min) approximately 11% for total ACNs) and labeled as "absorption efficiency". This apical transport might occur to a much larger extent than the further translocation across the basolateral membrane. Thus, cell metabolism and translocation across the basolateral membrane may be the key determinants of ACN absorption and bioavailability. PMID:18540609

Steinert, Robert E; Ditscheid, Bianka; Netzel, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

2008-07-01

292

Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities--New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix--the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy. PMID:21141773

Ernstson, Henrik; van der Leeuw, Sander E; Redman, Charles L; Meffert, Douglas J; Davis, George; Alfsen, Christine; Elmqvist, Thomas

2010-12-01

293

Transforming Growth Factor ? Signaling Controls Activities of Human Intestinal CD8+T Suppressor Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND & AIMS In healthy individuals, interactions between intestinal epithelial cells and lamina propria lymphocytes give rise to a population of CD8+ T cells with suppressor functions (Ts cells). Disruption of Ts cell activities can lead to mucosal inflammation. We investigated what factors were required for expansion of the Ts cell population or loss of their activity in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS We developed a method to generate Ts cell lines from freshly isolated lamina propria lymphocytes from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), patients with CD, or healthy individuals (controls). Cells were stimulated with a monoclonal antibody against CD3, interleukin (IL)-7, and IL-15. After 14 days in culture, CD8+T cells were purified and cultured with IL-7 and IL-15. The resulting Ts cells were analyzed for suppressor activity, expression of surface markers, and cytokine secretion profiles. RNA was isolated from the 3 groups of Ts cells and used in microarray analyses. RESULTS Ts cells from patients with UC and controls suppressed proliferation of CD4+ T cells; the suppression required cell contact. In contrast, Ts cells from patients with CD had a reduced capacity to suppress CD4+ T-cell proliferation. The difference in suppressive ability was not associated with surface or intracytoplasmic markers or secretion of cytokines. Microarray analysis identified changes in expression of genes regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-? that were associated with the suppressive abilities of Ts cells. We found that TGF-? or supernatants from Ts cells of patients with CD reduced the suppressor activity of control Ts cells. CONCLUSIONS Ts cells isolated from patients with CD have a reduced ability to suppress proliferation of CD4+T cells compared with control Ts cells. TGF-? signaling reduces the suppressor activity of Ts cells. PMID:23232296

RABINOWITZ, KEREN M.; WANG, YUANYUAN; CHEN, EDWARD Y.; HOVHANNISYAN, ZARA; CHIANG, DAVID; BERIN, M. CECILIA; DAHAN, STEPHANIE; CHAUSSABEL, DAMIEN; MA'AYAN, AVI; MAYER, LLOYD

2014-01-01

294

Enhanced uptake and transport of (+-catechin and (--epigallocatechin gallate in niosomal formulation by human intestinal Caco-2 cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qinxin Song,1–3 Danhui Li,3 Yongzhi Zhou,3 Jie Yang,1 Wanqi Yang,1 Guohua Zhou,2 Jingyuan Wen31Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Department of Pharmacology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate (+-catechin and (?-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG cellular uptake and transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer in both the absence and presence of niosomal carrier in variable conditions. The effect of free drugs and drug-loaded niosomes on the growth of Caco-2 cells was studied. The effects of time, temperature, and concentration on drug cellular uptake in the absence or presence of its niosomal delivery systems were investigated. The intestinal epithelial membrane transport of the drug-loaded niosomes was examined using the monolayer of the human Caco-2 cells. The kinetics of transport, and the effect of temperature, adenosine triphosphate inhibitor, permeability glycoprotein inhibitor, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 inhibitor, and the absorption enhancer on transport mechanism were investigated. It was found that the uptake of catechin, EGCG, and their niosomes by Caco-2 cells was 1.22±0.16, 0.90±0.14, 3.25±0.37, and 1.92±0.22 µg/mg protein, respectively (n=3. The apparent permeability coefficient values of catechin, EGCG, and their niosomes were 1.68±0.16, 0.88±0.09, 2.39±0.31, and 1.42±0.24 cm/second (n=3 at 37°C, respectively. The transport was temperature- and energy-dependent. The inhibitors of permeability glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and the absorption enhancer significantly enhanced the uptake amount. Compared with the free drugs, niosomal formulation significantly enhanced drug absorption. Additionally, drug-loaded niosomes exhibited stronger stability and lower toxicity. These findings showed that the oral absorption of tea flavonoids could be improved by using the novel drug delivery systems.Keywords: niosomes, formulation, bioavailability, stability

Song Q

2014-05-01

295

Critical linkages between land-use transition and human health in the Himalayan region.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews critical linkages between land-use transition and human health in the Himalayan region by applying ecosystem approaches to human health (or EcoHealth). Land-use transition in the Himalayan and similar regions includes sedentarization, agricultural intensification, habitat modification, migration, change of livelihoods and lifestyles, biodiversity loss, and increasing flash floods. These transitions, which can have impacts on human health, are driven by state policies, a market economy, and climate change. Human health is dependent on access to ecosystem services for food, nutrition, medicine, fiber and shelter, fresh water, and clear air. Ecosystem management has been a key means of controlling disease vectors and creating suitable habitats for human well-being. The paper identifies the web of environmental factors that influence human health. Institutional and policy issues for land-use and health transitions are also discussed. PMID:17868868

Xu, Jianchu; Sharma, Rita; Fang, Jing; Xu, Yufen

2008-02-01

296

Insuficiencia intestinal  

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Full Text Available The intestinal failure is an entity produced by different etiologies. The short bowel syndrome (SBS is the most frequent in children. Almost 90% of neonates with massive intestinal resections survive if the adequate nutritional support is implemented. The 80% of the neonates with SBS will reach a definitive adaptation according to the remnant intestine. This group of patients demands expert professionals to avoid and control the associated complications.

Adriana Fernández

2005-06-01

297

Aloe vera non-decolorized whole leaf extract-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share similar molecular pathways with human sporadic colorectal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-?) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5-8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-? signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels. PMID:21937742

Pandiri, Arun R; Sills, Robert C; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Peddada, Shyamal D; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Flake, Gordon P; Malarkey, David E; Olson, Greg R; Pogribny, Igor P; Walker, Nigel J; Boudreau, Mary D

2011-12-01

298

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

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Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestina...

Jan Bures, Jiri Cyrany

2010-01-01

299

First molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in Italy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. Method We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. Results The sequence obtained (629 bp was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. Conclusion The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis.

