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Sample records for hsp65 gene prevented

  1. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells.

    Rezende, Rafael M; Oliveira, Rafael P; Medeiros, Samara R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Alves, Andrea C; Loli, Flávia G; Guimarães, Mauro A F; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P; Weiner, Howard L; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M C

    2013-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-β - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403

  2. Species-Specific Identification of Mycobacterium leprae by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of the hsp65 Gene

    Rastogi, Nalin; Goh, Khye Seng; Berchel, Mylene

    1999-01-01

    PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene present in all mycobacteria was used in the present investigation to characterize Mycobacterium leprae. Bacilli were extracted and purified from different organs from experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice (Swiss mice of nu/nu origin). A total of 15 samples were assayed in duplicate, and the results were compared with those obtained for a total of 147 cultivable mycobacteria representing 34 species. Irresp...

  3. Fusion protein His-Hsp65-6IA2P2 prevents type 1 diabetes through nasal immunization in NOD Mice.

    Lu, Shiping; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Kunfeng; Yang, Xue; Cao, Rongyue; Zong, Li; Long, Jun; Jin, Liang; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Human heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), is an endogenous β-cells autoantigen, it could postpone the onset of insulitis and sooner type 1 diabetes mellitus. P277 is one of Hsp65 determinants at position 437-469 of amino acids cascaded. Meanwhile, it's already well-known that there were several better anti-diabetic B epitopes, such as insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2). Currently, fusion protein IA2P2 has constructed in order to enhance its pharmacological efficacy. In addition, added homologous bacterial-derived Hsp65 and His tag were beneficial to protein immunogenicity and purification separately. So, finally we examined a fusion protein His-Hsp65-6IA2P2 could regulate Th2 immune response and reduce natural diabetic incidence in NOD mice. We constructed two express vector pET28a-His-Hsp65-6P277 and pET28a-His-Hsp65-6IA2P2. After purification, we observed that triple intranasal administration of these two fusion protein in 4-week-old NOD mice maintained normal blood glucose and weight, with a lower diabetic or insulitis incidence. Consistent with induced splenic T cells proliferation and tolerance, His-Hsp65-6IA2P2-treated mice performed reduced IFN-γ and increased IL-10 level. In conclusion, we suggested that fusion protein His-Hsp65-6IA2P2 could be reconstructed and purified successively. Furthermore, nasal administration of this fusion protein could rebalance T cells population and prevent T1DM. PMID:27082999

  4. Rapid differentiation of "Mycobacterium canettii" from other Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms by PCR-restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene.

    Goh, K S; Legrand, E; Sola, C; Rastogi, N

    2001-10-01

    A total of 102 isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, including available "M. canettii" isolates, were studied by PCR-restriction analysis of a 441-bp fragment of the hsp65 gene. PRA upon HhaI enzyme digestion (GCGC) allowed easy differentiation of "M. canettii" from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex (three bands of 260, 105, and 60 bp for "M. canetti," compared to four bands of 185, 105, 75, and 60 bp for other members of the M. tuberculosis complex). Sequencing of the 441-bp hsp65 fragment of "M. canettii" isolates showed the disappearance of an HhaI site at position 235 due to a C-to-T transition that corresponded to position 631 of the homologous hsp65 gene of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Considering that "M. canettii" may also exist as a stable rough morphotype, we suggest that the true number of "M. canettii" isolates may be underestimated in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:11574597

  5. Anlise de restrio enzimtica do gene hsp65 de isolados clnicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piau / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

    Maria das Graas Motta e, Bona; Maria Jos Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; Jos Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espcies de micobactrias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificaes na abordagem teraputica. MTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o servio de [...] pneumologia de um hospital pblico em Teresina, Piau. Espcimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto presena de micobactrias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e anlise de restrio enzimtica do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificao das cepas de micobactrias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gnero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padro radiogrfico predominante foi de leso moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregao foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactrias no tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O mtodo PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padres de bandas capazes de identificar as espcies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfeco, identificados inicialmente como infeco por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSES: As MNT causam infeco pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificao das MNT importante para estabelecer o diagnstico correto e a deciso teraputica mais adequada. O mtodo PRA-hsp65 til para identificar espcies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratrios de biologia molecular no especializados em micobactrias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

  6. Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

    Maria das Graças Motta e Bona

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65 para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias.OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65 to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

  7. Diffuse meningo-encefalitys due to Nocardia farcinica in a young kidney transplant recipient: identification of the strain using sequencing of hsp65 gene

    Danila Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Genus Nocardia belongs to aerobic Actinomycetes, a wide group of polymorphous Gram+, fixed and acapsusalated, branching, partially acid-fast bacilli. Nocardia organism are ubiquitous, soil-borne actinomycetes that usually infect humans as a result of the inhalation of airborne bacilli or traumatic inoculation. Nocardiosis is a rare opportunistic disease that affects mainly patients with impaired cellmediated immunity, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or transplant recipients, patients with pulmonary disease, haematological malignancies etc. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation in immounosuppressed patients. Nocardial organism have a tendency to disseminate hematogenously from the primary site of infection.The central nervous system (CNS is one of the most frequent sites of dissemination. Herein we describe a rare and fatal case of diffuse meningo-encephalytis due to Nocardia farcinica in a young patient kidney transplant recipient. Nocardia has been isolated from Cerebrospinal fluid in a micobacteriology laboratory with identification of the strain using sequencing of hsp65 gene. The diagnosis can be challenging, as signs and symptoms are not specific and a high degree of clinical suspicion is required. Identification of Nocardia farcinica is important because of its aggressiveness, its tendency to disseminate, and its resistance to antibiotics. Susceptibilities to 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by E-test.The isolate was resistant to Gentamicin, Clarithromycin, Doxycicline, Cefotaxime and susceptible to Amikacin,Amoxicillin clavulanate, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Linezolid and TrimethoprimSulfamethoxazole. The susceptibility profile was favourable since, in North Italy, the strains are generally resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole.

  8. Cloning and Sequencing of a Part of the Heat Shock Protein 65 Gene (hsp65) of Tropheryma whippelii and Its Use for Detection of T. whippelii in Clinical Specimens by PCR

    Morgenegg, Silvia; Dutly, Fabrizio; Altwegg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Using broad-spectrum primers, we have amplified, cloned, and sequenced a 620-bp fragment of the Tropheryma whippelii heat shock protein 65 gene (hsp65) from the heart valve of a patient with Whipple's endocarditis. The deduced amino acid sequence shows high similarity to those from actinobacteria, confirming that T. whippelii is indeed a member of this phylum. Based on the nucleotide sequence, we have developed a T. whippelii-specific seminested PCR. Seventeen patients shown to be posit...

  9. High genetic diversity revealed by variable-number tandem repeat genotyping and analysis of hsp65 gene polymorphism in a large collection of "Mycobacterium canettii" strains indicates that the M. tuberculosis complex is a recently emerged clone of "M. canettii".

    Fabre, Michel; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Le Flche, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Herv, Vincent; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2004-07-01

    We have analyzed, using complementary molecular methods, the diversity of 43 strains of "Mycobacterium canettii" originating from the Republic of Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, from 1998 to 2003. Genotyping by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis shows that all the strains belong to a single but very distant group when compared to strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Thirty-one strains cluster into one large group with little variability and five strains form another group, whereas the other seven are more diverged. In total, 14 genotypes are observed. The DR locus analysis reveals additional variability, some strains being devoid of a direct repeat locus and others having unique spacers. The hsp65 gene polymorphism was investigated by restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing of PCR amplicons. Four new single nucleotide polymorphisms were discovered. One strain was characterized by three nucleotide changes in 441 bp, creating new restriction enzyme polymorphisms. As no sequence variability was found for hsp65 in the whole MTBC, and as a single point mutation separates M. tuberculosis from the closest "M. canettii" strains, this diversity within "M. canettii" subspecies strongly suggests that it is the most probable source species of the MTBC rather than just another branch of the MTBC. PMID:15243089

  10. DETECO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANLISE DE RESTRIO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE

    Joab Trajano Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espcies com grande homologia gentica. o agente etiolgico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissvel ao homem, principalmente atravs da inalao do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados no-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificao de micobactrias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extrao de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificao molecular pela reao em cadeia da polimerase seguida de anlise de restrio do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referncia e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrio enzimtica obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possvel detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presena de M. bovis em at 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poder auxiliar os mtodos microbiolgicos e bioqumicos tradicionalmente usados na identificao do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminao, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infeco por M. bovis.

    Palavras-chaves: Anlise de perfil de restrio enzimtica (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de deteco (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis, up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material. A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk

    Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,

  11. Influncia do biofrmaco DNA-hsp65 na leso pulmonar induzida por bleomicina Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Adriana Ignacio de Padua

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influncia do biofrmaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT; grupo SB, tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmdeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias aps a ltima imunizao, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas aps o uso da droga IT. O pulmo esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para anlise morfolgica, e o pulmo direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporo de camundongos que apresentaram morte no-programada depois de 48 h da injeo IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparao ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%. A rea percentual mdia de interstcio septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 8,6% e 53,6 9,3%, respectivamente em comparao aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 2,7% e 34,3 6,1%, respectivamente. Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores mdios da rea de interstcio septal corada por picrosirius em comparao ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 1,4%; SB: 8,2 4,9%; PB: 7,2 4,2%; e BB:6,64,1%.O contedo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 20,9 pg/pulmo; SB: 160,4 47,8 pg/pulmo; PB:170,0 72,0 pg/pulmo; e BB: 162,5 39,7 pg/pulmo. CONCLUSES: A imunizao com o biofrmaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposio de matriz no-colgena em um modelo de leso pulmonar induzida por bleomicina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving intratracheal (IT instillation of saline; SB, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%. The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 8.6% and 53.69.3%, respectively than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 2.7% and 34.3 6.1%, respectively. The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 4.9%, 7.2 4.2% and 6.6 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.01.4%. The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 20.9 pg/lung than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 39.7 pg/lung. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

  12. How M. leprae Hsp65 influences the immune response in genetically selected aged mice?

    Estevam Jos Baldon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins may trigger innate immune responses and are involved in immunosenescence and autoimmunity. We characterized some cellular and humoral alterations after intraperitoneal administration of 2.5g M. leprae Hsp65 in genetically selected mice for High (HIII or Low (LIII antibody production (9-months-old and in its F1 hybrids. Aged HIII female injected with Hsp65 presented a survival decrease of 42% when compared to untreated group (control; no changes in IgG1 or IgG2a anti-Hsp production were observed in HIII and LIII mice. Regarding the cellular changes, aged HIII female Hsp65-group presented amplified frequency in CD4+CD154+CD28+ cells (p<0.01 and reduced percentage of B and activated CD11c+ cells (p<0.01 in the spleen, and increased percentage of CD11c+ and NKG1A/C/E+ cells (p<0.01 in the blood compared to control. Hsp65 acts like an imbalance trigger: post-injection, the aged F1H female Hsp65-group died 2 months after the first death, as observed in aged HIII females; however there was no statistically significance compared with F1H control group. Furthermore, aged F1H and F1L female showed amplified frequency of nave T cells and CD11c cells in spleen (p<0.001. In conclusion, our results confirm the sex dichotomy (sex effect of the Hsp65 interference in the immunity of aged mice, becoming evident in females. Next, we will characterize innate immune cells in peritoneal cavity after Hsp65 inoculation; in addition, the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells will be investigated as these cells are increased during ageing process and have been associated with attenuation of experimental autoimmune diseases. Support: CNPq, FAPESP, INCT-TOX.

  13. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    C.D. Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization, we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  14. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis

  15. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  16. Presence of hsp65 in bacterial extracts (OM-89): a possible mediator of orally-induced tolerance?

    Polla, B S; Baladi, S; Fuller, K; Rook, G

    1995-08-16

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) have been implicated in rodent models of autoimmunity, particularly arthritis, and there is suggestive though inconclusive evidence that they may also play a role in human autoimmune disease. The simplest hypothesis is based on molecular mimicry due to the amino-acid sequence homology between mammalian and microbial HSP. Recently OM-89, an extract of several strains of Escherichia coli, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when taken orally. Using species-specific antibodies, we show here that OM-89 contains the 65 kDa HSP (hsp65), while hsp65 was not detected in another bacterial extract containing other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus (OM-85). We suggest that if the human homologue of hsp65 is a relevant target antigen in the human disease, the efficacy of the preparation could be due to induction of oral tolerance or to switching the Th1 response towards Th2. Alternatively, even if the human hsp65 is not a target molecule in RA joints, OM-89 may evoke bystander suppression of joint inflammation via induction of TGF beta-secreting effector cells. These hypotheses should be tested in further studies. PMID:7649235

  17. CXCR4 gene transfer prevents pressure overload induced heart failure

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Jeong, Dongtak; Kohlbrenner, Erik; Lee, Ahyoung; Chen, Jiqiu; HAJJAR, ROGER J.; Tarzami, Sima T

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell and gene therapies are being pursued as strategies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue following myocardial infarction in an attempt to prevent heart failure. The chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand, CXCL12, play a critical role in stem cell recruitment post-acute myocardial infarction. Whereas progenitor cell migration via the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is well characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of CXCR4 mediated modulation of cardiac hypertrophy and fail...

  18. Intranasal vaccination with messenger RNA as a new approach in gene therapy: Use against tuberculosis

    Silva Aristóbolo M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background mRNAs are highly versatile, non-toxic molecules that are easy to produce and store, which can allow transient protein expression in all cell types. The safety aspects of mRNA-based treatments in gene therapy make this molecule one of the most promising active components of therapeutic or prophylactic methods. The use of mRNA as strategy for the stimulation of the immune system has been used mainly in current strategies for the cancer treatment but until now no one tested this molecule as vaccine for infectious disease. Results We produce messenger RNA of Hsp65 protein from Mycobacterium leprae and show that vaccination of mice with a single dose of 10 μg of naked mRNA-Hsp65 through intranasal route was able to induce protection against subsequent challenge with virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover it was shown that this immunization was associated with specific production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in spleen. In order to determine if antigen presenting cells (APCs present in the lung are capable of capture the mRNA, labeled mRNA-Hsp65 was administered by intranasal route and lung APCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that after 30 minutes until 8 hours the populations of CD11c+, CD11b+ and CD19+ cells were able to capture the mRNA. We also demonstrated in vitro that mRNA-Hsp65 leads nitric oxide (NO production through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7. Conclusions Taken together, our results showed a novel and efficient strategy to control experimental tuberculosis, besides opening novel perspectives for the use of mRNA in vaccines against infectious diseases and clarifying the mechanisms involved in the disease protection we noticed as well.

  19. From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?

    Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    During the last 2 decades, progress in deciphering the human gene map as well as the discovery of specific defective genes encoding particular proteins in some serious human diseases have resulted in attempts to treat sick patients with gene therapy. There has been considerable focus on human recombinant proteins which were gene-engineered and produced in vitro (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, erythropoietin). Unfortunately, these substances and methods also became improper tools for unscrupulous athletes. Biomedical research has focused on the possible direct insertion of gene material into the body, in order to replace some defective genes in vivo and/or to promote long-lasting endogenous synthesis of deficient proteins. Theoretically, diabetes, anaemia, muscular dystrophies, immune deficiency, cardiovascular diseases and numerous other illnesses could benefit from such innovative biomedical research, though much work remains to be done. Considering recent findings linking specific genotypes and physical performance, it is tempting to submit the young athletic population to genetic screening or, alternatively, to artificial gene expression modulation. Much research is already being conducted in order to achieve a safe transfer of genetic material to humans. This is of critical importance since uncontrolled production of the specifically coded protein, with serious secondary adverse effects (polycythaemia, acute cardiovascular problems, cancer, etc.), could occur. Other unpredictable reactions (immunogenicity of vectors or DNA-vector complex, autoimmune anaemia, production of wild genetic material) also remain possible at the individual level. Some new substances (myostatin blockers or anti-myostatin antibodies), although not gene material, might represent a useful and well-tolerated treatment to prevent progression of muscular dystrophies. Similarly, other molecules, in the roles of gene or metabolic activators [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics). PMID:23832852

  20. Prevention of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy

    Tian, Chaorui; Bagley, Jessamyn; Cretin, Nathalie; Seth, Nilufer; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Iacomini, John

    2004-01-01

    The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice is determined by multiple genetic factors, among the strongest of which is the inheritance of diabetes-permissive MHC class II alleles associated with susceptibility to disease. Here we examined whether expression of MHC class II alleles associated with resistance to disease could be used to prevent the occurrence of diabetes. Expression of diabetes-resistant MHC class II I-Aβ chain molecules in NOD mice following retroviral transd...

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Genes in Prevention and Treatment Response

    Hamrefors, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    GENERAL AIM: To investigate how common single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) could be used in prevention and treatment of CVD. SUBJECTS: Subjects from the population-based Malmö-Diet-and-Cancer-(MDC)-Study (n=30447) and hypertensives from the Nordic-Diltiazem-(NORDIL)-Study (n=10881). METHODS AND RESULTS: A nine-SNP-lipid-genetic-risk-score was related to fluvastatin treatment-response in 395 MDC subjects with asymptomatic caroti...

  2. RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression

    We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

  3. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions: new insights into the prevention, detection and management of coronary artery disease

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Hegele, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in identifying loci consistently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), a large proportion of the genetic components of CAD and its metabolic risk factors, including plasma lipids, type 2 diabetes and body mass index, remain unattributed. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions might produce a meaningful improvement in quantification of the genetic determinants of CAD. Testing for gene-gene and gene-environment ...

  4. Disruption of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure and results in anencephaly.

    Chen, J; Chang, S.; Duncan, S A; Okano, H J; Fishell, G.; Aderem, A

    1996-01-01

    MacMARCKS is a member of the MARCKS family of protein kinase C (PKC) substrates. Biochemical evidence demonstrates that these proteins integrate calcium and PKC-dependent signals to regulate actin structure at the membrane. We report here that deletion of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure in the developing brain, resulting in anencephaly. This suggests a central role for MacMARCKS and the PKC signal transduction pathway in the folding of the anterior neural plate during ...

  5. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression

    Chavez, Nancy B.; Flores, Jose J.; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R.

    2012-01-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will...

  6. Molecular genetic, diagnosis, prevention and gene therapy in prostatic cancer: review article

    Noori Daloii MR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.

  7. Prevention

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  8. Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4

    Singh Manpreet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 ?g of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Results After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. Conclusions In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.

  9. In Vitro Cultured Rat Islets Express Genes That both Prevent and Promote Angiogenesis

    Tillmar L

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endogenous pancreatic islets are supported by a dense sinusoidal capillary system which is disrupted following isolation and culture in vitro. A rapid and accurate revascularization is therefore crucial for the survival and functioning of the transplanted islet. Although a blood flow is established in islet grafts within 1-2 weeks, these islets show poor development of intra-islet capillaries. To improve the revascularization process and the arrangement of the new blood vessels, islet production of the factors governing these processes needs to be further characterized. OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of factors which regulate angiogenesis in cultured rat islets. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat islets were isolated and cultured for one week. After 6 hours of exposure to normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions, mRNA expression was evaluated by the GEArray Angiogenesis 1 and 2 systems. The expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 1 (Tie1 and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF, was further evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: We found the expression of 19 genes that code for factors either promoting or preventing angiogenesis. Only VEGF and Tie1 were upregulated in response to hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia-induced islet vascularization may involve VEGF and Tie-induced signaling events. The results also show that cultured islets express genes which prevent angiogenesis concurrently with genes coding for factors stimulating angiogenesis. The balance between these factors is probably of vital importance for the revascularization process in transplanted islets. Thus, pharmacologic or genetic attenuation of islet-derived angiostatic factors may prove beneficial in promoting islet revascularization in future transplantation trials.

  10. Reducing aggression and impulsivity through school-based prevention programs: a gene by intervention interaction.

    Musci, Rashelle J; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Maher, Brion; Uhl, George R; Kellam, Sheppard G; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-12-01

    A variety of school-based, universal preventive interventions have been developed to address behavioral and mental health problems. Unfortunately, few have been evaluated within the context of randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. Even fewer still have examined the potential genetic factors that may drive differential impact of the intervention. In the present analysis, we examine the extent to which the longitudinal effects of two elementary school-based interventions were moderated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which has been linked with aggression and impulsive behaviors. The sample included 678 urban, primarily African American children who were randomly assigned along with their teachers to one of three first grade classroom conditions: classroom-centered (CC) intervention, Family School Partnership (FSP), or a control condition. The teacher ratings of the youth's aggressive and impulsive behavior were obtained at baseline and in grades 6-12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the BDNF gene were extracted from the genome-wide data. Longitudinal latent trait-state-error models indicated a significant interaction between a particular profile of the BDNF SNP cluster (46 % of sample) and CC intervention on impulsivity (β = -.27, p < .05). A similar interaction was observed for the BDNF SNP cluster and the CC intervention on aggression (β = -.14, p < .05). The results suggest that the impacts of preventive interventions in early elementary school on late adolescent outcomes of impulsivity and aggression can be potentially modified by genetic factors, such as BDNF. However, replication of these results is necessary before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24178584

  11. Gene-by-Environment Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer: Implications for Prevention.

    Jansen, Rick J; Tan, Xiang-Lin; Petersen, Gloria M

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) has been estimated to have higher incidence and correspondingly higher mortality rates in more developed regions worldwide. Overall, the age-adjusted incidence rate is 4.9/10(5) and age-adjusted mortality rate is at 4.8/10(5). We review here our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors (cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and alcohol) for PC, genetic variants implicated by genome-wide association studies, possible genetic interactions with risk factors, and prevention strategies to provide future research directions that may further our understanding of this complex disease. Cigarette smoking is consistently associated with a two-fold increased PC risk. PC associations with dietary intake have been largely inconsistent, with the potential exception of certain unsaturated fatty acids decreasing risk and well-done red meat or meat mutagens increasing risk. There is strong evidence to support that obesity (and related measures) increase risk of PC. Only the heaviest alcohol drinkers seem to be at an increased risk of PC. Currently, key prevention strategies include avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption and adopting a healthy lifestyle. Screening technologies and PC chemoprevention are likely to become more sophisticated, but may only apply to those at high risk. Risk stratification may be improved by taking into account gene environment interactions. Research on these modifiable risk factors is key to reducing the incidence of PC and understanding who in the population can be considered high risk. PMID:26029010

  12. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes.

    He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

  13. Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence

    Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV) is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers

  14. Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence

    Cho-Lea Tso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC, a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers.

  15. Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence

    Yamada, Kazunari; Tso, Jonathan; Ye, Fei; Choe, Jinny; Liu, Yue [Department of Surgery/Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 13-260 Factor building, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liau, Linda M. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Tso, Cho-Lea, E-mail: ctso@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Surgery/Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 13-260 Factor building, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2011-04-18

    Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV) is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers.

  16. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 0.43 vs 0.38 0.28?g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 0.2 vs 4.0 0.3?g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 0.5 vs 3.11 0.12?ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns. PMID:22666778

  17. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns

  18. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  19. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  20. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales. Motivados por estos resultados, hemos decidido investigar si la mazorca o el elote de las infrutescencias del híbrido sujetan los frutos con una fuerza comparable o mayor a la del maíz. Nuestras mediciones implican que la fuerza necesaria para liberar los frutos híbridos son substancial y significativamente menores que aquellas necesarias para desprender los frutos del maíz. Como conclusión sugerimos que en México, la mazorca o el elote no representan una barrera que impida la introgresión de los genes transgénicos del maíz al teocintle. PMID:22707759

  1. Does R gene resistance allow wheat to prevent plant growth effects associated with Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) attack?

    Anderson, K G; Harris, M O

    2006-10-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) are an important part of the plant's immune system. Among insects, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), larva is the target of the greatest number of characterized R genes (H1-H32). The biochemical/molecular mechanism of R gene resistance to Hessian fly is not well understood. In the absence of an effective R gene, larvae caused extensive growth deficits (> 30 cm) in wheat seedlings. In the presence of one of three effective R genes, H6, H9, or H13, larvae caused small growth deficits (approximately 3-4 cm) in two leaves (third and fourth) that were actively growing during the first days of larval attack. After larvae died on R gene plants, the fifth leaf and tiller leaves exhibited small increases in growth (2-4 cm). Growth responses of susceptible and resistant plants diverged at a time when Hessian fly larvae were establishing a nutritive gall tissue at feeding sites. The results of this study support the hypothesis that R gene resistance cannot prevent initial larval attack, but, by stopping the formation of the larval gall, it prevents the most serious consequences of larval attack. PMID:17066821

  2. Glucocerebrosidase gene therapy prevents α-synucleinopathy of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Rocha, Emily M; Smith, Gaynor A; Park, Eric; Cao, Hongmei; Brown, Eilish; Hayes, Melissa A; Beagan, Jonathan; McLean, Jesse R; Izen, Sarah C; Perez-Torres, Eduardo; Hallett, Penelope J; Isacson, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Diminished lysosomal function can lead to abnormal cellular accumulation of specific proteins, including α-synuclein, contributing to disease pathogenesis of vulnerable neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related α-synucleinopathies. GBA1 encodes for the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase (GCase), and mutations in GBA1 are a prominent genetic risk factor for PD. Previous studies showed that in sporadic PD, and in normal aging, GCase brain activity is reduced and levels of corresponding glycolipid substrates are increased. The present study tested whether increasing GCase through AAV-GBA1 intra-cerebral gene delivery in two PD rodent models would reduce the accumulation of α-synuclein and protect midbrain dopamine neurons from α-synuclein-mediated neuronal damage. In the first model, transgenic mice overexpressing wildtype α-synuclein throughout the brain (ASO mice) were used, and in the second model, a rat model of selective dopamine neuron degeneration was induced by AAV-A53T mutant α-synuclein. In ASO mice, intra-cerebral AAV-GBA1 injections into several brain regions increased GCase activity and reduced the accumulation of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra and striatum. In rats, co-injection of AAV-GBA1 with AAV-A53T α-synuclein into the substantia nigra prevented α-synuclein-mediated degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by 6 months. These neuroprotective effects were associated with altered protein expression of markers of autophagy. These experiments demonstrate, for the first time, the neuroprotective effects of increasing GCase against dopaminergic neuron degeneration, and support the development of therapeutics targeting GCase or other lysosomal genes to improve neuronal handling of α-synuclein. PMID:26392287

  3. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  4. Effect of Chemical Prevention Drugs-based MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes ?on Tumor Inhibition

    Yanhui JIANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive drugs including natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs, it not only can prevent cancer, can also play a role in tumor treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a kind of short chains of non-coding RNA, regulating the expression of many genes through the way of degradation of mRNA or inhibitting mRNA translation. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that chemopreventive drugs through influence the expression of miRNAs and their target genes play a role in the prevention and treatment in a variety of tumors, and chemopreventive drugs on the experimental study of miRNAs and their target genes in tumor have demonstrated a good safety and efficacy. Effect on chemopreventive drugs-based microRNAs and their target genes into cancer cells will be expected as a new starting point for cancer research. The thesis expounds and analyzes between the natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs and miRNAs and their target genes in tumor research progress.

  5. [Effect of Chemical Prevention Drugs-based MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes on Tumor Inhibition].

    Jiang, Yanhui; Song, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Chemopreventive drugs including natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs, it not only can prevent cancer, can also play a role in tumor treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is a kind of short chains of non-coding RNA, regulating the expression of many genes through the way of degradation of mRNA or inhibitting mRNA translation. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that chemopreventive drugs through influence the expression of miRNAs and their target genes play a role in the prevention and treatment in a variety of tumors, and chemopreventive drugs on the experimental study of miRNAs and their target genes in tumor have demonstrated a good safety and efficacy. Effect on chemopreventive drugs-based microRNAs and their target genes into cancer cells will be expected as a new starting point for cancer research. The thesis expounds and analyzes between the natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs and miRNAs and their target genes in tumor research progress. PMID:25936887

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Two Serial Gene Expression Experiments | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Stuart G. Baker, 2014 Introduction This program fits biologically relevant response curves in comparative analysis of the two gene expression experiments involving same genes but under different scenarios and at least 12 responses. The program outputs gene pairs with biologically relevant response curve shapes including flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey stick, impulse and step curves. |

  7. Genes and Gene Therapy

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  8. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  9. Gene therapy for haemophilia: Prospects and challenges to prevent or reverse inhibitor formation

    Scott, David W.; Lozier, Jay Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Monogenic hereditary diseases, such as haemophilia A and B, are ideal targets for gene therapeutic approaches. While these diseases can be treated with protein therapeutics, such as factor VIII (F8) or IX (F9), the notion that permanent transfer of the genes encoding these factors can cure haemophilia is very attractive. An underlying problem with a gene therapy approach, however, is the patients immune response to the therapeutic protein (as well as to the transmission vector), leading to t...

  10. Simple and Flexible Classification of Gene Expression Microarrays Via Swirls and Ripples | Division of Cancer Prevention

    By Stuart G. Baker The program requires Mathematica 7.01.0 The key function is Classify [datalist,options] where datalist={data, genename, dataname} data ={matrix for class 0, matrix for class 1}, matrix is gene expression by specimen genename a list of names of genes, dataname ={name of data set, name of class0, name of class1} |

  11. Tolerance of Deregulated G1/S Transcription Depends on Critical G1/S Regulon Genes to Prevent Catastrophic Genome Instability

    Catia Caetano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Expression of a G1/S regulon of genes that are required for DNA replication is a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling cell proliferation; moreover, the pathological deregulated expression of E2F-regulated G1/S genes is found in every type of cancer. Cellular tolerance of deregulated G1/S transcription is surprising because this regulon includes many dosage-sensitive proteins. Here, we used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to investigate this issue. We report that deregulating the MBF G1/S regulon by eliminating the Nrm1 corepressor increases replication errors. Homology-directed repair proteins, including MBF-regulated Ctp1CtIP, are essential to prevent catastrophic genome instability. Surprisingly, the normally inconsequential MBF-regulated S-phase cyclin Cig2 also becomes essential in the absence of Nrm1. This requirement was traced to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition of the MBF-regulated Cdc18Cdc6 replication origin-licensing factor. Collectively, these results establish that, although deregulation of G1/S transcription is well tolerated by cells, nonessential G1/S target genes become crucial for preventing catastrophic genome instability.

  12. Cytokine gene expression in the BB rat pancreas: natural course and impact of bacterial vaccines.

    Kolb, H; Wrz-Pagenstert, U; Kleemann, R; Rothe, H; Rowsell, P; Scott, F W

    1996-12-01

    In diabetes prone BB rat pancreas the Th1/ Th2 cytokine balance and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by mRNA analysis before and after the onset of insulitis. Specific mRNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, quantitated with radiolabelled probes by phosphoimaging and calibrated with the amount of co-amplified beta-actin mRNA. At 50 days of age, prior to recognizable insulitis, there was already significantly enhanced expression of both, Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and of iNOS mRNA, when compared to Wistar rat pancreas (p OM-89, an endotoxin free extract containing immunostimulatory glycolipopeptides and heat shock protein (hsp) 65, both downregulated IFN gamma mRNA while only OM-89 in addition suppressed iNOS mRNA and enhanced Th2 cytokine gene expression (p OM-89) from E. coli. PMID:8960825

  13. Potential of GRID2 receptor gene for preventing TNF-induced neurodegeneration in autism.

    Kalkan, Zeynep; Durasi, İlknur Melis; Sezerman, Ugur; Atasever-Arslan, Belkis

    2016-05-01

    Autism is one of the most common subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies suggested a relationship between immune-dependent coding genes and ASD, indicating that long term neuroimmunological anomalies affect brain development and synaptic transmission among neural networks. Furthermore, various studies focused on biomarker potential of TNF-α in autism. Ionotropic receptors are also studied as potential marker for autism since altered gene expression levels are observed in autistic patients. GRID2 is a candidate ionotropic receptor which is involved glutamate transfer. In this study, to propose TNF-α dependent cellular processes involved in autism aetiology in relation to GRID2 we performed a bioinformatic network analysis and identified potential pathways and genes that are involved in TNF-α induced changes at GRID2 receptor levels. As a result, we ascertained the GRID2 receptor gene as a candidate gene and further studied the association between GRID2 expression levels and TNF-induced neurodegeneration. Our bioinformatic analyses and experimental results revealed that TNF-α regulates GRID2 gene expression by activating Cdc42 and GOPC genes. Moreover, increased TNF-α levels leads to increase of caspase-3 protein levels triggering neuronal apoptosis leading to neuronal deficiency, which is one of the major symptoms of autism. The study is the first to show the role of TNF-α in regulation of GRID2 gene expression and its signalling pathway. As a result, GRID2 gene can be a suppressor in TNF-induced neurodegeneration which may help to understand the main factors leading to autism. PMID:27019035

  14. Local Gene Transfer of OPG Prevents Joint Damage and Disease Progression in Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Zhang, Qingguo; Gong, Weiming; Ning, Bin; Nie, Lin; Wooley, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene transfer on a murine collagen-induced arthritis model. A single periarticular injection of AAV-OPG or AAV-LacZ on the arthritic paw successfully incorporated the exogenous gene to the local tissue and resulted in marked transgene expression in the joint homogenate for at least three weeks. Clinical disease scores were significantly improved in OPG treated mice starting at 28-day post-treatment (P < 0.05). Histological assessment demonstrated that OPG gene transfer dramatically protected mice from erosive joint changes compared with LacZ controls (P < 0.05), although treatment appeared less effective on the local inflammatory progress. MicroCT data suggested significant protection against subchondral bone mineral density changes in OPG treated CIA mice. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of IFN-g and MMP3 were noticeably diminished following OPG gene transfer. Overall, gene transfer of OPG effectively inhibited the arthritis-associated periarticular bone erosion and preserved the architecture of arthritic joints, and the study provides evidence that the cartilage protection of the OPG gene therapy may be associated with the down-regulation of MMP3 expression. PMID:24222748

  15. Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato

    Storing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers at cold temperatures prevents sprouting and minimizes losses due to disease. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening (CIS). High-temperature processing of potato tubers wit...

  16. Exercise Associated Genes and Their Involvement in the Prevention of Colon Cancer

    Bühlmeyer, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology confirms that physical activity has the potential of reducing the risk of colon cancer. The underlying biological mechanisms are still to be unravelled. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic wheel running on the gene expression in rat colon mucosa by real-time RT-PCR and cDNA micro-array analysis. Both methods showed different gene expression patterns in the investigated groups in response to chronic wheel running. This represents an important step i...

  17. De novo DNA methylation promoted by G9a prevents reprogramming of embryonically silenced genes

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Feldman, Nirit; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Shufaro, Yoel; Gerson, Ariela; Ueda, Jun; Deplus, Rachel; Fuks, François; Shinkai, Yoichi; Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2008-01-01

    The pluripotency determining gene, Oct-3/4 (also called Pou5f1) undergoes post implantation silencing in a process mediated by the histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a. Microarray analysis now shows that this enzyme may operate as a master regulator that inactivates multiple early embryonic genes by bringing about methylated-histone H3K9 heterochromatinization and de novo DNA methylation. Genetic studies in differentiating ES cells demonstrate that a point mutation in the G9a SET domain preven...

  18. Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

  19. Binding of carbonic anhydrase IX to 45S rDNA genes is prevented by exportin-1 in hypoxic cells.

    Sasso, Emanuele; Vitale, Monica; Monteleone, Francesca; Boffo, Francesca Ludovica; Santoriello, Margherita; Sarnataro, Daniela; Garbi, Corrado; Sabatella, Mariangela; Crif, Bianca; Paolella, Luca Alfredo; Minopoli, Giuseppina; Winum, Jean-Yves; Zambrano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a surrogate marker of hypoxia, involved in survival and pH regulation in hypoxic cells. We have recently characterized its interactome, describing a set of proteins interacting with CA IX, mainly in hypoxic cells, including several members of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling apparatuses. Accordingly, we described complex subcellular localization for this enzyme in human cells, as well as the redistribution of a carbonic anhydrase IX pool to nucleoli during hypoxia. Starting from this evidence, we analyzed the possible contribution of carbonic anhydrase IX to transcription of the 45 S rDNA genes, a process occurring in nucleoli. We highlighted the binding of carbonic anhydrase IX to nucleolar chromatin, which is regulated by oxygen levels. In fact, CA IX was found on 45 S rDNA gene promoters in normoxic cells and less represented on these sites, in hypoxic cells and in cells subjected to acetazolamide-induced acidosis. Both conditions were associated with increased representation of carbonic anhydrase IX/exportin-1 complexes in nucleoli. 45 S rRNA transcript levels were accordingly downrepresented. Inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B suggests a model in which exportin-1 acts as a decoy, in hypoxic cells, preventing carbonic anhydrase IX association with 45 S rDNA gene promoters. PMID:25793203

  20. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J.; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; David C. Klein; Rath, Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the ad...

  1. Three-Parent IVF: Gene Replacement for the Prevention of Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases

    Amato, Paula; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a significant cause of a number of serious multi-organ diseases. Tissues with a high metabolic demand such as brain, heart, muscle, CNS are often affected. Mitochondrial disease can be due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial function. There is no curative treatment for patients with mitochondrial disease. Given the lack of treatments and the limitations of prenatal and preimplantation diagnosi...

  2. Mis-expression of a PISTILLATA-like MADS box gene prevents fruit development in grapevine.

    Fernandez, Lucie; Chaïb, Jamila; Martinez-Zapater, José-Miguel; Thomas, Mark R; Torregrosa, Laurent

    2013-03-01

    The FLESHLESS BERRY (Flb) somatic variant identified in the grapevine cultivar Ugni Blanc develops grape berries without flesh, suggesting a role for the altered gene in differentiation of flesh cells. Here we describe identification of the molecular defect responsible for this phenotype. Using a combination of genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we detected the insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in the promoter region of the PISTILLATA-like (VvPI) gene, the grapevine homologue of Arabidopsis PISTILLATA. The transposon insertion causes specific ectopic expression of the corresponding VvPI allele during early fruit development, causing expression of genes specific for petal and stamen development within the fruit. A causal relationship between the insertion and the phenotype was demonstrated by phenotypic and molecular analyses of somatic revertants showing that ectopic expression and mutant phenotype were always linked to the presence of the transposon insertion. The various phenotypic effects of the flb mutation on ovary morphology, fruit set and fruit development, depending on the cell lineage affected, are presented for each phenotype, offering new insights into floral and fleshly fruit development. The results highlight the importance of VvPI repression after fertilization to achieve normal fleshy fruit development, and the complex genetic, genomic and cellular interactions required for the flower to fruit transition in grapevine. PMID:23181568

  3. Gene flow in poplar - experiments, analysis and modeling to prevent transgene outcrossing

    Bialozyt R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy and forestry products is globally increasing, raising the question if traditional breeding programs are efficient and fast enough to keep up with these demands. A possible solution seems to be the use of genetic engineering techniques, since classical breeding strategies are time-consuming and limited by species barriers. Besides the advantages of genetic engineering technologies, concerns are also raised by scientists regarding these methods. Consequently, risk analysis of genetic modified trees in plantation forestry is a fundamental research topic. This paper presents a sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modified poplars in realistic European landscapes. All steps are evaluated for their potential to forecast the risk of outcrossing of gene constructs into native populations. The application of the results achieved to short rotation plantations are discussed.

  4. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  5. Replicative Stress and the FHIT Gene: Roles in Tumor Suppression, Genome Stability and Prevention of Carcinogenesis

    The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression

  6. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx......9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain...... regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal...

  7. Prevention of PDT-induced esophageal stricture by MnSOD-PL gene therapy

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is currently being used to treat esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus. PDT is very promising except that it results in a high rate of esophageal stricture. The clinical protocol involves the injection of Photofrin into the patient followed 48 hours later with a laser treatment of 630 nm of light. At this wavelength Photofrin reacts with the light and results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. To determine if MnSOD-PL prevents esophageal stricture we developed a pig model. Pigs (20 kg outbred female) were injected intravenously with Photofrin (2 mg/kg) and an endoscope was placed into the esophagus where MnSOD-PL (10 mg plasmid DNA) was administered at the site of PDT treatment. Control pigs received Photofrin only. Twenty-four hours later an endoscope was placed into the esophagus and the laser inserted through the endoscope to 10 cm above the GE junction where 400 Joules of light were administered to the esophagus. A second PDT treatment of 400 Joules was given 48 hours later. The pigs were followed for development of esophageal stricture as determined by a 10% weight loss, an endoscopic exam demonstrating esophageal stricture, and an x-ray following barium swallow. Upon detection of esophageal stricture, the pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed and pathological examination performed. By 14-21 days all control pigs developed esophageal stricture while pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged survival for at least 6 weeks after injection of MnSOD-PL. At this time, the MnSOD-PL-injected pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed from each animal and examined for the development of esophageal stricture. No esophageal stricture was detected by x-ray following barium swallow, endoscopic exam or pathological examination in esophagus samples from MnSOD-PL treated pigs. Results of these experiments demonstrate that MnSOD-PL may be effective in preventing normal esophageal tissue damage by PDT

  8. In vitro study of Smad 7 gene therapy for preventing radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Objective: To study whether the expression Smad 7 protein by the recombinant adenovirus with Egr-1 promoter and Smad 7 cDNA in fibroblast cell can block the signal transduction pathway of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) under irradiation thereby inhibiting collagen synthesis in vitro. Methods: The location of endogenous Smad 7 and exogenous Smad 7 protein in recombinant adenovirus infected fibroblast cells (3T6) were determined by immunocytochemical method. The infected 3T6 cells were irradiated and then cultured with TGF-?1 4 hours after irradiation. The activity of preventing radiation-induced fibrosis by expression Smad 7 protein was evaluated by the amount of collagen synthesis and proliferation of 3T6 cells. The amount of collagen synthesis was shown by the coruscant per minute (cmp) through the 3H-Proline incorporation technique. Results: The endogenous Smad 7 and exogenous Smad 7 protein both were located in the cytoplasm. When cultured with TGF-?1 4 hours after irradiation, the amount of collagen synthesis in the 3T6 cells infected with the recombinant adenovirus was significantly less than that in the cells without infecting adenovirus after irradiation (P=0.001), But, there was no difference in the proliferation of 3T6 cells between those with and without adenovirus infection (P=0.312). Conclusions: The Egr-1 promoter in the recombinant adenovirus can regulate the expression of downstream Smad 7 cDNA in 3T6 cells. The expression Smad 7 protein could block the TGF-?1 signal transduction pathway thereby inhibiting the collagen synthesis. The mechanism of inhibiting the collagen synthesis may be accomplished at the transcription level. (authors)

  9. Study of the gyrB gene polymorphism as a tool to differentiate among Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies further underlines the older evolutionary age of 'Mycobacterium canettii'.

    Goh, Khye Seng; Fabre, Michel; Huard, Richard C; Schmid, Solveig; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of hsp65 and gyrB targets for differentiation of the species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) both by including new restriction enzymes and previously unstudied species. The hsp65 restriction analysis using HhaI resulted in a characteristic 'Mycobacterium canettii' pattern. A study of the gyrB gene polymorphism using TaqIalpha and HinfI allowed the initial division of MTC into two major groups, one consisting of M. tuberculosis and 'M. canettii' as opposed to another single group with other species. Three different patterns were observed with RsaI, the first characteristic of Mycobacterium microti, the second with Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae was easily separated from M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG by SacII digestion), and the third with M. tuberculosis, 'M. canettii', Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and the dassie bacillus. Although further discrimination within the last group was not obtained using additional restriction enzymes, the HaeIII and RsaI digestions highlighted an important gyrB polymorphism among 'M. canettii' strains. A study of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gyrB by sequence analysis not only confirmed the results of the restriction analysis, but showed further differences among 'M. canettii' isolates that were not picked up using the existing battery of restriction enzymes. As many as 11 different SNPs were identified in the collection of eight 'M. canettii' isolates studied. Considering that gyrB variability among MTC member species other than 'M. canettii' is as restricted as hsp65 variability among MTC, our data corroborate a recent proposition that the 'M. canettii' group is evolutionary much older than the other MTC members. In conclusion, gyrB PCR-RFLP is a simple and rapid low-cost method that combined with phenotypic characteristics, may be helpful to differentiate most of the subspecies within the MTC. PMID:16517119

  10. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70% of the Lhx9(-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9(-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus. PMID:24647753

  11. Gene Therapy for the Prevention of in- Stent Restenosis Post Coronary Angioplasty

    P Ranjzad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is quickly becoming the most common cause of morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous coronary interventions- angioplasty and stent insertion- have proved effective and reliable treatments for CAD but their long-term efficacy is limited by the high rate of restenosis. This occurs in 30 – 50% of patients undergoing angioplasty and results in symptoms requiring repeat intervention in up to 75% of them. Stent insertion has been shown to reduce this rate but in-stent restenosis still occurs in 20-40% of cases. The high incidence of restenosis represents a large economic burden on health resources. As a consequence of the resistance of restenosis to traditional therapeutic approaches, gene therapy has emerged an attractive potential therapy for this problem. Excessive extracellular matrix (ECM deposition in the neointima is the main mechanism leading to luminal loss after coronary stenting. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a major regulator of ECM deposition and there is substantial evidence to suggest its role in restenosis. TGF-β1 is the predominant isoform in vascular tissues and its production is observed to be upregulated in human restenotic lesions and in the intima of injured animal vessels. The aim of this study is to develop, investigate and compare the effects of two potentially therapeutic recombinant, replication-deficient adenoviruses, which will give rise to the expression of transgenic proteins which antagonise the fibrogenic effects of TGF-β1 in coronary arteries post stent insertion. The cDNA for these proteins have each been inserted into replication deficient adenovirus vectors under the control of the Major Immediate/Early Murine Cytomegalovirus (MIEmCMV promoter. Virus identity and the presence of transgenes have been confirmed by restriction analysis and Southern blotting respectively. Efficient transgene expression has been confirmed in cultured porcine coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC by a series of immunocytochemistry. The work is currently underway to evaluate biological activity of transgenes in cultured VSMC and the transgenes expression and their effects on luminal loss in stented porcine coronary artery model in vivo.