Palumbo Massimo

2011-03-01

300

Rapid screening and identification of metabolites of quercitrin produced by the human intestinal bacteria using ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) technique combined with Metabolynx™ software was used for analysis of the metabolites of quercitrin by the isolated human intestinal bacteria from the human feces. Four metabolites of quercitrin were detected and tentatively identified based on the characteristics of their protonated ions. The metabolites were metabolized by four main metabolic pathways including hydroxylation, demethylation, deglycosylation and ring-cleavage. Quercitrin was metabolized to the hydroxyquercitrin and desmethylquercitrin by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria such as Bacteroides sp. 54, and was degraded to the deglycosylated product quercetin by rhamnosidase and further ring-cleavage metabolite 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid by the minority of the isolated bacteria such as Bacteroides sp. 45. The metabolic pathways and most of the metabolites of quercitrin were reported for the first time. PMID:23754166

Jiang, Shu; Yang, Jing; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao; Xu, Jun

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Brief report: CD24 and CD44 mark human intestinal epithelial cell populations with characteristics of active and facultative stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent seminal studies have rapidly advanced the understanding of intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) biology in murine models. However, the lack of techniques suitable for isolation and subsequent downstream analysis of IESCs from human tissue has hindered the application of these findings toward the development of novel diagnostics and therapies with direct clinical relevance. This study demonstrates that the cluster of differentiation genes CD24 and CD44 are differentially expressed across LGR5 positive "active" stem cells as well as HOPX positive "facultative" stem cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting enables differential enrichment of LGR5 (CD24-/CD44+) and HOPX (CD24+/CD44+) cells for gene expression analysis and culture. These findings provide the fundamental methodology and basic cell surface signature necessary for isolating and studying intestinal stem cell populations in human physiology and disease. PMID:23553902

Gracz, Adam D; Fuller, Megan K; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C Y; Martin, Martin G; Magness, Scott T

2013-09-01

302

Cytotoxic effect of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate on human intestinal Caco-2 cells: associated biomarkers for risk assessment.  

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Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is a synthetic anionic surfactant widely present in the environment due to its intensive production and use in the detergency field. Admitting that current procedure of risk assessment has limits in providing realistic risk assessment data and predicting the cumulative effect of the toxicant mixtures, the incorporation of information regarding the mode of action and cell response mechanism seems to be a potential solution to overcome these limits. In this regard, we investigated in this study the LAS cytotoxicity on human intestinal Caco-2 cells, trying to unveil the protein actors implicated in the cell response using proteomics approach in order to give a better understanding of the toxicological effect and allow the identification of appropriate biomarkers reflecting the mode of action associated with LAS. As results, we demonstrated that LAS induces a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress followed by an excessive increase of intracellular calcium level. Proteomics approach helped in discovering three informative biomarkers of effect associated with LAS cytotoxic effect, reported for the first time: calreticulin, thioredoxin, and heat shock cognate 71 (HSP7C), confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. These biomarkers could serve for more reliable future risk assessment studies that consider the toxicants mode of action in order to help in the prediction of potential cumulative effects of environmentally coexisting contaminants. PMID:24878558

Bradai, Mohamed; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

2014-09-01

303

Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.  

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The growth-inhibiting activity of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol identified in the inner bark of taheebo, Tabebuia impetiginosa, toward 10 human intestinal bacteria was evaluated by using a paper disk diffusion bioassay and compared to those of seven lapachol congeners (1,4-naphthoquinone, naphthazarin, menadione, lawsone, plumbagin, juglone, and dichlone) as well as two commercially available antibiotics, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid exhibited very strong growth inhibition of Clostridium paraputrificum at 1 microg/disk while 100 microg/disk of lapachol was needed for moderate growth inhibition of the same organism. These two isolates exhibited weak inhibition of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli at 100 microg/disk while no adverse effects were observed on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei at 1000 microg/disk. Structure-activity relationships indicate that a methyl group in the C-2 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives might play an important role in antibacterial activity. PMID:15713033

Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jun-Ran; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung Soon; Takeoka, Gary R; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

2005-02-23

304

The importance of determining human leucocyte antigens in preventing intestinal lymphoma in patients with celiac disease  

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Full Text Available Identification of celiac disease, by determining human leucocyte antigens DQ2/DQ8, is important since recent long-term studies have shown that the mortality of celiac disease is increased, if it is unrecognized and untreated. In this sense, we wanted to see the usefulness of genetic tests in celiac disease diagnosis and screening. Material and methods. During 2010 we determined by PCR, DQ2/DQ8 haplotype, in a group of 27 children with celiac disease and 9 of their brothers, serologically negative for celiac disease. Results. 22 children and 7 of their brothers confirmed the diagnosis of celiac disease, DR3-DQ2 haplotype was predominant in children with celiac disease and DR4-DQ8 to their brothers. Conclusions. Genetic testing to determine human lecocyte antigens remain the most reliable test in the diagnosis of celiac disease but also in identifying family risk for people with celiac disease.

Doru Dejica

2010-06-01

305

Early organogenesis of human small intestine: scanning electron microscopy and brush border enzymology.  

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Human small bowel early organogenesis was studied by scanning electron microscopy and found to be correlated to brush border enzymology. The appearance of the brush border enzymes sucrase, lactase, and aminopeptidase (measured in a purified apical membrane fraction) coincides with the first outgrowth of villi (eight weeks). Alkaline phosphatase was detected at seven weeks. The content of these enzymes furthermore increased up to the 14th week when both sucrase and aminopeptidase activities we...

Lacroix, B.; Kedinger, M.; Simon-assmann, P.; Haffen, K.

1984-01-01

306

Campylobacter jejuni Induces Secretion of Proinflammatory Chemokines from Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

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Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of diarrhea in humans. While the pathogenic mechanisms of C. jejuni are not completely understood, host inflammatory responses are thought to be contributing factors. In this report, C. jejuni 81-176 is shown to up-regulate chemokines essential to inflammatory responses. Growth-related oncogene ? (GRO?), GRO?, macrophage inflammatory protein 1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and gamma interferon-inducible protein 10 (?IP-10) mRNA transcr...

Hu, Lan; Hickey, Thomas E.

2005-01-01

307

Drug Solubility in Luminal Fluids from Different Regions of the Small and Large Intestine of Humans.  

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The purpose of this work was to study the solubility of two drugs with different physicochemical properties in luminal fluids obtained from various regions of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and to determine the most important luminal parameters influencing their solubility. Jejunal fluids were aspirated from healthy volunteers via an oral intubation tube. Ileal and colonic fluids were obtained from patients undergoing GI surgery. Stoma fluids were also retrieved from patients. pH and b...

Fadda, H. M.; Sousa, T.; Carlsson, A. S.; Abrahamsson, B.; Williams, J. G.; Kumar, D.; Basit, A. W.