  12. Low-level laser therapy effectively prevents secondary brain injury induced by immediate early responsive gene X-1 deficiency

    Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Chang; Hamblin, Michael R; Wu, Mei X

    2014-01-01

    A mild insult to the brain can sometimes trigger secondary brain injury, causing severe postconcussion syndrome, but the underlying mechanism is ill understood. We show here that secondary brain injury occurs consistently in mice lacking immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1), after a gentle impact to the head, which closely simulates mild traumatic brain injury in humans. The pathologic lesion was characterized by extensive cell death, widespread leukocyte infiltrates, and severe tissue loss. On the contrary, a similar insult did not induce any secondary injury in wild-type mice. Strikingly, noninvasive exposure of the injured head to a low-level laser at 4 hours after injury almost completely prevented the secondary brain injury in IEX-1 knockout mice. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) suppressed proinflammatory cytokine expression like interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 but upregulated TNF-?. Moreover, although lack of IEX-1 compromised ATP synthesis, LLLT elevated its production in injured brain. The protective effect of LLLT may be ascribed to enhanced ATP production and selective modulation of proinflammatory mediators. This new closed head injury model provides an excellent tool to investigate the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury as well as the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of LLLT. PMID:24849666

  13. Prevention of gene erosion of old wheat varieties by back-crossing and X-ray irradiation

    The famous old Tisza riverside wheat varieties have several characteristics which are very valuable in modern plant breeding, the most important being their high protein content. The recently cultivated varieties contain 13-14%, whereas the old ones had 17-18% protein. Their winter hardiness and baking quality are also outstanding. Their preservation in the original form is very difficult. The fact that many thousand collected forms are sown in small plots (1-2m2) in the Agrobotanical Institute, Tapioszele, facilitates biological and man-caused accidental mixing. If the height of the old varieties is decreased and their stalk strength increased, varieties with high practical value are obtained. One way to breed dwarf varieties has been by back-crossing, as was done with Ble Tom, Norins, Oleson, etc. Another way has been by X-ray irradiation (10kR treatment for dry seeds). With this method a new homozygote dwarf (70-90cm) form of Bankuti 1201 was bred. The new mutant has almost all the characteristics of Bankuti 1201, but its stalk is shorter by 50-70cm than that of the original one. At the same time the disease resistance (stem rust and mildew) of the dwarf form is usually better than that of the old tall types. It seems that one of the most modern ways to prevent gene-erosion is through this type of ''transformation''. (author)

  14. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these in most developed countries is through a mixture of management and therapy. The former requires knowledge and considerable local understanding and the latter resources and supplies. Both of these are limited in the developing country situation, particularly in a rural setting. Given this complex of challenges, can gene-based technologies really make a difference to the management of livestock disease for the producer in developing countries? To be effective in the developing country situation, any intervention must be relatively simple, cost effective, sustainable and convincing. Can this be delivered? Perhaps an insight can be gained from an appreciation of the fundamental nature of gene-based technologies. Inherent in the approach is the recognition that the gene is the basic building block of biology. Management and manipulation of the gene therefore enables us to design and direct an endless array of precise solutions, whether this be designer livestock, genetically engineered biological products or genetically altered organisms. Without doubt, the availability of livestock resistant to disease, or at least one or two of the major diseases affecting livestock in a particular region, is a simple and applicable solution to the developing country situation. Attempts to understand the genetic basis of trypanotolerence are still on-going but if successful would enable livestock production in large areas of Africa currently restricted by the presence of trypanosomosis. Another example would be the demonstration of resistance to internal parasites by certain breeds of sheep. Locating the genetic basis of this could be revolutionary in the management of this particular disease risk. As work starts on sequencing both the bovine and the ovine genome, the future opportunities for designing livestock resistant or tolerant to a range of diseases looks highly promising. Looking at the causative agents of livestock disease, the ability to exquisitely alter these to better understand the way they cause disease is providing a fast track to developing ways of control or eradication. For example identifying the gene coding for a protein that allows cell attachment would permit genetic engineering to delete this gene from a particular disease causing organism. This could then form the basis of a vaccine that is safe but highly efficacious. Even more exquisite is the incorporation of this particular gene into another carrier such as harmless virus, bacteria or other similar organism. The expression of the protein can then be used to evoke an immune response in a susceptible host without any risk of disease. Many groups around the world are currently exploring these concepts for a wide range of causative agents and a variety of different expression systems. All the above is already feasible but not without problems. Firstly and perhaps foremost, the acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by consumers is far from complete. Considerable debate has taken place in the plant industry and whilst partially applicable to animals, the issues are dissimilar in many areas. In developed countries a great deal of research is taking place in this area but it is still unclear how well the consumer will accept genetically modified animals as a food source, or products from animals protected by genetically engineered vaccines

  15. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Witold Chmielewski; Pranab Mukherjee; Jyotsna Chandra; Abdelhabib Semlali; Mahmoud Rouabhia

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections cau...

  16. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method. Venous blood t-PA and D-dimer contents were tested before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the operation.Results: The high expression of t-PA could be seen in myocardium with increases in blood t-PA and D-dimer contents and thrombosis was prevented 8 weeks after operation.Conclusion: We successfully fabricated an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent that could prevent dog thrombosis after mechanical heart valve replacement. Our study provides an experimental basis for prevention of human thrombosis-related diseases.Keywords: albumin nanoparticles, ultrasonic microbubbles, valve replacement

  17. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

    Bauman William A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked changes in the expression of genes regulating transcription and intracellular signaling may contribute to the time-dependent effects of nandrolone on gene expression.

  18. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E; Lakka, T A; Herder, C; Koenig, W; Lindström, J; Eriksson, J G; Uusitupa, M; Kolb, H; Laakso, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect...... of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study...... (≥3 mg/L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on...

  19. Human intestinal microbiota gene risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: perspectives for prevention. Risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. : Diarrhea risk prediction from microbiota genes

    De La Cochetire, Marie France; Montassier, Emmanuel; Hardouin, Jean-Benot; Carton, Thomas; Le Vacon, Franoise; Durand, Tony; Lalande, Valrie; Petit, Jean-Claude; Potel, Gilles; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is associated with altered intestinal microflora and other symptoms that may lead to possibly death. In critically ill patients, diarrhea increases rates of morbimortality. Assessing diarrhea risks is thus important for clinicians. For this reason, we conducted a hypothesis-generating study focused on AAD to provide insight into methods of prevention. We evaluated the hypothesis of predisposing factors within the resident intestinal microbiota in a cohort ...

  20. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of 100K gene of fowl adenovirus-4 for prevention and control of hydropericardium syndrome.

    Shah, M S; Ashraf, A; Khan, M I; Rahman, M; Habib, M; Qureshi, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fowl adenovirus-4 is an infectious agent causing Hydropericardium syndrome in chickens. Adenovirus are non-enveloped virions having linear, double stranded DNA. Viral genome codes for few structural and non structural proteins. 100K is an important non-structural viral protein. Open reading frame for coding sequence of 100K protein was cloned with oligo histidine tag and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein. Nucleotide sequence of the gene revealed that 100K gene of FAdV-4 has high homology (98%) with the respective gene of FAdV-10. Recombinant 100K protein was expressed in E.coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Immunization of chickens with recombinant 100K protein elicited significant serum antibody titers. However challenge protection test revealed that 100K protein conferred little protection (40%) to the immunized chicken against pathogenic viral challenge. So it was concluded that 100K gene has 2397bp length and recombinant 100K protein has molecular weight of 95kDa. It was also found that the recombinant protein has little capacity to affect the immune response because in-spite of having an important role in intracellular transport & folding of viral capsid proteins during viral replication, it is not exposed on the surface of the virus at any stage. PMID:26558992

  1. Regulations of Gene Expression in Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells Required for Preventing the Onset of Autoimmune Diseases

    Akiyama, Taishin; Shinzawa, Miho; Qin, Junwen; Akiyama, Nobuko

    2013-01-01

    Elimination of potential self-reactive T cells in the thymus is crucial for preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases. Epithelial cell subsets localized in thymic medulla [medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)] contribute to this process by supplying a wide range of self-antigens that are otherwise expressed in a tissue-specific manner (TSAs). Expression of some TSAs in mTECs is controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, of which dysfunctional mutations are the causative fac...

  2. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L; Bouckenooghe, T; Theys, N; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Remacle, C; Nerup, J

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation ...... genome and programme the beta cell towards a pre-diabetic phenotype. This mis-programming by maternal LP diet was prevented by early taurine intervention....

  3. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  4. NK cell activation through the NKG2D ligand MULT-1 is selectively prevented by the glycoprotein encoded by mouse cytomegalovirus gene m145

    Krmpotic, Astrid; Hasan, Milena; Loewendorf, Andrea; Saulig, Tanja; Halenius, Anne; Lenac, Tihana; Polic, Bojan; Bubic, Ivan; Kriegeskorte, Anja; Pernjak-Pugel, Ester; Messerle, Martin; Hengel, Hartmut; Busch, Dirk H.; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.; Jonjic, Stipan

    2005-01-01

    The NK cell–activating receptor NKG2D interacts with three different cellular ligands, all of which are regulated by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). We set out to define the viral gene product regulating murine UL16-binding protein-like transcript (MULT)-1, a newly described NKG2D ligand. We show that MCMV infection strongly induces MULT-1 gene expression, but surface expression of this glycoprotein is nevertheless completely abolished by the virus. Screening a panel of MCMV deletion mutants defined the gene m145 as the viral regulator of MULT-1. The MCMV m145-encoded glycoprotein turned out to be necessary and sufficient to regulate MULT-1 by preventing plasma membrane residence of MULT-1. The importance of MULT-1 in NK cell regulation in vivo was confirmed by the attenuating effect of the m145 deletion that was lifted after NK cell depletion. Our findings underline the significance of escaping MULT-1/NKG2D signaling for viral survival and maintenance. PMID:15642742

  5. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Andersen Monica; do Nascimento Claudia; Ribeiro Eliane; Biz Carolina; de Oliveira Cristiane; Pinto Mônica; de Mattos Ana; Tufik Sergio; Oyama Lila

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PS...

  6. Transfected Early Growth Response Gene-1 DNA Enzyme Prevents Stenosis and Occlusion of Autogenous Vein Graft In Vivo

    Chengwei Liu; Xuesong Zhang; Shi Wang; Mingxun Cheng; Chuanyu Liu; Shuqing Wang; Xinhua Hu; Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the inhibitory action of the early growth response gene-1 DNA enzyme (EDRz) as a carrying agent by liposomes on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. An autogenous vein graft model was established. EDRz was transfected to the graft vein. The vein graft samples were obtained on each time point after surgery. The expression of the EDRz transfected in the vein graft was detected using a fluorescent microscope. Early growth response...

  7. Analysis of the Ketosynthase Genes in Streptomyces and Its Implications for Preventing Reinvestigation of Polyketides with Bioactivities

    Qiu Liu; Changjian Liu; Jicheng Yu; Jianfang Yan; Xiaohui Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cucumber wilt by Fusarium oxysporium f sp. cucumarinum is one of the most important soil-borne diseases. Among control strategies for plant soil-borne pathogen, biocontrol systems eliminate neither pathogen nor disease but bring them into natural balance. Polyketides form the largest part of the known natural products, and most of them come from actinomycetes especially streptomyces. Analysis for the ketosynthase genes in streptomyces can implicate new polyketides. In the course of the screen...

  8. GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant Genes

    Loren Pickart

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+ improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity.

  9. Kruppel-like Factor 4 (Klf4) Prevents Embryonic Stem (ES) Cell Differentiation by Regulating Nanog Gene Expression*

    Zhang, Peilin; Andrianakos, Rose; Yang, Yang; Liu, Chunming; Lu, Wange

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is essential for somatic cell reprogramming. In addition, Klf4 seems to play a redundant role along with other Klf family proteins in embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal. However, how Klf4 regulates ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is still poorly understood. Here we report that Klf4 is required for both ES cell self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency and that the expression of Klf4 prevents ES cell differentiation in...

  10. AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF + FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF + FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF + FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF + FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. - Research Highlights: → Co-exposure of the PAHs BkF and FL causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. → BkF and FL co-exposure upregulates certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes. → AHR2 knockdown prevents the deformities caused by BkF and FL co-exposure. → AHR2 knockdown prevents upregulation of certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes.

  11. Prevention of Lethal Murine Hypophosphatasia by Neonatal Ex Vivo Gene Therapy Using Lentivirally Transduced Bone Marrow Cells.

    Iijima, Osamu; Miyake, Koichi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Miyake, Noriko; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Kanokoda, Chizu; Nakamura-Takahashi, Aki; Kinoshita, Hideaki; Noguchi, Taku; Abe, Shinichi; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Okada, Takashi; Shimada, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited skeletal and dental disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene that encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). The major symptoms of severe forms of the disease are bone defects, respiratory insufficiency, and epileptic seizures. In 2015, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) using recombinant bone-targeted TNALP with deca-aspartate (D10) motif was approved to treat pediatric HPP patients in Japan, Canada, and Europe. However, the ERT requires repeated subcutaneous administration of the enzyme because of the short half-life in serum. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of neonatal ex vivo gene therapy in TNALP knockout (Akp2(-/-)) HPP mice using lentivirally transduced bone marrow cells (BMC) expressing bone-targeted TNALP in which a D10 sequence was linked to the C-terminus of soluble TNALP (TNALP-D10). The Akp2(-/-) mice usually die within 20 days because of growth failure, epileptic seizures, and hypomineralization. However, an intravenous transplantation of BMC expressing TNALP-D10 (ALP-BMC) into neonatal Akp2(-/-) mice prolonged survival of the mice with improved bone mineralization compared with untransduced BMC-transplanted Akp2(-/-) mice. The treated Akp2(-/-) mice were normal in appearance and experienced no seizures during the experimental period. The lentivirally transduced BMC were efficiently engrafted in the recipient mice and supplied TNALP-D10 continuously at a therapeutic level for at least 3 months. Moreover, TNALP-D10 overexpression did not affect multilineage reconstitution in the recipient mice. The plasma ALP activity was sustained at high levels in the treated mice, and tissue ALP activity was selectively detected on bone surfaces, not in the kidneys or other organs. No ectopic calcification was observed in the ALP-BMC-treated mice. These results indicate that lentivirally transduced BMC can serve as a reservoir for stem cell-based ERT to rescue the Akp2(-/-) phenotype. Neonatal ex vivo gene therapy thus appears to be a possible treatment option for treating severe HPP. PMID:26467745

  12. Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance.

    Wickstrm, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjrnsson, Baldur; Sandn, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesj, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active ?-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  13. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 158 gene disruption prevents the body weight gain and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet.

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nozaki, Yuriko; Nishizuka, Makoto; Ikawa, Masahito; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, we previously isolated a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 158, whose expression was induced during the earliest stages of adipogenesis, and its product was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. We found that the knockdown of fad158 expression prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In addition, over-expression of fad158 promoted the differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells, which do not usually differentiate into adipocytes. Although these findings strongly suggest that fad158 has a crucial role in regulating adipocyte differentiation, the physiological role of the gene is still unclear. In this study, we generated mice in which fad158 expression was deleted. The fad158-deficient mice did not show remarkable changes in body weight or the weight of white adipose tissue on a chow diet, but had significantly lower body weights and fat mass than wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, although the disruption of fad158 did not influence insulin sensitivity on the chow diet, it improved insulin resistance induced by the high-fat diet. These results indicate that fad158 is a key factor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet. PMID:21804215

  14. Systemic gene transfer of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) prevents disease progression in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

    Shields, A M; Klavinskis, L S; Antoniou, M; Wooley, P H; Collins, H L; Panayi, G S; Thompson, S J; Corrigall, V M

    2015-02-01

    Summary Recombinant human binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) has previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in multiple models of inflammatory arthritis. We investigated whether these immunoregulatory properties could be exploited using gene therapy techniques. A single intraperitoneal injection of lentiviral vector containing the murine BiP (Lenti-mBiP) or green fluorescent protein (Lenti-GFP) transgene was administered in low- or high-dose studies during early arthritis. Disease activity was assessed by visual scoring, histology, serum cytokine and antibody production measured by cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ELISA, respectively. Lentiviral vector treatment caused significant induction of interferon (IFN)-γ responses regardless of the transgene; however, further specific effects were directly attributable to the BiP transgene. In both studies Lenti-mBiP suppressed clinical arthritis significantly. Histological examination showed that low-dose Lenti-mBiP suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration, cartilage destruction and significantly reduced pathogenic anti-type II collagen (CII) antibodies. Lenti-mBiP treatment caused significant up-regulation of soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (sCTLA-4) serum levels and down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-17A production in response to CII cell restimulation. In-vitro studies confirmed that Lenti-mBiP spleen cells could significantly suppress the release of IL-17A from CII primed responder cells following CII restimulation in vitro, and this suppression was associated with increased IL-10 production. Neutralization of CTLA-4 in further co-culture experiments demonstrated inverse regulation of IL-17A production. In conclusion, these data demonstrate proof of principle for the therapeutic potential of systemic lentiviral vector delivery of the BiP transgene leading to immunoregulation of arthritis by induction of soluble CTLA-4 and suppression of IL-17A production. PMID:25228326

  15. Hepatic insulin gene therapy prevents deterioration of vascular function and improves adipocytokine profile in STZ-diabetic rats.

    Thul, Peter M; Campbell, Adam G; Kleinhenz, Dean J; Olson, Darin E; Boutwell, Joshua J; Sutliff, Roy L; Hart, C Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic insulin gene therapy (HIGT) ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic rodents, suggesting that similar approaches may eventually provide a means to improve treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, whether the metabolic and hormonal changes produced by HIGT benefit vascular function remains unclear. The impact of HIGT on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, nitrosyl-hemoglobin content (NO-Hb), and insulin sensitivity were studied using aortic ring preparations, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculations, and insulin tolerance testing (ITT). Data were correlated with selected hormone and adipocytokine concentrations. Rats made diabetic with streptozotocin were treated with subcutaneous insulin pellets dosed to sustain body weights and hyperglycemia or with HIGT; nondiabetic rats served as controls. Hyperglycemic rats demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, reduced levels of NO-Hb, and diminished insulin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations compared with controls. In contrast, HIGT treatment significantly reduced blood sugars and sustained both endothelium-mediated vasodilation and NO-Hb at control levels. HOMA-IR calculations and ITT indicated enhanced insulin sensitivity among HIGT-treated rats. HIGT partially restored suppressed leptin levels in hyperglycemic rats and increased adiponectin concentrations to supranormal levels, consistent with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Our findings indicate that the metabolic milieu produced by HIGT is sufficient to preserve vascular function in diabetic rodents. These data suggest that improved glycemia, induction of a beneficial adipocytokine profile, and enhanced insulin sensitivity combine to preserve endothelium-dependent vascular function in HIGT-treated diabetic rats. Consequently, HIGT may represent a novel and efficacious approach to reduce diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction. PMID:16118252

  16. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries to provide the 'field' genetic resource (endemic disease situation) in order to devise and test vaccines developed through molecular studies. Development of technologies cannot be divorced from an understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases found in developing countries. This is frequently not undertaken due to the many competing demands on the scarce resources available. However, increased livestock trade possibilities may provide the focus and catalyst needed to ensure that animal health science is applied appropriately and usefully for the benefit of developing countries. (author)

  17. Gene Therapy to Promote Thromboresistance: Local Overexpression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator to Prevent Arterial Thrombosis in an in vivo Rabbit Model

    Waugh, J. M.; Kattash, M.; Li, J.; Yuksel, E.; Kuo, M. D.; Lussier, M.; Weinfeld, A. B.; Saxena, R.; Rabinovsky, E. D.; Thung, S.; Woo, S. L. C.; Shenaq, S. M.

    1999-02-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) catalyzes the rate-limiting initial step in the fibrinolytic cascade. Systemic infusion of tPA has become the standard of care for acute myocardial infarction. However, even the relatively short-duration protocols currently employed have encountered significant hemorrhagic complications, as well as complications from rebound thrombosis. Gene therapy offers a method of local high-level tPA expression over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhage and local rebound thrombosis. To examine the impact of local tPA overexpression, an adenoviral vector expressing tPA was created. The construct was characterized functionally in vitro, and the function of the vector was confirmed in vivo by delivery to the rabbit common femoral artery. Systemic coagulation parameters were not perturbed at any of the doses examined. The impact of local overexpression of tPA on in vivo thrombus formation was examined subsequently in a stasis/injury model of arterial thrombosis. The construct effectively prevented arterial thrombosis in treated animals, whereas viral and nonviral controls typically developed occluding thrombi. This construct thus offers a viable technique for promoting a locally thromboresistant small-caliber artery.

  18. Injury Prevention

    ... Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Prevention Share this! Home » Prevention Injury Prevention Accidents happen, but there are things you ... Rise, Including Bath Salts Household (and Child & Elderly) Injuries Avoiding Household Burns Do I Need A Tetanus ...

  19. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory samples from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the state of Rondônia, Brazil

    de Lima, Cleoni Alves Mendes; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Oelemann, Maraníbia Aparecida Cardoso; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Caldas, Paulo Cezar; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Pereira, Márcia Aparecida da Silva; Montes, Fátima Fandinho Onofre; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Calixto; SUFFYS, Philip Noel; Moura, Maria Manuela da Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    The main cause of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We aimed to evaluate the contribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to pulmonary disease in patients from the state of Rondônia using respiratory samples and epidemiological data from TB cases. Mycobacterium isolates were identified using a combination of conventional tests, polymerase chain reaction-based restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 gene and hsp65 gene sequencing. Among the 1,812...

  20. Cutaneous manifestations of Nocardia brasiliensis infection in Taiwan during 2002-2012-clinical studies and molecular typing of pathogen by gyrB and 16S gene sequencing.

    Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Ting-Chi; Lu, Chin-Fang; Liau, Yea-Ling; Lin, Jeng-Fong; Li, Shu-Ying

    2013-09-01

    To observe the clinicopathologic and resistance profiles of the Nocardia brasiliensis causing cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan, 12 N. brasiliensis isolates were prospectively collected from patients with cutaneous nocardiosis in a hospital during 2002-2012. Clinicopathologic data were obtained, and isolates were identified by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA sequencing. Susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial compounds were tested. Isolates were further genotyped by sequencing of 16S rRNA, secA1, hsp65, and gyrB genes. The nodulopustular pyoderma associated with sporotrichoid spreading was the most common skin presentations caused by N. brasiliensis. All of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and resistant to kanamycin, erythromycin, and oxacillin, while susceptibilities to imipenem, vancomycin, penicillin-G, tetracycline, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin varied among the 12 isolates. GyrB genotyping delineated the 12 isolates into 2 major groups, which was coincident with different single nucleotide substitutions at position 160 (G versus T) of 16S rRNA, different levels of imipenem minimum inhibition concentration (4-32 versus 0.25-0.75 mg/L), and prevalence of lymphadenitis (66.7 versus 16.7%). We have noted that tiny pustular lesions can be the first sign of cutaneous nocardiosis, which we believe has not been previously emphasized. No resistance to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was found; therefore, sulphonamide drugs remain effective for treatment of cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan. PMID:23791388

  1. Preventing Suicide

    ... and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) . Accessed online Aug 24, 2015. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA ), Center for Behavioral Health ...

  2. Preventing Addiction.

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  3. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    ... Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be found early? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Most people with thyroid ... that still provides a clear picture. Blood tests can be done to look for the gene mutations ...

  4. How Can Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Be Prevented?

    ... Prevented? You can't prevent alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency because the condition is inherited (passed from ... children through genes). If you inherit two faulty AAT genes, you'll have AAT deficiency. Even so, ...

  5. NK cell activation through the NKG2D ligand MULT-1 is selectively prevented by the glycoprotein encoded by mouse cytomegalovirus gene m145

    Krmpotic, Astrid; Hasan, Milena; Loewendorf, Andrea; Saulig, Tanja; Halenius, Anne; Lenac, Tihana; Polic, Bojan; Bubic, Ivan; Kriegeskorte, Anja; Pernjak-Pugel, Ester; Messerle, Martin; Hengel, Hartmut; Busch, Dirk H; Koszinowski, Ulrich H; Jonjic, Stipan

    2005-01-01

    The NK cell–activating receptor NKG2D interacts with three different cellular ligands, all of which are regulated by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). We set out to define the viral gene product regulating murine UL16-binding protein-like transcript (MULT)-1, a newly described NKG2D ligand. We show that MCMV infection strongly induces MULT-1 gene expression, but surface expression of this glycoprotein is nevertheless completely abolished by the virus. Screening a panel of MCMV deletion mutants de...

  6. Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum

    Venkateswaran N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nandini Venkateswaran,1 Gabrielle Yeaney,2 Mina Chung,3,4 Holly B Hindman3,41University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3Flaum Eye Institute, 4Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USAObjective: To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient.Results: A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65 gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests.Conclusion: Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish between nontuberculous species reliably. We recommend the use of PCR in conjunction with sequencing of the hsp65 gene for reliable differentiation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus in atypical mycobacterial ocular infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility tests on cultured strains are the best guide to antibiotic selection, given the rapidly rising resistance to antimicrobials in atypical mycobacterial species.Keywords: atypical mycobacteria, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, hsp65, Mycobacterium chelonae, neurotrophic keratopathy, visual outcome

  7. Liposome-mediated transfer of IL-1 receptor antagonist gene to dispersed islet cells does not prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted NOD mice

    Saldeen, J; Sandler, S; Bendtzen, K; Welsh, N

    2000-01-01

    transplanted non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mouse islet cells were transfected using liposome-mediated gene transfer with a human IL-1ra cDNA construct and transplanted two days later to prediabetic NOD mice. Graft infiltration and destruction were monitored three, five and eight days posttransplantation...