2010-01-01

308

Human intestinal sucrase-isomaltase. Identification of free sucrase and isomaltase and cleavage of the hybrid into active distinct subunits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrase-isomaltase complex and its functional subunits have been identified in homogenates of human small intestinal mucosa by use of Sephadex G-200 (superfine) chromatography aided by affinity of the isomaltase moiety for the dextran gel. The isomaltase subunit binds strongly to the gel at 4 degrees, and is eluted only after 2 column volumes; earlier recovery as a sharp peak can be achieved by raising column temperature to 37 degrees after elution of other proteins. Bio-Gel P-300 chromatography, density gradient, and equilibrium centrifugation demonstrated that the sucrase subunit (Stokes radius = 45 A, frictional ratio = 1.32, s20,w = 6.9, MW = 130,000) and the isomaltase subunit (Stokes radius = 45 A, frictional ratio = 1.30, s20,w = 6.6, MW = 120,000) are similar but unequal in size. The sucrase-isomaltase complex (Stokes radius = 70 A, frictional ratio = 1.61, s20,w = 9.8, MW = 280,000), appears to be an elongated hybrid molecule that is less symmetrical than either of itt subunits. Apparent Km and pH activity curves were indistinguishable for each enzyme whether present in the hybrid or in the free state. The sucrase-isomaltase complex, accounting for approximately 90 percent of native intestinal sucrase and isomaltase activities, was isolated and cleaved by 0.01 M beta-mercaptoethanol/6 M urea treatment into active sucrase and isomaltase subunits having biochemical characteristics identical with those of the free native moieties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate acrylamide gell electrophoresis of the complex also produced subunits having molecular weights very close to those for the active free sucrase and isomaltase moieties, indicating that each alpha-glucosidase appears to consist of a single polypeptide chain. Immunization of rabbits with pure sucrase-isomaltase complex yielded a monospecific precipitating antibody that reacted with the hybrid and the sucrase subunit, but had minimal affinity for the isomaltase subunit, providing further evidence that the sucrase-isomaltase molecule is a hybrid consisting of two distinct alpha-glucosidases. PMID:807575

Conklin, K A; Yamashiro, K M; Gray, G M

1975-08-10

309

Transitive inference in non-human animals: an empirical and theoretical analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transitive inference has long been considered one of the hallmarks of human deductive reasoning. Recent reports of transitive-like behaviors in non-human animals have prompted a flourishing empirical and theoretical search for the mechanism(s) that may mediate this ability in non-humans. In this paper, I begin by describing the transitive inference tasks customarily used with non-human animals and then review the empirical findings. Transitive inference has been demonstrated in a wide variety of species, and the signature effects that usually accompany transitive inference in humans (the serial position effect and the symbolic distance effect) have also been found in non-humans. I then critically analyze the most prominent models of this ability in non-human animals. Some models are cognitive, proposing for instance that animals use the rules of formal logic or form mental representations of the premises to solve the task, others are based on associative mechanisms such as value transfer and reinforcement and non-reinforcement. Overall, I argue that the reinforcement-based models are in a much better empirical and theoretical position. Hence, transitive inference in non-human animals should be considered a property of reinforcement history rather than of inferential processes. I finalize by shedding some light on some promising lines of research. PMID:18423898

Vasconcelos, Marco

2008-07-01

310

Microencapsulation of Probiotics by Calcium Alginate-gelatinized Starch with Chitosan Coating and Evaluation of Survival in Simulated Human Gastro-intestinal Condition.  

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Microencapsulation as one of the most modern methods has considerable effects on probiotic survival. In this study Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521) were encapsulated using calcium alginate-gelatinized starch, chitosan coating and inulin via emulsion technique, and were incubated in simulated gastric juice (along with pepsin, pH=1.5) and simulated intestinal juice (along with pancreatin and bile salts, pH = 8) for 2 hours at 37 (o)C. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the survival of microencapsulated probiotic increased significantly in simulated gastro-intestinal condition (P < 0.05). Chitosan coating played a significant role in the protection of probiotic bacteria in simulated gastro-intestinal condition and the diameter of the microcapsules increased with the addition of chitosan coating. In general, this study indicated that microencapsulation with alginate-gelatinized starch coated with chitosan could successfully and significantly protect probiotic bacteria against adverse condition of simulated human gastro-intestinal condition. PMID:25276184

Khosravi Zanjani, Mohammad Ali; Ghiassi Tarzi, Babak; Sharifan, Anousheh; Mohammadi, Nima

2014-01-01

311

Microencapsulation of Probiotics by Calcium Alginate-gelatinized Starch with Chitosan Coating and Evaluation of Survival in Simulated Human Gastro-intestinal Condition  

Science.gov (United States)

Microencapsulation as one of the most modern methods has considerable effects on probiotic survival. In this study Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521) were encapsulated using calcium alginate-gelatinized starch, chitosan coating and inulin via emulsion technique, and were incubated in simulated gastric juice (along with pepsin, pH=1.5) and simulated intestinal juice (along with pancreatin and bile salts, pH = 8) for 2 hours at 37 oC. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron and optical microscopy. The results indicated that the survival of microencapsulated probiotic increased significantly in simulated gastro-intestinal condition (P probiotic bacteria in simulated gastro-intestinal condition and the diameter of the microcapsules increased with the addition of chitosan coating. In general, this study indicated that microencapsulation with alginate-gelatinized starch coated with chitosan could successfully and significantly protect probiotic bacteria against adverse condition of simulated human gastro-intestinal condition.

Khosravi Zanjani, Mohammad Ali; Ghiassi Tarzi, Babak; Sharifan, Anousheh; Mohammadi, Nima

2014-01-01

312

Modulation of pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion from HT-29 human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal bacteria.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) secrete the chemokine CCL20 in response to infection by various enteropathogenic bacteria or exposure to bacterial flagellin. CCL20 recruits immature dendritic cells and lymphocytes to target sites. Here we investigated IEC responses to various pathogenic and commensal bacteria as well as the modulatory effects of commensal bacteria on pathogen-induced CCL20 secretion. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with commensal bacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis or Lactobacillus salivarius), or with Salmonella typhimurium, its flagellin, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, or Mycobacterium smegmatis for varying times. In some studies, HT-29 cells were pre-treated with a commensal strain for 2 hr prior to infection or flagellin stimulation. CCL20 and interleukin (IL)-8 secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Compared to untreated cells, S. typhimurium, C. difficile, M. paratuberculosis, and flagellin activated NF-kappaB and stimulated significant secretion of CCL20 and IL-8 by HT-29 cells. Conversely, B. infantis, L. salivarius or M. smegmatis did not activate NF-kappaB or augment CCL20 or IL-8 production. Treatment with B. infantis, but not L. salivarius, dose-dependently inhibited the baseline secretion of CCL20. In cells pre-treated with B. infantis, C. difficile-, S. typhimurium-, and flagellin-induced CCL20 were significantly attenuated. B. infantis did not limit M. Paratuberculosis-induced CCL20 secretion. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that a commensal strain can attenuate CCL20 secretion in HT-29 IECs. Collectively, the data indicate that M. paratuberculosis may mediate mucosal damage and that B. infantis can exert immunomodulatory effects on IECs that mediate host responses to flagellin and flagellated enteric pathogens.

Sibartie, Shomik

2009-01-01

313

Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluig phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

314

The importance of determining human leucocyte antigens in preventing intestinal lymphoma in patients with celiac disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identification of celiac disease, by determining human leucocyte antigens DQ2/DQ8, is important since recent long-term studies have shown that the mortality of celiac disease is increased, if it is unrecognized and untreated. In this sense, we wanted to see the usefulness of genetic tests in celiac disease diagnosis and screening. Material and methods. During 2010 we determined by PCR, DQ2/DQ8 haplotype, in a group of 27 children with celiac disease and 9 of their brothers, serologically nega...

Doru Dejica; Ileana Constantinescu; Gabriel Samasca; Andreica Mariana; Angela Butnariu; Mihaela Iancu

2010-01-01

315

Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current ICl(swell) in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The ICl(swell) channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1-10 ?M curcumin modulates ICl(swell) in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 ?M curcumin is ineffective, 0.5-5.0 ?M curcumin increase, while 10 ?M curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect ICl(swell) neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side - therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on ICl(swell) can be ruled out. Furthermore, we show that curcumin exposure induces apoptosis in human kidney cells, and at a concentration of 5.0-10 ?M induces the appearance of a sub-population of cells with a dramatically increased volume. In these cells the regulation of the cell volume seems to be impaired, most likely as a consequence of the ICl(swell) blockade. Similarly, 50 ?M curcumin induced apoptosis, caused cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and increased the volume of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. The cell cycle arrest in G1 phase may be the mechanism underlying the volume increase observed in this cell line after exposure to curcumin. PMID:22178266

Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

2012-02-26

316

Prebiotic effect of fructooligosaccharide in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME® model).  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintaining "gut health" is a goal for scientists throughout the world. Therefore, microbiota management models for testing probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have been developed. The SHIME(®) model was used to study the effect of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on the fermentation pattern of the colon microbiota. Initially, an inoculum prepared from human feces was introduced into the reactor vessels and stabilized over 2 weeks using a culture medium. This stabilization period was followed by a 2-week control period during which the microbiota was monitored. The microbiota was then subjected to a 4-week treatment period by adding 5?g/day-1 FOS to vessel one (the "stomach" compartment). Plate counts, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and ammonium analyses were used to observe the influence of FOS treatment in simulated colon compartments. A significant increase (P<.01) in the Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. populations was observed during the treatment period. The DGGE obtained showed the overall microbial community was changed in the ascending colon compartment of the SHIME reactor. FOS induced increase of the SCFA concentration (P<.05) during the treatment period, mainly due to significant increased levels of acetic and butyric acids. However, ammonium concentrations increased during the same period (P<.01). This study indicates the usefulness of in vitro methods that simulate the colon region as part of research towards the improvement of human health. PMID:24654949

Sivieri, Katia; Morales, Martha L Villarreal; Saad, Susana M I; Adorno, Maria A Tallarico; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Rossi, Elizeu A

2014-08-01

317

El desarrollo de la microbiota intestinal humana, el concepto de probiótico y su relación con la salud humana / Development of the human intestinal microbiota, the concept probiotics and their relationships with human health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos que al ser ingeridos en cantidades adecuadas confieren beneficios para la salud del huésped. Provienen mayormente de la microbiota del colon de seres humanos aunque algunas cepas provienen del ambiente. El colon del recién nacido es colonizado durante el par [...] to por bacterias provenientes de las microbiotas fecal y vaginal maternas, del ambiente y por lactobacilos y bifidobacterias de la leche materna. Con el destete esta microbiota se hace compleja y desde los 2 años de edad alberga unas 1500 especies y recuentos de 1014 bacterias. En la colonización del tubo digestivo de los prematuros el bajo peso de nacimiento, la inmadurez de las defensas y la alimentación artificial cuando la madre es incapaz de amamantar, llevan en una proporción de los casos a la enterocolitis necrosante, que puede afectar la pared ileal o colónica, con perforación y peritonitis en algunos prematuros. La colonización microbiológica anormal jugaría un papel importante. Los probióticos disminuyen el riesgo de este cuadro y su morbilidad y mortalidad en los casos iniciales y de intensidad media. Estos efectos positivos son causados por diferentes probióticos. El riesgo de septicemia asociado con los probióticos ha sido ampliamente discutido. Estudios en Finlandia no han demostrado que durante 10 años de su consumo masivo se produjeran aumentos de su incidencia ni cambios de su etiología en comparación con resultados previos a su introducción. Las septicemias han sido detectadas principalmente en individuos con graves alteraciones de su salud, pérdida de la función de barrera de su mucosa intestinal, trastornos congénitos graves de la inmunidad, lesiones valvulares cardíacas o en estado de shock. Los pacientes con VIH y/o SIDA se benefician con el consumo de estos agentes. No se ha demostrado que el consumo de probióticos esté asociado causalmente con la obesidad. Abstract in english Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate numbers, confer health benefits to the host. They originate mostly from the colonic and vaginal microbiota of humans although a number of strains originate from the environment. The human fetus is colonized after birth by bacteria o [...] f maternal fecal and vaginal origin and by microorganisms from the environment. Maternal milk contains a varied microbiota, mainly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. After weaning the resident microbiota becomes more complex and by 2 years of age it is composed of some 1500 species with 1014 microorganisms. During the colonization of the digestive tract of premature infants low birth weight, immaturity of the defenses and artificial feeding may lead to necrotizing enterocolitis. This inflammatory condition involves mainly the terminal ileum and the colon and may result in necrosis and perforation of the wall with subsequent peritonitis. Anoxia and abnormal colonization are important associated factors. Probiotic administration is associated with a decreased risk of this condition and decreases of its morbidity, mortality and sequelae if the treatment is started early. The positive effects are associated with more than one species of probiotics. The risk of septicemia associated with probiotics has been widely discussed. Studies in Helsinki, Finland, demonstrated that the results of comparing the frequency and etiology of septicemia during the 10 years after the introduction of probiotics with the results in the 10 years previous to their introduction were not different. Septicemia due to probiotics is infrequent and most cases are associated with extreme prematurity, failure of the intestinal barrier function, heart valve disease, severe shock and congenital immune deficiencies; patients with these conditions should be closely watched if they consume probiotics. However, patients with HIV and AIDS benefit from the consumption of these microorganisms. It has nor been demonstrated that probiotics play a role in the genesis of obesi

Oscar, Brunser T.