  8. Prevention of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats by exercise training: effects on gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues determined by high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis

    Colombo, Michele; Gregersen, Soeren; Kruhoeffer, Mogens; Agger, Andreas; Xiao, Jianzhong; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Orntoft, Torben; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes metabolic improvement in the prediabetic and diabetic states. However, only little information exists on the changes to ET at the transcriptional level in insulin-sensitive tissues. We have investigated the gene expression changes in skeletal muscle, liver, fat, and...

  9. Preventative Maintenance.

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  10. Dengue Prevention

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Dengue Homepage Share Compartir Prevention This photograph shows a mother applying mosquito repellent ... updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Dengue Branch 1324 Calle Cañada San Juan, Puerto Rico ...

  11. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    Jimnez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45?days of age) received CdCl2 (5?ppm) and melatonin (3??g/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1?month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  12. Cadmium-induced disruption in 24-h expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus. Prevention by melatonin.

    DanielPCardinali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH. To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age received CdCl2 (5 ppm and melatonin (3 μg/mL or vehicle (0.015 % ethanol in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at 6 time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1 or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2 by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GSR and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1 and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression.

  13. Cooked rice prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet by the regulation of the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Choi, Won Hee; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-07-01

    Rice has many health-beneficial components for ameliorating obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of cooked rice as a useful carbohydrate source has not been investigated yet; so we hypothesized that cooked rice may have hypolipidemic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cooked rice on hyperlipidemia and on the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 2 groups and fed a high-fat (15%, wt/wt)/cholesterol (0.5%, wt/wt) diet supplemented with either corn starch (HFD, 54.5% wt/wt) or cooked rice (HFD-CR, 54.5% wt/wt) as the main carbohydrate source for 8 weeks. In the HFD-CR group, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver were decreased, and the total lipid, total cholesterol, and bile acid levels in the feces were increased, compared with the HFD group. In the cooked-rice group, the messenger RNA and protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase were significantly downregulated; and the messenger RNA and protein levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase were upregulated. Furthermore, the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol response element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were downregulated, whereas the ?-oxidation related genes (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, acyl CoA oxidase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) were upregulated, in the cooked-rice group. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of cooked rice is partially mediated by the regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, which results in the suppression of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis and the enhancement of cholesterol excretion and fatty acid ?-oxidation. PMID:23827132

  14. Impact of protein supplementation and exercise in preventing changes in gene expression profiling in woman muscles after long-term bedrest as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Chopard, Angele; Lecunff, Martine; Danger, Richard; Teusan, Raluca; Jasmin, Bernard J.; Marini, Jean-Francois; Leger, Jean

    Long duration space flights have a dramatic impact on human physiology and under such a condition, skeletal muscles are known to be one of the most affected systems. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to muscle impairment under microgravity, which causes significant loss of muscle mass as well as structural disorders, is necessary for the development of efficient space flight countermeasures. This study was conducted under the aegis of the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the French "Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales" (CNES). It gave us the opportunity to investigate for the first time the effects of prolonged disuse (long-term bedrest, LTBR) on the transcriptome of different muscle types in healthy women (control, n=8), as well as the potential beneficial impact of protein supplementation (nutrition, n=8) and a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training program (exercise, n=8). Pre- (LTBR -8) and post- (LTBR +59) biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from each subject. Skeletal muscle gene expression profiles were obtained using a custom made microarray containing 6681 muscle-relevant genes. 555 differentiallyexpressed and statistically-significant genes were identified in control group following 60 days of LTBR, including 348 specific for SOL, 83 specific for VL, and 124 common for the two types of muscle (pchanges with mRNA encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation (mainly ubiquitinproteasome components) (pchanges in muscle function, such as those involved in calcium signaling and muscle structure including modifications of extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal components, were significant in SOL. Among the two recently described markers of atrophy, only MAFbx transcripts exhibited an increase in VL following 60 days of LTBR. While protein supplementation reduced the number of differentially-expressed genes by 40 and 25% for SOL and VL, respectively, the combined exercise regimen resulted in a marked beneficial and compensatory effect by decreasing the number of differentially-expressed mRNAs by more than 90% in both SOL and VL muscles. Together, these findings provide an overview of skeletal muscle impairment following prolonged disuse by identifying specific groups of genes related to muscle function, as well as metabolic and canonical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of regular exercise in the maintenance of both slow and fast muscle phenotypes. Finally, our approach will prove useful in designing and optimizing specific countermeasures aimed at counteracting muscle atrophy in a microgravity environment.

  15. Roles in Suicide Prevention

    ... Native Colleges and Universities Suicide Prevention Basics Share Suicide Prevention Basics Scope of the Problem Suicide Prevention ... Prevention Basics » Roles in Suicide Prevention Roles in Suicide Prevention Suicide prevention can—and should—take place ...

  16. Preventing Falls

    ... Stay physically active. Regular exercise makes you stronger. Weight-bearing activities, such as walking or climbing stairs, may slow bone loss from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid ...

  17. Preventing Diabetes

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Preventing Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) suggests these ...

  18. Suicide Prevention

    ... Research Find Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Suicide Prevention If you or someone you know has ongoing thoughts of death or suicide—or if a suicide attempt has been made— ...

  19. Preventable Hospitalizations

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Governor's strategic goal on preventable hospitalizations is to drive down the rate by 10 percent by the end of 2015. 2011 cost data are in 2011 dollars. 2010...

  20. Prevent Shingles

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Prevent Shingles Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles Adults age 60 or older are more likely ...

  1. Preventive analgesia

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive...

  2. HIV Prevention

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  3. Z-360, a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, prevents up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and phosphorylation of NR2B via suppression of interleukin-1 ? production in a cancer-induced pain model in mice

    Hori Yuko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Z-360 is an orally active cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2/gastrin receptor antagonist currently under development as a therapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. It was previously reported that Z-360 treatment in combination with gemcitabine prolonged the survival period in a lethal pancreatic cancer xenograft model in mice. In a phase Ib/IIa clinical study, Z-360 treatment displayed a trend of reduced pain in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine including analgesics such as opioids. Here, we investigated the mechanism of analgesic action of Z-360 in a severe cancer-induced pain model in mice, which is considered to be opioid-resistant, by examining ephrin B1 gene expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit phosphorylation, and interleukin-1? (IL-1? production. Results In a mouse model of cancer-induced pain, ephrin B1 gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and the phosphorylation of NR2B in the spinal cord were induced. Z-360 treatment inhibited both ephrin B1 gene expression and the phosphorylation of NR2B. In addition, IL-1? production increased in the cancer-inoculated hind paw of mice, but could be suppressed by treatment with Z-360. Moreover, we observed that the CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide similarly suppressed up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and IL-1? production, and that the intraperitoneal injection of sulfated CCK-8 induced the production of IL-1? in the cancer-inoculated region. Conclusions We have identified a novel pain cascade, in which IL-1? production in cancer-inoculated regions induces ephrin B1 gene expression in DRGs and then ephrin B1 enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B via Eph B receptor in the spinal cord. Notably, Z-360 relieves cancer-induced pain by preventing this pain cascade through the suppression of IL-1? production, likely via the blockade of CCK1 receptor. The pre-clinical results presented here support the analgesic action of Z-360 in pancreatic cancer patients with severe, opioid-resistant pain. Pre-clinical and clinical results have demonstrated that Z-360 combined with gemcitabine represents a promising pancreatic cancer therapy approach with characteristic analgesic effects in addition to the prolongation of survival.

  4. Comprehensive mutation analysis (20 families) of the choroideremia gene reveals a missense variant that prevents the binding of REP1 with Rab geranylgeranyl transferase.

    Esposito, Gabriella; De Falco, Francesca; Tinto, Nadia; Testa, Francesco; Vitagliano, Luigi; Tandurella, Igor Cristian Maria; Iannone, Lucio; Rossi, Settimio; Rinaldi, Ernesto; Simonelli, Francesca; Zagari, Adriana; Salvatore, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    Choroideremia (CHM), an X-linked degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), photoreceptors, and choroid, ultimately leads to blindness. It is caused by loss-of-function of the CHM gene product, the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1) that is involved, together with its homologue REP2, in prenylation of Rab GTPases, key regulators of intracellular vesicular traffic. Here, we report the molecular characterization of 20 unrelated Italian families affected by CHM. We identified 19 different mutations, nine of which are new. In most cases, we analyzed the effect of the mutations at the mRNA level. Furthermore, we demonstrated, by in vitro trancription/translation assays, that the mutated mRNAs produced truncated proteins in all cases but one. In fact, we also identified a novel REP1 missense variant (c.1520A>G; p.H507R) associated to CHM. Thus far, only two other CHM-associated missense mutations have been identified, one of which was a splicing alteration. We investigated the impact of the p.H507R amino acid change on REP1 structure and function, thus providing the first experimental demonstration that correlates a missense mutation in CHM with a functional impairment of REP1. Overall, our results indicate that the REP1-Rab geranyl-geranyl transferase interaction and consequently REP1-mediated Rab prenylation is essential for RPE and photoreceptor function. PMID:21905166

  5. p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol prevents brain injury and behavioral impairment by activating Nrf2, PDI, and neurotrophic factor genes in a rat model of brain ischemia.

    Kam, Kyung-Yoon; Yu, Seong Jin; Jeong, Nahee; Hong, Jeong Hwa; Jalin, Angela M A Anthony; Lee, Sungja; Choi, Yong Won; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kang, Sung Goo

    2011-03-01

    The therapeutic goal in treating cerebral ischemia is to reduce the extent of brain injury and thus minimize neurological impairment. We examined the effects of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA), an active component of Gastrodia elata Blume, on transient focal cerebral ischemia-induced brain injury with respect to the involvement of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and neurotrophic factors. All animals were ovariectomized 14 days before ischemic injury. Ischemic injury was induced for 1 h by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24-h reperfusion. Three days before MCAO, the vehicle-treated and the HBA-treated groups received intramuscular sesame oil and HBA (25 mg/kg BW), respectively. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining showed decreased infarct volume in the ischemic lesion of HBA-treated animals. HBA pretreatment also promoted functional recovery, as measured by the modified neurological severity score (mNSS; p inhibitor, attenuated this cytoprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner. HBA treatment for 2 h also induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, possibly activating the intracellular antioxidative system. These results suggest that HBA protects against brain damage by modulating cytoprotective genes, such as Nrf2 and PDI, and neurotrophic factors. PMID:21347705

  6. Prevent Pneumonia

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  7. HIV Prevention

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... prophylaxis (PEP). Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  8. Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Eriksson Johan G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  9. Preventing suicide.

    Reid, William H

    2010-03-01

    About 35,000 people commit suicide every year in the United States. Almost all are seriously, but treatably, mentally ill. Most come to the attention of a physician, in an emergency room, primary practice setting, or psychiatric hospital or office, during the days, weeks or months before they die. Since 1995, suicide has been the second most commonly reported of all Joint Commission hospital sentinel events (not just psychiatric events). Suicide is involved in the majority of psychiatric malpractice lawsuits. It takes life from patients, parents from children, children from families, and valuable people from society. Suicide is a terrible way to lose a relative or friend, leaving much greater damage than most natural or accidental death. This paper discusses four points to be considered by those who want to improve this situation: 1) Suicide is rarely "voluntary" in any clinical sense of the term; 2) A great many suicides are preventable once a clinician becomes involved; 3) Suicide is worth preventing; 4) There are practical approaches to prevention that work. PMID:20511736

  10. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  11. Cholera Prevention and Control

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Five Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Environmental Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using PCR- RFLP Analysis of 441 Bp Heat Shock Protein 65 Fragments

    H Rezaei-Yazdi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non- Tuberculous Mycobacteria are environmental opportunistic pathogens that can be found in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats. There are an epidemiological links between species isolated in tap water and those isolated from patients. hsp65 gene has more variability in its sequences, compared to the some more conserved genes in NTM, for identification of mycobacteria to species level. In this study, the prevalence of NTM in Isfahan City water samples was determined using culture, biochemical tests and PCR-RFLP analyses of hsp65 gene.Methods: Eighty-five water samples were collected and cultured. The mycobacterial isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. A 441 bp fragment of hsp65 genes was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeII. Digested products were analyzed using polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis (PAGE.Results: 25.9% of the water samples contained different species of NTM. Dominant isolates were M. fortuitum (26.7%, M. chelonae like organism (13.3% and M. mucogenicum (13.3%. Nineteen isolates of Mycobacteria were differentiated using hsp65 genes PCR-RFLP. Three isolates could not be identified at the species level because their RFLP patterns were different from other known PCR-RFLP profiles. There were different hsp65 gene PCR-RFLP profiles produced by digestion with BstEII and HaeIII. Conclusion: This study showed that PCR-RFLP of hsp65 gene in mycobacteria is more reliable method for identification of NTM at the specie level than conventional phenotypic methods (P<0.05. In comparing of RFLP patterns of this study to other investigation, some minor differences were negligible.

  13. Preventive maintenance

    The information contained in this paper should be used in conjunction with the maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer of each valve. When there is any question or conflict between the procedure described and the manufacturer's, the author suggests determining the best method for the applications. A good long range preventative maintenance program for valves will eliminate costly repairs or replacement of valves long before their time. A little flush, lube, and what was once called elbow grease will also go a long way in reducing your downtime and maintenance budget. This paper will discuss one of the most misunderstood theories concerning valve maintenance, i.e., that periodic maintenance of valves includes the injection of sealants. Sealants are injected into valves as a secondary seal for most valves. Under normal conditions, valves do not require sealant injection. Solid fillers in sealants tend to plug the system making it virtually impossible to inject either sealant or a lubricant, requiring the injection of flush or cleaners to dislodge the solids. Topics covered in this paper will range from general maintenance requirements to valve flushing, cleaning and lubrication

  14. Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Terameprocol inhibits the NF-κB-dependent transcription of TNF-α and MCP-1/CCL2 genes by preventing RelA from binding its cognate sites on DNA

    Scholle Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid, also known as terameprocol (TMP, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the resin of the creosote bush. We have shown previously that TMP will suppress production of certain inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids from macrophages following stimulation with LPS or infection with H1N1 influenza virus. In this study our goal was to elucidate the mechanism underlying TMP-mediated suppression of cytokine and chemokine production. We focused our investigations on the response to LPS and the NF-κB protein RelA, a transcription factor whose activity is critical to LPS-responsiveness. Methods Reporter assays were performed with HEK293 cells overexpressing either TLR-3, -4, or -8 and a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of an NF-κB response element. Cells were then treated with LPS, poly(I:C, or resiquimod, and/or TMP, and lysates measured for luciferase activity. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were used in ChIP and EMSA assays. For ChIP assays, chromatin was prepared and complexes precipitated with anti-NF-κB RelA Ab. Cross-links were reversed, DNA purified, and sequence abundance determined by Q-PCR. For EMSA assays, nuclear extracts were incubated with radiolabeled probes, analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE and visualized by autoradiography. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were also used in fluorescence microscopy and western blot experiments. Translocation experiments were performed using a primary Ab to NF-κB RelA and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary Ab. Western blots were performed using Abs to IκB-α and phospho-IκB-α. Bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Results In reporter assays with TLR-3, -4, and -8 over-expressing cells, TMP caused strong inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcription. ChIP assays showed TMP caused virtually complete inhibition of RelA binding in vivo to promoters for the genes for TNF-α, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 although the LPS-dependent synthesis of IκB-α was not inhibited. EMSA assays did not reveal an effect of TMP on the binding of RelA to naked DNA templates in vitro. TMP did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB RelA nor the phosphorylation of IκB-α. Conclusion TMP acts indirectly as an inhibitor of NF-κB-dependent transcription by preventing RelA from binding the promoters of certain key cytokine and chemokine genes.

  15. Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Letcia Muraro Wildner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-perform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2% to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

  16. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  17. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  18. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ...

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Spasticity, Physical ...

  1. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance

    de Souza Moraes, Paulo Ricardo; Chimara, Erica; Telles, Maria Alice da Silva; Ueki, Suely Yoko Misuka; Cunha, Eunice Atsuko Totumi; Honer, Michael Robin; Sylvia Cardoso LEÃO

    2008-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI) and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65). With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusiv...

  2. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes

    Paulo Ricardo de Souza Moraes; Erica Chimara; Maria Alice da Silva Telles; Suely Yoko Misuka Ueki; Eunice Atsuko Totumi Cunha; Michael Robin Honer; Sylvia Cardoso Leão

    2008-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI) and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65). With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusiv...

  3. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes

    Paulo Ricardo de Souza Moraes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65. With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusive. Novel PRA-hsp65 patterns were observed with 11 isolates. Medical data were evaluated for inference of clinical relevance of these isolates.Micobactérias não-tuberculosas isoladas no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso do Sul em 2003 e 2004 foram identificadas usando métodos fenotípicos convencionais (TI e PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA tendo o gene hsp65 como alvo (PRA-hsp65. Em 15 dos 32 isolados analisados os resultados obtidos com ambos métodos foram concordantes, sendo 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum e 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI de 12 isolados não foi conclusiva. Perfis não descritos de PRA-hsp65 foram observados com 11 isolados. Dados dos prontuários médicos foram avaliados para inferir a relevância clínica dos isolados.

  4. CNS Genes Implicated in Relapse

    Freeman, Willard M; Kuntz-Melcavage, Kara L; Vrana, Kent E.

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse is a condition that impacts not only the individual drug user, but society as a whole. Although prevention of initial drug use is the most effective way to prevent addiction, avoiding relapse is a crucial component of drug addiction recovery. Recent studies suggest that there is a set of genes whose expression is robustly and stably altered following drug use and ensuing abstinence. Such stable changes in gene expression correlate with ultrastructural changes in brain as well as al...

  5. CNS Genes Implicated in Relapse

    Willard M. Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is a condition that impacts not only the individual drug user, but society as a whole. Although prevention of initial drug use is the most effective way to prevent addiction, avoiding relapse is a crucial component of drug addiction recovery. Recent studies suggest that there is a set of genes whose expression is robustly and stably altered following drug use and ensuing abstinence. Such stable changes in gene expression correlate with ultrastructural changes in brain as well as alterations in behavior. As persistent molecular changes, these genes may provide targets for the development of therapeutics. Developing a list of well-characterized candidate genes and examining the effect of manipulating these genes will contribute to the ultimate goal of developing effective treatments to prevent relapse to drug use.

  6. [Prevention of dementia].

    Urakami, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention). PMID:27025075

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  8. Molecular identification of clinical Nocardia isolates from India.

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Samanta, Palash; Ray, Pallab; Ghosh, Anup; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of nocardiosis is evolving with increasing number of Nocardia spp. causing human infection. In recent years, molecular techniques have been used to identify Nocardia spp. There are limited data available on the spectrum of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical samples in India. Here, a molecular study was carried on 30 clinical isolates maintained in our National Culture Collection to evaluate the techniques used for identifying the agents. The isolates were identified by sequencing two promising genes: the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65. Both hsp65 and the 16S rRNA gene could reliably identify 90 % of Nocardia isolates, i.e. N. farcinica, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. brasiliensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. amamiensis and N. pneumoniae. The mean percentage dissimilarity of sequence identification was higher using the hsp65 gene (4 %, range 0-7.9 %) compared with the 16S rRNA gene (2.3 %, range 0-8.9 %). Two isolates that showed ambiguous results in both the short segment of the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences could be resolved by sequencing a larger fragment (∼1000 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene. Both of these isolates were identified as N. beijingensis with similarities of 99.8 and 100 % compared with the standard strain. Genotyping of N. cyriacigeorgica strains was performed using hsp65 gene sequences and compared with previously described genotypes. Our N. cyriacigeorgica isolates belonged to genotype 1 (n = 4) and genotype 2 (n = 2). The present study highlights a wide spectrum of Nocardia spp. in India and emphasizes the need for molecular techniques for identification to the species level. PMID:26202321

  9. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    ... Treatments Prescribed by Your Doctor Espaol: Prevencin y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is ... medication; for example, People with HIV/AIDS or cancer Patients who have had transplants, and People on ...

  10. Skin Cancer Prevention

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  11. Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  12. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  13. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    ... main content Skip to our phone number National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Home Get Help Help for Yourself ... Listening Strong Support Network Create Your Own PSA Suicide Prevention Toolkit Nat'l SP Month '15 Learn ...

  14. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    ... Data Sources Risk and Protective Factors Consequences Prevention Strategies Environmental Design Additional Resources Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  15. Breast Cancer Prevention

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Research Areas: Prevention

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  17. Can I Prevent Acne?

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en espaol Puedo prevenir el acn? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  18. Preventing Weight Gain

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Preventing Weight Gain Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  19. Injury Prevention and Safety

    Injury Prevention and Safety Health Education About SHPPS: SHPPS is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school ... districts that required elementary schools to teach about injury prevention and safety increased from 66.2% in 2000 ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Prostate Cancer Key Points Prostate cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies Preventing Children's Sports Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ... las lesiones deportivas de su hijo Causes of Sports Injuries Participation in any sport, whether it's recreational ...

  2. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  3. HPV Cancer Prevention

    HPV CANCER PREVENTION HPV VACCINE IS CANCER PREVENTION HPV vaccine protects against HPV types that most commonly cause ... professionals are the key to protecting adolescents from HPV cancers. VACCINATE YOUR 11-12 YEAR OLDS. www. cdc. ...

  4. Preventing Eating Disorders

    Shaw, Heather; Stice, Eric; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews eating disorder (ED) prevention programs, highlighting features that define successful programs and particularly promising interventions, and how they might be further refined. The field of ED prevention has advanced considerably both theoretically and methodologically, as the early ED prevention programs were largely psychoeducational and met with limited success. Recent meta-analytic findings show that over half (51%) of ED prevention interventions reduced ED risk factors...

  5. Histoplasmosis Risk and Prevention

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  6. Waste prevention action nets

    Corvellec, Hervé; Czarniawska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Although waste prevention is considered the best possible waste management option in the European waste hierarchy model, it is unclear what constitutes waste prevention. To address this lack of clarity, this text presents an analysis of four Swedish case studies of waste prevention: a waste management company selling waste prevention services; the possibility offered to Swedish households to opt out of receiving unaddressed promotional material; a car-sharing program; and a re-...

  7. Prevention IS Care

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  8. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)

  9. Home Injury Prevention

    ... times. www.myasthenia.org 800.541.5454 HOME INJURY PREVENTION The MGFA mission is to facilitate the timely ... fax mgfa@myasthenia.org • www.myasthenia.org HOME INJURY PREVENTION Home Injur y Prevention A helpful guide for ...

  10. Prevention Of Stroke

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  11. Prevent type 2 diabetes by preventing obesity

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    In 2011 nearly 73,000 adults in Northern Ireland are registered as having diabetes. Many cases of diabetes are preventable and are the result of obesity. With this in mind, on World Diabetes Day, 14 November 2011, the Public Health Agency is encouraging everyone across Northern Ireland to be aware of how Type 2 diabetes can be prevented, the dangers it can cause to your health and what the signs and symptoms of diabetes are to ensure early diagnosis.The links between type 2 diabetes and obesi...

  12. Setting priorities in prevention.

    Schaapveld, K; van de Water, H P; Bergsma, E W

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years prevention has again become the focus of attention because of various international developments such as the WHO strategy for Health for All by the year 2000. When resources are scarce, it is all the more important to set priorities. This applies to prevention as well as to curative care. In this paper, we describe a method for comparing prevention programmes with one another, using efficiency as the final parameter. To determine efficiency it is necessary to collect facts about a number of aspects of the health problems to be prevented: size of the health problem, degree of preventability, monetary and other costs involved and the probability that the prevention programme will cause changes in the overall pattern of morbidity and/or mortality. These aspects are discussed and some examples given. PMID:10118012

  13. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  14. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  15. Traditional preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or...... conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment...