2013-09-01

318

El desarrollo de la microbiota intestinal humana, el concepto de probiótico y su relación con la salud humana / Development of the human intestinal microbiota, the concept probiotics and their relationships with human health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los probióticos son microorganismos vivos que al ser ingeridos en cantidades adecuadas confieren beneficios para la salud del huésped. Provienen mayormente de la microbiota del colon de seres humanos aunque algunas cepas provienen del ambiente. El colon del recién nacido es colonizado durante el par [...] to por bacterias provenientes de las microbiotas fecal y vaginal maternas, del ambiente y por lactobacilos y bifidobacterias de la leche materna. Con el destete esta microbiota se hace compleja y desde los 2 años de edad alberga unas 1500 especies y recuentos de 1014 bacterias. En la colonización del tubo digestivo de los prematuros el bajo peso de nacimiento, la inmadurez de las defensas y la alimentación artificial cuando la madre es incapaz de amamantar, llevan en una proporción de los casos a la enterocolitis necrosante, que puede afectar la pared ileal o colónica, con perforación y peritonitis en algunos prematuros. La colonización microbiológica anormal jugaría un papel importante. Los probióticos disminuyen el riesgo de este cuadro y su morbilidad y mortalidad en los casos iniciales y de intensidad media. Estos efectos positivos son causados por diferentes probióticos. El riesgo de septicemia asociado con los probióticos ha sido ampliamente discutido. Estudios en Finlandia no han demostrado que durante 10 años de su consumo masivo se produjeran aumentos de su incidencia ni cambios de su etiología en comparación con resultados previos a su introducción. Las septicemias han sido detectadas principalmente en individuos con graves alteraciones de su salud, pérdida de la función de barrera de su mucosa intestinal, trastornos congénitos graves de la inmunidad, lesiones valvulares cardíacas o en estado de shock. Los pacientes con VIH y/o SIDA se benefician con el consumo de estos agentes. No se ha demostrado que el consumo de probióticos esté asociado causalmente con la obesidad. Abstract in english Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when ingested in adequate numbers, confer health benefits to the host. They originate mostly from the colonic and vaginal microbiota of humans although a number of strains originate from the environment. The human fetus is colonized after birth by bacteria o [...] f maternal fecal and vaginal origin and by microorganisms from the environment. Maternal milk contains a varied microbiota, mainly lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. After weaning the resident microbiota becomes more complex and by 2 years of age it is composed of some 1500 species with 1014 microorganisms. During the colonization of the digestive tract of premature infants low birth weight, immaturity of the defenses and artificial feeding may lead to necrotizing enterocolitis. This inflammatory condition involves mainly the terminal ileum and the colon and may result in necrosis and perforation of the wall with subsequent peritonitis. Anoxia and abnormal colonization are important associated factors. Probiotic administration is associated with a decreased risk of this condition and decreases of its morbidity, mortality and sequelae if the treatment is started early. The positive effects are associated with more than one species of probiotics. The risk of septicemia associated with probiotics has been widely discussed. Studies in Helsinki, Finland, demonstrated that the results of comparing the frequency and etiology of septicemia during the 10 years after the introduction of probiotics with the results in the 10 years previous to their introduction were not different. Septicemia due to probiotics is infrequent and most cases are associated with extreme prematurity, failure of the intestinal barrier function, heart valve disease, severe shock and congenital immune deficiencies; patients with these conditions should be closely watched if they consume probiotics. However, patients with HIV and AIDS benefit from the consumption of these microorganisms. It has nor been demonstrated that probiotics play a role in the genesis of obesi

Oscar, Brunser T.

319

Induction of CYP1A by green tea extract in human intestinal cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the influence of green tea extract (GTE) or its component epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the expression of different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes was investigated in the human gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines LS-180 and Caco-2. Additionally, the effect of GTE or EGCG on functional activity of different CYP isoenzymes was investigated in vitro. mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and compared with protein levels. In LS-180 cells GTE, but not EGCG, significantly induced CYP1A2 mRNA expression, whereas neither CYP1A1 nor CYP3A4 mRNA expression was modulated by GTE or EGCG. In Caco-2 cells CYP1A1 as well as CYP1A2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner by GTE and EGCG. However, EGCG alone was about 3-5-fold less effective than GTE. mRNA expression of CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 induced by the promutagen benzo[a]pyrene was significantly down-regulated by EGCG but not by GTE. CYP1A protein levels in response to GTE in Caco-2 and LS-180 cells confirmed the mRNA expression results. CYP activity was measured with CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 expressed in insect cell membranes using a luminescent method. GTE or EGCG significantly inhibited CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, it appears that green tea moderately modulates the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes but non-specifically inhibits the function of human CYPs. Since CYP enzymes play an important role in detoxification processes, these results might be of relevance for the prediction of the outcome of future clinical studies. PMID:16773535

Netsch, M I; Gutmann, H; Schmidlin, C B; Aydogan, C; Drewe, J

2006-05-01

320

Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

1985-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2-3H]mannose or L-[5,6-3H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2-3H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2-3H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6-3H]glucosamine and L-[1-14C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled gl, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

322

The genome of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007, a human intestinal strain with isoflavone-activation activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Bifidobacterium species, including Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, are among the dominant microbial populations of the human gastrointestinal tract. They are also major components of many commercial probiotic products. Resident and transient bifidobacteria are thought to have several beneficial health effects. However, our knowledge of how these bacteria interact and communicate with host cells remains poor. This knowledge is essential for scientific support of their purported health benefits and their rational inclusion in functional foods. Results This work describes the draft genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007, a strain isolated as dominant from the feces of a healthy human. Besides several properties of probiosis, IPLA 36007 exhibited the capability of releasing aglycones from soy isoflavone glycosides. The genome contains 1,851 predicted genes, including 54 genes for tRNAs and fie copies of unique 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA genes. As key attributes of the IPLA 36007 genome we can mention the presence of a lysogenic phage, a cluster encoding type IV fimbriae, and a locus encoding a clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system. Four open reading frames (orfs) encoding ?-glucosidases belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 3, which may act on isoflavone glycosides, were encountered. Additionally, one gene was found to code for a glycosyl hydrolase of family 1 that might also have ?-glucosidase activity. Conclusion The availability of the B. pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007 genome should allow the enzyme system involved in the release of soy isoflavone aglycones from isoflavone glycosides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the strain’s probiotic properties, to be more easily understood. PMID:25097668

2014-01-01

323

Effects of the flavonoid biochanin A on gene expression in primary human hepatocytes and human intestinal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochanin A (BCA), a phytoestrogen present in plant food and herbal products, has been reported to have cancer-preventive effects that may be mediated, in part, through effects on carcinogen metabolism. Our objective was to examine the effect of BCA on gene expression for drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human hepatocytes. Cells were exposed to 20 muM of BCA for 5 days. Gene expression was assessed by a 96-gene human drug metabolism enzyme microarray. There were seven genes that were significantly up-regulated, namely cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2F1, multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXAS1), and SULT1A2 (sulfotransferase). Up-regulation of MDR1, which encodes for P-glycoprotein, was confirmed using real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis in hepatocytes as well as in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (LS-180) and the induction was dose-dependent. BCA treatment up-regulated genes mainly in the CYP2 family. This induction can influence the metabolism of xenobiotics, producing effects of pharmacological and toxicological importance. PMID:17340576

Moon, Young Jin; Zhang, Shuzhong; Brazeau, Daniel A; Morris, Marilyn E

2007-03-01

324

miR-802 regulates human angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) can regulate intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport and control intestinal wall muscular activity. Ang II is also a proinflammatory mediator that participates in inflammatory responses such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling; accumulating evidence suggests that this hormone may be involved in gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and carcinogenesis. Ang II binds to two distinct G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, the AT...

Sansom, Sarah E.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Martin, Mickey M.; Kotha, Sainath R.; Parinandi, Narasimham L.; Elton, Terry S.