  16. Preventing food allergy

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep; Rader, Tamara; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  17. Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence Share | Doctors have excellent treatments for skin fungus infections that occur on the feet, nails, groin, ...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  19. Work hazard prevention plans

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  20. Substance Abuse Prevention.

    LeNoue, Sean R; Riggs, Paula D

    2016-04-01

    Substance use disorders account for approximately 6% of deaths worldwide and cost about $700 billion in the United States. Approximately 80% of drug users begin using during adolescence, underscoring the public health importance of effective substance prevention programs for youth and families. Prevention science designates 3 intervention categories: (1) universal prevention, targeting all individuals in the population, (2) selective interventions, targeting high-risk groups, and (3) indicated prevention interventions for youth with risk-taking behaviors. School-based and non-school-based interventions are reviewed, as well as the limitations of existing research, gaps in access and availability, and directions for future research and development. PMID:26980131

  1. Can I Prevent Acne?

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  2. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases your ...

  3. Preventative Medicine today

    José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.

  4. Preventative Medicine today

    José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.

  5. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  6. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  7. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service

  8. Prevent Blindness America

    Advocacy Our Partners Prevent Blindness in your State Your Sight Your Sight What's Your Risk of a Vision Problem? Signs of Eye Problems Seeing An ... School Your Child's Glasses Wearing Contact Lenses Prevent Blindness and Children's Vision Protecting Your Child's Eyes from ...

  9. Prevention of preterm birth.

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  10. Gene therapeutics and DNA vaccines; quality and regulatory aspects

    Schalk JAC; Hegger I; Jongen PMJM

    2001-01-01

    Transfer of genes to cells and the subsequent expression of these genes can alleviate the symptoms of a disease (gene therapy), or prevent infectious diseases (DNA vaccination). Gene therapy and DNA vaccination are based on relatively new technologies. The first gene therapeutics are expected to enter the market as registered medicinal products within 2-4 years. The vectors used to transfer the gene of interest to target cells are genetically modified viruses or plasmids. Vi...

  11. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  12. Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta; Overvad, Kim; Cold, Søren; Moesgaard, Sven; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Dragsted, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in...... intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQOI or Ah...... genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues....

  13. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the context of relevant interventions, various techniques are used, such as role playing. At the level of social policy, different measures may contribute to increase the effectiveness of preventive programs (e.g. prohibition of sale of alcohol in young people). Interventions of tertiary prevention aim at the development of motivation for abstinence in alcohol dependent individuals and the prevention of relapse, as well as the acquisition of new behaviors, which support modification of the problem of alcohol dependence. These interventions can take place in the context of psychotherapeutic follow-up provided to alcohol dependent individuals, and may include various short-term interventions, such as motivational interviewing, but also alternative forms of treatment (e.g. acupuncture, meditation). Elements of prevention in combination with elements of promotion of mental health may be incorporated in the same programme for alcohol dependence, endorsing similar or different activities, which may be complementary and may reinforce the effectiveness of the prevention program. Finally, it is necessary to raise the awareness of mental health professionals regarding prevention and provide specialized education to those who work in drug addiction programmes. Mental health professionals may act as therapists and as intervention coordinators, and performing these roles, they may contribute to the effectiveness of preventive programs and more generally to the treatment of disorders connected with alcohol use. PMID:26197102

  14. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  15. Primary Prevention With Statins

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Falk, Erling

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... prevention of ASCVD with statins was superior to the trial-based and hybrid approaches. Our results indicate that the ACC/AHA guidelines will prevent more ASCVD events than the trial-based and hybrid approaches, while treating fewer people compared with the trial-based approach....

  16. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance foridentifyingfactors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases ofperioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs shouldreview thecomplete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:26924369

  17. Melatonin enhances antioxidative enzyme gene expression (CAT, GPx, SOD), prevents their UVR-induced depletion, and protects against the formation of DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) in ex vivo human skin.

    Fischer, Tobias W; Kleszczyński, Konrad; Hardkop, Lena H; Kruse, Nathalie; Zillikens, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    UV radiation (UVR) induces serious structural and functional alterations in human skin leading to skin aging and carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species are key players in UVR-mediated photodamage and induce the DNA-base-oxidized, intermediate 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Herein, we report the protective action of melatonin against UVR-induced 8-OHdG formation and depletion of antioxidative enzymes using ex vivo human full-thickness skin exposed to UVR in a dose (0, 100, 300 mJ/cm(2))- and time-dependent manner (0, 24, 48 hr post-UVR). Dynamics of depletion of antioxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), or 8-OHdG formation were studied by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence/immunohistochemical staining. UVR-treated skin revealed significant and immediate (0 hr 300 mJ/cm(2)) reduction of gene expression, and this effect intensified within 24 hr post-UVR. Simultaneous increase in 8-OHdG-positive keratinocytes occurred already after 0 hr post-UVR reaching 71% and 99% up-regulation at 100 and 300 mJ/cm(2), respectively (P DNA protectant against UVR-induced oxidative damage in human skin. PMID:23110400

  18. Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) extract exerted anti-melanogenic activity by preventing tyrosinase activity in vitro and by suppressing tyrosinase gene expression in B16F1 melanoma cells.

    Oh, Myoung-Jin; Hamid, Mariani Abdul; Ngadiran, Sulaiman; Seo, Young-Kwon; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2011-04-01

    Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) water extract has been widely used for woman health in Malaysia. Our investigation focused to identify anti-melanogenic efficacy of F. deltoidea since it has been known to have strong anti-oxidant activities. Anti-melanogenic effect of F. deltoidea extract was analyzed using cultured B16F1 melanoma cells. Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and determined the highest concentration of the extract that did not affect cell viability as 0.1% (w/v). ?-MSH-induced melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited with dose-dependent manner by treatment of F. deltoidea leave extract, which was comparable to that of kojic acid. The extract directly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and intracellular tyrosinase activity of B16F1 as well. The inhibition of intracellular tyrosinase activity was found to be exerted at the protein expression level when analyzed by immunoblot and tyrosinase zymography. The expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was also reduced by the F. deltoidea extract. In conclusion, F. deltoidea extract has strong anti-melanogenic activity that is exerted by direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and by down-regulation of the expression of genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways. Collectively, data shown in this study strongly suggest that F. deltoidea extract has potential to be used as a novel depigmenting agent for cosmetics. PMID:20981431

  19. Prevent Back Pain

    ... Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Back ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Types of Back Pain There are different kinds of back pain. Back ...

  20. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget; Brown, Rebecca; Briend, André; Frize, Jacqueline; Shoham, Jeremy; Kiess, Lynnda

    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...

  1. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    ... and physical therapy. When recovery is complete, your child's technique or training schedule might need to be adjusted to prevent the injury from ... Sports Medicine Center Concussions Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports ...

  2. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    ... gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control When a person is infested with scabies mites ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... sores? What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? What are the most important things for ... in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? What ...

  4. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  5. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    ... the strongest and most reliable evidence of the benefit and/or harm of a health-related intervention. To date, nine randomized controlled trials of dietary antioxidant supplements for cancer prevention have been conducted worldwide. Many ...

  6. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  7. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    ... prepared or stored the way they should be. Environmental causes Environmental factors that may increase the risk ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  8. Cryptosporidium: Prevention - Immunocompromised Persons

    ... Search The CDC Parasites - Cryptosporidium (also known as "Crypto") Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... recommendations are intended to help prevent and control cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised persons. For recommendations for the general ...

  9. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  10. Prevent Unintentional Poisoning

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media ...

  11. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  12. Novel preventive treatment options

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to......, including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although...... many of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored...

  13. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  14. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    ... Can statins prevent cancer? Animal research and ongoing observation of people who take statins suggest that these ... Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy Disclaimer FOIA Privacy & Security Reuse & Copyright Syndication Services Website Linking U.S. Department ...

  15. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  16. Treating and Preventing Burns

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing Burns Page Content Article Body Burns are divided into three categories , according to their severity. First-degree burns are the mildest and cause redness and perhaps ...

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    ... abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, and ... non-participating states, the national office. Healthy Families America® (HFA) (312) 663-3520 An innovative initiative designed ...

  18. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  19. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control ... follow the guidelines below to reduce risk of toxoplasmosis. If you have a weakened immune system, please ...

  20. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    ... HGV) has not been shown to cause liver cancer. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors ... following risk factors may increase the risk of liver cancer: Hepatitis B and C Having chronic hepatitis B ...

  1. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    ... wheelchair seat cushion? Whats important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... wheelchair seat cushion? Whats important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  4. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Mycobacteria Dominate the Biofilm Communities in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2015-07-21

    The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the water supply infrastructure. PMID:26098899

  5. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Raspe, Heiner; Burkhardt-Hammer, Tatjana; Stoll, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course...

  6. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  7. HPV Prevention series

    De Sanjosé Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history st...

  8. Natural variation of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in Oryza species and its corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita in Magnaporthe oryzae

    The Pi-ta gene prevents the infections of M. oryzae races containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita in a gene-for-gene manner. Pi-ta is a putative NBS type major resistance gene, and can directly recognize the AVR-Pita putative metalloprotease in triggering effective resistance. We hav...

  9. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  10. How Can COPD Be Prevented?

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can COPD Be Prevented? You can take steps to prevent COPD before it starts. If you already have COPD, you can take steps to prevent complications and slow the ...

  11. Stroke prevention: an update.

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention. PMID:22460445

  12. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    ... is increased when certain gene changes linked to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC or ... in the colon and rectum of people with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). It is not clear if this results ...

  13. Gene expression

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  14. Nicotinamide prevents apoptosis in human cortical neuronal cells.

    Bhansali, Suraj G; Brazeau, Daniel A; Sonee, Manisha; Mukherjee, Suman K

    2006-01-01

    In previous studies, the free radical generating toxin tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) was found to induce significant cell death in human cortical neuronal cells (HCN2 cells). Pretreatment with the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor nicotinamide was able to prevent HCN2 cell death. In this study it is observed that apoptosis is induced following the addition of t-BuOOH at 6 h as indicated by TUNEL-positive cells. When nicotinamide is added prior to t-BuOOH, it is able to prevent neuronal cell death and inhibit apoptosis. DNA microarray studies demonstrate that t-BuOOH administration causes an upregulation of proapoptotic genes like ICH-2 and BimL. On the other hand, nicotinamide-pretreated neurons have higher expression levels of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) genes. Therefore, it appears that one mechanism by which nicotinamide acts as neuroprotective agents is by elevating the gene expression levels of IAPs. Moreover, there is an upregulation of the glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in nicotinamide-pretreated HCN2 cells. Nicotinamide-pretreated cells also had higher expression levels of putative "death domain" genes like p75TNFR, TRAIL2, TNFR1, and HVEM-L. Thus, nicotinamide can regulate multiple apoptotic genes with seemingly opposite roles and through its action on these various genes prevent apoptosis of neuronal cells. PMID:20021043

  15. Prevention of food allergy

    Halken, S

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  16. Prevention, family, and community.

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Daley, Dennis

    2013-12-01

    The "Prevention, Family, and Community" session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on "Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction," and Dr. Dennis Daley, who spoke on "Family and Social Aspects of Drug Abuse: Implications for Treatment and Recovery." Dr. Rohrbach is associate professor of Preventive Medicine and director of the Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Daley is professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania. PMID:25264416

  17. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  18. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    Manninen, Hannu I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie 2, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: Hannu.manninen@kuh.fi; Yang, Xiaoming [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy.

  19. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

  20. Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes

  1. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  2. Prevention, family, and community

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; DALEY, DENNIS

    2013-01-01

    The “Prevention, Family, and Community” session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on “Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: ...

  3. Prevention of childhood obesity.

    Dietz, W H

    1986-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, its attendant morbidity, and the limited success of therapy mandate increased attention to preventive approaches. Environmental and family variables serve to identify families with children at risk for the development of obesity. Although the behavioral correlates that link these risk factors to childhood obesity remain unclear, inactivity and increased dietary intake of fat appear at this time to be the most logical foci for preventive interventions. Television viewing, which promotes both increased food consumption and reduced activity, represents a major concern at which counseling should be directed. PMID:3737257

  4. Gene-targeting pharmaceuticals for single-gene disorders.

    Beaudet, Arthur L; Meng, Linyan

    2016-04-15

    The concept of orphan drugs for treatment of orphan genetic diseases is perceived enthusiastically at present, and this is leading to research investment on the part of governments, disease-specific foundations and industry. This review attempts to survey the potential to use traditional pharmaceuticals as opposed to biopharmaceuticals to treat single-gene disorders. The available strategies include the use of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to alter splicing or knock-down expression of a transcript, siRNAs to knock-down gene expression and drugs for nonsense mutation read-through. There is an approved drug for biallelic knock-down of the APOB gene as treatment for familial hypercholesterolemia. Both ASOs and siRNAs are being explored to knock-down the transthyretin gene to prevent the related form of amyloidosis. The use of ASOs to alter gene-splicing to treat spinal muscular atrophy is in phase 3 clinical trials. Work is progressing on the use of ASOs to activate the normally silent paternal copy of the imprinted UBE3A gene in neurons as a treatment for Angelman syndrome. A gene-activation or gene-specific ramp-up strategy would be generally helpful if such could be developed. There is exciting theoretical potential for converting biopharmaceutical strategies such gene correction and CRISPR-Cas9 editing to a synthetic pharmaceutical approach. PMID:26628634

  5. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is

  6. Preventing Skin Cancer

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  7. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    ... of Health & Human Services) American Association of Poison Control Centers, Inc. CDC: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Prevention Guidelines U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Medicines in My Home (MIMH) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration References Substance Abuse and Mental ...

  8. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  9. Preventive Maintenance Process

    Ciaruffoli, Veronica; Bramley, Craig; Matteson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    The Preventive Maintenance (PM) program at Stennis Space Center (SSC) evolved from an ineffective and poorly organized state to a highly organized state in which it became capable of tracking equipment, planning jobs with man hour estimates, and supporting outsourcing. This viewgraph presentation traces the steps the program took to improve itself.

  10. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have...

  11. Preventive Law Curriculum Guide.

    Henderson, Martha V.; Gullatt, David E.; Hardin, Dawn T.; Jannik, Catherine; Tollett, John R.

    This curriculum guide presents a context for preservice education and/or professional development in education law for teachers. Section 1, "Teacher Liability," discusses "Duty to Supervise,""Providing Reasonable Care,""Duty,""Preventing Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment,""Reporting Child Abuse,""Issuing Permission Slips,""Defense for…

  12. Why Prevention? Why Now?

    Tabachnick, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  13. Injury Prevention Research

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  14. Health promotion and prevention.

    Sales, M

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of promotive and preventive health care include: The use of proactive skills in the consultation; and the co-ordinated use of posters and pamphlets with media campaigns. An efficient medical record and patient recall system; and a doctor initiated health check programme with selected patients. A cost effective method of informing practitioners includes: Ensuring access to continuing medical education by supporting FMP and post-graduate medical institutes. The provision of educational material for both the patient and doctor combined with media publicity campaigns. Supporting RACGP CHECKUP and library services for isolated practitioners. Suggested changes to undergraduate medical education are: Promotive and preventive health care delivery needs to be an inbuilt part of the curriculum. Promotive and preventive health care needs to be taught by both academic and private general practitioners who have received tutor training. It should be presented in tutorial form and during student attachment at surgeries. It needs to be followed up by continuing education by postgraduate institutes, the RACGP and FMP. Government input required includes: The provision of increased academic resources and continued funding of FMP. Remuneration for general practitioners who are involved in undergraduate teaching. Alteration of the fee structure to reward quality of care. Allowing Medicare rebate for promotive and preventive health care delivery. PMID:2730438

  15. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table

  16. PREVENTABLE ERRORS: NEVER EVENTS

    Narra Gopal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operation or any invasive procedure is a stressful event involving risks and complications. We should be able to offer a guarantee that the right procedure will be done on right person in the right place on their body. “Never events” are definable. These are the avoidable and preventable events. The people affected from consequences of surgical mistakes ranged from temporary injury in 60%, permanent injury in 33% and death in 7%”.World Health Organization (WHO [1] has earlier said that over seven million people across the globe suffer from preventable surgical injuries every year, a million of them even dying during or immediately after the surgery? The UN body quantified the number of surgeries taking place every year globally 234 million. It said surgeries had become common, with one in every 25 people undergoing it at any given time. 50% never events are preventable. Evidence suggests up to one in ten hospital admissions results in an adverse incident. This incident rate is not acceptable in other industries. In order to move towards a more acceptable level of safety, we need to understand how and why things go wrong and have to build a reliable system of working. With this system even though complete prevention may not be possible but we can reduce the error percentage2. To change present concept towards patient, first we have to change and replace the word patient with medical customer. Then our outlook also changes, we will be more careful towards our customers.

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... how is it treated? What's the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ...

  18. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the methodological requirements of DAHTA. Proceedings of the electronic literature searches are documented in the appendix. In addition references of review articles were searched. Methodological quality of publications (systematic reviews, HTA reports was assessed using the checklists developed by the German Scientific Working Group for Technology Assessment in Health Care (GSWGTAHC or with the Jadad-Score (controlled trials respectively. Due to the large number of relevant publications the assessment is mainly based on data reported by systematic reviews and supplemented by the results of newer trials. A separate economic assessment was not performed because of the low amount of available data. An assessment of ethical, legal and social impact was omitted due to resource constraints.ResultsFor preventive interventions based on exercise programs most of the analysed trials demonstrate some effectiveness. Due to the heterogeneity of the programs it is not possible to conclude whether positive effects are associated with a special type, duration or intensity of exercise. For purely educational measures or information strategies applied in a workplace setting the available trials were not able to demonstrate effectiveness. Back school programs, which in addition to theoretical instructions offer intensive exercising may in the short term, be successful in reducing the incidence of new episodes of back pain. Some trials in high risk groups demonstrate effectiveness of multidimensional interventions on time lost from work. These programs include education and exercise as well as cognitive behavioural interventions to change pain perception. The assessment of the benefits of back belts for the prevention of back pain is based on results of high quality efficacy as well as effectiveness trials. Their results imply for the otherwise healthy working population no protective effect of back belts on time lost from work due to back pain, on the incidence of painful episodes or on days with impairment by back pain. So far there are no data from controlled trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of "lifting teams" in nursing care to prevent back pain or its consequences. However, results from uncontrolled pilot studies indicate a potential for effectiveness. Among "ergonomic interventions" three different approaches have to be distinguished: interventions addressing changes of the workplace setting, interventions addressing the individual's behaviour and combined interventions. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of setting interventions (modification of the physical workplace environment, changes of production processes, organisational changes yield no dependable results. This conclusion is not based on indifferent trial results but rather on the lack of methodologically sound studies. Results from studies on ergonomic interventions addressing the individual confirm the conclusions drawn for exercise and educational measures. The most marked results are found in trials that examine the effectiveness of combined interventions in high risk groups and contain a strong participatory component. Hardly any of the trials studying the effects of ergonomic interventions satisfied methodological quality criteria that are accepted standard for clinical or public health intervention studies. There were no data allowing firm conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of interventions from any of the categories. Discussion: The significance of the results of the assessment at hand is strongly limited by the comprehensiveness of the questions addressed. Reviewing the literature on the basis of (even systematic review articles impairs the differentiated examination of the role of target groups, program contents, application and duration, effect sizes and context factors. While the methodological quality of the review articles is quite high, the quality of individual trials (even those included in the review papers is highly variable. While most trials examining preventive interventions addressed at individuals satisfy at least some methodological requirements many studies dealing with setting interventions do not. Conclusions: In conclusion, sound scientific evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment is still quite scarce. Further research should include: * The development of interventions guided by the bio psychosocial model of back pain aetiology that combines individual prevention as well as measures addressing the workplace environment. * The integration of results from basic ergonomic research into prevention concepts and the conduct of trials focussing outcomes with relevance to health. * at the workplace setting. * The conduct of qualitative studies to identify factors that impair the effectiveness of prevention programs (e. g. motivation, compliance, people skills. * The integration of cost-effectiveness evaluations into all interventional studies.

  19. Stroke: secondary prevention

    Lip, Gregory YH; Kalra, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    Prevention in this context is the long-term management of people with previous stroke or TIA, and of people at high risk of stroke for other reasons, such as atrial fibrillation. Risk factors for stroke include: previous stroke or TIA; increasing age; hypertension; diabetes; cigarette smoking; and emboli associated with atrial fibrillation, artificial heart valves, or MI.

  20. Prevention as Public Policy.

    Reno, Janet

    2002-01-01

    The former United States Attorney General articulated her vision of how our communities can act in creative ways to choose prevention instead of prisons for our troubled children and youth at the Spirit of Crazy Horse Award Ceremony held July 1, 2001, in Custer, South Dakota. (Author)

  1. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  2. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.). PMID:25287552

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America

    ... 24-hours a day, 7 days a week online at www.cybertipline.com National Runaway Safeline Childrens Bureau/ACYF A listing of State toll-free numbers for specific agencies to receive and investigate reports of suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America ( ...

  4. Oral Cancer Prevention

    ... South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head and neck cancer A personal history of head and neck cancer ... smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins , minerals , or food ... New ways to prevent oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are being studied in clinical ...

  5. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  6. Prevention of nuclear war

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  7. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child

    Bang, D.; Herlin, T.; Stegger, M.; Torkko, P.; Tortoli, E.; Thomsen, V.O.; Andersen, Åse Bengård

    presence of a Mycobacterium species. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the hsp65 and rpoB genes revealed that strain T1921(T) could be differentiated from all recognized species of the genus Mycobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene...... indicated that strain T1921(T) was related most closely to Mycobacterium intracellulare, whereas analysis based on the ITS and hsp65 and rpoB genes indicated that it was most closely related to Mycobacterium avium. Phenotypic tests were not able to differentiate strain T1921(T) from similar slowly growing...... mycobacteria. Strain T1921(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T1921(T) (=DSM 45069(T) =ATCC BAA-1401(T)) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  8. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2008-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

  9. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget; Brown, Rebecca; Briend, Andr; Frize, Jacqueline; Shoham, Jeremy; Kiess, Lynnda

    undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...... of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific...

  10. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references

  11. Preventing chronic postoperative pain.

    Reddi, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is common. Nerve injury and inflammation promote chronic pain, the risk of which is influenced by patient factors, including psychological characteristics. Interventional trials to prevent chronic postoperative pain have been underpowered with inadequate patient follow-up. Ketamine may reduce chronic postoperative pain, although the optimum treatment duration and dose for different operations have yet to be identified. The evidence for gabapentin and pregabalin is encouraging but weak; further work is needed before these drugs can be recommended for the prevention of chronic pain. Regional techniques reduce the rates of chronic pain after thoracotomy and breast cancer surgery. Nerve-sparing surgical techniques may be of benefit, although nerve injury is not necessary or sufficient for chronic pain to develop. PMID:26620149

  12. Preventing HIV infection.

    Coates, T J; Collins, C

    1998-07-01

    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  13. Gene Therapy

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  14. Trichoderma genes

    Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  15. FRAUD PREVENTION SOLUTIONS

    АЛИБЕКОВА Ю.К.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, business ethics and integrity of top managers and employees are often under a big question, so we cannot rely on them. Non-compliant behavior of top management and employees related to fraud and corrupt practices lead to huge financial losses, loss of reputation and litigations. Incidents of internal fraud and embezzlement are happening in every business imaginable. Fraud prevention solutions we recommend are the fundamental for corporate financial compliance. All stakeholders must...

  16. Preventive health services: Immunization.

    1983-01-01

    The seven major childhood infectious diseases-measles, mumps, rubella, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus-can cause permanent disability and, in some cases, death. They all can be prevented by immunization, but prior to the National Childhood Immunization Initiative of 1977 more than a third of all children under age 15 were not properly protected. And even though vaccines are now available to reduce the risk of influenza, hepatitis B, and pneumococcal pneumonia, many high risk patient...

  17. Adhesion prevention in myomectomy.

    Pal, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Adhesions are abnormal fibrous connections, joining tissue surfaces in abnormal locations. Adhesions form after any trauma involving the peritoneum and the injured tissue surface or directly between the injured tissue surfaces. The ideal anti-adhesion agent should be safe, efficacious, easy to use in all types of surgery, and economical. It should prevent adhesions at the site of surgery as well as throughout the peritoneal cavity. Needless to say, the ideal agent is still elusive. PMID:22442530

  18. Prevention of occupational asthma.

    Galdi, E; Moscato, G

    2002-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is a type of bronchial asthma due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment. It is the most prevalent occupational lung disease in industrialized countries, accounting for approximately 5% of asthma in adults. Since OA has important medical, social and economic consequences, its prevention is mandatory, and the most important measure is primary prevention at the workplace. Control of environmental exposure can be realized by completely eliminating the causative substances, or, failing that, by reducing exposure to the lowest practicable levels. This goal may be achieved in a variety of ways, e.g. by automation of a process, improvement of ventilation, modification of the process or agents, and use of personal protection devices. However, the control of environmental exposure presents several difficulties. First of all, exposure levels that favour respiratory sensitization to high molecular weight (HMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) agents are not completely defined. There is a critical need for the development of methods able to quantify the airbone levels of sensitizing agents at the workplace and to establish limits of exposure for respiratory sensitization. Development of assays (e.g. immunochemical assays) able to quantify airbone allergen levels should facilitate determination both of exposure-response relationships and of exposure limits for preventing respiratory sensitization and development of OA. Quantification of risk at the workplace is also often rough and based on indirect markers of exposure. At present, the target for an optimal approach to the primary prevention of OA is the development of methods able to evaluate both the sensitizing and the asthmogenic properties of the substances before their introduction in the work environment. PMID:12619387

  19. Prevention of criticality accidents

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)

  20. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Catherine M. Crespi; ZWAHLEN, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice P. A.; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011).Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVES Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for:1. an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? and2...

  1. Optimal preventive bank supervision

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  2. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

  3. Preventing ophthalmia neonatorum

    Moore, Dorothy L; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-01-01

    The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection. PMID:25838784

  4. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  5. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1

    Wasiksiri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

  6. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education

  7. Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented? Following a healthy lifestyle and taking ... risk for heart disease may help you prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). These steps include: Following a heart healthy ...

  8. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  9. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare ...

  10. Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

    ... Prevention Text Size Print Bookmark Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention People with diabetes are prone to having ... complication is so severe that surgery, and occasionally amputation, may become necessary. Poor blood flow. In diabetes, ...

  11. Early prevention of obesity

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  12. European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN)

    Klima, Noel; Bislev, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The European Crime Prevention Network (EUCPN) was set up by Council Decision 2009/902/JHA on 30 November 2009 repealing the establishing Council Decision 2001/427/JHA. The Network consists of a Board and a permanent Secretariat as well as contact points which are designated by each Member State. The European Crime Prevention Network contributes to developing the various aspects of crime prevention at the Union level, taking account of the European Union crime preventive strategy, and supports...

  13. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  14. Risk and Prevention of Aspergillosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  15. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartlnder, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  16. Accident prevention programme

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  17. Preventing medical device recalls

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  18. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH)

  19. Gene Silencing

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Juříček, Miloslav; Hall, T.C.

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2010 - (Jain, S.; Brar, D.), s. 631-652 ISBN 978-90-481-2966-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Gene Silencing * RISC complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    ... and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating and ... you. Return to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime of ...

  1. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  2. Toward suicide prevention.

    Rao, V A

    1999-10-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustration, unemployement and poor parenting are major causes for youth suicide.There is biological evidence of suicidal behaviour. Fall in the level of serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CSF and in hind brain is found in subjects dying from suicide. Researchers have found decreased melatonin level in depression and suicide attempters. Long term therapy with antidepressants (Tricyclics), mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and new SSRIs prevent relapses and lessen suicide. It was concluded that general hospital doctors are in position of reducing suicide rates. Education of physician in detection of depression and suicide prevention will result in decline in number of suicides. The important measures include limiting the ability of methods of self-harm, antidepressants, paracetamol and insecticides. PMID:21430799

  3. Prevention of foodborne listeriosis

    Rebagliati Victoria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including elderly and immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, newborns and infants. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicemia or meningitis. Contaminated meats (such as hot dogs, delicatessen meats and pat?, dairy products and seafood have all been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly because listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness, ranking second after salmonellosis. L. monocytogenes emerged as an important foodborne pathogen in the latter part of the 20th century. Extensive work has been performed in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. An important reduction occurred in listeriosis incidence in some of these countries during the 90s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and incidence decrease of human listeriosis.

  4. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  5. The Diabetes Prevention Program

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a 27-center randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of interventions that may delay or prevent development of diabetes in people at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligibility requirements were age ≥25 years, BMI ≥24 kg/m2 (≥22 kg/m2 for Asian-Americans), and impaired glucose tolerance plus a fasting plasma glucose of 5.3–6.9 mmol/l (or ≤6.9 mmol for American Indians). Randomization of participants into the DPP over 2.7 years ended in June 1999. Baseline data for the three treatment groups—intensive lifestyle modification, standard care plus metformin, and standard care plus placebo—are presented for the 3,234 participants who have been randomized. RESULTS Of all participants, 55% were Caucasian, 20% were African-American, 16% were Hispanic, 5% were American Indian, and 4% were Asian-American. Their average age at entry was 51 ± 10.7 years (mean ± SD), and 67.7% were women. Moreover, 16% were DPP has successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, obesity, and ethnic and racial backgrounds who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The study will examine the effects of interventions on the development of diabetes. PMID:11092283

  6. Human germline gene therapy reconsidered.

    Resnik, D B; Langer, P J

    2001-07-20

    This paper reevaluates the notion of human germline gene therapy (HGLGT) in light of developments in biomedicine, biotechnology, and ethical and policy analysis. The essay makes the following key points. First, because the distinction among "therapy," "prevention," and "enhancement" is not clear in human genetics, "gene therapy" is an inadequate descriptor of the process and goals of germline genetic alterations. The alternate use of the phrase "human germline genome modification" (HGLGM) could avoid a misleading label. Second, procedures that could be construed as genetic "enhancement" may not be as morally problematic as some have supposed, once one understands that the boundaries between therapy, prevention, and enhancement are not obvious in genetic medicine. Third, HGLGM might be the medically and morally most appropriate way of avoiding the birth of a child with a genetic disease in only a small range of cases. Fourth, there are still many ethical and scientific problems relating to the safety and efficacy of HGLGM. PMID:11485636

  7. Preventing pediatric cardiomyopathy: a 2015 outlook.

    Kantor, Paul F; Kleinman, Jake A; Ryan, Thomas D; Wilmot, Ivan; Zuckerman, Warren A; Addonizio, Linda J; Everitt, Melanie D; Jefferies, John L; Lee, Teresa M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Wilkinson, James D; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2016-03-01

    Cardiomyopathies in children encompass a broad range of diseases, both genetic and acquired, which manifest as a primary cardiac disorder or as a cardiomyopathy secondary to systemic disease. The burden of this group of disorders is substantial, and growing on a global scale. The availability of disease altering treatments is limited, and therefore a focused review on the prevention of cardiomyopathies is justified. In this review, we address the prevention of cardiomyopathy in children by dealing with the root causes of disease at a molecular, clinical and population level. Recent years have yielded promising returns in basic research related to gene-targeted therapy, specific anti-viral therapies and modification of the effects of cardiotoxic drugs. Much work remains to be done in the fields of vaccine development, public health and adoption of available treatments. Effective research in this field will require that diagnostic methods are both refined, and made available more broadly, from imaging to gene testing. Much of our knowledge today is derived from the use of registries, which have successfully catalogued the detailed phenotype of affected patients, and provided long-term longitudinal follow up of affected individuals. PMID:26645487

  8. Genomics screens for metastasis genes

    Yan, Jinchun; Huang, Qihong

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer mortality. The process of metastasis is complex, requiring the coordinated expression and fine regulation of many genes in multiple pathways in both the tumor and host tissues. Identification and characterization of the genetic programs that regulate metastasis is critical to understanding the metastatic process and discovering molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of metastasis. Genomic approaches and functional genomic analyses can syst...

  9. Preventing undernutrition in Cambodia

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick

    and propose a need for further studies from low-income countries on how nutrition intake influence body composition, but also how changes in body composition in early life influence growth, development and long term health. In Paper III, we assessed the possibilities of using linear programming (LP......The first 1000 days (from conception to 24 months) of a child’s life are critical for long-term mental and physical development. This period is clearly marked as the optimal period of preventing malnutrition and named the “window of opportunity”. The first phase of complementary feeding (about 6......-12 months) is the most critical. This is the transitional phase when solid foods gradually start to replace breast milk. The typical diet of complementary food in low-income countries is dominated by a single starch-rich staple, with little vegetables and fruits and few or no animal source foods (ASF). This...

  10. Prevention of skateboard injuries.

    Morgan, W J; Galloway, D J; Patel, A R

    1980-01-01

    Skateboarding has become extremely popular in the United Kingdom, and it is estimated that over two million skateboards have been sold. Previous surveys have shown the dangers of the sport, fractures of the limbs being a particularly common form of injury. Consequently the provision of skateboard parks and the wearing of adequate protective clothing were considered necessary to reduce to severity of the injuries sustained. Our survey does not support this view, and suggests that fractures are more likely to occur in people with full protective clothing and skating in a park. The reasons for this are discussed. It is also suggested that expert instruction in the use of the skateboard has been neglected as a means of accident prevention. PMID:7209497

  11. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    involve the citizens in the decision making process? Legislation in itself is not enough. A cultural change within society may need to be encouraged. Again, access to participation requires access to land information. Comprehensive planning at local level supported by citizen participation should also......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making....... This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land...

  12. Protective and preventative measures

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF BLAST RESISTANCE GENE PI-TA IN THE USDA RICE CORE COLLECTION

    The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) prevents the infection by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea (causal organism of rice blast) isolates containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita in a gene-for-gene manner. Pi-ta has been effectively used for blast control over decades in the U...

  14. Prevention of the hemoglobinopathies

    Dimitris Loukopoulos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The inherited hemoglobin disorders not only cause suffering and unhappiness to the patients but they also absorb a large part of resources and human effort in several countries which harbor the deleterious genes. Numbers are frightening! Africa, with several millions patients with sickle cell anemia; India with millions of patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, South East Asia with more millions of patients with hemoglobin E and a- or b-thalassemia. The offered treatment is suboptimal or nil and, and, in several places, patients are dying at infancy not only because of their hemoglobinopathy but mainly because of infections and malaria; in this way, nature took care of her own faults and eliminated them before they enter productive life...

  15. Gene Expression in Bone

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  16. [Prevention of bicycle accidents].

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T

    2015-04-01

    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher Verkehrssicherheitsrat as, e.g., "Helmets are cool". Also, spots in TV should be broadcasted like "The 7th sense" or "Traffic compass", which were warning car drivers many years ago of moments of danger but now they could be used to warn bicyclists of life-threatening situations in traffic. PMID:25874397

  17. Cocaine hydrolase gene therapy for cocaine abuse

    Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid progress in the past decade with re-engineering of human plasma butyrylcholinesterase has led to enzymes that destroy cocaine so efficiently that they prevent or interrupt drug actions in the CNS even though confined to the blood stream. Over the same time window, improved gene-transfer technology has made it possible to deliver such enzymes by endogenous gene transduction at high levels for periods of a year or longer after a single treatment. This article reviews recent advances in th...

  18. Scheduling preventive railway maintenance activities

    Budai-Balke, Gabriella; Huisman, Dennis; Dekker, Rommert

    2004-01-01

    A railway system needs a substantial amount of maintenance. To prevent unexpected breakdowns as much as possible, preventive maintenance is required. In this paper we discuss the Preventive Maintenance Scheduling Problem (PMSP), where (short) routine activities and (long) unique projects have to be scheduled in a certain period. To reduce costs and inconvenience for the travellers and operators, these activities have to be scheduled as much as possible together. We present a mathematical form...

  19. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland

    Lorek, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  20. RIPE: Runtime intrusion prevention evaluator

    Wilander, John; Nikiforakis, Nick; Younan, Yves; Kamkar, Mariam; Joosen, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Despite the plethora of research done in code injection countermeasures, buffer overflows still plague modern software. In 2003, Wilander and Kamkar published a comparative evaluation on runtime buffer overflow prevention technologies using a testbed of 20 attack forms and demonstrated that the best prevention tool missed 50% of the attack forms. Since then, many new prevention tools have been presented using that testbed to show that they performed better, not missing any of the attac...

  1. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Sonja Cindori

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office. The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem ...

  2. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1) avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2) pre...

  3. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  4. Attention Genes

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  5. Antioxidants and Stroke Prevention Management

    Komanapali, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. Many of these strokes can be prevented using a bit of dietary management with dietary, non-supplementary, antioxidants. Vitamins C, B-complex, E, and beta-carotene due their part in stroke prevention by preventing oxidation of LDL and free-radical oxidation in aqueous phase, a mechanism in part responsible for atherosclerotic plaques. Vitamin B12, another antioxidant vitamin, does its part in the equation by preventing hyperhomocysteinemi...

  6. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  7. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  8. Prevention of nuclear war

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  9. LOGY, PREVENTION & CONTROL OF

    Pranab Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rabies is a zoonotic disease and its magnitude of problem is underestimated due to lack of surveillance. In spite of hundred percent fa tality, the optimistic view is that it is totally and absolutely preventable with the aid of effective post-exposure prophylaxis. It is prevalent mainly in the developing countries like Africa and A sia. Wild carnivorous animals act as reservoir and domestic/peridomestic warm blooded ani mals transmit the virus to the human population. It is popularly known as “Hydrophobia” in h uman and children are at particularly risk. More than 3.3 billion people live in regions w here rabies is enzootic. Dog bite is the principal mode of infection in India and lower limb i s the most common site of injury. Ineffective surveillance, shortage of TCV and Immunoglobulin ma nufacturer and its high cost, peoples ignorance of first aid measures after bite and the importance of compliance of PEP, uncontrolled street dog population etc. are the key issues which should be addressed to tackle this problem.

  10. Calcification prevention tablets

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  11. Hydrogen explosion prevention device

    If an emergency core cleaning system is not operated upon loss of coolant accident, temperature of fuels is increased due to after-heat, by which zirconium alloy as the fuel can material and water as coolants react to generate hydrogen. If the inside of the container is replaced with a nitrogen gas, etc., hydrogen is not burnt. Then, as the pressure and the temperature are increased to break the container and the hydrogen gas leaks into nuclear buildings, since the inside of the nuclear buildings is not replaced with the nitrogen gas, there may be a risk of hydrogen gas explosion. In view of the above, water is sprayed to the inside of the nuclear buildings upon occurrence of accidents. Although the hydrogen gas is exploded or burnt with aid of oxygen in air, if moisture is present in the air, explosion or combustion of the hydrogen gas is suppressed. The sprayed water droplets are easily evaporated to increase the moisture content in air thereby enabling to prevent explosion and combustion of the hydrogen gas. (N.H.)

  12. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  13. Preventive self-governance

    Sturloni Giancarlo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”

  14. Crack Cocaine: A Challenge for Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-9.

    DuPont, Robert L., Ed.

    This monograph presents the history and epidemiology of crack cocaine and demonstrates aspects of the drug and its use that are unique in the field of prevention. Problems specific to crack cocaine that require specifically focused prevention strategies are examined and recommendations for a crack cocaine research agenda are provided. Chapter 1

  15. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that

  16. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  17. Preventing rheumatic fever: M-protein based vaccine

    Tandon, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GAS), the organism which initiates rheumatic fever (RF) continues to be sensitive to penicillin. However, penicillin cannot prevent RF if the preceding sore throat is asymptomatic in more than 70 percent children. Prevention of rheumatic fever (RF) may be possible only with the use of a vaccine. Efforts to design a vaccine based on emm gene identification of GAS, M-protein going on for more than 40 years, is unlikely to succeed. M-protein is strain specif...

  18. Translating Models of Antisocial Behavioral Development Into Efficacious Intervention Policy to Prevent Adolescent Violence

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; McCourt, Sandra N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cas...

  19. Can coffee prevent caries?

    Anila Namboodiripad P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society′s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients′ histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.

  20. Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.

    Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.

    The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

  1. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

  2. Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance

    Wilson, Howard D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

  3. Get Real about Diabetes Prevention

    2007-11-01

    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/15/2007.

  4. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy...

  5. Preventing fractures in elderly people

    Woolf, Anthony D; kesson, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    Preventing fractures in elderly people is a priority, especially as it has been predicted that in 20 years almost a quarter of people in Europe will be aged over 65. This article describes the factors contributing to fracture, interventions to prevent fracture, and the various treatments.

  6. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  7. Educating Students in Preventive Counseling.

    Conyne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive set of competencies for counselors doing primary prevention. Describes 10 expanded clusters of skills (primary prevention perspective, personal attributes and behaviors, ethics, marketing, multiculturalism, group facilitation, organization and setting dynamics, trends and political dynamics, and research and evaluation)

  8. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  9. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 Tel: 847-378-0500 ... 65 and older. Sports and recreation- related SCI injuries primarily affect ... 29. SCI prevention is essential to addressing this major public health ...

  10. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown

  11. Two stages of cancer prevention with green tea.

    Fujiki, H

    1999-11-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a new and important medical science in its own right. On the occasion of my presentation entitled "Natural agents and cancer chemoprevention" at the 90th AACR Meeting in 1999, I summarized our recent results on cancer prevention with green tea. In this article, the present status of clinical trials supported by the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute in the United States is first described by way of introduction. Although various natural products are now under investigation in phase I clinical trials, green tea has, perhaps, the greatest potential for further development. In order to expand our understanding of the effects of tea polyphenols and green tea, I review their ability to inhibit growth and cause apoptosis of cancer cells, their distribution into target organs and their other cancer-preventing properties. In addition, the paper focuses on the significance of reducing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) gene expression in cells and TNFalpha release from cells as essential activities for cancer prevention. As for the amounts of green tea effective in cancer prevention, I present two results from our Research Institute: a prospective cohort study with over 8000 individuals in Saitama Prefecture revealed that the daily consumption of at least ten Japanese-size cups of green tea resulted in delayed cancer onset, and a follow-up study of breast cancer patients conducted at our Hospital found that stages I and II breast cancer patients consuming over five cups per day experienced a lower recurrence rate and longer disease-free period than those consuming fewer than four cups per day. Thus, I propose here, for the first time, the two-stage approach to analyzing cancer prevention with green tea: cancer prevention before cancer onset and cancer prevention following cancer treatment. As an additional example of cancer prevention with natural agents, kava, a daily beverage in Fiji, is mentioned. All the evidence reminds us of the significance of alternative medicine in practical cancer prevention. PMID:10541965

  12. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  13. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  14. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  15. Vasohibin prevents arterial neointimal formation through angiogenesis inhibition

    Vasohibin is a VEGF-inducible angiogenesis inhibitor in vascular endothelium. Here we examined the presence of vasohibin in human arterial wall, and found it in endothelium of adventitial microvessels in atherosclerotic lesion. Adventitial angiogenesis is involved in the progression of neointimal formation. Even in the presence of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, pathological angiogenesis persists. However, the supplementation of exogenous angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent pathological angiogenesis. We evaluated the potential role of vasohibin in neointimal formation. Adenovirus-mediated human vasohibin gene transfer in mouse liver resulted in the release of vasohibin in plasma and exhibited anti-angiogenic effects at remote sites. This gene transfer inhibited adventitial angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and neointimal formation after cuff placement on mouse femoral artery. Vasohibin exhibited no direct effect on migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Thus, vasohibin has an activity to prevent neointimal formation by inhibiting adventitial angiogenesis

  16. The first case of cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum

    Zong WK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wenkai Zong,* Xiaodong Zhang,* Hongsheng Wang, Xiu Lian Xu, Qiuling Wang, Weiwei Tian, Ya LI Jin, Qinxue Wu, Meiyu Tang Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The authors present the first, to the best of their knowledge, reported case of cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. A 42-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic reddish papules, nodules, plaques, and patches on the right side of her face and on her forehead that had persisted for 5 years, with the lesions gradually increasing in size over that time. No previous intervening medical treatment had been applied. No history or evidence of immunosuppression was found. A skin biopsy was performed for routine histological examination. Samples of lesioned skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl–Neelsen staining was used to confirm the presence of the organism. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the microtiter plate method. Mycobacterium was identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungus, were also conducted. Routine histopathology revealed granulomatous changes without caseation. Ziehl–Neelsen staining showed that the organisms in both the lesions and the cultures were acid-fast bacilli. The cultured colonies were grown in Löwenstein–Jensen medium and incubated at two different temperatures (32°C and 37°C for 2–3 weeks, developing pigmentation both in the dark and in the light. In vitro drug susceptibility tests showed that the organism was sensitive to clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed that the isolated organisms were M. parascrofulaceum. Fungal and other standard bacterial cultures were negative. In conclusion, identification and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria should be performed promptly to obtain better prognoses. Empirical treatments may be feasible, and drug susceptibility tests are important.Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacteria, skin infection, PCR-RFLP, laboratory diagnosis, therapy

  17. The evolution of gene expression levels in mammalian organs

    Brawand, David; Soumillon, Magali; Necsulea, Anamaria; Julien, Philippe; Csardi, Gabor; Harrigan, Patrick; Weier, Manuela; Liechti, Angelica; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Kircher, Martin; Albert, Frank W.; Zeller, Ulrich; Khaitovich, Philipp; Gruetzner, Frank; Bergmann, Sven; Nielsen, Rasmus; Paeaebo, Svante; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are thought to underlie many of the phenotypic differences between species. However, large-scale analyses of gene expression evolution were until recently prevented by technological limitations. Here we report the sequencing of polyadenylated RNA from six organs across ...

  18. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

  19. Genes and Hearing Loss

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  20. Gene technology and social acceptance.

    Galjaard, H

    1997-03-01

    About 10% of the human genome has now been mapped and for more than 1000 diseases closely linked DNA polymorphisms or the responsible genes have been identified. These developments have extended the scope of (prenatal) diagnosis and carrier detection which already was possible by biochemical analysis of protein defects in some 400 Mendelian disorders. Together with the study of chromosomal aberrations these activities form the basis for genetic counselling and carrier screening programmes. A brief overview of the activities in clinical genetics will be presented and their importance for the prevention of congenital disorders and for informed decisions of couples at risk will be emphasized. Reproductive decisions are, however very closely related to culture, religion, education and the socioeconomic status of individuals and populations. Up to now genetic services have mainly been developed in wealthy postindustrial countries with a low infant mortality. But even among these countries there are major differences in the implementation of gene technology as will be shown by comparisons of the United States, Europe and Japan. In the developing countries where about 95% of the world's future children will be born there are major hindrances in the development of clinical genetics such as poverty, illiteracy of women, low contraceptive use and a high infant mortality. There are, however, examples of developing countries that give high priority to the application of gene technology such as Cuba and China. While the developing countries are struggling to improve their basic health care, research on gene technology in the western countries proceeds fast. The early identification of a particular gene constitution will show whether a young adult is at higher risk of important diseases such as various forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or psychiatric disorders. The therapeutical, preventive, psychological and some ethical aspects of this new era of predictive medicine will be discussed. PMID:9296071

  1. Prevention of adolescent chemical dependency.

    DuPont, R L

    1987-04-01

    Chemical dependency is part of a significant pattern of serious health problems resulting from the breakdown of social control over impulsive, pleasure-driven adolescent behavior. The drug epidemic in North America, after two decades of relentless increases, shows encouraging signs that stopping it may be possible. Chemical dependency prevention became a serious concern in the 1970s in response to the rising drug epidemic. Initial efforts focused on drug-specific education in the mass media and in the schools. After discouraging and even counterproductive results, nonspecific or generic prevention efforts were tried in both areas. These efforts, too, did not prevent drug use or drug problems. More recently, using cigarette smoking prevention initiatives in schools as a model, hopeful results have been achieved. These efforts combine education about immediate negative effects of drug use with training in skills to resist peer pressure to use drugs. These efforts also build youth peer rejection of drug use. Promising a wider community effort to prevent chemical dependency are several macro prevention programs. These include efforts to decrease tolerance for drug use and to identify drug users in four specific areas: families, schools, highways, and the workplace. Chemical dependency can be prevented by a variety of interventions, including one-to-one encounters, school-based skills training, and society-wide initiatives to reject drug use. The teenage years are a time of unique vulnerability to initiation of drug and alcohol use. The clear goal of prevention is to help young people to survive these years without using drugs, including the gateway drugs: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine. The pediatrician can play a vital role in successful prevention activities with patients, with their families, in communities, and in the nation as a whole. PMID:3562105

  2. Melatonin prevents neonatal dexamethasone induced programmed hypertension: histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Wu, Ting-Hsin; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Lin, I-Chun; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by corticosteroid exposure in early life. Oxidative stress, epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the developmental programming of hypertension. We examined whether melatonin prevented neonatal dexamethasone (DEX)-induced programmed hypertension and how melatonin prevented these processes. We also examined whether HDAC inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) had similar effects. Male offspring were assigned to 5 groups (n=6/group): control, DEX, melatonin, DEX+melatonin, and DEX+TSA. Male rat pups were injected i.p. with DEX on day 1 (0.5mg/kg BW), day 2 (0.3mg/kg BW), and day 3 (0.1mg/kg BW) after birth. Melatonin was administered in drinking water at the dose of 0.01% during the lactation period. The DEX+TSA group received DEX and 0.5mg/kg TSA subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week. All rats were killed at 16 weeks of age. Neonatal DEX exposure induced hypertension in male offspring at 16 weeks of age, which melatonin prevented. Neonatal DEX exposure decreased gene expression related to apoptosis, nephrogenesis, RAS, and sodium transporters. Yet DEX treatment increased protein levels of HDAC-1, -2, and -3 in the kidney. Melatonin therapy preserved the decreases of gene expression and decreased HDACs. Similarly, HDAC inhibition prevented DEX-induced programmed hypertension. In conclusion, melatonin therapy exerts a long-term protection against neonatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. Its beneficial effects include alterations of RAS components and inhibition of class I HDACs. Given that the similar protective effects of melatonin and TSA, melatonin might inhibit HDACs to epigenetic regulation of hypertension-related genes to prevent programmed hypertension. PMID:25090636

  3. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis that are channeled through our genes. Where variation in the target genes of physical activity exists, gene-physical activity interactions may occur, such that individual genetic profiles inflict differing physiological responses to...... an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the...... introduce the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2...

  4. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  5. Fracture prevention in postmenopausal women

    Vestergaard, Peter; Mosekilde, Leif; Langdahl, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime risk of fracture in white women is 20% for the spine, 15% for the wrist, and 18% for the hip, with an exponential increase in risk beyond the age of 50 years. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the...... effects of bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of pharmacological treatments other than bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of non-pharmacological treatments to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? We...

  6. Pollution prevention and air quality

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  7. Gene surfing

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Spatially resolved genetic data is increasingly used to reconstruct the migrational history of species. To assist such inference, we study, by means of simulations and analytical methods, the dynamics of neutral gene frequencies in a population undergoing a continual range expansion in one dimension. During such a colonization period, lineages can fix at the wave front by means of a ``surfing'' mechanism [Edmonds C.A., Lillie A.S. & Cavalli-Sforza L.L. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 975-9...

  8. Regulatory and Ethical Issues for Phase I In Utero Gene Transfer Studies

    Strong, Carson

    2011-01-01

    Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical i...

  9. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  10. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  11. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  12. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  13. Preventing the radiological dispersal device

    The paper discusses the IAEA plan of action to protect against nuclear terrorism, the nature of the threat of a radiological dispersal device, international instruments for the prevention of nuclear terrorism, recent progress and perspectives for future action. (author)

  14. Heartworm Prevention in Your Pet

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Heartworm Prevention in Your Pet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... products to choose from to help keep their pets heartworm-free. back to top Heartworm Disease A ...

  15. Exercises to help prevent falls

    ... more even serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ... 661-671. Hile ES, Studenski SA. Instability and falls. In: Duthie EH Jr, Katz, PR, Malone ML, ...

  16. Reducing Stress through Preventive Management.

    Quick, James C.; Quick, Jonathan D.

    1979-01-01

    Two levels of prevention can be used to counter the key stressors of personnel at work; the first deals with organizational techniques and the second with individual techniques such as systematic desensitization, biofeedback, or aerobic exercise. (Author)

  17. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  18. Prevention Agenda Partner Contact Information

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains the partners working on prevention agenda priority and focus areas. The dataset is organized by county, priority area and focus area. Each...

  19. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention Page Content On this page: How does ... How does diet affect the risk of developing kidney stones? Kidney stones can form when substances in the ...

  20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention

    ... infection is to not have sex (i.e., anal, vaginal or oral). Vaccination Vaccines are safe, effective, and recommended ways to prevent hepatitis B and HPV. HPV vaccines for males and females can protect ...

  1. Diabetes Type 2 Prevention Tips

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is a compilation of easy tips to prevent type 2 diabetes. They were compiled from several documents produced by the National Diabetes Education Program...

  2. How Can Angina Be Prevented?

    ... changes and treating related conditions. Making Lifestyle Changes Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent or delay angina and heart disease. To adopt a healthy lifestyle, you can: Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke ...

  3. Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?

    ... Next Topic Can vaginal cancer be found early? Can vaginal cancer be prevented? The best way to ... with an infected area of the body. HPV can be spread during sex – including vaginal intercourse, anal ...

  4. Can Anal Cancer Be Prevented?

    ... cancer? Next Topic How is anal cancer found? Can anal cancer be prevented? Since some people with ... this disease completely. But there are things you can do that might lower your risk of anal ...

  5. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented?

    ... Next Topic Can Kaposi sarcoma be found early? Can Kaposi sarcoma be prevented? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is ... cases of KS in this country. Since HIV can be spread through sex, avoiding unprotected sex with ...

  6. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    ... and parasites that can cause diseases like chikungunya, dengue, Zika, and malaria. If you are traveling to an area where malaria is found, talk to your healthcare provider about malaria prevention medication that may be available. Protect yourself and ...

  7. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning about ... gov] Top of page How can knowing about genetics help treat disease? Every year, more than two million Americans have ...

  8. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  9. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    ... Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... years--especially among health care workers. What is latex? In this pamphlet, the term "latex" refers to ...

  10. Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers Language: English Español ...

  11. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning ... gov] Top of page How can knowing about genetics help treat disease? Every year, more than two ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home and ...

  13. Pollution Prevention (P2) Widget

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The P2 (Pollution Prevention) Widget allows the user to retrieve information on reductions in waste generation, safer waste management alternatives, and effective...

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Arrhythmia

    ... treatment plan. Treatment goals Prevent blood clots from forming to reduce stroke risk Control your heart rate ... treat arrhythmia can also cause arrhythmia. Your healthcare team will monitor you carefully if you're taking ...

  15. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, ... Prevention (CDC) urge people to always: Wear a seat belt when driving or riding in a car ...

  16. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    ... Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Preventing ticks on your pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! Kill Ticks on Dogs A pesticide product that kills ticks ...

  17. Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.

    Ten Have, Marieke

    2014-04-01

    Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. PMID:24810191

  18. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    ... a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2016 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/8/2016 Article Body More American children are competing in sports than ever before. Sports help children and adolescents ...

  19. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  20. Ex vivo gene transfer into hepatocytes.

    Wang, Xia; Mani, Prashant; Sarkar, Debi P; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2009-01-01

    Ex vivo gene transfer into hepatocytes could serve several purposes in the context of gene therapy or cell transplantation: (1) isolated hepatocytes can be transduced in culture with therapeutic genes and then transplanted into the recipient; (2) marker genes can be introduced for subsequent identification of transplanted cells and their progeny; (3) gene transfer can be used for conditional immortalization of hepatocytes for expansion in culture; (4) immunomodulatory genes can be transferred into hepatocytes to prevent allograft rejection. Gene transfer into cultured hepatocytes can be achieved using DNA that is not incorporated into recombinant viruses. In such systems, transgene integration into the host cell genome can be enhanced using transposon systems, such as "sleeping beauty." In addition to using the conventional reagents, such as cationic liposomes, DNA transfer into hepatocytes can be achieved by Nucleofection or special hepatocyte-targeted carriers such as proteoliposomes containing galactose-terminated glycoproteins (e.g. the F protein of the Sendai virus). Alternatively, genes can be transferred using recombinant viruses, such as adenoviral vectors that are episomal or retroviral vectors (including lentiviruses) that permit integration of the transgene into the host genome. Gene transfer using lentiviral vectors has been achieved in both attached and suspended hepatocytes. Transduction efficiency of lentiviral vectors can be enhanced using magnetic nanoparticles (Magnetofection). PMID:19096805

  1. Composition for preventing salt depositing

    Mikhaylov, S.A.; Balakin, V.M.; Lezhenin, V.V.; Litvinets, Yu.I.; Marinin, N.S.; Talankin, V.S.; Yaryshev, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for preventing salt depositing which includes polyethylene-polyamine-N-methyl phosphonic acid or its salt and water. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the degree of prevention of the salt depositing under low temperature conditions, it additionally contains ethylene glycol with the following ratio of components (% by mass): polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid or its salt 5-12; ethylene glycol 30-50; water--the rest.

  2. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  3. Fish Oil in Cardiovascular Prevention

    Alaswad, Khaldoon; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V; O'Keefe, James H.

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits of fish oil have been touted for several decades. The authors review evidence from epidemiologic, retrospective, and controlled prospective clinical trials demonstrating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for the prevention of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke in primary and especially secondary prevention settings. Fish oil's efficacy in reducing total mortality and sudden cardiac death appears particularly promising, pro...

  4. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  5. Preventing Relapse Following Smoking Cessation

    Collins, Susan E; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kirouac, Megan; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Long-term smoking cessation can drastically reduce peoples risk for developing smoking-related disease. The research literature points to a need for clearer operationalization and differentiation between smoking cessation and relapse prevention interventions and outcomes. That said, extensive meta-analyses and research studies have indicated that there are various efficacious smoking interventions that can both support s...

  6. Molecular evolution and strong selective sweep at the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta during crop domestication

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively deployed worldwide to prevent the infection by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene for gene specificity. The genomic region spanning Pi-ta and six flanking genes in 157 rice accessions composed of seven Oryza species including US and Asian culti...

  7. Pollution prevention through productivity improvement

    Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Ketzenberger, C.K.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented from 50 1996-98 Colorado State University Industrial Assessment Center (CSU IAC) industrial assessments at small and medium-size manufacturing plants. The assessments were conducted by engineering faculty and students associated with the CSU IAC. Each assessment includes a full-day plant visit and follow-up engineering and economic analyses of data pertaining to plant operations. Assessment reports provide recommendations for implementation of practices that can conserve energy, reduce waste, and improve productivity. Results from the 50 assessments demonstrate that recommended productivity improvement practices can also prevent formation of wastes and polluting emissions. A total of 61 productivity improvement recommendations were made, 14 of which provide pollution prevention with concomitant, quantifiable cost savings. Such cost savings are associated with improving management of raw materials, reducing generation of off-specification product, recycling cooling water, improving inspection and testing procedures, reducing batch sizes, and upgrading production equipment. For the 14 productivity improvement recommendations with pollution prevention benefits, the annual cost savings due to pollution prevention are $502,140, whereas the total annual cost savings for the 14 recommendations are $1,484,310. In other words, 34% of the cost savings for these productivity improvement recommendations is attributable to pollution prevention. The results thus demonstrate that improving productivity in manufacturing operations can prevent formation of wastes and polluting emissions.

  8. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  9. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine.

    Hall, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques. PMID:26876625

  10. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N.; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Discussion Obesity prevention research since the 1970’s represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet an...

  11. Multiple-genome comparison reveals new loci for Mycobacterium species identification.

    Dai, Jianli; Chen, Yuansha; Dean, Susan; Morris, J Glenn; Salfinger, Max; Johnson, Judith A

    2011-01-01

    To identify loci useful for species identification and to enhance our understanding of the population structure and genetic variability of the genus Mycobacterium, we conducted a multiple-genome comparison of a total of 27 sequenced genomes in the suborder of Corynebacterineae (18 from the Mycobacterium genus, 7 from the Corynebacterium genus, 1 each from the Nocardia and Rhodococcus genera). Our study revealed 26 informative loci for species identification in Mycobacterium. The sequences from these loci were used in a phylogenetic analysis to infer the evolutionary relations of the 18 mycobacterial genomes. Among the loci that we identified, rpoBC, dnaK, and hsp65 were amplified from 29 ATCC reference strains and 17 clinical isolates and sequenced. The phylogenetic trees generated from these loci show similar topologies. The newly identified dnaK locus is more discriminatory and more robust than the widely used hsp65 locus. The length-variable rpoBC locus is the first intergenic locus between two protein-encoding genes being used for mycobacterial species identification. A multilocus sequence analysis system including the rpoBC, dnaK, and hsp65 loci is a robust tool for accurate identification of Mycobacterium species. PMID:21048007

  12. Identificao de micobactrias no tuberculosas isoladas de stios estreis em pacientes em um hospital universitrio na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Simone Gonalves Senna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactrias no tuberculosas (MNT isoladas de stios estreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitrio Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2001 e 2006. MTODOS: Durante o perodo do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de stios estreis de 14 pacientes, a maioria HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificao fenotpica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, anlise por enzimas de restrio por PCR do gene hsp65. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores propores. CONCLUSES: A combinao de PRA, um mtodo relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas caractersticas fenotpicas pode fornecer a identificao correta de MNT na rotina de laboratrios clnicos.OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites of 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA. RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

  13. Identificao de micobactrias no tuberculosas isoladas de stios estreis em pacientes em um hospital universitrio na cidade do Rio de Janeiro / Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Simone Gonalves, Senna; Ana Grazia, Marsico; Gisele Betzler de Oliveira, Vieira; Luciana Fonseca, Sobral; Philip Noel, Suffys; Leila de Souza, Fonseca.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactrias no tuberculosas (MNT) isoladas de stios estreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitrio Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2001 e 2006. MTODOS: Durante o perodo do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de stios estreis de 14 pacientes, a maior [...] ia HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificao fenotpica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, anlise por enzimas de restrio por PCR do gene hsp65). RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores propores. CONCLUSES: A combinao de PRA, um mtodo relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas caractersticas fenotpicas pode fornecer a identificao correta de MNT na rotina de laboratrios clnicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites o [...] f 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

  14. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  15. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior.

  16. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    ... Abuse Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  17. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    ... NIOSH Home Workplace Safety & Health Topics Share Compartir Safety & Prevention Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) Agricultural Safety and Injury Prevention Anthropometry Buy Quiet Cancer - NIOSH ...

  18. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Sonja Cindori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  19. Sources of pollution prevention information

    Grulich, M.M. [Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention success is dependent on finding information that responds to an organization`s needs, but accessing information on pollution prevention can be challenging. Because pollution prevention programs must be tailored to respond to an organization`s technical needs, physical site restrictions, and culture, generic, readily accessible solutions are unusual. Fortunately, over the past few years a wide and growing network of support has developed for those investigating pollution prevention options. These sources range from federal, state, and local government agencies to academic research centers and private consultants. Information available varies from one source to another. Programs offer everything from where and how to start a program to applications of complicated chemistries that enhance process efficiency. Sources of information are provided in this chapter. The tables are provided as an overview of the types of sources generally available. Most of the sources listed in this chapter should be able to provide general information on pollution prevention or, at a minimum, provide a referral to an organization or materials that respond to a general request for information.

  20. Prevention of diseases after menopause.

    Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J

    2014-10-01

    Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium. PMID:24969415

  1. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  2. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    Dehran Swart

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ?non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ?offers many advantages especially its comparatively low cost to produce it poses two major risks of ?injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ?fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ?discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ?multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ?and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ?successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ?initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.?

  3. Prevention of HIV among adolescents.

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; O'Keefe, Z; Kracker, R; Foo, H H

    2000-03-01

    Adolescents are at risk for HIV primarily through their sexual behavior. A comprehensive prevention strategy includes a national HIV campaign based on social marketing principles; targeted social marketing, intensive skill building, and sexually transmitted disease control programs for youth at high risk; programs targeting institutions (e.g., school health clinics), providers, and parents; and interventions to identify and reduce risk acts among seropositive youth. The U.S. focus for HIV prevention has been single-session educational classes (an ineffective strategy) or intensive multi-session, small-group interventions for youth at high risk (demonstrated to increase condom use by about 30%). There is a need to expand the range, modalities, and dissemination of HIV prevention programs nationally, to recognize (especially by policymakers) limitations of abstinence programs, and to increase early detection of HIV among youth. PMID:11507791

  4. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  5. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Gene gymnastics

    Vijayachandran, Lakshmi S; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Edelweiss, Evelina; Gupta, Kapil; Maier, Josef; Gordeliy, Valentin; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Berger, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Most essential activities in eukaryotic cells are catalyzed by large multiprotein assemblies containing up to ten or more interlocking subunits. The vast majority of these protein complexes are not easily accessible for high resolution studies aimed at unlocking their mechanisms, due to their low cellular abundance and high heterogeneity. Recombinant overproduction can resolve this bottleneck and baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS) have emerged as particularly powerful tools for the provision of eukaryotic multiprotein complexes in high quality and quantity. Recently, synthetic biology approaches have begun to make their mark in improving existing BEVS reagents by de novo design of streamlined transfer plasmids and by engineering the baculovirus genome. Here we present OmniBac, comprising new custom designed reagents that further facilitate the integration of heterologous genes into the baculovirus genome for multiprotein expression. Based on comparative genome analysis and data mining, we herein present a blueprint to custom design and engineer the entire baculovirus genome for optimized production properties using a bottom-up synthetic biology approach. PMID:23328086

  7. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  8. [Prevention and treatment of stress].

    Netterstrøm, Bo

    2012-01-23

    Prevention of stress should address the stressors and factors which modify the effect of these. At the community level legislation and agreements on the labour market are important tools. At the enterprise level policies to reduce stress and monitoring the psychosocial work environment has the first priority in prevention. Treatment of stress is often a long-term process involving diagnostic assessment, psycho-education and counselling. The Danish National Board of Health has published recommendations to both general practitioners and the public in this area. PMID:22277366

  9. Evaluation of Preventive Studies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Myesser Sayki Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45

  10. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  11. Extension of Type 2 Diabetes Genome-Wide Association Scan Results in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Moore, Allan F.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Saxena, Richa; Pollin, Toni I.; Franks, Paul W.; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C; Altshuler, David Matthew; Florez, Jose Carlos; Hanson, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Genome-wide association scans (GWASs) have identified novel diabetes-associated genes. We evaluated how these variants impact diabetes incidence, quantitative glycemic traits, and response to preventive interventions in 3,548 subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), which examined the effects of lifestyle intervention, metformin, and troglitazone versus placebo. Research Design and Methods: We genotyped selected single nucleotide p...

  12. Beyond BRCA: new hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    Economopoulou, P; Dimitriadis, G; Psyrri, A

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases might be inheritable, up to 30% of which are due to BRCA1/2 mutations. During the past few years and thanks to technology evolution, we have been witnesses of an intensive search of additional genes with similar characteristics, under the premise that successful gene discovery will provide substantial opportunities for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. Consequently, new genes have emerged as breast cancer susceptibility genes, including rare germline mutations in high penetrant genes, such as TP53 and PTEN, and more frequent mutations in moderate penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM and PALB2. This review will summarize current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes. PMID:25467110

  13. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  14. Automated System Programs Preventive Maintenance.

    Locke, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    A preventive maintenance system provides for the monitoring and inspection of school building elements in a programmed way through an automatic checklist. Utility cost savings are expected along with reduction of travel and wait time, and measurable standards of performance for all maintenance and repair work. (MLF)

  15. Athlete's Foot: How to Prevent

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Athlete's foot: How to prevent Despite the name, athlete’s foot can happen to anyone. It is a common ... a swimming pool deck or locker room. Athlete’s foot can result in flaky skin, cracking, and itchiness ...

  16. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  17. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  18. Prevention: What You Can Do

    ... of insulin. Insulin tells the body to remove sugar from the blood. People with diabetes either don't make enough insulin, can't use their own insulin as well as they should, or both. Obesity is excess body fat. Prevent or Treat Your ...

  19. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  20. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    ... such as the skin on the genital or anal area. Still, condoms do provide some protection against HPV, and they also protect against HIV and some ... cancers. They are also approved to help prevent anal and genital warts, as well ... cancers. More HPV vaccines are being developed and tested. For more ...

  1. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  2. Adolescent Attitudes and Prevention Strategies.

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    An alcohol misuse prevention study (AMPS) curriculum was developed, implemented, and evaluated with over 5,000 fifth and sixth grade students. The AMPS program, emphasizing peer resistance skills, focused on the immediate effects of alcohol, risks of alcohol misuse, and social pressures to misuse alcohol. Schools were randomly assigned to…

  3. [Nutritional factors in preventing osteoporosis].

    Martn Jimnez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martn Jimnez, Mara Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products. PMID:26267775

  4. [Neonatal sepsis: new preventive strategies].

    Stronati, M; Bollani, L; Maragliano, R; Ruffinazzi, G; Manzoni, P; Borghesi, A

    2013-02-01

    More than one million neonatal deaths every year in the world are attributable to infection. In nurseries, infections occur with a reported incidence of 0.3-3%; in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) the reported incidence is 7-24.5%, and up to 40% in newborns with birth weight less than 1000 g or gestational age at birth <28 weeks. Sepsis is the most severe and frequent infection, accounting for 45-55% of all infections. Several practices have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of infection in NICUs, including hand hygiene practices, correct management of central venous catheters (CVC), accurate diagnostic strategies and correct use of antimicrobial drugs. Despite the reduction in the incidence of infection after implementation of these practices, nosocomial infections are still a relevant problem, with high mortality and morbidity rates in hospitalized newborns, especially preterm newborns. Searching for new strategies to further reduce the incidence of nosocomial sepsis in NICUs is a priority of clinical research. New and promising strategies for the prevention of nosocomial infection in NICU include: lactoferrin administration, early identification of infants at risk of infection by means of specific markers (e.g. mannose binding lectin), heparin use for the prevention of CVC-related infections, judicious use of antibiotics, and prevention of fungal sepsis with antifungal agents. On the contrary, recent studies demonstrated that the use of specific immunoglobulins directed against different staphylococcal antigens is not effective in preventing neonatal sepsis. PMID:23422580

  5. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical integrity. Discussion and conclusions: The assessment of clinical effectiveness of interventions for fall prevention is complicated by inherent methodological problems (esp. absence of blinding and meaningful clinical heterogeneity of available studies. Therefore meta-analyses are not appropriate, and single study results are difficult to interpret. Both problems also impair the informative value of economic analyses. With this background it has to be stated that current recommendations regarding fall prevention in the elderly are not fully supported by scientific evidence. In particular, for the generation of new recommendations the dependency of probable effects on specific characteristics of the target populations or care settings should be taken into consideration. This also applies to the variable factors influencing the willingness of the target population to take up and pursue preventive measures. In the planning of future studies equal weight should be placed on methodological rigour (freedom from biases and transferability of results into routine care. Economic analyses require input of German data, either in form of a “piggy back study“ or in form of a modelling study that reflects the structures of the German health care system and is based on German epidemiological and cost data.

  6. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    ... G, Mehta RG. Cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention. Nutrition and Cancer 2001;41(1-2):17-28. [PubMed Abstract] ... risk: findings from case-control studies in Canada. Nutrition and Cancer 1999;34(2):173-184. [PubMed Abstract] McCullough ...

  7. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Prevention

    ... Cook at home more often. Whenever possible, select foods that are low in sodium or have no salt added. Limit sauces, mixes, and "instant" products, including flavored rice and ready-made pasta. ...

  9. Prevention

    ... 75 with at least 10 years life expectancy. Pap smear (gynecologic/pelvic examination) At least every 3 years. ... and older if they have had 3 normal Pap smears up to that age; if never tested before, ...

  10. Prevention

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Practice good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. There ... could be at risk for infection. Practice good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. For ...

  11. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

  12. Eupatilin induces Sestrin2-dependent autophagy to prevent oxidative stress.

    Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Ko, Hae Li; Park, Sang Mi; Byun, Sung Hui; Kang, Keon Wook; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Sang Chan

    2016-05-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyflavone) has many pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. Autophagy is the basic cellular machinery involving the digestion of damaged cellular components. In the present study, we investigated the protection effects of eupatilin against arachidonic acid (AA) and iron-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible. Eupatilin increased cell viability against AA + iron in a concentration-dependent manner and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, AA + iron increased the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins and these changes were prevented by eupatilin. Eupatilin also induced autophagy, as evidenced by the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain3-II and the detection of autophagic vacuoles. Furthermore, the protective effects of eupatilin on mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production were significantly abolished by autophagy inhibitors. Eupatilin also increased the mRNA level of sestrin-2 and its promoter-driven reporter gene activity, which resulted in the up-regulation of sestrin-2 protein. Finally, gene silencing using sestrin-2 siRNA and the ectopic expression of recombinant adenoviral sestrin-2 indicated that sestrin-2 induction by eupatilin was required for autophagy-mediated cytoprotection against AA + iron. Our results suggest that eupatilin activates sestrin-2-dependent autophagy, thereby preventing oxidative stress induced by AA + iron. PMID:27015669

  13. Multiple genes encode the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii

    Kovacs, J A; Powell, F; Edman, J C; Lundgren, B; Martinez, Angel Ricardo; Drew, B; Angus, C W

    1993-01-01

    antigen is a good candidate for development as a vaccine to prevent or control P. carinii infection. We have cloned and sequenced seven related but unique genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein of rat P. carinii. Partial amino acid sequencing confirmed the identity of these genes. Based on Southern...... hydrophobic region at the carboxyl terminus. The presence of multiple related msg genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein of P. carinii suggests that antigenic variation is a possible mechanism for evading host defenses. Further characterization of this family of genes should allow the development of...

  14. Stochastic gene expression modeling with Hill function for switch-like gene responses.

    Kim, Haseong; Gelenbe, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression models play a key role to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation whose aspects are grade and switch-like responses. Though many stochastic approaches attempt to explain the gene expression mechanisms, the Gillespie algorithm which is commonly used to simulate the stochastic models requires additional gene cascade to explain the switch-like behaviors of gene responses. In this study, we propose a stochastic gene expression model describing the switch-like behaviors of a gene by employing Hill functions to the conventional Gillespie algorithm. We assume eight processes of gene expression and their biologically appropriate reaction rates are estimated based on published literatures. We observed that the state of the system of the toggled switch model is rarely changed since the Hill function prevents the activation of involved proteins when their concentrations stay below a criterion. In ScbA-ScbR system, which can control the antibiotic metabolite production of microorganisms, our modified Gillespie algorithm successfully describes the switch-like behaviors of gene responses and oscillatory expressions which are consistent with the published experimental study. PMID:22144531

  15. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork. PMID:22746046

  16. Primary prevention protects public health.

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species. PMID:12562637

  17. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

  18. Identifying Gene Interaction Enrichment for Gene Expression Data

    Zhang, Jigang; Li, Jian; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Gene set analysis allows the inclusion of knowledge from established gene sets, such as gene pathways, and potentially improves the power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, conventional methods of gene set analysis focus on gene marginal effects in a gene set, and ignore gene interactions which may contribute to complex human diseases. In this study, we propose a method of gene interaction enrichment analysis, which incorporates knowledge of predefined gene sets (e.g. gene ...

  19. Equity in prevention and health care

    Lorant, V.; Boland, B.; Humblet, Claire Perrine; Delige, Denise

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing body of evidence about socioeconomic inequality in preventive use, mostly for cancer screening. But as far as needs of prevention are unequally distributed, even equal use may not be fair. Moreover, prevention might be unequally used in the same way as health care in general. The objective of the paper is to assess inequity in prevention and to compare socioeconomic inequity in preventive medicine with that in health care. DESIGN: A cross sectional Heal...

  20. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

  1. Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention

    Hayes Richard J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of effect in some of these trials. In this paper we explore the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy within an RCT. Analysis We used simple quantitative methods to illustrate the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy by assuming a uniform population in terms of sexual behavior and the binomial model for the transmission probability per partnership. At 100% adherence the measured efficacy within an RCT is a reasonable approximation of the true biological efficacy. However, as adherence levels fall, the efficacy measured within a trial substantially under-estimates the true biological efficacy. For example, at 60% adherence, the measured efficacy can be less than half of the true biological efficacy. Conclusion Poor adherence during a trial can substantially reduce the power to detect an effect, and improved methods of achieving and maintaining high adherence within trials are needed. There are currently 12 ongoing HIV prevention trials, all but one of which require ongoing user-adherence. Attention must be given to methods of maximizing adherence when piloting and designing RCTs and HIV prevention programmes.

  2. Prevention of choking among children.

    2010-03-01

    Choking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children, especially those aged 3 years or younger. Food, coins, and toys are the primary causes of choking-related injury and death. Certain characteristics, including shape, size, and consistency, of certain toys and foods increase their potential to cause choking among children. Childhood choking hazards should be addressed through comprehensive and coordinated prevention activities. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) should increase efforts to ensure that toys that are sold in retail store bins, vending machines, or on the Internet have appropriate choking-hazard warnings; work with manufacturers to improve the effectiveness of recalls of products that pose a choking risk to children; and increase efforts to prevent the resale of these recalled products via online auction sites. Current gaps in choking-prevention standards for children's toys should be reevaluated and addressed, as appropriate, via revisions to the standards established under the Child Safety Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, or regulation by the CPSC. Prevention of food-related choking among children in the United States has been inadequately addressed at the federal level. The US Food and Drug Administration should establish a systematic, institutionalized process for examining and addressing the hazards of food-related choking. This process should include the establishment of the necessary surveillance, hazard evaluation, enforcement, and public education activities to prevent food-related choking among children. While maintaining its highly cooperative arrangements with the CPSC and the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration should have the authority to address choking-related risks of all food products, including meat products that fall under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Agriculture. The existing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program of the CPSC should be modified to conduct more-detailed surveillance of choking on food among children. Food manufacturers should design new foods and redesign existing foods to avoid shapes, sizes, textures, and other characteristics that increase choking risk to children, to the extent possible. Pediatricians, dentists, and other infant and child health care providers should provide choking-prevention counseling to parents as an integral part of anticipatory guidance activities. PMID:20176668

  3. Role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in prevention of colon cancer

    Seifalian Alexander M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are important for the proliferation of cancer cells. One of their binding proteins, known as insulin-like growth factor binding protein -4 (IGFBP-4 is well known for its inhibitory action on IGFs in vitro. We assessed the effect of IGFBP-4 in prevention of development of colon cancer in vivo. Methods Nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with HT-29 colon cancer cells and they were also simultaneously injected either gene construct containing mammalian expression vector pcDNA3 with or without IGFBP-4 gene or phosphate buffered saline. The effect was assessed 4 weeks later by evaluating the tumours for mitosis, necrosis, apoptosis, and expressions of IGFBP-4, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Results The results showed that the IGFBP-4 gene therapy did not prevent the tumour establishment but it increased the tumour apoptosis which was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. The IGFBP-4 protein was low in tumours which received IGFBP-4 gene construct which may be due to a feed back mechanism of IGFBP-4 upon its own cells. Conclusion IGFBP-4 gene therapy in the form localised gene transfer did not prevent colon cancer initiation and establishment but it resulted in increased apoptosis and Bax protein expression and a decrease in tumour cellular mitosis

  4. Overweight prevention in adolescents and children (behavioural and environmental prevention

    Haas, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are among others sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between adiposity and socioeconomic deprivation. The lack of interventions (especially preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and studies focusing on this population group is noticeable. Discussion: There are only a few primary studies of high quality on adiposity prevention in children and adolescents. Especially studies which compare different measures are lacking. This holds also true for the economic analysis, which seems logical insofar, as the basis for economic analyses are usually primary studies (preferably randomized controlled trials (RCT due to their evidence level. Studies on interventions geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and towards specific population groups (i. e. the socially disadvantaged are hardly available. Conclusions: There are hardly any primary studies of high quality on adiposity prevention in children and adolescents, especially studies which compare different measures are lacking. Interventions geared towards specific population groups (particularly for the socioeconomically disadvantaged are specifically underrepresented. Establishing such studies is an essential requirement of adiposity prevention. Recommended are a combination of measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and towards specific population groups. Furthermore, it is recommended to systematically register future programs (preferably online in order to be able to draft criteria of success.

  5. Transcriptional Targeting in Cancer Gene Therapy

    Tracy Robson; Hirst, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy has been one of the most exciting areas of therapeutic research in the past decade. In this review, we discuss strategies to restrict transcription of transgenes to tumour cells. A range of promoters which are tissue-specific, tumour-specific, or inducible by exogenous agents are presented. Transcriptional targeting should prevent normal tissue toxicities associated with other cancer treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy. In addition, the specificity of these stra...

  6. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  7. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact on...... acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine), no...

  8. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  9. Preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2007-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and HPV infection is responsible for the development of this cancer. Effective vaccination against HPV represents an opportunity for the control of cervical cancer. The newly licensed preventive HPV vaccine in the US, Gardasil, has both a good safety profile and clinical efficacy against the HPV genotypes from which it was derived. However, this vaccine can only protect against up to 70 to 80% of cervical cancer and also lacks therapeutic efficacy against established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Thus, the future of HPV vaccination needs to focus on the development of a new generation of preventive and therapeutic vaccines that are capable of protecting against most cervical cancers. PMID:18058574

  10. Participation in Universal Prevention Programs.

    Rosenman, Robert; Goates, Scott; Hill, Laura

    2012-01-01

    We analyze family decisions to participate in community-based universal substance-abuse prevention programs through the framework of expected utility theory. Family functioning, which has been shown to be a good indicator of child risk for substance abuse, provides a useful reference point for family decision making. Our results show that well-functioning families (with children at low risk for substance use) should have the lowest incentive to participate, but that high-risk families may also opt out of prevention programs. For programs that are most effective for high-risk youth, this could be a problem. Using data from the Strengthening Families Program and the Washington Healthy Youth Survey, we empirically test the implications of our model and find that at least for one measure of family functioning those families with children most likely to be at risk for substance use are opting out of the program. PMID:23894208

  11. Outpatient burns: prevention and care.

    Lloyd, Emillia C O; Rodgers, Blake C; Michener, Michael; Williams, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Most burn injuries can be managed on an outpatient basis by primary care physicians. Prevention efforts can significantly lower the incidence of burns, especially in children. Burns should be managed in the same manner as any other trauma, including a primary and secondary survey. Superficial burns can be treated with topical application of lotions, honey, aloe vera, or antibiotic ointment. Partial-thickness burns should be treated with a topical antimicrobial agent or an absorptive occlusive dressing to help reduce pain, promote healing, and prevent wound desiccation. Topical silver sulfadiazine is the standard treatment; however, newer occlusive dressings can provide faster healing and are often more cost-effective. Physicians must reevaluate patients frequently after a burn injury and be aware of the indications for referral to a burn specialist. PMID:22230304

  12. A performative definition of waste prevention.

    Corvellec, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    The increasing importance being placed on waste prevention in European waste governance raises the question of how waste prevention is defined in practice. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a sample of fifty-one Swedish waste prevention initiatives with the purpose of identifying which kind of actions are imagined, promoted, and set into motion under the label of waste prevention. The analysis shows that despite their apparent variety, the initiatives in the sample boil down to three main types of actions: raising awareness about the need to prevent waste, increasing material efficiency, and developing sustainable consumption. In contradistinction to the formal definition of waste prevention in the European Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), what emerges from analyzing the initiatives in the sample is a performative definition of waste prevention as something heterogeneous, contradictory, and evolving. Such a definition of waste prevention in practice provides an understanding of the organizational dynamics of waste prevention. PMID:27067425

  13. Autism and Genes

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic

  14. Conflict Prevention and Decentralized Governance

    Grasa, Rafael; Camps, Arnau

    2009-01-01

    Is there a link between decentralized governance and conflict prevention? This article tries to answer the question by presenting the state of the art of the intersection of both concepts. Provided that social conflict is inevitable and given the appearance of new threats and types of violence, as well as new demands for security based on people (human security), our societies should focus on promoting peaceful changes. Through an extensive analysis of the existing literature and the study of...

  15. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  16. Pharmacologic Opportunities for HIV Prevention

    Nicol, MR; Kashuba, ADM

    2010-01-01

    Innovations in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment strategies have resulted in treated HIV-infected patients having life expectancies similar to those of uninfected individuals. Yet the number of individuals capable of HIV transmission is increasing—for every person in whom ARV treatment is initiated, four others are becoming newly infected with HIV. The limited progress with microbicides and vaccines for HIV prevention reinforce the need for a concentrated exploration of the utility of ARVs. Prel...

  17. Vitamin Supplementation in Disease Prevention

    RATKOVIĆ-GUSIĆ, IVA; Bašić-Kes, Vanja; Kes, Petar

    2002-01-01

    Vitamins are chemically unrelated organic compounds or families of organic compounds that are essential for normal metabolism in humans. As vitamins cannot be synthesized by a human body, they have to be taken in small amounts in the diet to prevent metabolic disorders. Vitamins should be distinguished from other .food supplements, minerals and herbs, which are also taken in small amounts as alternatives or supplements to drugs. Mild deficiencies in several vitamins, at levels below those cau...

  18. Strategies for colon cancer prevention

    Bjrk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and is associated with a considerable mortality. Morbidity and thereby mortality can be reduced by using different prevention strategies such as lifestyle interventions and chemoprevention. Endoscopic surveillance of high-risk individuals and population-based endoscopic screening of average-risk individuals enables detection and removal of premalignant lesions (adenomas) as well as presymptomatic detection of cancer. Implementation of cancer detection tests s...

  19. Preventing Teen Pregnancy PSA (:60)

    2015-04-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  20. Claim prevention at reactor facilities

    Why does a radiation worker bring a claim alleging bodily injury from radiation exposure? Natural cancer, fear of radiation induced cancer, financial gain, emotional distress and mental anguish are some reasons for workers' claims. In this paper the author describes what power reactor health physicists are doing to reduce the likelihood of claims by establishing programs which provide sound protection of workers, prevent radiological events, improve workers' knowledge of radiological conditions and provide guidance for radiological incident response

  1. Accident prevention in power plants

    Accident prevention regulations drawn up by the professional associations for thermal power plants (conventional and nuclear) in West Germany are reviewed. An analysis of accidents statistics has shown: 1) for fossil-fuelled power plants, 2620 accidents, i.e. 79.8 accidents per year and per 1000 persons insured; 2) for nuclear power plants, 164 accidents, i.e. 34.1 per year and per 1000 persons insured, which is less than half as much as under 1). (HP)

  2. Candida Infections and Their Prevention

    Kabir, M Anaul; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increased dramatically worldwide due to the increase in immunocompromised patients. For the prevention and cure of candidiasis, several strategies have been adopted at clinical level. Candida infected patients are commonly treated with a variety of antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine. Moreover, early detection and speciation of the fungal agents will play a crucial role for administering appropriate dru...

  3. Peritoneal Metastases: Prevention and Treatment.

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a surgicaly curable disease. It requires multimodality of treatment in Localy advanced and metastatic disease. Molecular markers like RAS mutation has brought in change in the mangement of metastatic disease. Nearly 15 to 20 % presents with peritonieal surface metastasis. The debate continues with systomic vs Cyutoreductive surgery with are without HIPEC. This article highlights management of peritoneal metastasis with special reference to prevention and treatment. PMID:27065703

  4. Mesh reconstruction preventing sacral herniation.

    Junge, K; Krones, C J; Rosch, R; Fackeldey, V; Schumpelick, V

    2003-12-01

    Sacral hernias are uncommon defects developing through the pelvic floor after partial or total sacrectomy. We report on a 29-year-old woman, who has been under our care with a cystic formation after perineosacral resection of a rhabdomyosarcoma and partial sacrectomy. The cystic tumor was resected and a mesh repair performed to prevent sacral herniation. The current literature is summarized; etiology and management recommendations of this rare complication are discussed. PMID:12884083

  5. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  6. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2009-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple he...

  7. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    George William H; Witkiewitz Katie; Hendershot Christian S; Marlatt G Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformul...

  8. Polyspermy prevention: facts and artifacts?

    Dale, Brian; DeFelice, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to open a debate as to whether or not oocytes actively repel supernumerary sperm or in nature final sperm : oocyte ratios are so low that polyspermy preventing mechanisms are not necessary. Before encountering the oocyte, spermatozoa need to be primed, either by environmental factors as in animals exhibiting external fertilization, or by factors from the female reproductive tract, as in mammals. The spermatozoon must then recognize and interact with the outer lay...

  9. Photoprotection and prevention of melanoma.

    Marks, R

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the current position on primary prevention of melanoma, including what is the evidence relating sunlight exposure to the development of melanoma, what forms of photoprotection there are and what are their relative values. There have been increasing incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma in most countries where they are being recorded. The initial approach in many countries has been to develop some form of early detection program in an attempt to diagnose and treat at a curable stage the melanomas that are occurring now. Primary prevention of melanoma is the more long term approach to the problem which many countries are now considering and a number are actively pursuing. Recent concern about stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to the desire for the primary prevention approach. There are epidemiological data associating the risk of melanoma with increased exposure to sunlight in people with fair skin. They show that it is sunlight exposure in childhood and in doses sufficient to cause sunburn remembered many years later, that is particularly associated with risk of melanoma in adulthood. The exact spectrum of radiation in sunlight which is responsible for these tumours is not known, although the ultraviolet range is believed to be most important, particularly UVB but probably also UVA. The approach to photoprotection is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight, not just a single component of it. The natural protection of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens have assumed a major component of primary prevention programs based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion by those people who have a commercial interest in them. These products protect predominantly in the UVB range for which there is a sun protection factor (SPF) grading, as well as having some activity in the UVA range (for which there is not yet a satisfactory grading method). PMID:10417449

  10. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Ilaria Casari; Marco Falasca

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and d...

  11. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  12. Prevention of Hematomas and Seromas

    Bullocks, Jamal; Basu, C. Bob; Hsu, Patrick; Singer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Hematoma and seroma formation in surgical wounds has negative effects on wound healing and subsequent morbidity to patients. This is of particular pertinence in cosmetic procedures in which the patient has chosen to undergo surgery electively. Over the past several decades there has been considerable interest in the use of ancillary techniques to assist in closing wounds and achieving hemostasis to prevent hematoma and seroma formation. These techniques include application of tissue sealants ...

  13. [Secondary prevention after myocardial infarction].

    Vacheron, André; Bounhoure, Jean-Paul

    2007-11-01

    The mortality rate after myocardial infarction fell sharply with the advent of reperfusion methods and the use of efficient antithrombotic and antiischemic drugs. However, new infarcts, heart failure, arrythmias and sudden death remain frequent, especially in the first two years after the initial event. Large clinical studies have defined and validated therapies for secondary prevention, but the recommended measures are not always properly implemented. Patients with and without ST elevation after myocardial infarction share the same pathophysiologic mechanism, namely atherosclerotic plaque rupture or erosion, with different degrees of superimposed thrombosis and distal embolization. Secondary prevention is the same for these two patient categories. Acute coronary syndromes are associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes (new myocardial ischemia, left ventricular dysfunction or sudden death) and require aggressive secondary prevention. However, risks factors such as smoking, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes frequently persist. In addition, medical practice does not always respect consensus guidelines. Early risk stratification is necessary to detect residual myocardial ischemia in viable myocardium. After the acute phase, the prognosis depends on the degree of left ventricular dysfunction and the extent and severity of residual ischemia. Exercise and ambulatory electrocardiography, stress echocardiography, perfusion scintigraphy using vasodilator stress, magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography are all useful for identifying high-risk patients. Secondary prevention should include risk factor management with lifestyle modifications such as weight reduction, a reduction in saturated fats and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids. Smoking cessation is crucial, and regular physical activity (30 min per day at least 5 days a week) is beneficial. Cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to improve exercise tolerance and cardiovascular outcome. PMID:18666472

  14. Preventing large-battery explosions

    Cummins, D.; Pangeri, S. F.

    1980-08-01

    This information circular presents a brief history of the lead-acid battery and describes ways to prevent serious injury from battery explosions when servicing and charging lead-acid batteries, particularly in the surface mining industry. The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, battery maufacturers, and the mining industry have all contributed information as well as recommendations for injury-free handling for this report.

  15. [Secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation].

    Jembrek-Gostović, Mirjana; Jonke, Vladimir; Gostović, Mladen; Heim, Inge

    2009-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease with multifactorial etiology. The risk depends on several, already well-known, risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, stress, etc. Multiple risk factors will increase the risk. The variety of risk factors requires a multidisciplinary approach--a team of different experts guided by a cardiologist who ensures an appropriate rehabilitation program. This should include secondary prevention as an important part of coronary heart disease patient treatment. It is based on the generally accepted medical, professional and scientific principles and long standing international experience. Papers written by experts and published on behalf of the World Health Organization, European Society of Cardiology, European Society of Hypertension, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and other societies, define the basic characteristics of cardiac rehabilitation programes: aims, forms, content, indications and ways of implementing it in order to make it comprehensive, and to help regain the patients' temporarily lost ability to return to normal life and work. The cardiac patient will be fully educated to manage his exercise program and secondary prevention for life. Taking into account the situation that we have in our country, in relation to social structure, demography, legislation and types of health insurance, we would recommend that post-acute coronary syndrome patients undergo a cardiac rehabilitation program, which includes secondary prevention. After the education and rehabilitation program, aimed at individual needs, patients will continue under the guidance of his/her GP, consulting the specialist only when needed. In this way, the positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation will be long lasting. PMID:19681470

  16. New technology for accident prevention

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Unresolved orthology and peculiar coding sequence properties of lamprey genes: the KCNA gene family as test case

    Kuraku Shigehiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In understanding the evolutionary process of vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lamprey occupy crucial positions. Resolving molecular phylogenetic relationships of cyclostome genes with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates genes is indispensable in deciphering both the species tree and gene trees. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses, especially those including lamprey genes, have produced highly discordant results between gene families. To efficiently scrutinize this problem using partial genome assemblies of early vertebrates, we focused on the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related (KCNA family, whose members are mostly single-exon. Results Seven sea lamprey KCNA genes as well as six elephant shark genes were identified, and their orthologies to bony vertebrate subgroups were assessed. In contrast to robustly supported orthology of the elephant shark genes to gnathostome subgroups, clear orthology of any sea lamprey gene could not be established. Notably, sea lamprey KCNA sequences displayed unique codon usage pattern and amino acid composition, probably associated with exceptionally high GC-content in their coding regions. This lamprey-specific property of coding sequences was also observed generally for genes outside this gene family. Conclusions Our results suggest that secondary modifications of sequence properties unique to the lamprey lineage may be one of the factors preventing robust orthology assessments of lamprey genes, which deserves further genome-wide validation. The lamprey lineage-specific alteration of protein-coding sequence properties needs to be taken into consideration in tackling the key questions about early vertebrate evolution.

  18. Influence of isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene expression

    Bunting, Kristopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcr...

  19. Influence of Isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene Expression

    Bunting, Kristopher M.; Nalloor, Rebecca I.; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcr...

  20. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs. PMID:26980124