2010-01-01

325

Ethanol Impairs Intestinal Barrier Function in Humans through Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Signaling: A Combined In Vivo and In Vitro Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Ethanol-induced gut barrier disruption is associated with several gastrointestinal and liver disorders. Aim Since human data on effects of moderate ethanol consumption on intestinal barrier integrity and involved mechanisms are limited, the objectives of this study were to investigate effects of a single moderate ethanol dose on small and large intestinal permeability and to explore the role of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a primary signaling mechanism. Methods Intestinal permeability was assessed in 12 healthy volunteers after intraduodenal administration of either placebo or 20 g ethanol in a randomised cross-over trial. Localization of the tight junction (TJ) and gene expression, phosphorylation of the MAPK isoforms p38, ERK and JNK as indicative of activation were analyzed in duodenal biopsies. The role of MAPK was further examined in vitro using Caco-2 monolayers. Results Ethanol increased small and large intestinal permeability, paralleled by redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin, down-regulation of ZO-1 and up-regulation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA expression, and increased MAPK isoforms phosphorylation. In Caco-2 monolayers, ethanol increased permeability, induced redistribution of the junctional proteins and F-actin, and MAPK and MLCK activation, as indicated by phosphorylation of MAPK isoforms and myosin light chain (MLC), respectively, which could be reversed by pretreatment with either MAPK inhibitors or the anti-oxidant L-cysteine. Conclusions Administration of moderate ethanol dosage can increase both small and colon permeability. Furthermore, the data indicate a pivotal role for MAPK and its crosstalk with MLCK in ethanol-induced intestinal barrier disruption. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928733 PMID:25226407

Elamin, Elhaseen; Masclee, Ad; Troost, Freddy; Pieters, Harm-Jan; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Aleksa, Katarina; Dekker, Jan; Jonkers, Daisy

2014-01-01

326

The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition

Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

2009-01-01

327

Transport of proanthocyanidin dimer, trimer, and polymer across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gut absorption of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and of the related (+)-catechin monomer was investigated with colonic carcinoma (Caco-2) cells of a human origin, grown in monolayers on permeable filters. Permeability of various radiolabeled PAs differing in their molecular weight was compared with that of the radiolabeled (+)-catechin. No toxicity was observed at PA concentrations up to the physiological concentration of 1 mM. (+)-Catechin and PA dimer and trimer had similar permeability coefficients (P(app) = 0.9-2.0 x 10(-6) cm s(-1)) close to that of mannitol, a marker of paracellular transport. Paracellular transport was also indicated by the increase of absorption after reduction of the transepithelial electric resistance through calcium ion removal. In contrast, permeability of a PA polymer with an average polymerization degree of 6 (molecular weight 1,740) was approximately 10 times lower (P(app) = 0.10 +/- 0.04 x 10(-6) cm s(-1)). PAs, particularly the most astringent PA polymer, were also adsorbed on the epithelial cells. These results suggest that PA dimers and trimers could be absorbed in vivo and that polymer bioavailability is limited to the gut lumen. PMID:11813991

Deprez, S; Mila, I; Huneau, J F; Tome, D; Scalbert, A

2001-12-01

328

Connexin 26-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication suppresses paracellular permeability of human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some cell types, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with tight junctions. The present study was performed to determine the roles of GJIC in regulation of the barrier function of tight junctions. Caco-2 human colonic cells were used as a monolayer model, and barrier function was monitored by measuring mannitol permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The monolayers were chemically disrupted by treatment with oleic acid and taurocholic acid. Western blotting analyses were performed to evaluate the protein levels of connexins, which are components of gap junctional intercellular channels. Cx26 expression was detected in preconfluent Caco-2 cells, and its level increased gradually after the monolayer reached confluency. These results prompted us to examine whether overexpression of Cx26 affects barrier function. Monolayers of Caco-2 cells stably expressing Cx26 showed significantly lower mannitol permeability and higher TER than mock transfectants when the monolayers were chemically disrupted. The levels of claudin-4, an important component of tight junctions, were significantly increased in the stable Cx26 transfectant. These results suggest that Cx26-mediated GJIC may play a crucial role in enhancing the barrier function of Caco-2 cell monolayers

329

Anti-infective activities of lactobacillus strains in the human intestinal microbiota: from probiotics to gastrointestinal anti-infectious biotherapeutic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Servin, Alain L

2014-04-01

330

Human intestinal TFF3 forms disulfide-linked heteromers with the mucus-associated FCGBP protein and is released by hydrogen sulfide.  

Science.gov (United States)

TFF3 is a secretory peptide belonging to the trefoil factor family with a predicted size of 59 amino acid residues containing seven cysteine residues. It is predominantly expressed in intestinal goblet cells where it plays a key role in mucosal regeneration and repair processes. In the course of these studies, human colonic TFF3 was shown to exist mainly as a high molecular weight heteromer. Purification of this heteromer and characterization by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified the IgG Fc binding protein (FCGBP) as the disulfide-linked partner protein of TFF3. FCGBP is a constituent of intestinal mucus secreted by goblet cells. Furthermore, low amounts of TFF3/monomer and only little TFF3/dimer were detected in human colonic extracts. Here, we show that these TFF3 forms can be released from the purified TFF3-FCGBP heteromer complex in vitro by reduction with hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Such a mechanism would be in line with the high H(2)S concentrations reported to occur in the lumen of the colon. Of special note, this points to intestinal mucus as a reservoir for a biologically active peptide. Also proteolytic processing of FCGBP was observed which is in line with multiple autocatalytic cleavages as proposed earlier by Johansson et al. (J. Proteome Res. 2009 , 8 , 3549 - 3557). PMID:20423149

Albert, Timo K; Laubinger, Werner; Müller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Kalinski, Thomas; Meyer, Frank; Hoffmann, Werner

2010-06-01

331

Protection against ethanol injury by prostaglandin in a human intestinal cell line: role of microtubules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostaglandins have been shown to protect the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium from injury induced by various luminal insults independent of their known acid-inhibitory effects, a process termed "cytoprotection." The mechanism of this protective action remains unknown. The present investigation determined the role of microtubules (a major cytoskeletal component) in GI injury induced by ethanol (EtOH) and its prevention by 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) using cells from a human colonic cell line known as Caco-2 cells. These cells were preincubated in Eagle's minimum essential medium with and without dmPGE2 (2.6 microM) for 15 min and subsequently incubated in media containing 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% EtOH. The effects on cell viability and tubulin (the major protein backbone of microtubules) were then determined. EtOH concentrations > or = 2.5% extensively disrupted the microtubules as demonstrated by fragmentation, kinking, and perturbation of the microtubule organizer center. EtOH treatment also led to a significant decrease in the S2 (polymerized) fraction and an increase in the S1 (monomeric) pool of tubulin. Concomitant with these effects were marked decreases in cellular viability. DmPGE2 pretreatment abolished the disruption of microtubules, significantly increased the S2 fraction of tubulin, and increased cellular viability in cultures exposed to EtOH. Furthermore, pretreatment with colchicine, an inhibitor of microtubule assembly, prevented the cytoprotective action of dmPGE2. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, mimicked the effects of dmPGE2 by also enhancing microtubule integrity and increasing cellular viability in cells exposed to EtOH. Our data indicate that organization and stabilization of microtubules may play an essential role in the mechanism of prostaglandin-induced protection. PMID:9458780

Banan, A; Smith, G S; Rieckenberg, C L; Kokoska, E R; Miller, T A

1998-01-01

332

Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats / Mucosite induzida pelo metotrexato retarda o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito gastrointestinal de líquidos em ratos acordados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Metotrexato e outros agentes anticâncer podem induzir uma mucosite intestinal, que é um dos fatores de limitante mais comum que limitam o aumento escalonado da dose do metotrexato. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito gastrointestinal de líquidos na mucosite intestinal i [...] nduzida por metotrexato. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, receberam metotrexato (2.5 mg/kg/dia por 3 dias, subcutâneo) ou salina. Após 1, 3 ou 7 dias, secções do duodeno, jejuno e íleo foram retirados para análise morfométrica e dosagem da atividade de mieloperoxidase (marcador bioquímico da infiltração de neutrófilos). Outros ratos foram pré-tratados com metotrexato ou salina, após 3 ou 7 dias, foram alimentados mediante gavagem com uma refeição teste e sacrificados após 10, 20 e 30 minutos. As retenções fracionais do corante no estômago e em três segmentos do intestino delgado foram determinados por espectrofotometria. RESULTADOS: Após 3 dias do metotrexato, houve lesão do epitélio intestinal em todos os segmentos, com aumento da atividade de mieloperoxidase, no duodeno e íleo. Sete dias após o metotrexato, foi observada completa reversão da lesão intestinal. Observou-se ainda retardo no esvaziamento gástrico após 10 min, 20 min e 30 min, após 3 dias, mas não após 7 dias do tratamento com metotrexato. A retenção fracional dos segmentos do intestino foi reduzida no primeiro e segundo segmentos após 10 min, e no terceiro segmento após 30 min da administração da refeição, somente 3 dias após o tratamento com metotrexato. CONCLUSÃO: A mucosite intestinal induzida por metotrexato retarda o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito gastrointestinal de líquidos em ratos acordados. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Methotrexate and other anticancer agents can induce intestinal mucositis, which is one of the most common limiting factor that prevent further dose escalation of the methotrexate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in methotrexate-induced in [...] testinal mucositis. METHODS: Wistar rats received methotrexate (2.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days, subcutaneously) or saline. After 1, 3 and 7 days, sections of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were removed for assessment of epithelial damage and myeloperoxidase activity (biochemical marker of granulocyte infiltration). Others rats were pre-treated with methotrexate or saline, gavage-fed after 3 or 7 days with a standard test liquid meal, and sacrificed 10, 20 or 30-min later. Gastric and small intestine dye recoveries were measured by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: After 3 days of methotrexate, there was an epithelial intestinal damage in all segments, with myeloperoxidase activity increase in both in duodenum and ileum. Seven days after methotrexate, we observed a complete reversion of this intestinal damage. There was an increase in gastric dye recoveries after 10, 20, and 30-min post-prandial intervals after 3 days, but not after 7 days, of methotrexate. Intestine dye recoveries were decreased in the first and second segments at 10 min, in the third at 20 min, and in the second and third at 30 min, only after 3 days of methotrexate treatment. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats.

Pedro M. G., Soares; Lorena O., Lopes; José Maurício S. C., Mota; José Nelson, Belarmino-Filho; Ronaldo A., Ribeiro; Marcellus Henrique L. P. de, Souza.

333

Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats / Mucosite induzida pelo metotrexato retarda o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito gastrointestinal de líquidos em ratos acordados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Metotrexato e outros agentes anticâncer podem induzir uma mucosite intestinal, que é um dos fatores de limitante mais comum que limitam o aumento escalonado da dose do metotrexato. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito gastrointestinal de líquidos na mucosite intestinal i [...] nduzida por metotrexato. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, receberam metotrexato (2.5 mg/kg/dia por 3 dias, subcutâneo) ou salina. Após 1, 3 ou 7 dias, secções do duodeno, jejuno e íleo foram retirados para análise morfométrica e dosagem da atividade de mieloperoxidase (marcador bioquímico da infiltração de neutrófilos). Outros ratos foram pré-tratados com metotrexato ou salina, após 3 ou 7 dias, foram alimentados mediante gavagem com uma refeição teste e sacrificados após 10, 20 e 30 minutos. As retenções fracionais do corante no estômago e em três segmentos do intestino delgado foram determinados por espectrofotometria. RESULTADOS: Após 3 dias do metotrexato, houve lesão do epitélio intestinal em todos os segmentos, com aumento da atividade de mieloperoxidase, no duodeno e íleo. Sete dias após o metotrexato, foi observada completa reversão da lesão intestinal. Observou-se ainda retardo no esvaziamento gástrico após 10 min, 20 min e 30 min, após 3 dias, mas não após 7 dias do tratamento com metotrexato. A retenção fracional dos segmentos do intestino foi reduzida no primeiro e segundo segmentos após 10 min, e no terceiro segmento após 30 min da administração da refeição, somente 3 dias após o tratamento com metotrexato. CONCLUSÃO: A mucosite intestinal induzida por metotrexato retarda o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito gastrointestinal de líquidos em ratos acordados. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Methotrexate and other anticancer agents can induce intestinal mucositis, which is one of the most common limiting factor that prevent further dose escalation of the methotrexate. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in methotrexate-induced in [...] testinal mucositis. METHODS: Wistar rats received methotrexate (2.5 mg/kg/day for 3 days, subcutaneously) or saline. After 1, 3 and 7 days, sections of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were removed for assessment of epithelial damage and myeloperoxidase activity (biochemical marker of granulocyte infiltration). Others rats were pre-treated with methotrexate or saline, gavage-fed after 3 or 7 days with a standard test liquid meal, and sacrificed 10, 20 or 30-min later. Gastric and small intestine dye recoveries were measured by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: After 3 days of methotrexate, there was an epithelial intestinal damage in all segments, with myeloperoxidase activity increase in both in duodenum and ileum. Seven days after methotrexate, we observed a complete reversion of this intestinal damage. There was an increase in gastric dye recoveries after 10, 20, and 30-min post-prandial intervals after 3 days, but not after 7 days, of methotrexate. Intestine dye recoveries were decreased in the first and second segments at 10 min, in the third at 20 min, and in the second and third at 30 min, only after 3 days of methotrexate treatment. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis delays gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit of liquids in awake rats.

Pedro M. G., Soares; Lorena O., Lopes; José Maurício S. C., Mota; José Nelson, Belarmino-Filho; Ronaldo A., Ribeiro; Marcellus Henrique L. P. de, Souza.

2011-03-01

334

Cellular differentiation regulates expression of Cl- transport and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mRNA in human intestinal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene defective in cystic fibrosis has recently been shown to code for a membrane protein designated the "cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator" (CFTR) protein. While it has been shown that detectable levels of the mRNA for the normal CFTR protein are present in epithelial cells from different tissues, factors which regulate CFTR expression have not been identified. A clonal cell line originating from a human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29-18) differentiates to multiple epithelial cell types when deprived of glucose in the culture medium. In these studies, mRNA isolated from these cells was examined by hybridization to a 1.45-kilobase cDNA probe which encodes transmembrane portions of the CFTR protein between exons 13 and 19. Cellular differentiation of HT29-18 causes a 9-18-fold increase in CFTR mRNA abundance versus the mRNA for the structural proteins actin and tubulin. Cellular differentiation also causes a 5-fold increase in second messenger-regulated Cl- transport which is sensitive to a Cl- channel blocker (diphenylamine 2-carboxylate). Subclones of HT29-18 which are committed to differentiate to either a mucin-secreting (HT29-18-N2) or an "enterocyte-like" (HT29-18-C1) phenotype have also been examined. In both subclones, elevated levels of CFTR mRNA are observed when compared with undifferentiated HT29-18 cells. However, during cellular differentiation, the regulation of CFTR mRNA abundance and membrane enzyme expression by the subclones is different from HT29-18. The results show that elevated CFTR mRNA occurs in multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types, despite a phenotype-specific regulation of membrane protein expression. This suggests that CFTR expression plays a role in the differentiated functions of multiple epithelial phenotypes and that both cellular differentiation and cellular phenotypes are factors which regulate CFTR expression. PMID:1705554

Montrose-Rafizadeh, C; Guggino, W B; Montrose, M H

1991-03-01

335

Use of the pig caecum model to mimic the human intestinal metabolism of hispidulin and related compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to now, the metabolism of hispidulin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), a potent ligand of the central human benzodiazepine receptor, has not been investigated. To elucidate the metabolism of hispidulin in the large intestine, its biotransformation by the pig caecal microflora was studied. In addition, the efficiency of the pig caecal microflora to degrade galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone), and luteolin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) was investigated. Identification of the formed metabolites was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection, HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, and high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The caecal microflora transformed hispidulin to scutellarein (5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), an effective alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid; galangin to phenylacetic acid and phloroglucinol; kaempferol to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phloroglucinol, and 4-methylphenol; apigenin to 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid and 3-phenylpropionic acid, and luteolin to 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-propionic acid, respectively. To elucidate to what extent different hydroxylation patterns on the B-ring influence the degradation degree of flavonoids, the conversions of galangin and kaempferol as well as that of apigenin and luteolin were compared with those of quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) and chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), respectively. Regardless of the flavonoid subclass, the presence of a hydroxy group at the 4'-position seems to be a prerequisite for fast breakdown. An additional hydroxy group at the B-ring did not affect the degradation degree. PMID:16317785

Labib, Samira; Hummel, Sylvia; Richling, Elke; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Schreier, Peter

2006-01-01

336

Genome sequences and comparative genomics of two Lactobacillus ruminis strains from the bovine and human intestinal tracts  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity, which recent genomic analyses have further highlighted. However, the choice of species for sequencing has been non-random and unequal in distribution, with only a single representative genome from the L. salivarius clade available to date. Furthermore, there is no data to facilitate a functional genomic analysis of motility in the lactobacilli, a trait that is restricted to the L. salivarius clade. Results The 2.06 Mb genome of the bovine isolate Lactobacillus ruminis ATCC 27782 comprises a single circular chromosome, and has a G+C content of 44.4%. In silico analysis identified 1901 coding sequences, including genes for a pediocin-like bacteriocin, a single large exopolysaccharide-related cluster, two sortase enzymes, two CRISPR loci and numerous IS elements and pseudogenes. A cluster of genes related to a putative pilin was identified, and shown to be transcribed in vitro. A high quality draft assembly of the genome of a second L. ruminis strain, ATCC 25644 isolated from humans, suggested a slightly larger genome of 2.138 Mb, that exhibited a high degree of synteny with the ATCC 27782 genome. In contrast, comparative analysis of L. ruminis and L. salivarius identified a lack of long-range synteny between these closely related species. Comparison of the L. salivarius clade core proteins with those of nine other Lactobacillus species distributed across 4 major phylogenetic groups identified the set of shared proteins, and proteins unique to each group. Conclusions The genome of L. ruminis provides a comparative tool for directing functional analyses of other members of the L. salivarius clade, and it increases understanding of the divergence of this distinct Lactobacillus lineage from other commensal lactobacilli. The genome sequence provides a definitive resource to facilitate investigation of the genetics, biochemistry and host interactions of these motile intestinal lactobacilli.

2011-08-30

337

Aspectos funcionais, microbiológicos e morfológicos intestinais em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Functional, microbiological and morphological intestinal findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RACIONAL: O trato gastrointestinal é freqüentemente acometido nas crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com importantes repercussões no seu estado nutricional e sobrevida. A maioria dos estudos relacionados a esse tema foi desenvolvida com adultos, sendo menos investigado o problema nas crianças OBJETIVOS: Estudar aspectos digestivo-absortivos, microbiológicos e morfológicos intestinais em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Onze crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, menores de 13 anos, pertencentes às categorias clínicas A, B ou C, divididas em dois grupos: cinco pacientes com relato atual ou recente de diarréia e seis pacientes sem diarréia nos 30 dias que antecederam à inclusão no estudo. Investigação proposta: biopsia de intestino delgado e reto para análise morfológica e microbiológica, coprocultura, protoparasitológico de fezes, pesquisa de rotavírus, micobactérias e Cryptosporidium; teste da D-xilose RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes testados (9/11 apresentavam má absorção da D-xilose (8,4-24,4 mg/dL. Os achados histopatológicos de intestino delgado foram inespecíficos, representados em sua maioria, por enteropatia grau I a II (6/10. Em todos os casos foi constatado aumento do infiltrado celular do córion. As alterações histopatológicas do reto também foram inespecíficas, com presença de aumento do infiltrado celular do córion. A pesquisa de microorganismos enteropatogênicos só foi positiva em dois casos, sendo identificado Mycobacterium avium intracellulare e Cryptosporidium nas fezes CONCLUSÕES: Demonstrou-se alta prevalência (100% de má absorção intestinal em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com ou sem diarréia. Não foi possível estabelecer correlações quanto à presença de agentes enteropatogênicos, má absorção intestinal, alterações morfológicas intestinais e ocorrência ou não de diarréia. Não houve correlação entre os valores de D-xilose e os graus de atrofia vilositária.BACKGROUD: Gastrointestinal tract disorders are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, with important repercussions on nutrition and survival. Most studies related to this subject were restricted to adults, being less investigated the problem in the children. AIMS: To study intestinal digestion, absorption, microbiological and morphological findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human immunodeficiency virus infected children under 13 years old, belonging to clinical categories A, B or C, separated in two groups: five patients with current or recent episode of diarrhea and six patients without diarrhea in the last 30 days preceding entering in study. Investigation proposed: microbiological and morphological analysis of small intestine and rectum biopsy; stool exams for bacterium, parasite, rotavirus, Mycobacterium species and Cryptosporidium; D-xylose test RESULTS: All tested subjects (9/11 had low D-xylose absorption (8,4 _ 24,4 mg d/L. Small intestinal mucosa histology findings were nonspecific, represented, in majority, of grade I/II enteropathy (6/10. Increased cellular infiltration of the chorion was observed in all specimens. Rectum histology alterations were also nonspecific, with chorion increased cellular infiltration. Mycobacterim avium intracellulare and Cryptosporidium were the solely microorganisms founded, both in stool CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated