Rezende, Rafael M; Oliveira, Rafael P; Medeiros, Samara R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Alves, Andrea C; Loli, Flávia G; Guimarães, Mauro A F; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P; Weiner, Howard L; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Faria, Ana M C
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the reduced inflammatory cell infiltrate and absence of injury signs in the spinal cord. The effect was associated with reduced IL-17 and increased IL-10 production in mesenteric lymph node and spleen cell cultures. Hsp65-producing-L. lactis-fed mice had a remarkable increase in the number of natural and inducible CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+LAP+ (Latency-associated peptide) Tregs - which express the membrane-bound TGF-? - in spleen, inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes as well as in spinal cord. Moreover, many Tregs co-expressed Foxp3 and LAP. In vivo depletion of LAP+ cells abrogated the effect of Hsp65-producing L. lactis in EAE prevention and worsened disease in medium-fed mice. Thus, Hsp65-L.lactis seems to boost this critical regulatory circuit involved in controlling EAE development in mice. PMID:22939403
Rezende, Rafael M.; Oliveira, Rafael P.; Medeiros, Samara R.; Gomes-Santos, Ana C.; Alves, Andrea C.; Loli, Flávia G.; Guimarães, Mauro A.F.; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P.; Weiner, Howard L; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Ana M.C. Faria
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the ...
van der Wielen, Paul W. J. J.; Heijnen, Leo; van der Kooij, Dick
Studies have shown that certain opportunistic pathogenic species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can be present in distributed drinking water. However, detailed information about NTM population composition in drinking water is lacking. Therefore, NTM communities in unchlorinated drinking water from the distribution system of five treatment plants in the Netherlands were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of the hsp65 gene. Results showed high diversities in unchlorinated drinking wat...
Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil
Maria das Graças Motta e Bona
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65 para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias.OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65 to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.
Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil
Maria das Graças Motta e, Bona; Maria José Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; José Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de [...] pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.
DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE
Joab Trajano Silva
Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.
Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis, up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material. A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk
Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,
D.M., Fonseca; V.L.D., Bonato; C.L., Silva; A., Sartori.
Full Text Available We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65) gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65) was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with [...] its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group) were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization), the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2) characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.
Quinn, A; Shinnick, T M; Cunningham, M W
Group A streptococcal M protein and the mycobacterial heat shock protein, hsp65, are strong bacterial immunogens that have been linked to arthritis and autoimmunity. Recent evidence has shown that streptococcal arthritis and adjuvant arthritis may be related to epitopes shared between group A streptococci and hsp65. We investigated the possibility that immunological similarities were shared between streptococcal M protein and hsp65. Antibodies against the 65-kDa heat shock protein of Mycobact...
Adriana Ignacio de, Padua; Célio Lopes, Silva; Simone Gusmão, Ramos; Lúcia Helena, Faccioli; José Antônio Baddini, Martinez.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT); grupo SB, [...] tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%). A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente) em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente). Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%).O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão). CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; SB [...] , injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure) was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%). The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively) than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively). The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%). The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung) than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.
Adriana Ignacio de Padua
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT; grupo SB, tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%. A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente. Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%.O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão. CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving intratracheal (IT instillation of saline; SB, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%. The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively. The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%. The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.
C.D., Rocha; A.P.F., Trombone; J.C.C., Lorenzi; L.P., Almeida; A.F., Gembre; E., Padilha; S.G., Ramos; C.L., Silva; A.A.M., Coelho-Castelo.
Full Text Available In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with [...] messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.
Macente, Sara; Fujimura Leite, Clarice Queico; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Machado, Luzia Neri Cosmo; Marcondes, Nadir Rodrigues; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosário Dominguez Crespo
Current study evaluated the hsp65 Nested PCR Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA) to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly in clinical samples for a rapid and specific diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was applied directly to 218 clinical samples obtained from 127 patients suspected of TB or another mycobacterial infection from July 2009 to July 2010. The hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA showed 100% sensitivity and 95.0 and 93.1% specificity in comparison with culture and microscopy (acid fast bacillus smear), respectively. hsp65 Nested PCR-PRA was shown to be a fast and reliable assay for diagnosing TB, which may contribute towards a fast diagnosis that could help the selection of appropriate chemotherapeutic and early epidemiological management of the cases which are of paramount importance in a high TB burden country. PMID:24260739
KITA, YOKO; Hashimoto, Satomi; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Nakatani, Hitoshi; Nishimatsu, Shiho; Nishida, Yasuko; Kanamaru, Noriko; Kaneda, Yasuhumi; Takamori, Yasushi; McMurray, David; Tan, Esterlina V.; Cang, Marjorie L.; Saunderson, Paul; Dela Cruz, E.C.; Okada, Masaji
Purpose: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB are big problems in the world. We have developed novel TB therapeutic vaccines, HVJ-Envelope/HSP65 + IL-12 DNA vaccine (HSP65-vaccine), granulysin vaccine and killer specific secretory protein of 37kDa (Ksp37) vaccine.
Yan, Dong; Jun-Yuan, Gong; Xin, Liu; Jun-Wu, Li.
Full Text Available This study aimed to construct a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with cytokine GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant (pIRES-Hsp65-ESAT-6-GM-CSF, pIRHEG), and the immune response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the recombinant plasmid to [...] detect the titer of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+, CD8+T cell and IFN ~ ?ï¼ŒIL-2 secretion. The titer of antibody, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+T and CD8+T cells and IFN ~ ?, IL-2 secretion of pIRHEG group was significant higher than other recombinant plasmid groups, which significant differed by statistical mean. The bicistronic DNA vaccine could induce an effective immune response in mice and could be used as vital ingredient of a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate.
Izaki, S; Goto, Y; Kaburagi, Y; Kitamura, K; Nomaguchi, H
In order to correlate the immunomodulatory roles of homologous heat shock proteins with Mr 65 kD (HSP65) to skin diseases, antibody level to recombinant-HSP65 of Mycobacterium leprae was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the sera of patients. In psoriasis, an insignificant increase was observed in anti-HSP65 IgG (0.111 +/- 0.053, mean +/- SD in 0D492 nm, n = 22), compared with a normal group (0.080 +/- 0.032, n = 9). However, psoriasis of acute guttate-type (PGA), which is often induced after tonsillar infection, showed a significant increase (0.178 +/- 0.032 n = 4, p psoriasis vulgaris did not (PV) (0.101 +/- 0.053, n = 12), nor generalized psoriasis pustulosa (PP) (0.087 +/- 0.025, n = 6). Similarly, patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) with tonsillar or periodontal infection showed significantly high anti-H5P65 IgG (0.230 +/- 0.065, n = 7, p <0.0001), compared with only a mild increase in PPP without suspected infectious foci (0.139 +/- 0.066, n = 13, p <0.05). Possible staphylococcal infection in the oral cavity was suggested by an additional ELISA assay to staphylococcal antigen: anti-staphylokinase IgG showed a significant increase in PPP with infectious foci (0.110 +/- 0.028 n = 3, p <0.01) compared with the normal group (0.039 +/- 0.014), while PPP without them showed only a mild change (0.060 +/- 0.017, n = 6, p <0.05). We assume that immunoreaction to H5P65 may be involved in psoriatic skin inflammation associated with focal infection. PMID:9082780
Combined rpoB duplex PCR and hsp65 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism with capillary electrophoresis as an effective algorithm for identification of Mycobacterial species from clinical isolates
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria can be quickly and simply identified by PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA, but misidentification can occur because of similarities in band sizes that are critical for discriminating among species. Capillary electrophoresis can provide computer-aided band discrimination. The aim of this research was to develop an algorithm for identifying mycobacteria by combined rpoB duplex PRA (DPRA and hsp65 PRA with capillary electrophoresis. Results Three hundred and seventy-six acid-fast bacillus smear-positive BACTEC cultures, including 200 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complexes (MTC and 176 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM were analyzed. With combined hsp65 and rpoB DPRA, the accuracy rate was 100% (200 isolates for the MTC and 91.4% (161 isolates for the NTM. Among the discordant results (8.6% for the NTM, one isolate of Mycobacterial species and an isolate of M. flavescens were found as new sub-types in hsp65 PRA. Conclusions This effective and novel identification algorithm using combined rpoB DPRA and hsp65 PRA with capillary electrophoresis can rapidly identify mycobacteria and find new sub-types in hsp65 PRA. In addition, it is complementary to 16 S rDNA sequencing.
LaRocca, Thomas J.; Jeong, Dongtak; Kohlbrenner, Erik; Lee, Ahyoung; Chen, JiQiu; Hajjar, Roger J.; Tarzami, Sima T.
Stem cell and gene therapies are being pursued as strategies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue following myocardial infarction in an attempt to prevent heart failure. The chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand, CXCL12, play a critical role in stem cell recruitment post-acute myocardial infarction. Whereas progenitor cell migration via the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is well characterized, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of CXCR4 mediated modulation of cardiac hypertrophy and fail...
Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane
During the last 2 decades, progress in deciphering the human gene map as well as the discovery of specific defective genes encoding particular proteins in some serious human diseases have resulted in attempts to treat sick patients with gene therapy. There has been considerable focus on human recombinant proteins which were gene-engineered and produced in vitro (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, erythropoietin). Unfortunately, these substances and methods also became improper tools for unscrupulous athletes. Biomedical research has focused on the possible direct insertion of gene material into the body, in order to replace some defective genes in vivo and/or to promote long-lasting endogenous synthesis of deficient proteins. Theoretically, diabetes, anaemia, muscular dystrophies, immune deficiency, cardiovascular diseases and numerous other illnesses could benefit from such innovative biomedical research, though much work remains to be done. Considering recent findings linking specific genotypes and physical performance, it is tempting to submit the young athletic population to genetic screening or, alternatively, to artificial gene expression modulation. Much research is already being conducted in order to achieve a safe transfer of genetic material to humans. This is of critical importance since uncontrolled production of the specifically coded protein, with serious secondary adverse effects (polycythaemia, acute cardiovascular problems, cancer, etc.), could occur. Other unpredictable reactions (immunogenicity of vectors or DNA-vector complex, autoimmune anaemia, production of wild genetic material) also remain possible at the individual level. Some new substances (myostatin blockers or anti-myostatin antibodies), although not gene material, might represent a useful and well-tolerated treatment to prevent progression of muscular dystrophies. Similarly, other molecules, in the roles of gene or metabolic activators [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics). PMID:23832852
Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-r...
Tian, Chaorui; Bagley, Jessamyn; Cretin, Nathalie; Seth, Nilufer; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Iacomini, John
The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice is determined by multiple genetic factors, among the strongest of which is the inheritance of diabetes-permissive MHC class II alleles associated with susceptibility to disease. Here we examined whether expression of MHC class II alleles associated with resistance to disease could be used to prevent the occurrence of diabetes. Expression of diabetes-resistant MHC class II I-A? chain molecules in NOD mice following retroviral transd...
Qu, Bao-Xi; Xiang, Qun; Li, Liping; Johnston, Stephen Albert; HYNAN, LINDA S.; Rosenberg, Roger N.
A?42 peptide aggregation and deposition is an important component of the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Gene-gun mediated gene vaccination targeting A?42 is a potential method to prevent and treat AD. APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic (Tg) mice were immunized with an A?42 gene construct delivered by the gene gun. The vaccinated mice developed Th2 antibodies (IgG1) against A?42. The A?42 levels in brain were decreased by 41% and increased in plasma 43% in the vaccinated compared with contr...
We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways
Kristyn Alissa Bates
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, ranks as one of the most feared diseases in the world. Similarly, recent studies suggest that AD may be the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind heart disease and cancer. In the absence of a cure or effective treatment, strategies to prevent or delay the onset and progression of the disease are desperately needed. Decades of research have identified key risk and protective factors including genetic polymorphism in the APOE gene, age and lifestyle factors. Physical activity (PA is emerging as an attractive primary prevention strategy. This review will summarise the latest findings supporting the role of physical activity in the prevention of AD, including possible mechanisms and the influence of genetics on disease prevention. Given that AD and other dementias are recognised as a world health priority, public health strategies are needed to incorporate promoting the health benefits of physical activity across the lifespan.
Chavez, Nancy B.; Flores, Jose J.; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R.
Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will...
Honda, Shinji; Lewis, Zachary A.; Huarte, Maite; Cho, Lucy Y.; David, Larry L.; shi, Yang; Selker, Eric U
Transposable elements are common in genomes and must be controlled. Many organisms use DNA methylation to silence such selfish DNA, but the mechanisms that restrict the methylation to appropriate regions are largely unknown. We identified a JmjC domain protein in Neurospora, DNA METHYLATION MODULATOR-1 (DMM-1), that prevents aberrant spreading of DNA and histone H3K9 methylation from inactivated transposons into nearby genes. Mutation of a conserved residue within the JmjC Fe(II)-binding site...
Alberti, S; Nutini, M; Herzenberg, L A
We tested the hypothesis that different genes can have different abilities to be amplified after transfection under comparable selection conditions. DNA from human lymphoid or choriocarcinoma cell lines was transfected into L cells. Transfectants for CD5, CD8A, TROP1, and TROP2, genes expressed on lymphocytes or trophoblast and carcinomas, were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. To select for amplification of the transfected gene we cloned twice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting the transfectants with the highest expression. We analyzed a total of 38 families (1768 clones) derived from the original transfectants. We then analyzed by Southern blotting the clones with the highest increase in surface expression and determined the copy number of each transfected gene. CD5, CD8A, and TROP2 were amplified with high frequency and progressively, whereas TROP1 essentially was not amplified at all. We examined the hypothesis that DNA methylation prevents the amplification of the TROP1 gene by treating JAR choriocarcinoma cells with 5-azacytidine to decrease DNA methylation. DNA extracted at different times after the treatment was used for transfection. When DNA that showed demethylation of the TROP1 gene was used, 16 Trop-1 transfectants were obtained and 6 of them were found to contain up to 40 copies of the TROP1 gene per haploid genome. Thus, we showed that transfectants obtained from a demethylated TROP1 gene were amplified efficiently and progressively. We propose that DNA methylation affects DNA amplification either by altering the recognition of methylated DNA sequences or by changing the conformation of the chromatin of methylated segments. We speculate that DNA methylation is a determinant of gene amplification in vivo, for example in tumor cells. PMID:8016075
Noori Daloii MR
Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.
Amato, Paula; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a significant cause of a number of serious multi-organ diseases. Tissues with a high metabolic demand such as brain, heart, muscle, CNS are often affected. Mitochondrial disease can be due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial function. There is no curative treatment for patients with mitochondrial disease. Given the lack of treatments and the limitations of prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis, attention has focused on prevention of transmission of mitochondrial disease through germline gene replacement therapy. Since mtDNA is strictly maternally inherited, two approaches have been proposed. In the first, the nuclear genome from the pronuclear stage zygote of an affected woman is transferred to an enucleated donor zygote. A second technique involves transfer of the metaphase II spindle from the unfertilized oocyte of an affected woman to an enucleated donor oocyte. Our group recently reported successful spindle transfer between human oocytes resulting in blastocyst development and embryonic stem cell derivation, with very low levels of heteroplasmy. In this review, we summarize these novel assisted reproductive techniques and their use to prevent transmission of mitochondrial disorders. The promises and challenges are discussed, focusing on their potential clinical application. PMID:24382342
Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R
Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales. Motivados por estos resultados, hemos decidido investigar si la mazorca o el elote de las infrutescencias del híbrido sujetan los frutos con una fuerza comparable o mayor a la del maíz. Nuestras mediciones implican que la fuerza necesaria para liberar los frutos híbridos son substancial y significativamente menores que aquellas necesarias para desprender los frutos del maíz. Como conclusión sugerimos que en México, la mazorca o el elote no representan una barrera que impida la introgresión de los genes transgénicos del maíz al teocintle. PMID:22707759
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 ?g of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Results After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. Conclusions In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endogenous pancreatic islets are supported by a dense sinusoidal capillary system which is disrupted following isolation and culture in vitro. A rapid and accurate revascularization is therefore crucial for the survival and functioning of the transplanted islet. Although a blood flow is established in islet grafts within 1-2 weeks, these islets show poor development of intra-islet capillaries. To improve the revascularization process and the arrangement of the new blood vessels, islet production of the factors governing these processes needs to be further characterized. OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of factors which regulate angiogenesis in cultured rat islets. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat islets were isolated and cultured for one week. After 6 hours of exposure to normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions, mRNA expression was evaluated by the GEArray Angiogenesis 1 and 2 systems. The expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 1 (Tie1 and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF, was further evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: We found the expression of 19 genes that code for factors either promoting or preventing angiogenesis. Only VEGF and Tie1 were upregulated in response to hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia-induced islet vascularization may involve VEGF and Tie-induced signaling events. The results also show that cultured islets express genes which prevent angiogenesis concurrently with genes coding for factors stimulating angiogenesis. The balance between these factors is probably of vital importance for the revascularization process in transplanted islets. Thus, pharmacologic or genetic attenuation of islet-derived angiostatic factors may prove beneficial in promoting islet revascularization in future transplantation trials.
Jansen, Rick J; Tan, Xiang-Lin; Petersen, Gloria M
Pancreatic cancer (PC) has been estimated to have higher incidence and correspondingly higher mortality rates in more developed regions worldwide. Overall, the age-adjusted incidence rate is 4.9/10(5) and age-adjusted mortality rate is at 4.8/10(5). We review here our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors (cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and alcohol) for PC, genetic variants implicated by genome-wide association studies, possible genetic interactions with risk factors, and prevention strategies to provide future research directions that may further our understanding of this complex disease. Cigarette smoking is consistently associated with a two-fold increased PC risk. PC associations with dietary intake have been largely inconsistent, with the potential exception of certain unsaturated fatty acids decreasing risk and well-done red meat or meat mutagens increasing risk. There is strong evidence to support that obesity (and related measures) increase risk of PC. Only the heaviest alcohol drinkers seem to be at an increased risk of PC. Currently, key prevention strategies include avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption and adopting a healthy lifestyle. Screening technologies and PC chemoprevention are likely to become more sophisticated, but may only apply to those at high risk. Risk stratification may be improved by taking into account gene environment interactions. Research on these modifiable risk factors is key to reducing the incidence of PC and understanding who in the population can be considered high risk. PMID:26029010
Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.
Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.
This randomized phase II clinical trial studies the safety and effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) taken continuously or intermittently on gene expression in the nasal tissue of current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Acetylsalicylic acid may be useful in preventing lung cancer.
... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...
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Stephens, Francis B.; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E.; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; MacDonald, Ian A.; Greenhaff, Paul L.
Twelve weeks of daily L-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of L-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass andmuscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohyd...
Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.
Alberti, S.; Nutini, M; Herzenberg, L. A.
We tested the hypothesis that different genes can have different abilities to be amplified after transfection under comparable selection conditions. DNA from human lymphoid or choriocarcinoma cell lines was transfected into L cells. Transfectants for CD5, CD8A, TROP1, and TROP2, genes expressed on lymphocytes or trophoblast and carcinomas, were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. To select for amplification of the transfected gene we cloned twice by fluorescence-activated cell so...
Yelamanchi, Syam Kumar; Veis, Jiri; Anrather, Dorothea; Klug, Helene
Downregulation of specific transcripts is one of the mechanisms utilized by eukaryotic checkpoint systems to prevent cell cycle progression. Here we identified and explored such a mechanism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It involves the Mec1-Rad53 kinase cascade, which attenuates G2/M-specific gene transcription upon genotoxic stress. This inhibition is achieved via multiple Rad53-dependent inhibitory phosphorylations on the transcriptional activator Ndd1 that prevent its chromatin recruitment via interactions with the forkhead factor Fkh2. Relevant modification sites on Ndd1 were identified by mass spectrometry, and corresponding alanine substitutions were able to suppress a methyl methanesulfonate-induced block in Ndd1 chromatin recruitment. Whereas effective suppression by these Ndd1 mutants is achieved for DNA damage, this is not the case under replication stress conditions, suggesting that additional mechanisms must operate under such conditions. We propose that budding yeast cells prevent the normal transcription of G2/M-specific genes upon genotoxic stress to precisely coordinate the timing of mitotic and postmitotic events with respect to S phase. PMID:24324010
Full Text Available Expression of a G1/S regulon of genes that are required for DNA replication is a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling cell proliferation; moreover, the pathological deregulated expression of E2F-regulated G1/S genes is found in every type of cancer. Cellular tolerance of deregulated G1/S transcription is surprising because this regulon includes many dosage-sensitive proteins. Here, we used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to investigate this issue. We report that deregulating the MBF G1/S regulon by eliminating the Nrm1 corepressor increases replication errors. Homology-directed repair proteins, including MBF-regulated Ctp1CtIP, are essential to prevent catastrophic genome instability. Surprisingly, the normally inconsequential MBF-regulated S-phase cyclin Cig2 also becomes essential in the absence of Nrm1. This requirement was traced to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition of the MBF-regulated Cdc18Cdc6 replication origin-licensing factor. Collectively, these results establish that, although deregulation of G1/S transcription is well tolerated by cells, nonessential G1/S target genes become crucial for preventing catastrophic genome instability.
Jaffee, SR; Price, TS
Family studies have demonstrated genetic influences on environmental exposure: the phenomenon of gene–environment correlation (rGE). A few molecular genetic studies have confirmed the results, but the identification of rGE in studies that measure genes and environments faces several challenges. Using examples from studies in psychology and psychiatry, we integrate the behavioral and molecular genetic literatures on rGE, describe challenges in identifying rGE and discuss the implications of mo...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been implicated in HIV-1 replication. This protein contains the apparently unique amino acid hypusine that is formed by the post-translational modification of a lysine residue catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH. DOHH activity is inhibited by two clinically used drugs, the topical fungicide ciclopirox and the systemic medicinal iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone has been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Results Ciclopirox and deferiprone blocked HIV-1 replication in PBMCs. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the action of the drugs on eIF5A modification and HIV-1 gene expression in model systems. At early times after drug exposure, both drugs inhibited substrate binding to DOHH and prevented the formation of mature eIF5A. Viral gene expression from HIV-1 molecular clones was suppressed at the RNA level independently of all viral genes. The inhibition was specific for the viral promoter and occurred at the level of HIV-1 transcription initiation. Partial knockdown of eIF5A-1 by siRNA led to inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression that was non-additive with drug action. These data support the importance of eIF5A and hypusine formation in HIV-1 gene expression. Conclusion At clinically relevant concentrations, two widely used drugs blocked HIV-1 replication ex vivo. They specifically inhibited expression from the HIV-1 promoter at the level of transcription initiation. Both drugs interfered with the hydroxylation step in the hypusine modification of eIF5A. These results have profound implications for the potential therapeutic use of these drugs as antiretrovirals and for the development of optimized analogs.
Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Zhongjie
Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that klotho gene delivery attenuates the progression of spontaneous hypertension and renal damage in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). An adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (AAV.mKL) was constructed for in vivo expression of klotho. Four groups of male SHRs and 1 group of sex- and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (5 rats per group) were used. Blood pressure ...
Suzana, Makpol; Azalina, Zainuddin; Kien Hui, Chua; Yasmin Anum Mohd, Yusof; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms o [...] f these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.
Bunse, Mario; Bendle, Gavin M; Linnemann, Carsten; Bies, Laura; Schulz, Stephan; Schumacher, Ton N; Uckert, Wolfgang
Genetically modified T cells that express a transduced T cell receptor (TCR) ?/? heterodimer in addition to their endogenous TCR are used in clinical studies to treat cancer. These cells express two TCR-? and two TCR-? chains that do not only compete for CD3 proteins but also form potentially self-reactive mixed TCR dimers, composed of endogenous and transferred chains. To overcome these deficits, we developed an RNAi-TCR replacement vector that simultaneously silences the endogenous TCR and expresses an RNAi-resistant TCR. Transduction of the virus-specific P14 TCR without RNAi resulted in unequal P14 TCR-? and -? chain surface levels, indicating heterodimerization with endogenous TCR chains. Such unequal expression was also observed following TCR gene optimization. Equal surface levels of the introduced TCR chains were however achieved by silencing the endogenous TCR. Importantly, all mice that received cells transduced with the native or optimized P14 TCR developed lethal TCR gene transfer-induced graft-versus-host-disease (TI-GVHD) due to formation of mixed TCR dimers. In contrast, TI-GVHD was almost completely prevented when using the RNAi-TCR replacement vector. Our data demonstrate that RNAi-assisted TCR replacement reduces the formation of mixed TCR dimers, and thereby significantly reduces the risk of TI-GVHD in TCR gene therapy. PMID:25048215
Jansen, Rick J.; Tan, Xiang-Lin; PETERSEN, GLORIA M.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) has been estimated to have higher incidence and correspondingly higher mortality rates in more developed regions worldwide. Overall, the age-adjusted incidence rate is 4.9/105 and age-adjusted mortality rate is at 4.8/105. We review here our current knowledge of modifiable risk factors (cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and alcohol) for PC, genetic variants implicated by genome-wide association studies, possible genetic interactions with risk factors, and prevention str...
Karras, Jenna R.; Paisie, Carolyn A.; Kay Huebner
The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates ...
Ganguli, Kriston; Meng, Di; Rautava, Samuli; Lu, Lei; Walker, W. Allan; Nanthakumar, Nanda
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), an extensive intestinal inflammatory disease of premature infants, is caused, in part, by an excessive inflammatory response to initial bacterial colonization due to the immature expression of innate immune response genes. In a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, supplementation of very low birth weight infants with probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of NEC. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether secreted products of thes...
T.S., Higa; F.C., Bergamo; F., Mazzucatto; M.H., Fonseca-Alaniz; F.S., Evangelista.
Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained seden [...] tary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P
Aneja, Manish Kumar; Geiger, Johannes; Imker, Rabea; Uzgun, Senta; Kormann, Michael; Hasenpusch, Guenther; Maucksch, Christof; Rudolph, Carsten
phi C31 integrase has emerged as a potent tool for achieving long-term gene expression in different tissues. The present study aimed at optimizing elements of phi C31 integrase system for alveolar type II cells. Luciferase and beta-galactosidase activities were measured at different time points post transfection. 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine (AZA) and trichostatin A (TSA) were used to inhibit DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) respectively. In A549 cells, expression of the integrase using a CMV promoter resulted in highest integrase activity, whereas in MLE12 cells, both CAG and CMV promoter were equally effective. Effect of polyA site was observed only in A549 cells, where replacement of SV40 polyA by bovine growth hormone (BGH) polyA site resulted in an enhancement of integrase activity. Addition of a C-terminal SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS) did not result in any significant increase in integrase activity. Long-term expression studies with AZA and TSA, provided evidence for post-integrative gene silencing. In MLE12 cells, both DNA methylases and HDACs played a significant role in silencing, whereas in A549 cells, it could be attributed majorly to HDAC activity. Donor plasmids comprising cellular promoters ubiquitin B (UBB), ubiquitin C (UCC) and elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) in an improved backbone prevented post-integrative gene silencing. In contrast to A549 and MLE12 cells, no silencing could be observed in human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. Donor plasmid coding for murine erythropoietin under the EF1 alpha promoter when combined with phi C31 integrase resulted in higher long-term erythropoietin expression and subsequently higher hematocrit levels in mice after intravenous delivery to the lungs. These results provide evidence for cell specific post integrative gene silencing with C31 integrase and demonstrate the pivotal role of donor plasmid in long-term expression attained with this system. PMID:19745601
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167
Cunningham, Sharon C; Kok, Cindy Y; Dane, Allison P.; Carpenter, Kevin; Kizana, Eddy; Kuchel, Philip W.; Alexander, Ian E
Urea cycle defects presenting early in life with hyperammonemia remain difficult to treat and commonly necessitate liver transplantation. Gene therapy has the potential to prevent hyperammonemic episodes while awaiting liver transplantation, and possibly also to avert the need for transplantation altogether. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, the most prevalent urea cycle disorder, provides an ideal model for the development of liver-targeted gene therapy. While we and others have s...
Mahmoud A. Ghannoum; Witold Chmielewski; Pranab Mukherjee; Jyotsna Chandra; Abdelhabib Semlali; Mahmoud Rouabhia
In this study we demonstrated that ?Caecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections cau...
Full Text Available The demand for energy and forestry products is globally increasing, raising the question if traditional breeding programs are efficient and fast enough to keep up with these demands. A possible solution seems to be the use of genetic engineering techniques, since classical breeding strategies are time-consuming and limited by species barriers. Besides the advantages of genetic engineering technologies, concerns are also raised by scientists regarding these methods. Consequently, risk analysis of genetic modified trees in plantation forestry is a fundamental research topic. This paper presents a sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modified poplars in realistic European landscapes. All steps are evaluated for their potential to forecast the risk of outcrossing of gene constructs into native populations. The application of the results achieved to short rotation plantations are discussed.
Karras, Jenna R; Paisie, Carolyn A; Huebner, Kay
The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression. PMID:24901304
Jenna R. Karras
Full Text Available The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression.
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is currently being used to treat esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus. PDT is very promising except that it results in a high rate of esophageal stricture. The clinical protocol involves the injection of Photofrin into the patient followed 48 hours later with a laser treatment of 630 nm of light. At this wavelength Photofrin reacts with the light and results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. To determine if MnSOD-PL prevents esophageal stricture we developed a pig model. Pigs (20 kg outbred female) were injected intravenously with Photofrin (2 mg/kg) and an endoscope was placed into the esophagus where MnSOD-PL (10 mg plasmid DNA) was administered at the site of PDT treatment. Control pigs received Photofrin only. Twenty-four hours later an endoscope was placed into the esophagus and the laser inserted through the endoscope to 10 cm above the GE junction where 400 Joules of light were administered to the esophagus. A second PDT treatment of 400 Joules was given 48 hours later. The pigs were followed for development of esophageal stricture as determined by a 10% weight loss, an endoscopic exam demonstrating esophageal stricture, and an x-ray following barium swallow. Upon detection of esophageal stricture, the pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed and pathological examination performed. By 14-21 days all control pigs developed esophageal stricture while pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged s pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged survival for at least 6 weeks after injection of MnSOD-PL. At this time, the MnSOD-PL-injected pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed from each animal and examined for the development of esophageal stricture. No esophageal stricture was detected by x-ray following barium swallow, endoscopic exam or pathological examination in esophagus samples from MnSOD-PL treated pigs. Results of these experiments demonstrate that MnSOD-PL may be effective in preventing normal esophageal tissue damage by PDT
Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten
Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.
Li, D P; Li Calzi, S; Sánchez, E R
Using mouse L929 cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-responsive murine mammary tumor virus-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (MMTV-CAT) reporter gene (LMCAT2 cells), we have shown that cellular stress (heat or chemical shock) can cause a dramatic increase in the levels of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced CAT gene expression. We refer to this response as the heat shock potentiation effect, or HSPE. As the cellular heat shock response also involves the activation of heat shock transcription factor (HSF), we have, in the present study, examined the role of HSF in the stress potentiation of GR by use of a flavonoid compound, quercetin, recently shown to selectively inhibit the stress response in a variety of human and murine cell lines. Analysis of the HSPE, as well as heat shock protein synthesis and activation of HSF during time-courses of recovery following heat shock, revealed a similar pattern for each response, with peak activities occurring about 16 h after stress. These data suggest a correlation between the activation of both GR and HSF in stressed cells. In L929 cells stably transfected with a CAT reporter plasmid under the control of the HSF-responsive hsp70 promoter (LHSECAT cells), pretreatment with quercetin was found to cause a dose- and time-dependent inactivation of HSF activity following heat shock, but only when added before the stress event. In LMCAT2 cells, quercetin similarly inhibited both heat and chemical shock potentiation of Dex-induced GR activity. This activity of quercetin was not the result of post-transcriptional or general cytotoxic properties, as quercetin (1) did not significantly affect GR or HSF activities when added after the stress event, (2) did not reduce CAT gene expression as controlled by the constitutive SV40 early promoter, and (3) did not alter normal (non-stress), Dex-induced MMTV-CAT expression. Thus, quercetin appears to be an effective and selective inhibitor of HSF stress-induced activation and its ability to prevent the stress potentiation of GR suggests either a direct or indirect involvement by stress-activated HSF in this process, or the existence of a regulatory step common to both the heat shock and HSPE responses. PMID:10590836
Purpose/Objective: Normal lung tissue often limits the irradiation dose that can be given safely to cancers. Increasing the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in normal lung tissue via intratracheal liposomes or adenovirus in the thorax, was evaluated for protective effect against irradiation-induced damage. Materials and Methods: To demonstrate that radiosensitivity is affected by MnSOD expression, irradiation survival curves were performed on cloned fibroblast lines derived from mice homozygous for MnSOD expression (SOD +/+), heterozygous for MnSOD (SOD +/-), or MnSOD knockouts (SOD -/-). In addition, irradiation survival curves were performed on IB3-1 human bronchoalveolar control cells or cells overexpressing an MnSOD transgene. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were anesthetized and intratracheally injected with liposomes containing 500 ?g of plasmid DNA containing either MnSOD transgene, or LacZ transgene. Twenty-four hours later, the mice received 2000 cGy irradiation to the thoracic cavity. At 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after irradiation, serum TGF-?1 levels were determined by ELISA; other mice were held for survival and percent alveolitis measured. Adult female nude mice [Balb/c nu/nu] received adenovirus (109 plaque-forming units) containing the transgenes for either human MnSOD, human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ, by intratracheal injections. Four days later, the mice received 850 cGy irradiation to the hemibody. The mice were sacrificed at 130 dayody. The mice were sacrificed at 130 days after irradiation. The lungs were removed, frozen in OCT, sectioned, stained with H and E, and analyzed for percent alveolitis. In a subset, mice were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Serum was tested for TGF-?1 levels by ELISA. The lungs were excised, and RNA extracted and analyzed by slot-blot for expression for messenger RNA for MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, IL-1, or TGF-?. Results: Irradiation survival curves demonstrated that cells having higher levels of MnSOD were more radioresistant, SOD -/- fibroblasts (D0=1.270 Gy) were more sensitive to irradiation than SOD +/- or SOD +/+ cells (D0=1.563 and 1.732 Gy, respectively) [p=0.030 and p=0.010]. Overexpression of MnSOD in IB3-1 cells resulted in an increased n-bar of 7.27±0.100, compared to 2.33±0.685 (p=.001) for IB3-1 cell line with no significant change in the D0. Irradiated C57BL/6J mice injected with MnSOD plasmid/liposome complexes showed a significant increase in survival, compared to control irradiated mice (p=0.0156), or LacZ plasmid-liposome injected mice (p=0.0097). No difference was observed between control mice and the LacZ plasmid-liposome-injected mice. For the MnSOD-treated mice, 50% survival was observed at day 202, while the 50% survival for the control and LacZ-treated mice was observed at days 152 (p=0.0156) and 143 (p=0.0097), respectively. Following irradiation, serum TGF-?1 levels were increased for the control (p=0.055) and LacZ-injected (p=0.057) mice, but not in MnSOD plasmid/liposome complex-injected mice. Nude mice injected with adenovirus containing the transgenes for MnSOD had less alveolitis at 130 days after irradiation than did control (p=0.030) irradiated mice or LacZ adenovirus transgene-injected (p=0.031) mice as determined by microscopic examination of H and E stained lung sections. No difference was observed between the irradiated control group and mice receiving the Cu/ZnSOD adenovirus. Mice injected with adenovirus containing the LacZ gene had significantly more alveolitis than the other groups. Serum TGF-?1 levels were increased four days following 850 cGy in the control (p=0.057) and adenovirus-LacZ-treated groups (p=0.065), but not in the MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD groups. Lungs from both the control and LacZ adenovirus groups showed increased expression of both IL-1 and TGF-?1, compared to the MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD groups. Conclusion: The use of liposomes or adenovirus vectors containing MnSOD may provide a way to transiently protect the lung during radiation therapy
The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these in most developed countries is through a mixture of management and therapy. The former requires knowledge and considerable local understanding and the latter resources and supplies. Both of these are limited in the developing country situation, particularly in a rural setting. Given this complex of challenges, can gene-based technologies really make a difference to the management of livestock disease for the producer in developing countries? To be effective in the developing country situation, any intervention must be relatively simple, cost effective, sustainable and convincing. Can this be delivered? Perhaps an insight can be gained from an appreciation of the fundamental nature of gene-based technologies. Inherent in the approach is the recognition that the gene is the basic building block of biology. Management and manipulation of the gene therefore enables us to design and direct an endless array of precise solutions, whether this be designer livestock, genetically engineered biological products or genetically altered organisms. Without doubt, the availability of livestock resistant to disease, or at least one or two of the major diseases affecting livestock in a particular region, is a simple and applicable solution to the developing country situation. Attempts to understand the genetic basis of trypanotolerence are still on-going but if successful would enable livestock production in large areas of Africa currently restricted by the presence of trypanosomosis. Another example would be the demonstration of resistance to internal parasites by certain breeds of sheep. Locating the genetic basis of this could be revolutionary in the management of this particular disease risk. As work starts on sequencing both the bovine and the ovine genome, the future opportunities for designing livestock resistant or tolerant to a range of diseases looks highly promising. Looking at the causative agents of livestock disease, the ability to exquisitely alter these to better understand the way they cause disease is providing a fast track to developing ways of control or eradi
Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method. Venous blood t-PA and D-dimer contents were tested before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the operation.Results: The high expression of t-PA could be seen in myocardium with increases in blood t-PA and D-dimer contents and thrombosis was prevented 8 weeks after operation.Conclusion: We successfully fabricated an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent that could prevent dog thrombosis after mechanical heart valve replacement. Our study provides an experimental basis for prevention of human thrombosis-related diseases.Keywords: albumin nanoparticles, ultrasonic microbubbles, valve replacement
Rota, Marcello; LeCapitaine, Nicole; Hosoda, Toru; Boni, Alessandro; De Angelis, Antonella; Padin-Iruegas, Maria Elena; Esposito, Grazia; Vitale, Serena; Urbanek, Konrad; Casarsa, Claudia; Giorgio, Marco; Lüscher, Thomas F; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Anversa, Piero; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan
Diabetes leads to a decompensated myopathy, but the etiology of the cardiac disease is poorly understood. Oxidative stress is enhanced with diabetes and oxygen toxicity may alter cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) function resulting in defects in CPC growth and myocyte formation, which may favor premature myocardial aging and heart failure. We report that in a model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to telomeric shortening, expression of the senescent associated proteins p53 and p16INK4a, and apoptosis of CPCs, impairing the growth reserve of the heart. However, ablation of the p66shc gene prevents these negative adaptations of the CPC compartment, interfering with the acquisition of the heart senescent phenotype and the development of heart failure with diabetes. ROS elicit 3 cellular reactions: low levels activate cell growth, intermediate quantities trigger cell apoptosis, and high amounts initiate cell necrosis. CPC replication predominates in diabetic p66shc-/-, whereas CPC apoptosis and myocyte apoptosis and necrosis prevail in diabetic wild type. Expansion of CPCs and developing myocytes preserves cardiac function in diabetic p66shc-/-, suggesting that intact CPCs can effectively counteract the impact of uncontrolled diabetes on the heart. The recognition that p66shc conditions the destiny of CPCs raises the possibility that diabetic cardiomyopathy is a stem cell disease in which abnormalities in CPCs define the life and death of the heart. Together, these data point to a genetic link between diabetes and ROS, on the one hand, and CPC survival and growth, on the other. PMID:16763167
Glais, Isabelle; Montarry, Josselin; Corbière, Roselyne; Pasco, Claudine; Marquer, Bruno; Magalon, Hélène; Andrivon, Didier
Sustainably managing plant resistance to epidemic pathogens implies controlling the genetic and demographic changes in pathogen populations faced with resistant hosts. Resistance management thus depends upon the dynamics of local adaptation, mainly driven by the balance between selection and gene flow. This dynamics is best investigated with populations from locally dominant hosts in islands with long histories of local selection. We used the unique case of the potato late blight pathosystem on Jersey, where a monoculture of potato cultivar 'Jersey Royal' has been in place for over a century. We also sampled populations from the coasts of Brittany and Normandy, as likely sources for gene flow. The isolation by distance pattern and the absence of genetic differentiation between Jersey and the closest French sites revealed gene flow at that spatial scale. Microsatellite allele frequencies revealed no evidence of recombination in the populations, but admixture of two genotypic clusters. No local adaptation in Jersey was detected from pathogenicity tests on Jersey Royal and on French cultivars. These data suggest that long-distance gene flow (? 50/100 km) prevents local adaptation in Jersey despite a century of local selection by a single host cultivar and emphasize the need for regional rather than local management of resistance gene deployment. PMID:24822079
Mizokami, Daisuke; Araki, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Yamashita, Taku; Ueda, Yasuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Shiotani, Akihiro
Acquired tracheal stenosis remains a challenging problem for otolaryngologists. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated c-myc suppressor, a far upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR), modulates wound healing of the airway mucosa, and whether it prevents tracheal stenosis in an animal model of induced mucosal injury. A fusion gene-deleted, non-transmissible SeV vector encoding FIR (FIR-SeV/?F) was prepared. Rats wi...
Saldeen, J; Sandler, S
IL-1beta is cytotoxic to pancreatic beta-cells in vitro but its role in the vicinity of beta-cells in vivo is unknown. We explored whether liposome-mediated transfer of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene to islet cells might prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mouse islet cells were transfected using liposome-mediated gene transfer with a human IL-1ra cDNA construct and transplanted two days later to prediabetic NOD mice. Graft infiltration and destruction were monitored three, five and eight days posttransplantation by histology and determination of insulin and cytokine content. IL-1ra gene transfer resulted in transient expression of IL-1ra protein in islet cells in vitro as assessed by ELISA and of IL-1ra mRNA in transplanted islets as revealed by RT-PCR. However, both control and IL-1ra transfected NOD grafts exhibited massive infiltration and loss of insulin-positive cells, paralleled by a decreased insulin content. Increased IL-1ra expression did not clearly affect other cytokine profiles (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-2), except for an increase of IL-10 on day eight. In conclusion, liposome-mediated IL-1ra gene transfer to mouse islet cells results in transient expression of IL-1ra which is, however, insufficient to confer resistance to destruction of grafted insulin-producing cells in the NOD mouse.
Li, Da-Pei; Calzi, Sergio Li; Sánchez, Edwin R.
Using mouse L929 cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-responsive murine mammary tumor virus–chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (MMTV–CAT) reporter gene (LMCAT2 cells), we have shown that cellular stress (heat or chemical shock) can cause a dramatic increase in the levels of dexamethasone (Dex)-induced CAT gene expression. We refer to this response as the heat shock potentiation effect, or HSPE. As the cellular heat shock response also involves the activation of heat sho...
Cunningham, Sharon C; Kok, Cindy Y; Dane, Allison P; Carpenter, Kevin; Kizana, Eddy; Kuchel, Philip W; Alexander, Ian E
Urea cycle defects presenting early in life with hyperammonemia remain difficult to treat and commonly necessitate liver transplantation. Gene therapy has the potential to prevent hyperammonemic episodes while awaiting liver transplantation, and possibly also to avert the need for transplantation altogether. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, the most prevalent urea cycle disorder, provides an ideal model for the development of liver-targeted gene therapy. While we and others have successfully cured the spf(ash) mouse model of OTC deficiency using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, a major limitation of this model is the presence of residual OTC enzymatic activity which confers a mild phenotype without clinically significant hyperammonemia. To better model severe disease we devised a strategy involving AAV2/8-mediated delivery of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to specifically knockdown residual endogenous OTC messenger RNA (mRNA). This strategy proved highly successful with vector-treated mice developing severe hyperammonemia and associated neurological impairment. Using this system, we showed that the dose of an AAV rescue construct encoding the murine OTC (mOTC) cDNA required to prevent hyperammonemia is fivefold lower than that required to control orotic aciduria. This result is favorable for clinical translation as it indicates that the threshold for therapeutic benefit is likely to be lower than indicated by earlier studies. PMID:21386824
Mizokami, Daisuke; Araki, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Yamashita, Taku; Ueda, Yasuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Shiotani, Akihiro
Acquired tracheal stenosis remains a challenging problem for otolaryngologists. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated c-myc suppressor, a far upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR), modulates wound healing of the airway mucosa, and whether it prevents tracheal stenosis in an animal model of induced mucosal injury. A fusion gene-deleted, non-transmissible SeV vector encoding FIR (FIR-SeV/?F) was prepared. Rats with scraped airway mucosae were administered FIR-SeV/?F through the tracheostoma. The pathological changes in the airway mucosa and in the tracheal lumen were assessed five days after scraping. Untreated animals showed hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and a thickened submucosal layer with extensive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition causing lumen stenosis. By contrast, the administration of FIR-SeV/?F decreased the degree of tracheal stenosis (P SeV/?F-treated animals, suggesting that c-myc was suppressed by FIR-SeV/?F in the regenerating airway epithelium of the injured tracheal mucosa. The airway-targeted gene therapy of the c-myc suppressor FIR, using a recombinant SeV vector, prevented tracheal stenosis in a rat model of airway mucosal injury. PMID:25569246
de Mattos, Ana Barbosa Marcondes; Pinto, Mônica Jordão S; Oliveira, Cristiane; Biz, Carolina; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Oyama, Lila Missae
Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-alpha of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD) rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat) and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-alpha. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-alpha gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression. PMID:18986529
Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-? of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-?. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-? gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.
Lee, Sung-eun; Yim, Hui-kyung; Lim, Mi-na; Yoon, In sun; Kim, Jeong hoe; Hwang, Yong-sic
Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) are integral membrane proteins that are known to function in plants as aquaporins. Here, we propose another role for TIPs during the fusion of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in aleurone cells, a process that is promoted by gibberellic acid (GA) and prevented by abscisic acid (ABA). Studies of the expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) TIP genes (HvTIP) showed that GA specifically decreased the abundance of HvTIP1;2 and HvTIP3;1 transcripts, while ABA strongly increased expression of HvTIP3;1. Increased or decreased expression of HvTIP3;1 interfered with the hormonal effects on vacuolation in aleurone protoplasts. HvTIP3;1 gain-of-function experiments delayed GA-induced vacuolation, whereas HvTIP3;1 loss-of-function experiments promoted vacuolation in ABA-treated aleurone cells. These results indicate that TIP plays a key role in preventing the coalescence of small PSVs in aleurone cells. Hormonal regulation of the HvTIP3;1 promoter is similar to the regulation of the endogenous gene, indicating that induction of the transcription of HvTIP3;1 by ABA is a critical factor in the prevention of PSV coalescence in response to ABA. Promoter analysis using deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of sequences identified three cis-acting elements that are responsible for ABA responsiveness in the HvTIP3;1 promoter. Promoter analysis also showed that ABA responsiveness of the HvTIP3;1 promoter is likely to occur via a unique regulatory system distinct from that involving the ABA-response promoter complexes. PMID:25477530
Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Liu, Wen-Xian; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang
Previous research demonstrated that resveratrol possesses promising properties for preventing obesity. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of both obesity and hepatic steatosis. In the current study, we hypothesized that resveratrol could protect against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis and ER stress and regulate the expression of genes related to hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed either a control diet or a HFD for 12weeks. After 4weeks, HFD-fed rats were treated with either resveratrol or vehicle for 8weeks. Body weight, serum metabolic parameters, hepatic histopathology, and hepatic ER stress markers were evaluated. Moreover, an RT(2) Profiler Fatty Liver PCR Array was performed to investigate the mRNA expressions of 84 genes related to hepatic steatosis. Our work showed that resveratrol prevented dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis induced by HFD. Resveratrol significantly decreased activating transcription factor 4, C/EBP-homologous protein and immunoglobulin binding protein levels, which were elevated by the HFD. Resveratrol also decreased PKR-like ER kinase phosphorylation, although it was not affected by the HFD. Furthermore, resveratrol increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, while decreasing the expression of ATP citrate lyase, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, and interleukin-1?. Our data suggest that resveratrol can prevent hepatic ER stress and regulate the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, ATP citrate lyase, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interleukin-1? in diet-induced obese rats, and these effects likely contribute to resveratrol's protective function against excessive accumulation of fat in the liver. PMID:26055348
Leskiw, B K; Lawlor, E J; Fernandez-Abalos, J M; Chater, K F
In Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and the related species Streptomyces lividans 66, aerial mycelium formation and antibiotic production are blocked by mutations in bldA, which specifies a tRNA(Leu)-like gene product which would recognize the UUA codon. Here we show that phenotypic expression of three disparate genes (carB, lacZ, and ampC) containing TTA codons depends strongly on bldA. Site-directed mutagenesis of carB, changing its two TTA codons to CTC (leucine) codons, resulted in bldA-inde...
Ou-Yang, Fu; Lin, Yu-Da; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Hou, Ming-Feng
The ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (ORAI1) has been proven to be an important gene for breast cancer progression and metastasis. However, the protective association model between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ORAI1 gene was not investigated. Based on a published data set of 345 female breast cancer patients and 290 female controls, we used a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to identify the possible protective models of breast cancer association in terms of the SNPs of ORAI1 gene. Results showed that the PSO-generated models of 2-SNP (rs12320939-TT/rs12313273-CC), 3-SNP (rs12320939-TT/rs12313273-CC/rs712853-(TT/TC)), 4-SNP (rs12320939-TT/rs12313273-CC/rs7135617-(GG/GT)/rs712853-(TT/TC)), and 5-SNP (rs12320939-TT/rs12313273-CC/rs7135617-(GG/GT)/rs6486795-CC/rs712853-(TT/TC)) displayed low values of odds ratios (0.409-0.425) for breast cancer association. Taken together, these results suggested that our proposed PSO strategy is powerful to identify the combinational SNPs of rs12320939, rs12313273, rs7135617, rs6486795, and rs712853 of ORAI1 gene with a strongly protective association in breast cancer. PMID:26380267
Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E
Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Genotype and 1-year data on changes in physical activity, serum CRP and IL-6 were available for 390 overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The rs1800629 SNP in TNF interacted with the 1-year change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in CRP among those who had high (?3 mg/L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change in serum IL-6 was found. In conclusion, the rs1800629 SNP in the TNF gene may modify the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on serum levels of CRP.
Dai, Linghui; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Qiang; Man, Zhentao; Huang, Hongjie; Meng, Qingyang; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common, degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degradation. Currently, clinical trials based on microRNA therapy have been performed to treat various diseases. However, no treatment has been found for arthritis. This study investigated the functions of miR-101 in cartilage degradation in vivo and evaluated the feasibility of using miR-101 as a therapeutic agent for OA. Mono-iodoacetate-induced arthritis (MIA) rats were used as an animal model of OA. miR-101 mimic or miR-101 inhibitor was injected into the rats' knees to evaluate its effects on cartilage degradation. Cartilage degradation aggravated at 14 days after the injection of miR-101 mimic. By contrast, miR-101 silencing reduced cartilage degradation. Moreover, the administration of miR-101 mimic is sufficient to cause cartilage degradation in the normal cartilage of rats. By contrast, miR-101 inhibitor could prevent this change. Microarray and qPCR were used to investigate the different expressed genes after injecting miR-101 mimic and miR-101 inhibitor in the rats' articular cartilage. Several cartilage degradation-related genes were selected and validated to function in cartilage degradation with miR-101. Our results demonstrated the therapeutic effect of miR-101 inhibition on cartilage degradation in MIA rats by regulating several cartilage degradation-related genes. PMID:25921548
Akiyama, Taishin; Shinzawa, Miho; Qin, Junwen; Akiyama, Nobuko
Elimination of potential self-reactive T cells in the thymus is crucial for preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases. Epithelial cell subsets localized in thymic medulla [medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)] contribute to this process by supplying a wide range of self-antigens that are otherwise expressed in a tissue-specific manner (TSAs). Expression of some TSAs in mTECs is controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, of which dysfunctional mutations are the causative fac...
Aneja, Manish Kumar; Geiger, Johannes; Imker, Rabea; Üzgün, Senta; Kormann, Michael; Hasenpusch, Guenther; Maucksch, Christof; Rudolph, Carsten
?C31 integrase has emerged as a potent tool for achieving long-term gene expression in different tissues. The present study aimed at optimizing elements of ?C31 integrase system for alveolar type II cells. Luciferase and ?-galactosidase activities were measured at different time points post transfection. 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine (AZA) and trichostatin A (TSA) were used to inhibit DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) respectively. In A549 cells, expression of the integrase...
Andersen Monica; do Nascimento Claudia; Ribeiro Eliane; Biz Carolina; Oliveira Cristiane; Pinto Mônica; de Mattos Ana; Tufik Sergio; Oyama Lila
Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-? of paradoxically sleep deprived (PS...
Parolari, Alessandro; BRAMBILLA, MARTA; Baldassarre, Damiano; Camera, Marina; Tremoli, Elena
Objective: Tissue factor (TF), key initiator of coagulation, has been ascribed roles not only in thrombosis but also in atherosclerosis. TF gene promoter haplotypes modulate TF expression, thereby potentially affecting atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate functionally relevant TF promoter haplotypes as determinants of carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT), a marker of atherosclerosis. Methods: The haplotype-tagging TF A-603G polymorphism and C-IMT were determined in 6...
Lim, Jung Hwa; Shin, Hyo Jung; Park, Kyeong-Su; Lee, Chan Hee; Jung, Cho-Rok; Im, Dong-Soo
E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) inducing ischemic vascular responses. Here, we investigated the effect of UCP gene transfer on therapeutic angiogenesis. Adenovirus-encoded UCP (Ad-F-UCP) increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in cells and mice. Conditioned media from UCP-overexpressing cells promoted proliferation, tubule formation, and invasion of human umbilical-vascu...
Full Text Available The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+ improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity.
The successful completion of this project will significantly improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms of clinical metformin efficacy, help interpret the existing clinical data about various metformin efficacies in different cancer patients, and provide a scientific basis for designing rationalized metformin-based cancer prevention clinical trials. Our study could move the metformin research beyond the current correlative stages and establish, for the first time, detailed, mechanistic pathways that link tumor tissue BCA2 status to metformin efficacy and to changes that alter cancer incidence.
Sun, Chengchun; Hao, Junwen; Dou, Meiqin; Gong, Yanwen
Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that are widely used clinically, but the increasing resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) to these agents is a matter of concern. We investigated mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of three fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin (LVX), pazufloxacin (PAZ) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). We analyzed an A. baumannii standard strain (ATCC19606) for mutation prevention indices (MPIs), MPCs and mutant selection windows as well as MICs of CIP, PAZ and LVX and compared the derived values with 34 A. baumannii strains collected in hospitals. In addition, A. baumannii standard strain (ATCC19606) fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants were investigated for gyrA and parC gene mutations. MPCs of CIP, prevention antibiotics concentration and LVX for A. baumannii ATCC19606 were 12.8, 5.6 and 2.8??g?ml(-1) and their MPIs were 16, 8 and 4, respectively. Clinically isolated A. baumannii strains had CIP, PAZ and LVX MPC value ranges of 1-8, 1-16 and 0.5-2??g?ml(-1) and their MPIs were 8, 8 and 4??g?ml(-1). Single gyrA mutations (Ser(83)-Leu(83)) occurred in 18 resistant strains (48.7%) and single parC mutations (Ala(79)-Asp(79) or (Ser(80)-Leu(80)) occurred in 8 resistant strains (21.6%), whereas gyrA and parC double mutations occurred in 2 (5.4%) of the resistant strains. MPC and MPI values of LVX were lower than that of CIP and PAZ. Single gyrA and parC mutations accounted for the majority of mutations (n=24), whereas double mutations occurred only in two strains. PMID:25351948
Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...
Kato, Ryuji; Nomura, Atsuo; Sakamoto, Aiji; Yasuda, Yuki; Amatani, Koyuha; Nagai, Sayuri; Sen, Yoko; Ijiri, Yoshio; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya
The prevalence of sleep apnea is very high in patients with heart failure (HF). The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the failing heart and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of hydrogen gas. Normal male Syrian hamsters (n = 22) and cardiomyopathic (CM) hamsters (n = 33) were exposed to IH (repeated cycles of 1.5 min of 5% oxygen and 5 min of 21% oxygen for 8 h during the daytime) or normoxia for 14 days. Hydrogen gas (3.05 vol/100 vol) was inhaled by some CM hamsters during hypoxia. IH increased the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to mitral annulus velocity (E/e', 21.8 vs. 16.9) but did not affect the LV ejection fraction (EF) in normal Syrian hamsters. However, IH increased E/e' (29.4 vs. 21.5) and significantly decreased the EF (37.2 vs. 47.2%) in CM hamsters. IH also increased the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (672 vs. 443 ?m(2)) and interstitial fibrosis (29.9 vs. 9.6%), along with elevation of oxidative stress and superoxide production in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Furthermore, IH significantly increased the expression of brain natriuretic peptide, ?-myosin heavy chain, c-fos, and c-jun mRNA in CM hamsters. Hydrogen gas inhalation significantly decreased both oxidative stress and embryonic gene expression, thus preserving cardiac function in CM hamsters. In conclusion, IH accelerated LV remodeling in CM hamsters, at least partly by increasing oxidative stress in the failing heart. These findings might explain the poor prognosis of patients with HF and sleep apnea. PMID:25281567
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries to provide the 'field' genetic resource (endemic disease situation) in order to devise and test vaccines developed through molecular studies. Development of technologies cannot be divorced from an understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases found in developing countries. This is frequently not undertaken due to the many competing demands on the scarce resources available. However, increased livestock trade possibilities may provide the focus and catalyst needed to ensure that animal health science is applied appropriately and usefully for the benefit of developing countries. (author)
Energy restriction prevents the development of type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats : coordinated patterns of gene expression for energy metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues and pancreatic islets determined by oligonucleotide microarray analysis
Colombo, Michele; Kruhoeffer, Mogens
Energy restriction (ER) causes metabolic improvement in the prediabetic and diabetic state. Little information exists on the mechanism of action of ER, for example, on the changes at the transcriptional gene level in insulin-sensitive tissues. To gain further insight, we have investigated changes in gene expressions in skeletal muscle, liver, fat, and pancreatic islets after ER in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Eighteen Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided at the age of 7 weeks into a control group (ad libitum diet) and an ER group (30% ER compared with the control group). Blood glucose, weight, and food intake were measured weekly. After 5 weeks, blood samples, and skeletal muscle, liver, visceral fat (epididymal fat pads), and islets tissue were collected. Gene expression was quantified with high-density oligonucleotide, microarray GeneChip technology. ER ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia, increased the levels of plasma insulin, and reduced plasma total cholesterol and the glucagon-insulin ratio (P <.05). In skeletal muscle, the expression of 55 genes increased and 245 decreased involving genes related to glucose metabolism (eg, phosphorylase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4), lipid metabolism (eg, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid transporter), and signaling pathways (eg, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C). In the liver, the expression of 123 genes increased and 103 decreased involving genes related primarily to lipid metabolism. In pancreatic islets, the expression of 110 genes increased and that of 127 decreased, whereas in visceral fat, the expression of 279 genes increased and that of 528 decreased. ER counteracts the development of diabetes and causes changes in the expression of multiple genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreatic islets, which may play an important role for the prevention of diabetes.
... your risk of dengue infection: There is no vaccine available against dengue, and there are no specific medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding mosquito bites if you ...
Multiphasic Approach Reveals Genetic Diversity of Environmental and Patient Isolates of Mycobacterium mucogenicum and Mycobacterium phocaicum Associated with an Outbreak of Bacteremias at a Texas Hospital?
Cooksey, Robert C.; Jhung, Michael A.; Yakrus, Mitchell A.; Butler, W. Ray; Adékambi, Toidi; Morlock, Glenn P.; Williams, Margaret; Shams, Alicia M.; Jensen, Bette J.; Morey, Roger E.; Charles, Nadege; Toney, Sean R.; Jost, Kenneth C; Dunbar, Denise F.; Bennett, Vickie
Between March and May 2006, a Texas hospital identified five Mycobacterium mucogenicum bloodstream infections among hospitalized oncology patients using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of mycolic acids. Isolates from blood cultures were compared to 16 isolates from environmental sites or water associated with this ward. These isolates were further characterized by hsp65, 16S rRNA, and rpoB gene sequencing, hsp65 PCR restriction analysis, and molecular typing metho...
The ?1,3-galactosyltransferase (?1,3GT or GGTA1) gene displays unique evolutionary characteristics. This gene appeared early in mammalian evolution and is absent in other vertebrates. The ?1,3GT gene is active in marsupials, nonprimate placental mammals, lemurs (prosimians) and New World monkeys, encoding the ?1,3GT enzyme that synthesizes a carbohydrate antigen called "?-gal epitope." The ?-gal epitope is present in large numbers on cell membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins. The ?1,3GT gene was inactivated in ancestral Old World monkeys and apes by frameshift single-base deletions forming premature stop codons. Because of this gene inactivation, humans, apes, and Old World monkeys lack ?-gal epitopes and naturally produce an antibody called the "anti-Gal antibody" which binds specifically to ?-gal epitopes and which is the most abundant antibody in humans. The evolutionary event that resulted in the inactivation of the ?1,3GT gene in ancestral Old World primates could have been mediated by a pathogen endemic to Eurasia-Africa landmass that exerted pressure for selection of primate populations lacking the ?-gal epitope. Once the ?-gal epitope was eliminated, primates could produce the anti-Gal antibody, possibly as means of defense against pathogens expressing this epitope. This assumption is supported by the fossil record demonstrating an almost complete extinction of apes in the late Miocene and failure of Old World monkeys to radiate into multiple species before that period. A present outcome of this evolutionary event is the anti-Gal-mediated rejection of mammalian xenografts expressing ?-gal epitopes in humans, apes, and Old World monkeys. PMID:25315716
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâ??s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
... as effective as male condoms at preventing STDs, HIV and pregnancy. Some people use female condoms for anal sex. ... prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily pill that can prevent HIV during conception and pregnancy. Encourage your partner to get and stay on ...
Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta
In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 ?g of ATRA dissolved in 100 ?L of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (?2 ?g·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice. PMID:25017112
Glais, Isabelle; Montarry, Josselin; CORBIÈRE, Roselyne; Pasco, Claudine; Marquer, Bruno; Magalon, Hélène; Andrivon, Didier
Sustainably managing plant resistance to epidemic pathogens implies controlling the genetic and demographic changes in pathogen populations faced with resistant hosts. Resistance management thus depends upon the dynamics of local adaptation, mainly driven by the balance between selection and gene flow. This dynamics is best investigated with populations from locally dominant hosts in islands with long histories of local selection. We used the unique case of the potato late blight pathosystem ...
Choi, Won Hee; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl
Rice has many health-beneficial components for ameliorating obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of cooked rice as a useful carbohydrate source has not been investigated yet; so we hypothesized that cooked rice may have hypolipidemic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cooked rice on hyperlipidemia and on the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 2 groups and fed a high-fat (15%, wt/wt)/cholesterol (0.5%, wt/wt) diet supplemented with either corn starch (HFD, 54.5% wt/wt) or cooked rice (HFD-CR, 54.5% wt/wt) as the main carbohydrate source for 8 weeks. In the HFD-CR group, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver were decreased, and the total lipid, total cholesterol, and bile acid levels in the feces were increased, compared with the HFD group. In the cooked-rice group, the messenger RNA and protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase were significantly downregulated; and the messenger RNA and protein levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase were upregulated. Furthermore, the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol response element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were downregulated, whereas the ?-oxidation related genes (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, acyl CoA oxidase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) were upregulated, in the cooked-rice group. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of cooked rice is partially mediated by the regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, which results in the suppression of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis and the enhancement of cholesterol excretion and fatty acid ?-oxidation. PMID:23827132
Chopard, Angele; Lecunff, Martine; Danger, Richard; Teusan, Raluca; Jasmin, Bernard J.; Marini, Jean-Francois; Leger, Jean
Long duration space flights have a dramatic impact on human physiology and under such a condition, skeletal muscles are known to be one of the most affected systems. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to muscle impairment under microgravity, which causes significant loss of muscle mass as well as structural disorders, is necessary for the development of efficient space flight countermeasures. This study was conducted under the aegis of the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the French "Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales" (CNES). It gave us the opportunity to investigate for the first time the effects of prolonged disuse (long-term bedrest, LTBR) on the transcriptome of different muscle types in healthy women (control, n=8), as well as the potential beneficial impact of protein supplementation (nutrition, n=8) and a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training program (exercise, n=8). Pre- (LTBR -8) and post- (LTBR +59) biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from each subject. Skeletal muscle gene expression profiles were obtained using a custom made microarray containing 6681 muscle-relevant genes. 555 differentiallyexpressed and statistically-significant genes were identified in control group following 60 days of LTBR, including 348 specific for SOL, 83 specific for VL, and 124 common for the two types of muscle (pmuscle types exhibited a consistent decrease in pathways involved in fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation (pmuscle exhibited a higher level of changes with mRNA encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation (mainly ubiquitinproteasome components) (pmuscle function, such as those involved in calcium signaling and muscle structure including modifications of extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal components, were significant in SOL. Among the two recently described markers of atrophy, only MAFbx transcripts exhibited an increase in VL following 60 days of LTBR. While protein supplementation reduced the number of differentially-expressed genes by 40 and 25% for SOL and VL, respectively, the combined exercise regimen resulted in a marked beneficial and compensatory effect by decreasing the number of differentially-expressed mRNAs by more than 90% in both SOL and VL muscles. Together, these findings provide an overview of skeletal muscle impairment following prolonged disuse by identifying specific groups of genes related to muscle function, as well as metabolic and canonical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of regular exercise in the maintenance of both slow and fast muscle phenotypes. Finally, our approach will prove useful in designing and optimizing specific countermeasures aimed at counteracting muscle atrophy in a microgravity environment.
Pang, Jijing; Boye, Shannon E; LEI, Bo; Boye, Sanford L.; Everhart, Drew; Ryals, Renee; Umino, Yumiko; Rohrer, Bärbel; Alexander, John; Li, Jie; Dai, Xufeng; Li, QiuHong; Chang, Bo; Barlow, Robert; Hauswirth, William. W.
To test whether fast-acting, self complimentary(sc), AAV vector-mediated RPE65 expression prevents cone degeneration and/or restores cone function, two mouse lines were studied: the Rpe65- deficient rd12 mouse and the Rpe65- deficient, rhodpsin null (‘i.e. cone function-only’) Rpe65?/?::Rho?/? mouse. scAAV5 expressing RPE65 was injected subretinally into one eye of rd12 and Rpe65?/?::Rho?/? mice at postnatal day 14 (P14). Contralateral rd12 eyes were injected later, at P35. Rd12 behavioral te...
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Takao Kataoka; Masayoshi Ando; Shigeru Taketani; Liwei Fu; Yuriko Yamada; Nana Oshima; Tomonobu Yokomichi; Kyoko Morimoto
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expressi...
Z-360, a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, prevents up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and phosphorylation of NR2B via suppression of interleukin-1 ? production in a cancer-induced pain model in mice
Full Text Available Abstract Background Z-360 is an orally active cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2/gastrin receptor antagonist currently under development as a therapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. It was previously reported that Z-360 treatment in combination with gemcitabine prolonged the survival period in a lethal pancreatic cancer xenograft model in mice. In a phase Ib/IIa clinical study, Z-360 treatment displayed a trend of reduced pain in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine including analgesics such as opioids. Here, we investigated the mechanism of analgesic action of Z-360 in a severe cancer-induced pain model in mice, which is considered to be opioid-resistant, by examining ephrin B1 gene expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit phosphorylation, and interleukin-1? (IL-1? production. Results In a mouse model of cancer-induced pain, ephrin B1 gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and the phosphorylation of NR2B in the spinal cord were induced. Z-360 treatment inhibited both ephrin B1 gene expression and the phosphorylation of NR2B. In addition, IL-1? production increased in the cancer-inoculated hind paw of mice, but could be suppressed by treatment with Z-360. Moreover, we observed that the CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide similarly suppressed up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and IL-1? production, and that the intraperitoneal injection of sulfated CCK-8 induced the production of IL-1? in the cancer-inoculated region. Conclusions We have identified a novel pain cascade, in which IL-1? production in cancer-inoculated regions induces ephrin B1 gene expression in DRGs and then ephrin B1 enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B via Eph B receptor in the spinal cord. Notably, Z-360 relieves cancer-induced pain by preventing this pain cascade through the suppression of IL-1? production, likely via the blockade of CCK1 receptor. The pre-clinical results presented here support the analgesic action of Z-360 in pancreatic cancer patients with severe, opioid-resistant pain. Pre-clinical and clinical results have demonstrated that Z-360 combined with gemcitabine represents a promising pancreatic cancer therapy approach with characteristic analgesic effects in addition to the prolongation of survival.
CDCâ??s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it. Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB). Date Released: 8/6/2015.
... caused when an older child gives a dangerous toy or food to a younger child. Keep the following foods away from children younger than 4 years: Hot dogs Nuts and seeds Chunks of meat or cheese Whole grapes ... to Buy Safe Toys Dangers of Magnetic Toys and Fake Piercings Prevention ...
Dahl, JØrgen B; Kehlet, Henrik
This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain.
Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…
The problem of gene function--of the relationships between hereditary material and the characteristics of organisms--preceded the rediscovery of Mendel's laws and accompanied the development of genetics in the XXth century. Molecular biologists replaced the simple gene-character relationship by two relationships: the first, between genes and proteins, was well defined, whereas the second between proteins and the complex structural and functional characteristics of organisms remained unknown. I will describe in this article the experimental approaches which helped to characterize during the last twenty years the relationships between proteins and characters. Four principles of macromolecular organization emerged from these studies: conservation of the elementary components during evolution, existence of pathways and networks, pleiotropy and redundancy. These principles are the explanation of the surprising experimental observations that have been made in recent years. The existence of these principles makes problematic any prediction on the consequences of gene modification. It both sounds the death-knell of the simplistic reductionist approach of many biologists, whereby genes were considered as responsible for specific functions, and definitely prevents the distribution of genes in separate, well defined categories. PMID:11147101
Britland, Stephen; Hoyle, Milli
Eczema is widely considered to be an exacerbation of alkaline stress to the skin. Epidermal barrier dysfunction is a feature of eczema pathology, which predisposes affected individuals to distressing morbid symptoms. At least two serine proteases, stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme (kallikrein 7 [KLK7]) and stratum corneum tryptic enzyme (kallikrien 5 [KLK5]), have increased activity levels in eczematous lesions and both have been implicated in the destruction of corneodesomosomes, which are crucial to epidermal integrity. The present in vitro study investigated whether transcriptional gene silencing after siRNA transfection could influence the activity of these signature enzymes in an in vitro model of eczema induced by alkaline shock. HaCaT epithelial cells were subjected to alkaline stress by the addition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine "superbase" (TMG) to the culture media. The culture media were subsequently tested for chymotryspin, trypsin, plasmin, and urokinase activity using colorimetric peptide assays and for reactive oxygen species using WST1 cell viability reagent. Cells that had been transfected with small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) against KLK5 and KLK7 for 24 h before alkaline shock did not exhibit the increase in serine protease levels observed in untreated controls. Moreover, an endpoint MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) confirmed that detachment of cells from the culture substrate observed in alkaline-stressed cells did not occur in siRNA-treated cells. This in vitro study has established the proof-of-principle that siRNA therapy appears to mitigate the consequences of alkaline shock to the serine protease-associated fragility of epithelial cells that is characteristic of eczema. PMID:22095688
Eriksson Johan G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid, also known as terameprocol (TMP, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the resin of the creosote bush. We have shown previously that TMP will suppress production of certain inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids from macrophages following stimulation with LPS or infection with H1N1 influenza virus. In this study our goal was to elucidate the mechanism underlying TMP-mediated suppression of cytokine and chemokine production. We focused our investigations on the response to LPS and the NF-?B protein RelA, a transcription factor whose activity is critical to LPS-responsiveness. Methods Reporter assays were performed with HEK293 cells overexpressing either TLR-3, -4, or -8 and a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of an NF-?B response element. Cells were then treated with LPS, poly(I:C, or resiquimod, and/or TMP, and lysates measured for luciferase activity. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were used in ChIP and EMSA assays. For ChIP assays, chromatin was prepared and complexes precipitated with anti-NF-?B RelA Ab. Cross-links were reversed, DNA purified, and sequence abundance determined by Q-PCR. For EMSA assays, nuclear extracts were incubated with radiolabeled probes, analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE and visualized by autoradiography. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were also used in fluorescence microscopy and western blot experiments. Translocation experiments were performed using a primary Ab to NF-?B RelA and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary Ab. Western blots were performed using Abs to I?B-? and phospho-I?B-?. Bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Results In reporter assays with TLR-3, -4, and -8 over-expressing cells, TMP caused strong inhibition of NF-?B-dependent transcription. ChIP assays showed TMP caused virtually complete inhibition of RelA binding in vivo to promoters for the genes for TNF-?, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 although the LPS-dependent synthesis of I?B-? was not inhibited. EMSA assays did not reveal an effect of TMP on the binding of RelA to naked DNA templates in vitro. TMP did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-?B RelA nor the phosphorylation of I?B-?. Conclusion TMP acts indirectly as an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent transcription by preventing RelA from binding the promoters of certain key cytokine and chemokine genes.
Maslak, Edyta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Szumny, Antoni; Szczepnski, Wojciech; Franczyk-Zarow, Magdalena; Kopec, Aneta; Chlopicki, Stefan; Leszczynska, Teresa; Kostogrys, Renata B.
This study assessed the effects of individual conjugated linoleic acid isomers, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic endothelial dysfunction in rats fed for four weeks with control or high-fructose diet. The high-fructose diet hampered body weight gain (without influencing food intake), increased liver weight and glycogen storage in hepatocytes, upregulated expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the liver. Both CLA isomers prevented excessive accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Specifically, t10c12-CLA decreased concentration of serum triacylglycerols and LDL + VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, and affected liver lipid content and fatty acid composition by downregulation of liver SCD-1 and FAS expression. In turn, the c9t11-CLA decreased LDL+VLDL cholesterol in the control group and downregulated liver expression of FAS without significant effects on liver weight, lipid content, and fatty acid composition. In summary, feeding rats with a high-fructose diet resulted in increased liver glycogen storage, indicating the induction of gluconeogenesis despite simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Although both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) display hepatoprotective activity, the hypolipemic action of the t10c12-CLA isomer proved to be more pronounced than that of c9t11-CLA. PMID:26090419
Bezouška, Karel; Kubínková, Z.; St?íbrný, J.; Volfová, B.; Pompach, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Šírová, Milada; ?íhová, Blanka
Ro?. 23, ?. 10 (2012), s. 2032-2041. ISSN 1043-1802 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505; GA ?R GA303/09/0477; GA ?R GD305/09/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : HUMAN EOSINOPHILS * KILLER-CELLS * CD69 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.580, year: 2012
... gov . Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Share Compartir Prevention & Control Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to ... disease prevention. Five Basic Cholera Prevention Messages Infection Control Guide for Family Members of Patients with Suspect ...
... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...
... Cells November 4, 2013 New Genes Tied to Alzheimer's Disease Researchers identified 11 new genes that affect the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The findings point to novel targets for preventing ...
A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)
Letícia Muraro, Wildner; Maria Luiza, Bazzo; Susie Coutinho, Liedke; Christiane Lourenço, Nogueira; Gabriela, Segat; Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Aline Daiane, Schlindwein; Jaquelline Germano de, Oliveira; Darcita B, Rovaris; Claudio A, Bonjardim; Erna G, Kroon; Paulo CP, Ferreira.
Full Text Available The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.
Safety and efficacy of ALD403, an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory phase 2 trial
Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is crucial in the pathophysiology of migraine. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ALD403, a genetically engineered humanised anti-CGRP antibody, for migraine prevention. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory, proof-of-concept phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-55 years with five to 14 migraine days per 28-day period were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive web response system to receive an intravenous dose of ALD403 1000 mg or placebo. Site investigators, patients, and the sponsor were masked to treatment allocation during the study. The primary objective was to assess safety at 12 weeks after infusion. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to weeks 5-8 in the frequency of migraine days, as recorded in patient electronic diaries. Patients were followed up until 24 weeks for exploratory safety and efficacy analyses. Safety and efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01772524. FINDINGS: Between Jan 28, 2013, and Dec 23, 2013, of 174 patients randomly assigned at 26 centres in the USA, 163 received either ALD403 (n=81) or placebo (n=82). Adverse events were experienced by 46 (57%) of 81 patients in the ALD403 group and 43 (52%) of 82 in the placebo group. The most frequent adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (placebo 6 [7%] patients vs ALD403 7 [9%] patients), urinary tract infection (4 [5%] vs 1 [1%]), fatigue (3 [4%] vs 3 [4%]), back pain (4 [5%] vs 3 [4%]), arthralgia (4 [5%] vs 1 [1%]), and nausea and vomiting (2 [2%] vs 3 [4%]). Six serious adverse events were reported by three patients and were judged to be unrelated to study drug: in the ALD403 group, one patient had four serious adverse events and one had one serious adverse event, and in the placebo group, one patient had one serious adverse event. There were no differences in vital signs or laboratory safety data between the two treatment groups. The mean change in migraine days between baseline and weeks 5-8 was -5·6 (SD 3·0) for the ALD403 group compared with -4·6 (3·6) for the placebo group (difference -1·0, 95% CI -2·0 to 0·1; one-sided p=0·0306). INTERPRETATION: No safety concerns were noted with an intravenous dose of ALD403 1000 mg. This study also provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of ALD403 in the preventive treatment of migraine in patients with a high monthly frequency of migraine days. FUNDING: Alder Biopharmaceuticals.
Everett, W H; Curiel, D T
Radiation therapy is a critical component of cancer treatment with over half of patients receiving radiation during their treatment. Despite advances in image-guided therapy and dose fractionation, patients receiving radiation therapy are still at risk for side effects due to off-target radiation damage of normal tissues. To reduce normal tissue damage, researchers have sought radioprotectors, which are agents capable of protecting tissue against radiation by preventing radiation damage from occurring or by decreasing cell death in the presence of radiation damage. Although much early research focused on small-molecule radioprotectors, there has been a growing interest in gene therapy for radioprotection. The amenability of gene therapy vectors to targeting, as well as the flexibility of gene therapy to accomplish ablation or augmentation of biologically relevant genes, makes gene therapy an excellent strategy for radioprotection. Future improvements to vector targeting and delivery should greatly enhance radioprotection through gene therapy. PMID:25721205
... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...
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Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep
Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle.
?ukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Ka?uzny, Józef
The pharmaceuticals inhibiting proliferation of epithelium cells or causing their death were tested in experimental studies on PCO prevention. The following antymetabolites were tested: 5-fluorouracil, dounomycin, methotrexat and colchicine, epithelial antibodies against epithelial cells, toxins, hyperosmolar agents and heparin, indomethacine and lignocaine. Moreover, gene therapy with the use of apoptose genes was applied. None of the attempts to prevent PCO was useful for effective and safe clinical treatment. PMID:21913452
NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What are genes? Genes are sections of DNA that contain instructions for making the molecules—many of ...
... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...
... Latex condoms, the most common type, help prevent pregnancy, and HIV and other STDs, as do the newer synthetic condoms. “Natural” or “lambskin” condoms also help prevent pregnancy, but may not provide protection against STDs, including ...
... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Sinusitis Prevention There is little information about the prevention of acute or chronic sinusitis, but the following measures may help: Avoid exposure ...
Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation
Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...
This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers. Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). Date Released: 10/24/2011.
This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV. Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 3/26/2009.
Chang, Jeong-Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang-Soo; Chung, Cheol-Hyun; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na
We report the case of a deep sternal wound infection with sternal osteomyelitis caused by Gordonia bronchialis after open-heart surgery. The isolate was identified as a G. bronchialis by 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing, having initially been misidentified as a Rhodococcus by a commercial phenotypic identification system.
Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual?s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.
Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study
Ravn-Haren, Lejla Gitte; Krath, Britta Naimi
Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (sd 4.26) years; 36 % reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mug, 200 mug or 300 mug Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise(R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQO1 or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.
Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study
Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta
Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen I (Fral), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (SD 4.26) years; 36% reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mu g, 200 mu g or 300 mu g Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise (R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQOI or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.
Chuah, M K; Evens, H; VandenDriessche, T
Hemophilia A and B are X-linked monogenic disorders resulting from deficiencies of factor VIII and FIX, respectively. Purified clotting factor concentrates are currently intravenously administered to treat hemophilia, but this treatment is non-curative. Therefore, gene-based therapies for hemophilia have been developed to achieve sustained high levels of clotting factor expression to correct the clinical phenotype. Over the past two decades, different types of viral and non-viral gene delivery systems have been explored for hemophilia gene therapy research with a variety of target cells, particularly hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, skeletal muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Lentiviral and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are among the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy. In preclinical hemophilia A and B animal models, the bleeding phenotype was corrected with these vectors. Some of these promising preclinical results prompted clinical translation to patients suffering from a severe hemophilic phenotype. These patients receiving gene therapy with AAV vectors showed long-term expression of therapeutic FIX levels, which is a major step forwards in this field. Nevertheless, the levels were insufficient to prevent trauma or injury-induced bleeding episodes. Another challenge that remains is the possible immune destruction of gene-modified cells by effector T cells, which are directed against the AAV vector antigens. It is therefore important to continuously improve the current gene therapy approaches to ultimately establish a real cure for hemophilia. PMID:23809114
Full Text Available Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense mechanism against infection by transfecting host cells with an antimicrobial peptide protein-encoding gene. -Periodontal vaccination. Gene therapy is one of the recent entrants and its applications in the field of periodontics are reviewed in general here.
Cohen, D R; Henderson, J B
A major reason why the balance between pronouncements on prevention and action is tipped so much towards the former is that, in most countries, responsibility for prevention is fragmented and vaguely defined. If an effective and efficient national prevention policy is to come about, then it is important that overall responsibility be placed in the hands of a single agency, and for that agency to recognise that priorities in prevention must be a function of costs as well as benefits. The first task of such an agency will be to sort out the fundamental objectives of public policy by clarifying what is meant by prevention and specifying the rationale for government intervention and hence the sorts of prevention which should be the responsibility of the public sector. Given this, national expenditure on prevention from any source which contributes to government prevention strategy can be identified and expressed in the form of a programme budget showing the proportions of total prevention expenditure going to each of the defined programme areas (environment, occupational health and safety, screening, health promotion, etc.). This framework gives a broad overview of the existing situation and by forcing consideration of benefit valuation in any decision to alter the balance of expenditure between programmes, ought to lead to a more rational prevention strategy than would result from a focus on individual programmes in isolation. Moreover, through an emphasis on costs and benefits, the overseers of prevention policy will be better placed to consider the relative efficiency of existing policies--since all share the common objective of reducing future morbidity and mortality. Finally, consideration will also need to be given to issues of equity. The approach described, illustrated by the case of the United Kingdom, will, if adopted, increase the likelihood that a rational and sensible national prevention policy will emerge. PMID:10311097
Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition
The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)
... WISQARS) Communication Resource Center Press Room Social Media Child Maltreatment Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Child maltreatment includes all types of abuse and neglect ...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...
Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friendsâ??one a doctorâ??talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need. Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/8/2015.
Green, Robin J.
This year’s influenza guideline was published in the South African Medical Journal. It adds important new data with regard to influenza prevention and treatment. This article highlights the role of the nurse in influenza prevention and management strategies in South Africa.
... A to Z sponsors Health and beauty For kids About dermatology A to Z: The video series Classroom activities Care guides Home Dermatology A to Z Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Tips Bedbugs: Tips for preventing Travel tip : To prevent bedbugs from coming home with ...
José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho
Full Text Available The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.
José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho
The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.
Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.
Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Lu, Wenbin; Hsu, Fang-Chi
Gene/pathway-based methods are drawing significant attention due to their usefulness in detecting rare and common variants that affect disease susceptibility. The biological mechanism of drug responses indicates that a gene-based analysis has even greater potential in pharmacogenetics. Motivated by a study from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, we develop a gene-trait similarity regression for survival analysis to assess the effect of a gene or pat...
Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M
With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the context of relevant interventions, various techniques are used, such as role playing. At the level of social policy, different measures may contribute to increase the effectiveness of preventive programs (e.g. prohibition of sale of alcohol in young people). Interventions of tertiary prevention aim at the development of motivation for abstinence in alcohol dependent individuals and the prevention of relapse, as well as the acquisition of new behaviors, which support modification of the problem of alcohol dependence. These interventions can take place in the context of psychotherapeutic follow-up provided to alcohol dependent individuals, and may include various short-term interventions, such as motivational interviewing, but also alternative forms of treatment (e.g. acupuncture, meditation). Elements of prevention in combination with elements of promotion of mental health may be incorporated in the same programme for alcohol dependence, endorsing similar or different activities, which may be complementary and may reinforce the effectiveness of the prevention program. Finally, it is necessary to raise the awareness of mental health professionals regarding prevention and provide specialized education to those who work in drug addiction programmes. Mental health professionals may act as therapists and as intervention coordinators, and performing these roles, they may contribute to the effectiveness of preventive programs and more generally to the treatment of disorders connected with alcohol use. PMID:26197102
Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.
Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes
Aschard, Hugues; CHEN, JINBO; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kraft, Peter
Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of common genetic variants associated with the risk of multifactorial diseases. However, their impact on discrimination and risk prediction is limited. It has been suggested that the identification of gene-gene (G-G) and gene-environment (G-E) interactions would improve disease prediction and facilitate prevention. We conducted a simulation study to explore the potential improvement in discrimination if G-G and G-E interactions exist an...
... much softening lotion; use just enough to prevent dry skin. Maintain a good prosthetic fit at all times and take care to maintain correct alignment and socket fit. Having the right fit will help relieve ...
Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury ...
Ward, Paul; Tribbensee, Nancy
Discusses how, by fostering a teamwork relationship between administrators and university attorneys, the preventive law approach can effectively identify risks and develop strategies and policies in advance of any individual legal dispute. (EV)
... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...
This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it. Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/19/2012.
... drug, fibrates). [Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer. Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184?92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? ...
Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... Videos by Family Relationship Videos by Spinal Cord Experts Resources Forums Peer Counseling Blog About Us Contact ...
Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents Introduction What is a Stroke? What ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...
... gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control When a person is infested with scabies mites ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...
... and then cause symptoms later (also called a relapse of infection). 8 Can my pets get histoplasmosis? ... CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing ...
... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Measles - Recommendations for Prevention On this Page Children Teens ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...
Full Text Available ... sores? What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? What are the most important things for ... in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? What ...
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... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...
... cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins , minerals , or food supplements . New ways to prevent cervical cancer are being studied in ...
... cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins , minerals , or food supplements . New ways to prevent liver cancer are being studied in ...
... cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins , minerals , or food supplements . New ways to prevent oral cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are ...
... cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins, minerals , or food supplements. New ways to prevent prostate cancer are being studied in ...
... cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins , minerals , or food supplements. New ways to prevent lung cancer are being studied in ...
... cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines , vitamins , minerals , or food supplements . New ways to prevent esophageal cancer are being studied in ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer. Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 6/2/2015.
Raspe, Heiner; Burkhardt-Hammer, Tatjana; Stoll, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar
Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course...
de Sanjosé Silvia
Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history st...
This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases
Muir, D. C. F.
The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health ...
Full Text Available Purpose: Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury.In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods: MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results: A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion: The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective.
Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening families. Includes information on supporting families, protective factors, public ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...
... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...
... Diseases Share Compartir Risk & Prevention Who gets pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)? PCP is extremely rare in healthy people. ... chronic lung diseases How can I prevent pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)? There is no vaccine to prevent PCP. ...
... Share this: Main Content Area Preventing and Treating Food Allergy There is currently no cure for food allergies, ... of a food-induced allergic reaction. Preventing a Food Allergy Reaction You can only prevent the symptoms of ...
Full Text Available The treatment and prevention of oral cancer is one of the major hurdles in the field ofcancer. Gene therapy is one of the recent advances in this field to tackle this hurdle with promisingprospects. This overview introduces the reader into the basic idea of gene therapy, types of genetherapy and the various modes of introduction of therapeutic gene into the cancer affected cell.
Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M
The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 × 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 × 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the water supply infrastructure. PMID:26098899
This animated video segment adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, featuring American Indian characters, explains how children can help prevent diabetes through regular physical activity.
Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Inês Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana
Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defin...
Azzazy, Hassan M E
Gene doping abuses the legitimate approach of gene therapy. While gene therapy aims to correct genetic disorders by introducing a foreign gene to replace an existing faulty one or by manipulating existing gene(s) to achieve a therapeutic benefit, gene doping employs the same concepts to bestow performance advantages on athletes over their competitors. Recent developments in genetic engineering have contributed significantly to the progress of gene therapy research and currently numerous clinical trials are underway. Some athletes and their staff are probably watching this progress closely. Any gene that plays a role in muscle development, oxygen delivery to tissues, neuromuscular coordination, or even pain control is considered a candidate for gene dopers. Unfortunately, detecting gene doping is technically very difficult because the transgenic proteins expressed by the introduced genes are similar to their endogenous counterparts. Researchers today are racing the clock because assuring the continued integrity of sports competition depends on their ability to develop effective detection strategies in preparation for the 2012 Olympics, which may mark the appearance of genetically modified athletes. PMID:20020377
Mohan, Rajiv R; Sharma, Ajay; Netto, Marcelo V; Sinha, Sunilima; Wilson, Steven E
Technological advances in the field of gene therapy has prompted more than three hundred phase I and phase II gene-based clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, AIDS, macular degeneration, cardiovascular, and other monogenic diseases. Besides treating diseases, gene transfer technology has been utilized for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, B and C viruses, AIDS, and influenza. The potential therapeutic applications of gene transfer technology are enormous. The cornea is an excellent candidate for gene therapy because of its accessibility and immune-privileged nature. In the last two decades, various viral vectors, such as adeno, adeno-associated, retro, lenti, and herpes simplex, as well as non-viral methods, were examined for introducing DNA into corneal cells in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. Most of these studies used fluorescent or non-fluorescent marker genes to track the level and duration of transgene expression in corneal cells. However, limited studies were directed to evaluate prospects of gene-based interventions for corneal diseases or disorders such as allograft rejection, laser-induced post-operative haze, herpes simplex keratitis, and wound healing in animal models. We will review the successes and obstacles impeding gene therapy approaches used for delivering genes into the cornea. PMID:15955719
We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully
Cain, J M; Howett, M K
The Pap smear has been the classic screening strategy for preventing cervical cancer for 50 years. The finding that infection with human papillomavirus is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer has prompted the development of new strategies for cervical cancer screening and prevention. In their Policy Forum, Cain and Howett discuss the introduction of HPV testing, anti-HPV microbicidal agents and vaccination against HPV. They point out the benefits but also the potential for over and under treatment and the need for considerable improvements in public education. PMID:10877694
de Sanjosé Silvia
Full Text Available Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history studies, impact of screening interventions or impact of HPV vaccines will be most welcome.
Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492
Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.
Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…
... sources. Regularly wet-mop floors and wet-wipe window components. Because household dust is a major source of lead, you should wet-mop floors and wet-wipe horizontal surfaces every 2-3 weeks. ... clean. If feasible, windows should be shut to prevent abrasion of painted ...
Fire Prevention tools at the Vojany Power Plant (EVO) are being modernized. Fixed Fire Extinguishing Equipment reconstruction started this year 2011. It was extended and water shields were added, centralized industrial vacuum cleaner and electric fi re detection were installed and also coal handling control system was modernized. (author)
Pope, Andrew M.
This paper presents the Institute of Medicine model of the dynamic nature of the disabling process of both primary disabilities and secondary conditions, and the interaction of that process with risk factors and quality of life. The components of a comprehensive disability prevention program are discussed. (Author/JDD)
Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts. Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 9/1/2009.
Druck, Ken; Kaplowitz, Matthew
Violence affects one in every five teenagers. Everyday 160,000 students miss school because they fear attack, intimidation, or bullying. While tragedies such as school shootings are rare, many youngsters feel threatened. School officials and administrators take steps to make school safer, yet many teachers remain frustrated. Violence prevention…
Lip, Gregory YH; Kalra, Lalit
Prevention in this context is the long-term management of people with previous stroke or TIA, and of people at high risk of stroke for other reasons, such as atrial fibrillation. Risk factors for stroke include: previous stroke or TIA; increasing age; hypertension; diabetes; cigarette smoking; and emboli associated with atrial fibrillation, artificial heart valves, or MI.
The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…
Langford, Linda; DeJong, William
Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…
... Men Are Victims (Copyright © Florida Council Against Sexual Violence) - Men and boys are often reluctant to report the crime of sexual assault or to seek services because they feel humiliated, shamed, or ... Violence — Prevention Strategies - Youth violence is a serious problem ...
... Share Ten Things Parents Can Do to Prevent Suicide Article Body 1. Don’t let a teenager’s depression or anxiety snowball. Maybe your child is ... to families shattered by a son’s or daughter’s suicide is poor communication ... instinct tells you that a teenager might be a danger to himself, heed your ...
Beer, W. Nicholas
Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…
... friends, and go to their parents or other trusted adults, if they think someone they know may be at risk for suicide. SPRC offers resources to help you play a role in suicide prevention. For Professionals SPRC’s Customized Information Sheets on Roles in Suicide ...
Full Text Available ... how is it treated? What's the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ...
... cancer are higher in African Americans than in other races. Finding and treating colorectal cancer early may prevent ... the colon. Some polyps have a stalk and others do not. Inset shows a photo of a polyp with a stalk. The effect of the following factors on the risk of ...
Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the methodological requirements of DAHTA. Proceedings of the electronic literature searches are documented in the appendix. In addition references of review articles were searched. Methodological quality of publications (systematic reviews, HTA reports was assessed using the checklists developed by the German Scientific Working Group for Technology Assessment in Health Care (GSWGTAHC or with the Jadad-Score (controlled trials respectively. Due to the large number of relevant publications the assessment is mainly based on data reported by systematic reviews and supplemented by the results of newer trials. A separate economic assessment was not performed because of the low amount of available data. An assessment of ethical, legal and social impact was omitted due to resource constraints.ResultsFor preventive interventions based on exercise programs most of the analysed trials demonstrate some effectiveness. Due to the heterogeneity of the programs it is not possible to conclude whether positive effects are associated with a special type, duration or intensity of exercise. For purely educational measures or information strategies applied in a workplace setting the available trials were not able to demonstrate effectiveness. Back school programs, which in addition to theoretical instructions offer intensive exercising may in the short term, be successful in reducing the incidence of new episodes of back pain. Some trials in high risk groups demonstrate effectiveness of multidimensional interventions on time lost from work. These programs include education and exercise as well as cognitive behavioural interventions to change pain perception. The assessment of the benefits of back belts for the prevention of back pain is based on results of high quality efficacy as well as effectiveness trials. Their results imply for the otherwise healthy working population no protective effect of back belts on time lost from work due to back pain, on the incidence of painful episodes or on days with impairment by back pain. So far there are no data from controlled trials that demonstrate the eff
Genome-wide mutagenesis studies indicate that up to about 90% of genes in bacteria and 80% in eukaryotes can be inactivated individually leaving an organism viable, often seemingly unaffected. Several strategies are used to learn what these apparently dispensable genes contribute to fitness. Assays of growth under hundreds of physical and chemical stresses are among the most effective experimental approaches. Comparative studies of genomic DNA sequences continue to be valuable in discriminating between the core bacterial genome and the more variable niche-specific genes. The concept of the core genome appears currently unfeasible for eukaryotes but progress has been made in understanding why they contain numerous gene duplicates. PMID:21592774
A better understanding the Pi-ta gene-mediated defense response will allow the development of novel strategies to control rice blast disease and obtain the new knowledge on molecular mechanisms of the gene-for-gene theory. The Pi-ta gene in rice prevents the infections of M. grisea races containing...
Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention
Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention
Sreevatsan, Srinand; Bookout, Jack B.; Ringpis, Fidel; Perumaalla, Veera S.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Adams, L Garry; Hagius, Sue D.; Elzer, Philip H.; Bricker, Betsy J.; Kumar, Girish K.; M. Rajasekhar; Isloor, Srikrishna; Barathur, Raj R.
A multiplex amplification and detection platform for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus infection simultaneously in bovine milk and nasal secretions was developed. This system (designated the bovine pathogen detection assay [BPDA]-PCR) consists of duplex amplification of species-specific targets (a region of the BCSP31K gene of B. abortus and a repeat-sequence region in the hsp65 gene of M. bovis, respectively). This is followed by a solid-phase probe capture hybridizat...
H Rezaei-Yazdi; Hoseini, N; H Fazeli; Faghri, J; Moghim, S.; Sarikhani, E; B Nasr-Esfahani
Background: Non- Tuberculous Mycobacteria are environmental opportunistic pathogens that can be found in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats. There are an epidemiological links between species isolated in tap water and those isolated from patients. hsp65 gene has more variability in its sequences, compared to the some more conserved genes in NTM, for identification of mycobacteria to species level. In this study, the prevalence of NTM in Isfahan City water samples was determined using cu...
These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)
Adhesions are abnormal fibrous connections, joining tissue surfaces in abnormal locations. Adhesions form after any trauma involving the peritoneum and the injured tissue surface or directly between the injured tissue surfaces. The ideal anti-adhesion agent should be safe, efficacious, easy to use in all types of surgery, and economical. It should prevent adhesions at the site of surgery as well as throughout the peritoneal cavity. Needless to say, the ideal agent is still elusive.
Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya
Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...
Perry, C L; Kelder, S H
The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1390786
Mota Biosca, Anna
Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.
How the gene gun works to transform cells with new DNA. This is thesixth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of cropgenetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Modification. To go to the next animation, go to Backcross Breeding.)
Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)
Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.
Motschman, T L; Moore, S B
Recognized principles of quality management include a component for process improvement, comprised largely of corrective and preventive action taken in response to identified problems. The importance of identifying and investigating problems has been clearly established in transfusion medicine. Such problems can be identified in the following ways: error, incident, and accident reports; adverse reaction reports; customer complaints; process indicator measurements; results of proficiency testing; and results of internal or external audits, inspections, or assessments. Responses to reported events can be remedial, in which the symptom is addressed, or corrective, in which the underlying cause is addressed with the intent to prevent recurrence. If identified problems or their root causes are trended to look for patterns or problems not yet occurring are anticipated, the action taken is proactive and considered preventive. Methods to trend events, monitor processes, and perform root cause analysis are discussed as well as use of the following process improvement 'tools': control charts, flowcharting, the 'repetitive why', cause-and-effect diagram, and Pareto analysis. PMID:10747525
Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions
Holtzman, N A
No single strategy is capable of preventing untimely deaths and disabilities. In the United States in particular, the contribution of medical care is limited by inadequate provision of services (particularly to the poor), inappropriate training of physicians, and unnecessary costs. Lack of knowledge about disease universally limits medicine's effectiveness. Among nonmedical strategies, campaigns for life-style change are most likely to succeed in those with the lightest burden of illness. Efforts to increase individual responsibility might well reduce health expenditures, but at the same time the disparity in health between rich and poor will increase. Restrictions on the use of harmful substances and on the manufacture of toxic or hazardous products, along with humanization of the work process itself, would reduce deaths from cancer, heart disease, and violence; however, resistance to these changes is, and will remain, great. The socioeconomic and environmental changes that are necessary to afford each citizen an equal opportunity for optimal health will be adopted slowly, if at all. Considering the limited acceptability of these nonmedical strategies, the prospects for prevention are less than what has been promised. Despite its perfections, medical care can contribute to the prevention of early death and disability. Attempts to disparage it could delay the adoption of the changes needed to improve its effectiveness. PMID:422296
... Lice - Body Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Body lice are spread most commonly by direct ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...
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MENU Return to Web version Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries Who shouldn't play? If you have a history of heart problems, you should probably avoid ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...
... Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control of Cryptosporidiosis On This Page Practice Good Hygiene Avoid Water ... recommendations are intended to help prevent and control cryptosporidiosis. Practice Good Hygiene Everywhere Wash hands with soap ...
... Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...
... trenchfoot see Resources for Preventing Injury After a Disaster . Protect Yourself from Animal- and Insect-Related Hazards ... from Animal- and Insect-Related Hazards After a Disaster . Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Carbon monoxide (CO) is ...
Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A
Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, a...
The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH)
Gabriele, Dennert; Marcel, Zwahlen; Maree, Brinkman; Marco, Vinceti; Maurice P. A., Zeegers; Markus, Horneber.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship b [...] etween selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to answer research question (b). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91) and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83) with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05) than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77). These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No reliable conclusions can be drawn regarding a causal relationship between low selenium exposure and an increased risk of cancer. Despite evidence for an inverse association between selenium exposure and the risk of some types of cancer, these results should be interpreted with care due to the potential limiting factors of heterogeneity and influences of unknown biases, confounding and effect modification. The effect of selenium supplementation from RCTs yielded inconsistent results. To date, there is no convincing evidence that selenium supplements can prevent cancer in men, women or children.
This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors
This interactive activity adapted from the University of Nebraska's Library of Crop Technologies details the steps involved in producing clones of genes that can then be used to transform the characteristics of an organism.
Kertbundit, Sunee; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav; Hall, T.C.
Dordrecht : Springer, 2010 - (Jain, S.; Brar, D.), s. 631-652 ISBN 978-90-481-2966-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Gene Silencing * RISC complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including elderly and immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, newborns and infants. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicemia or meningitis. Contaminated meats (such as hot dogs, delicatessen meats and pat?, dairy products and seafood have all been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly because listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness, ranking second after salmonellosis. L. monocytogenes emerged as an important foodborne pathogen in the latter part of the 20th century. Extensive work has been performed in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. An important reduction occurred in listeriosis incidence in some of these countries during the 90s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and incidence decrease of human listeriosis.
Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway
Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)
Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna
Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment. PMID:25518090
Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk
Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation. As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future.
Pope, Brandon; Deshmukh, Abhijit; Johnson, Andrew; Rohack, James
Incentives created through contracts can be used as a means of decentralized control in healthcare systems to ensure more efficient healthcare. In this paper, we consider an insurer contracting with a consumer and a provider. We focus on the trade-off between ex ante moral hazard and insurance, and consider both consumer and provider incentives in the insurer's contracting problem in the presence of unobservable preventive efforts. We study two cases of provider efforts: those that complement consumer efforts and those that substitute for consumer efforts. In the first case, our results show that the provider must have greater incentives when the consumer is healthy to induce effort and that inducing provider effort allows an insurer to offer a more complete insurance contract relative to the bilateral benchmark. In the second case, we state conditions under which these conclusions continue to hold. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the implications and challenges of multilateral contracting in practice. PMID:23554156
Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:
Swank, M E; Vernon, S W; Lairson, D R
Preventive dental behavior was examined using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1971-75 conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Most research to date has dealt with the use of all types of dental services, with relatively few studies focusing on utilization of dental services for preventive purposes or on preventive dental behavior. Economic theory on the demand for health services and the Andersen model of health services utilization were appli...
Bertozzi, S. M.; Laga, M.; Bautista-Arredondo, S.; Coutinho, A.
Even after 25 years of experience, HIV prevention programming remains largely deficient. We identify four areas that managers of national HIV prevention programmes should reassess and hence refocus their efforts-improvement of targeting, selection, and delivery of prevention interventions, and optimisation of funding. Although each area is not wholly independent from one another, and because each country and epidemic context will require a different balance of time and funding allocation in e...
Muir, G.; Dixon, CJ; Harper, AL; Filatov, DA
The mechanics of speciation with gene flow are still unclear. Disparity among genes in population differentiation (F ST) between diverging species is often interpreted as evidence for semipermeable species boundaries, with selection preventing "key" genes from introgressing despite ongoing gene flow. However, F ST can remain high before it reaches equilibrium between the lineage sorting of species divergence and the homogenizing effects of gene flow (via secondary contact). Thus, when interpr...
da Fonseca, Rute R; Kosiol, Carolin; Vinar, Tomás; Siepel, Adam; Nielsen, Rasmus
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death crucial for development, homeostasis, immunity, spermatogenesis, and prevention of cancer. Positive selection acting on mammalian apoptosis related genes targets protein interfaces that interact with pathogens and also elements of signaling complexes. Selection appears primarily to be driven by the immune/defense related function of these genes. Moreover, competitive interactions could be driving positive selection among sperm cells, as well as the need for protection against female anti-sperm immune responses. Trade-offs in fitness are expected out of these selective pressures, which could explain the involvement of these genes in various diseases, including cancer. PMID:20026333
... Flood Flu Food Safety Heat Wave Highway Safety Hurricane Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter Storm Preventing ...
EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge
Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined
Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte
Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226 known genes and 157 ESTs were found to be highly relevant for CRC. The alteration of known genes was confirmed in >70% of the cases by array analysis of 25 single samples. Two-way hierarchical average linkage cluster analysis clustered normal tissue together with Dukes' A, clustered Dukes' B with Dukes' C, and clustered Dukes' D separately. Real-time PCR of 10 known genes and 5 ESTs demonstrated excellent reproducibilityof the array-based findings. The most frequently altered genes belonged to functional categories of metabolism (22%), transcription and translation (11%), and cellular processes (9%). Fifteen nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins were all down-regulated in CRC. We identified several chromosomal locations with clusters of either potential oncogenes or potential tumor suppressors. Some of these, such as aminopeptidase N/CD13 and sigma B3 protein on chromosome 15q25, coincided with a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity. The genes and ESTs presented in this study encode new potential tumor markers as well as potential novel therapeutic targets for prevention or therapy of CRC.
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used.ResultsTen studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5-3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF -0.13, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects but did not report any usable data, or did not mention them at all. Adverse effects include sores in the mouth, cramps, bloating, constipation, flatulence and loose stool or diarrhoea.ConclusionsLow quality evidence suggested that fluoride toothpaste containing xylitol may be more effective than fluoride-only toothpaste for preventing caries in the permanent teeth of children. The effect estimate should be interpreted with caution due to high risk of bias and the fact that it was derived from two studies that were carried out by the same authors in the same population. The remaining evidence was low to very low quality and is insufficient to determine whether any other xylitol-containing products can prevent caries in infants, older children or adults. PMID:26114781
Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.
Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…
Ambrosioni, Juan; Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard
"No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely measure the incidence of HIV infection. Such trials face formidable logistical, practical and ethical obstacles. However, without definitive data, the intuitive appeal of "test-and-treat" is unlikely to translate into action on a global scale. In the meantime, based on the available evidence, we must strive to provide treatment to all those in medical need under the current medical guidelines. This will lead to a decrease in HIV transmission while "test-and-treat" is fully explored in prospective clinical trials. PMID:21612619
Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely measure the incidence of HIV infection. Such trials face formidable logistical, practical and ethical obstacles. However, without definitive data, the intuitive appeal of "test-and-treat" is unlikely to translate into action on a global scale. In the meantime, based on the available evidence, we must strive to provide treatment to all those in medical need under the current medical guidelines. This will lead to a decrease in HIV transmission while "test-and-treat" is fully explored in prospective clinical trials.
Vasohibin is a VEGF-inducible angiogenesis inhibitor in vascular endothelium. Here we examined the presence of vasohibin in human arterial wall, and found it in endothelium of adventitial microvessels in atherosclerotic lesion. Adventitial angiogenesis is involved in the progression of neointimal formation. Even in the presence of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, pathological angiogenesis persists. However, the supplementation of exogenous angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent pathological angiogenesis. We evaluated the potential role of vasohibin in neointimal formation. Adenovirus-mediated human vasohibin gene transfer in mouse liver resulted in the release of vasohibin in plasma and exhibited anti-angiogenic effects at remote sites. This gene transfer inhibited adventitial angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and neointimal formation after cuff placement on mouse femoral artery. Vasohibin exhibited no direct effect on migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Thus, vasohibin has an activity to prevent neointimal formation by inhibiting adventitial angiogenesis
Cornuz, J; Bize, R
Effective habit change usually requires a combination of psycho-educational, behavioural, and social learning strategies. Motivational interview and shared decision making are likely to be the most efficient approaches. Assessing the current motivation can be based on the transtheoretical model of change (TTM) with the goal to move from one behaviour to another healthier one. In a daily busy clinical practice, brief counselling interventions of one to three visits can substantially help patients change problematic behaviours, particularly in the areas of smoking cessation and exercise. The acronym FRAMES has been used to define the elements of an effective brief intervention which helps to trigger the patient motivation to change; giving Feedback based on a thorough assessment; helping the patient take Responsibility for changing; giving clear Advice on what behaviour must change; offering a Menu of options for making the change; expressing Empathy for the ambivalence and difficulty in making changes; enhancing Self-efficacy to foster commitment and confidence. This chapter reviews relevant aspects of clinician-patient communication with regard to cancer prevention, especially smoking cessation and exercise. PMID:17073188
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rabies is a zoonotic disease and its magnitude of problem is underestimated due to lack of surveillance. In spite of hundred percent fa tality, the optimistic view is that it is totally and absolutely preventable with the aid of effective post-exposure prophylaxis. It is prevalent mainly in the developing countries like Africa and A sia. Wild carnivorous animals act as reservoir and domestic/peridomestic warm blooded ani mals transmit the virus to the human population. It is popularly known as “Hydrophobia” in h uman and children are at particularly risk. More than 3.3 billion people live in regions w here rabies is enzootic. Dog bite is the principal mode of infection in India and lower limb i s the most common site of injury. Ineffective surveillance, shortage of TCV and Immunoglobulin ma nufacturer and its high cost, peoples ignorance of first aid measures after bite and the importance of compliance of PEP, uncontrolled street dog population etc. are the key issues which should be addressed to tackle this problem.
Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)
Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death
A main body of a thermometer has a measuring portion for measuring temperature of liquid sodium in the inside of comprises a well portion, a connecting tube, a socket portion and a nipple portion connected in this order. Bellows are disposed in the nipple portion for biasing the top end of the measuring portion so as to abut it against the top end of the well portion. The circumference of one end of the bellows is secured to the inner wall of the nipple portion, and the circumference of the other end of the bellows is secured to the measuring portion by welding. Namely, the inner circumferential portion of the nipple portion and the outer circumferential portion of the measuring portion are sealed gas tightly by the bellows. In addition, a sodium detection means is disposed to the nipple portion. When liquid sodium leaks from the well portion, the sodium detection means detects the leakage of sodium by short circuit between electrodes. This can reliably prevent liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor from leaking to the outside. (I.N.)
Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”
Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.
Cross, Deanna; Burmester, James K.
The broad field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments that are likely to become important in preventing deaths from cancer. In this review, we discuss the history, highlights and future of three different gene therapy treatment approaches: immunotherapy, oncolytic virotherapy and gene transfer. Immunotherapy uses genetically modified cells and viral particles to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Recent clinical trials of second and third generation vacc...
Venkatesan, Meera; Alifrangis, Michael; Roper, Cally; PLOWE, CHRISTOPHER V.
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr and Pfdhps have rendered sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) ineffective for malaria treatment in most regions of the world. Yet, SP is efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy in pregnant women (IPTp) and infants (IPTi) and as seasonal malaria control in children (SMC). SP-IPTp is being widely implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. SP-IPTi is recommended where the prevalence of SP-resistant malaria parasites is low, while SMC is recommended fo...
The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study....
Elmunzer, B Joseph
Postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis is a common and potentially devastating complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Advances in risk-stratification, patient selection, procedure technique, and prophylactic interventions have substantially improved the ability to prevent this complication. This article presents the evidence-based approaches to preventing postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and discusses timely research questions in this important area. PMID:26431600
This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards. Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. Date Released: 11/15/2007.
Wolin, K Y; Colditz, G.A.
We review and update evidence on obesity, weight gain and weight loss in relation to leading cancers since the International Agency for Research on Cancer report of 2002. Emphasis is placed on the time course of disease and implications for weight control to prevent cancer. We conclude that weight loss could prevent a major portion of common cancers.
Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others
Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…
This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities
Jayanti Mania-Pramanik; Pratibha B Mehta; Anjali Vallabhadas; Shilpa C. Kerkar; Vinita Salvi
Deletion in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene is reported to prevent development of tubal pathology among Dutch Caucasian C. trachomatis infected women. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken, to evaluate the involvement of CCR5 gene in tubal pathology among Indian women with or without Chlamydia infection. Three hundred women with or without Chlamydia infection and with different reproductive manifestations were screened for CCR5 gene using a standardized PCR. Only 6 C. trachomatis infected women wi...
Griffiths, Chris; Levy, Mark L
The UK has one of the highest death rates in Europe from asthma, with more than 20 people dying from the disease each week. Across the UK there is a five-fold variation in the number of hospital admissions for asthma almost certainly explained in part by variations in delivery, uptake and organisation of care. Deaths from asthma are frequently avoidable the findings from the National Review of Asthma Deaths have confirmed. A total of 276 cases were considered by the confidential enquiry panels and 195 confirmed as asthma deaths. Major avoidable factors were judged to be present in 60% of cases. Key findings from the report include: Almost half the patients (45%) died without seeking medical help or before help could be provided; 10% died within 28 days of discharge from hospital; 21% had attended A&E with asthma in the previous year; and only 23% had a personal asthma action plan. Over-prescription of short-acting bronchodilators and under-prescription of preventer inhalers was common. Every general practice should have a designated, named clinical lead for asthma services. Patients with asthma should be referred to a specialist asthma service if they have required more than two courses of systemic corticosteroids, oral or injected, in the previous 12 months or management using BTS steps 4 or 5 to achieve control. Any patient admitted to hospital or attending A&E with asthma should be reviewed, and control optimised, within a week of discharge. All asthma patients should have a written personal asthma action plan and should have a structured review by a healthcare professional with training. in asthma at least annually. PMID:25588282
Anila Namboodiripad P
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society?s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients? histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.
Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.
Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.
Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...
Meko'o, Jean Louis Didier; Xing, Yun; Zhang, Huiyong; Lu, Yong; Wu, Jie; Cao, Rongyue
There is a continuing need for innovative alternative therapies for liver cancer. DNA vaccines for hormone/ growth factor immune deprivation represent a feasible and attractive approach for cancer treatment. We reported a preventive effect of a DNA vaccine based on six copies of the B cell epitope GRP18-27 with optimized adjuvants against H22 hepatocarcinoma. Vaccination with pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2 (vaccine) elicited much higher level of anti-GRP antibodies and proved efficacious in preventing growth of transplanted hepatocarcinoma cells. The tumor size and weight were significantly lower (pTP-HSP65-TP-GRP6, pCR3.1-VS-TP-HSP65-TP-M2 or saline subgroups. In addition, significant reduction of tumor-induced angiogenesis associated with intradermal tumors of H22 cells was observed. These potent effects may open ways towards the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25374249
Mei Ling; Li Xiaohui; Yang Kai; Cui Jinrui; Fang Belle; Guo Xiuqing; Rotter Jerome I
Abstract We examined the potential gene × gene interactions and gene × smoking interactions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the candidate gene data sets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 2. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to test gene × gene interactions among candidate genes. The case-only sample was used to test gene × smoking interactions. The best predictive model was the single-locus model with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs247660...
Full Text Available Wenkai Zong,* Xiaodong Zhang,* Hongsheng Wang, Xiu Lian Xu, Qiuling Wang, Weiwei Tian, Ya LI Jin, Qinxue Wu, Meiyu Tang Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The authors present the first, to the best of their knowledge, reported case of cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. A 42-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic reddish papules, nodules, plaques, and patches on the right side of her face and on her forehead that had persisted for 5 years, with the lesions gradually increasing in size over that time. No previous intervening medical treatment had been applied. No history or evidence of immunosuppression was found. A skin biopsy was performed for routine histological examination. Samples of lesioned skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl–Neelsen staining was used to confirm the presence of the organism. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the microtiter plate method. Mycobacterium was identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungus, were also conducted. Routine histopathology revealed granulomatous changes without caseation. Ziehl–Neelsen staining showed that the organisms in both the lesions and the cultures were acid-fast bacilli. The cultured colonies were grown in Löwenstein–Jensen medium and incubated at two different temperatures (32°C and 37°C for 2–3 weeks, developing pigmentation both in the dark and in the light. In vitro drug susceptibility tests showed that the organism was sensitive to clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed that the isolated organisms were M. parascrofulaceum. Fungal and other standard bacterial cultures were negative. In conclusion, identification and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria should be performed promptly to obtain better prognoses. Empirical treatments may be feasible, and drug susceptibility tests are important.Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacteria, skin infection, PCR-RFLP, laboratory diagnosis, therapy
Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.
Baykiz Ali; Choi Kwang-Ho; Kim Sanghyeon; Gershenfeld Howard K
Abstract Background Suicide is an important and potentially preventable consequence of serious mental disorders of unknown etiology. Gene expression profiling technology provides an unbiased approach to identifying candidate genes for mental disorders. Microarray studies with post-mortem prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46/10) tissue require larger sample sizes. This study poses the question: to what extent are differentially expressed genes for suicide a diagnostic specific set of genes (b...
DuPont, R L
Chemical dependency is part of a significant pattern of serious health problems resulting from the breakdown of social control over impulsive, pleasure-driven adolescent behavior. The drug epidemic in North America, after two decades of relentless increases, shows encouraging signs that stopping it may be possible. Chemical dependency prevention became a serious concern in the 1970s in response to the rising drug epidemic. Initial efforts focused on drug-specific education in the mass media and in the schools. After discouraging and even counterproductive results, nonspecific or generic prevention efforts were tried in both areas. These efforts, too, did not prevent drug use or drug problems. More recently, using cigarette smoking prevention initiatives in schools as a model, hopeful results have been achieved. These efforts combine education about immediate negative effects of drug use with training in skills to resist peer pressure to use drugs. These efforts also build youth peer rejection of drug use. Promising a wider community effort to prevent chemical dependency are several macro prevention programs. These include efforts to decrease tolerance for drug use and to identify drug users in four specific areas: families, schools, highways, and the workplace. Chemical dependency can be prevented by a variety of interventions, including one-to-one encounters, school-based skills training, and society-wide initiatives to reject drug use. The teenage years are a time of unique vulnerability to initiation of drug and alcohol use. The clear goal of prevention is to help young people to survive these years without using drugs, including the gateway drugs: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine. The pediatrician can play a vital role in successful prevention activities with patients, with their families, in communities, and in the nation as a whole. PMID:3562105
Full Text Available This study will present the institution the legal termination of the preventive measures in light of the new code of criminal procedure, which on the one hand expanded the scope of preventive measures that can be taken against a defendant, and on the other hand has introduced new regulations which we will refer at. We will analyze the situation of each one of the preventive measures by the time the measure will be legally terminated, with reference to the issues that were not covered by the legislature and not least showing contradictions encountered in judicial practice.
Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation
The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)
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Full Text Available ... Video player keyboard shortcuts Transcript Weight control, healthy eating habits and physical activity all help prevent cardiovascular disease. Now, a new study says women may be ...
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The field of drug use prevention has been advanced through a convergence of theories of human behavior, a more enhanced understanding of the factors that have been found to be associated with the onset of drug use, and more sophisticated research methodologies impacting not only study design and measurement but also data analysis. For these reasons, there is a need for a reconceptualization of the intent and function of prevention in order to refine intervention development and implementation. This review will focus primarily on drug use prevention but the implications are clear for other prevention outcome behaviors. The concepts included in this paper are stimulated by recent advances in understanding neurobiological development and revised understanding of the interaction between individual vulnerability and environmental influences. It also draws on the concept of socialization and the role of socialization and socializing agents in any society. PMID:24652393
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... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Melanoma Communities Play a Vital Role Language: English Español ( ... and use of indoor tanning by minors. Problem Melanoma is increasing. Melanoma skin cancer is common and ...
Prevent Child Heatstroke in Cars Kids in Hot Cars Heatstroke is one of the leading causes of death among ... of heatstroke . TAKE ACTION if You Notice a Child Alone in a Car! Protecting children is everyone’s ...
... cigarettes or using “street” drugs. The dangers of smoking during pregnancy include premature birth, certain birth defects ( cleft lip ... too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Prevent infections. Some infections that a woman can ...
Full Text Available ... eating habits and physical activity all help prevent cardiovascular disease. Now, a new study says women may be ... was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high blood sugar and high body mass ...
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The P2 (Pollution Prevention) Widget allows the user to retrieve information on reductions in waste generation, safer waste management alternatives, and effective...
Full Text Available ... eating habits and physical activity all help prevent cardiovascular disease. Now, a new study says women may ... delivered one or more children. Participants had numerous cardiovascular risk factors measured throughout the study, including height ...
... Instability and falls. In: Duthie EH Jr, Katz, PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007;chap17. Rose DJ, Hernandez D. The role of exercises in fall prevention for older adults. ...
... Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Occupational hearing loss is one of the ... controlled or eliminated. Learn About Workplace Noise and Hearing Loss Facts and Statistics Publications and Tools Hearing Loss ...
Full Text Available ... prevent cardiovascular disease. Now, a new study says women may be able to add breastfeeding to that list. Researchers analyzed the medical records of 846 women who were part of a 20-year study ...
Cohen, D. R.
The utility model of preventive behaviour is presented as an alternative to psychosociological analysis. All preventive actions are viewed as the consumption of those "goods" that affect the risk of illness or injury. Levels of consumption depend on, inter alia, utility (perceived benefit) and cost. Total utility yielded by risk affecting goods is the sum of that derived from the use value of the good, if any, and that from reduced anxiety which results from reduced risk. Many risk affecting ...
Feng, Chao-Jun(Shanghai United Center for Astrophysics (SUCA), Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai, 200234, PR China); Li, Xin-zhou; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
We have investigated the necessary conditions that prevent phantom inflation from being eternal. Allowing additionally for a nonminimal coupling between the phantom field and gravity, we present the slow-climb requirements, perform an analysis of the fluctuations, and finally we extract the overall conditions that are necessary in order to prevent eternality. Furthermore, we verify our results by solving explicitly the cosmological equations in a simple example of an exponen...
Kadane, Joseph B
Bayesian statistics represents a paradigm shift in statistical reasoning and an approach to analysis that is applicable to prevention trials with small samples. This paper introduces the reader to the philosophy behind Bayesian statistics. This introduction is followed by a review of some issues that arise in sampling statistics and how Bayesian methods address them. Finally, the article provides an extended illustration of the application of Bayesian statistics to data from a prevention trial that tested a family-focused intervention. PMID:25468407
This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying. Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/19/2012.
Wherrett, Diane K; Daneman, Denis
Prevention of loss of ? cells in type 1 diabetes is a major goal of current research. Knowledge of the genetic susceptibility, the increasing ability to predict who may be at risk, the recognition of the potential clinical impact of residual insulin secretion after diagnosis and the development of new immunomodulatory agents have supported an increasing number of clinical trials to prevent ? cell loss. Interventions can be targeted at three stages: prior to the development of autoimmunity – p...
Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.
After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; jud...
Kenneth H. Mayer; Skeer, Margie; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
People who use and abuse alcohol and other drugs are an important population to target for HIV prevention because they are more likely to engage in sexual behaviors that increase their likelihood of acquiring or transmitting HIV. A variety of biomedical approaches to HIV prevention have been evaluated or currently are being studied. These approaches include an anti-HIV vaccine; topical protection treatments; and additional biomedical and barrier approaches, such as controlling sexually transm...
A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)
This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine. Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB). Date Released: 1/22/2015.
Pereira, Maria Ol??via; Machado, Idalina; Sim??es, M.; Vieira, M. J.
Microbial adhesion to abiotic surfaces and consequent biofilm formation has been documented in many environments. In many technical processes, the presence of microorganisms is acceptable as long as they remain planktonic. Hence 'disinfection' could be facilitated if attachment of microorganisms to a surface could be prevented. One strategy to prevent the formation of biofilms is to disinfect surfaces regularly, before biofilm formation starts. One of the most important means t...
Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich
Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable.
Dealey, Carol; Brindle, C Tod; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan; Clark, Michael
Although this article is a stand-alone article, it sets the scene for later articles in this issue. Pressure ulcers are considered to be a largely preventable problem, and yet despite extensive training and the expenditure of a large amount of resources, they persist. This article reviews the current understanding of pressure ulcer aetiology: pressure, shear and microclimate. Individual risk factors for pressure ulceration also need to be understood in order to determine the level of risk of an individual. Such an assessment is essential to determine appropriate prevention strategies. The main prevention strategies in terms of reducing pressure and shear and managing microclimate are studied in this article. The problem of pressure ulceration related to medical devices is also considered as most of the standard prevention strategies are not effective in preventing this type of damage. Finally, the possibility of using dressings as an additional preventive strategy is raised along with the question: is there enough evidence to support their use? PMID:23786251
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36...CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting...shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in...
Berg, Jörg; Mcdowell, Mindy; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias
Immunoglobulin genes are generated during differentiation of B lymphocytes by joining gene segments. A mouse pre-B cell contains a functional immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene, but no light-chain gene. Although there is only one heavy-chain locus, there are two lightchain loci: ? and ?.It has been reported that ? loci in the germ-line configuration are never (in man) or very rarely (in the mouse) present in cells with functionally rearranged ?-chain genes. Two explanations have b...
Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)
This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention. Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/6/2009.
Müyesser Sayki Arslan
Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45
Yerevanian, Armen; Yerevanian, Alexan; Hajjar, Roger J
Recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction in the setting of congestive heart failure have created a new opportunity in developing nonpharmacological approaches to treatment. Gene therapy has emerged as a powerful tool in targeting the molecular mechanisms of disease by preventing the ventricular remodeling and improving bioenergetics in heart failure. Refinements in vector technology, including the creation of recombinant adeno-associated viruses, have allowed for safe and efficient gene transfer. These advancements have been coupled with evolving delivery methods that include vascular, pericardial, and direct myocardial approaches. One of the most promising targets, SERCA2a, is currently being used in clinical trials. The recent success of the Calcium Upregulation by Percutaneous Administration of Gene Therapy in Cardiac Disease phase 2 trials using adeno-associated virus 1-SERCA2a in improving outcomes highlights the importance of gene therapy as a future tool in treating congestive heart failure. PMID:23921315
... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...
Background This paper is a summary document of the Prevention in Practice Conference and Special Supplement of BMC Oral Health. It represents the consensus view of the presenters and captures the questions, comments and suggestions of the assembled audience. Methods Using the prepared manuscripts for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. Results The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. Conclusions While examples of best practice were provided from both social care and insurance models it was clear that further work was required on both provider and payer side to ensure that evidence based prevention was both implemented properly but also reimbursed sufficiently. It is clear that savings can be made but these must not be overstated and that the use of effective skill mix would be key to realizing efficiencies. The evidence base for prevention of caries and periodontal disease has been available for many years, as have the tools and techniques to detect, diagnose and stage the diseases appropriately. Dentistry finds itself in a enviable position with respect to its ability to prevent, arrest and reverse much of the burden of disease, however, it is clear that the infrastructure within primary care must be changed, and practitioners and their teams appropriately supported to deliver this paradigm shift from a surgical to a medical model. PMID:26391906
WU, YONG; Zhao, Weidong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuanfei; Qin, Weiping; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A.; Blitzer, Robert D.; Cardozo, Christopher
Glucocorticoids are a well-recognized and common cause of muscle atrophy that can be prevented by testosterone. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such protection have not been described. Thus, the global effects of testosterone on dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression were evaluated in rat gastrocnemius muscle using DNA microarrays. Gene expression was analyzed after 7-d administration of dexamethasone, dexamethasone plus testosterone, or vehicle. Dexamethasone changed e...
Jasti, Susmita; Warren, Bryce D.; Mcginnis, Lynda K.; Kinsey, William H.; Petroff, Brian K.; Petroff, Margaret G.
Loss-of-function mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene are responsible for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), which commonly manifests as infertility in women. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator that promotes expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymus, including antigens specific to the ovary. Thymic expression of ovarian genes under AIRE's control may be critical for preventing ovarian autoimmune disease. Because mice lacking Aire are an important APS-...
Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical integrity. Discussion and
Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.
Identificação de micobactérias não tuberculosas isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes em um hospital universitário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro / Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Ana Grazia, Marsico; Gisele Betzler de Oliveira, Vieira; Luciana Fonseca, Sobral; Philip Noel, Suffys; Leila de Souza, Fonseca.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2001 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Durante o período do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de sítios estéreis de 14 pacientes, a maior [...] ia HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificação fenotípica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, análise por enzimas de restrição por PCR do gene hsp65). RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores proporções. CONCLUSÕES: A combinação de PRA, um método relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas características fenotípicas pode fornecer a identificação correta de MNT na rotina de laboratórios clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites o [...] f 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.
Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ?non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ?offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ?injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ?fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ?discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ?multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ?and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ?successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ?initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.?
Hand, M S; Armstrong, P J; Allen, T A
Obesity is the most common nutritionally related disease of dogs and cats. Several of the important health problems that are inherent with obesity are resolved when the patient's body weight is returned to normal. Proper dietary management is central to successful treatment and prevention. Low-fat, high-fiber diets provide fewer available calories but induce a greater degree of satiety than simple restriction of the obese patient's regular food. Care must be taken to assure that overweight cats are not fasted, because preliminary reports indicate an alarming association between severe caloric restriction and hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Obesity prevention should ideally be proactive, owing to the predictability of obesity in certain groups of pets. The large number of reduced-energy maintenance type diets that are available for obesity prevention facilitate this goal. PMID:2658285
Gern, James E
Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children have led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products might be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility, and potential effect for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984
With headquarters in New York, the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) was established in 1987 in order to create a coherent and combined effort to fund research that would assist in the prevention of suicide. During the past 17 years, the organization has created an extensive network of research grant programs, workshops for those seeking to form survivor support groups, and a suicide data bank. The AFSP website contains information on some of its outreach programs, such as the National Survivors of Suicide Day and also its service announcements. There is a great deal of pragmatic information here as well, including a FAQ section which provides answers to pressing questions such as "What is the biggest cause of suicide among college students?". The site is rounded out by a topically organized list of important online resources, such as statistics about suicide, clinical information, and prevention and screening materials.
Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A
Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach. Primary prevention should begin early to be most effective. Other personal and social issures such as a alcohol and drug abuse, delinquency, marital and family conflicts, parenting difficulties and money management may be dealt with effectively using a cognitive-behavioral approach. PMID:12266532
Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K
Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations. PMID:23547592
Rosselli, R; Onesti, A; Martini, M; Cartiglia, C; Sticchi, L; Alberti, M
In the field of prevention, Internet websites and their related instruments constitute valuable tools for healthcare facilities, and particularly for Local Healthcare Authorities (LHA). As yet, however, their undoubted potential remains largely unexploited. Many LHA websites currently operating in Italy are organized in such a way that they fail to make adequate use of this precious resource. Indeed, communication regarding prevention is all too often limited to the simple reproduction of information and indications in a static and heterogeneous manner, so much so that it resembles a mere "online notice-board". The aim of the present research was to analyze the current situation and the various innovative proposals that have been made, in order to construct a more effective website model that could be used nationwide. To this end, the research was carried out through a two-pronged approach: on the one hand, all 190 LHA websites in Italy were analyzed; on the other, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of habitual users of the most modern and widespread social network, Facebook. Analysis and elaboration of the data gathered led to the creation of the model "@Prevention". This project is intended to introduce an innovative perspective into the field of online communication for healthcare prevention by providing a highly useful tool for the LHA, healthcare workers and, obviously, citizens. PMID:21842707
The main target group for this bachelor’s thesis was mainly the female, having just basic information on cervical cancer the author sought to know more on cervical cancer in depth forcusing closely on the cause of cervical cancer,ways of testing cervical cancer as well as possible ways of prevention. A few of treatment methods have been mentioned although not much emphasis was put on it since the author was dealing mainly with prevention. The main aim of these bachelor’s thesis paper is to...
... testing. Prevention Because there is no cure or vaccine to prevent HIV, the only way people can prevent infection from the virus is ... HIV medicines that can treat HIV as a way to prevent infection among high-risk ... vaccine against HIV infection. Drug abuse intervention and treatment ...
A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In understanding the evolutionary process of vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lamprey occupy crucial positions. Resolving molecular phylogenetic relationships of cyclostome genes with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates genes is indispensable in deciphering both the species tree and gene trees. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses, especially those including lamprey genes, have produced highly discordant results between gene families. To efficiently scrutinize this problem using partial genome assemblies of early vertebrates, we focused on the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related (KCNA family, whose members are mostly single-exon. Results Seven sea lamprey KCNA genes as well as six elephant shark genes were identified, and their orthologies to bony vertebrate subgroups were assessed. In contrast to robustly supported orthology of the elephant shark genes to gnathostome subgroups, clear orthology of any sea lamprey gene could not be established. Notably, sea lamprey KCNA sequences displayed unique codon usage pattern and amino acid composition, probably associated with exceptionally high GC-content in their coding regions. This lamprey-specific property of coding sequences was also observed generally for genes outside this gene family. Conclusions Our results suggest that secondary modifications of sequence properties unique to the lamprey lineage may be one of the factors preventing robust orthology assessments of lamprey genes, which deserves further genome-wide validation. The lamprey lineage-specific alteration of protein-coding sequence properties needs to be taken into consideration in tackling the key questions about early vertebrate evolution.
Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...
Risk of most cancer types are determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies provide theoretical and empirical evidence that additional genetic and environmental factors can be identified in studies that examine gene-environment (GxE) interactions. More importantly, GxE interaction research has the potential to facilitate insights into biological mechanisms and strategies for cancer prevention and control. Despite progress, several challenges remain for performing these studies.
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Full Text Available ... captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Video player keyboard shortcuts Transcript Weight control, healthy eating habits and physical activity all help prevent cardiovascular disease. Now, a new study says women may be able to add breastfeeding to that ...
... give you tips to make sure you’re eating well. Cardiovascular Screenings Ask your doctor to test your cholesterol, lipid, and triglyceride levels to help determine if you’re at risk for a heart attack or stroke. If you’re at risk, there are steps you can take to prevent these condititions. Medicare ...
The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program
Full Text Available ... eating habits and physical activity all help prevent cardiovascular disease. Now, a new study says women may be ... of a 20-year study on coronary artery disease. All were 18-30 at the start and had ... risk factors measured throughout the study, including height ...
Schinke, Steven Paul; Gilchrist, Lewayne D.
Sixth graders in primary prevention groups were taught various skills--interpersonal, decision making, problem solving and self-instructional--and facts about tobacco smoking to help them avoid cigarette smoking. Follow-up data showed that students trained this way smoked far less than those in a control group a year later. (Author/PP)
Martín Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martín Jiménez, María Teresa
Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products. PMID:26267775
WGBH Educational Foundation
In this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival, watch a graphic representation of the malaria parasite and hear from experts about the physical and economic effects of the disease on the human population, as well as treatments and preventive measures.
Brandenberger, Robert; Costa, Renato; Franzmann, Guilherme
We study the effects exerted by the backreaction of long-wavelength fluctuations on stochastic inflation. In the cases of power-law and Starobinsky inflation, these effects are too weak to terminate the stochastic growth of the inflaton field. However, in the case of the cyclic ekpyrotic scenario, the backreaction effects prevent the unlimited growth of the scalar field.
Merchant Anwar T
Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.
Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented
Full Text Available Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers in women. The incidence of breast cancer is rising in every country of the world especially in developing countries such as India. In 1940, the lifetime risk of a woman developing breast cancer was 5%, or one in 20. The American Cancer Society estimates that risk being 13% in 2012, or more than one in 8. Studies have shown that certain factors, called risk factors, increase the likelihood that a woman will develop breast cancer. Many of these risk factors are not reversible, but some can be modified. A “risk factor” is anything that increases the risk of developing breast cancer. Many of the most important risk factors for breast cancer are beyond control (non-preventable, such as age, family history, and medical history. However, there are some risk factors that are preventable, such as weight, physical activity, and alcohol consumption.
... 75 with at least 10 years life expectancy. Pap smear (gynecologic/pelvic examination) At least every 3 years. ... and older if they have had 3 normal Pap smears up to that age; if never tested before, ...
Liang, Dehai; Luu, Yen K.; Kim, Kwangsok; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Chu, Benjamin
Extracellular and intracellular barriers typically prevent non-viral gene vectors from having an effective transfection efficiency. Formulation of a gene delivery vehicle that can overcome the barriers is a key step for successful tissue regeneration. We have developed a novel core-shelled DNA nanoparticle by invoking solvent-induced condensation of plasmid DNA (?-galactosidase or GFP) in a solvent mixture [94% N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) + 6% 1× TE buffer] and subsequent encapsulation of the...
Li, Y; Zhang, Y; Hill, J; Kim, H-T; Shen, Q; Bissonnette, R P; Lamph, W W; Brown, P H
Retinoids, vitamin A analogues that bind to retinoic acid receptor (RAR) or retinoid X receptor (RXR), play important roles in regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Recently, RXR-selective ligands, also referred to as rexinoids, have been investigated as potential chemopreventive agents for breast cancer. Our previous studies demonstrated that the rexinoid bexarotene significantly prevented ER-negative mammary tumourigenesis with less toxicity than naturally occurring retinoids in animal models. To determine whether bexarotene prevents cancer at the early stages during the multistage process of mammary carcinogenesis, we treated MMTV-erbB2 mice with bexarotene for 2 or 4 months. The development of preinvasive mammary lesions such as hyperplasias and carcinoma-in-situ was significantly inhibited. This inhibition was associated with reduced proliferation, but no induction of apoptosis. We also examined the regulation of a number of rexinoid-modulated genes including critical growth and cell cycle regulating genes using breast cell lines and mammary gland samples from mice treated with rexinoids. We showed that two of these genes (DHRS3 and DEC2) were modulated by bexarotene both in vitro and in vivo. Identification of these rexinoid-modulated genes will help us understand the mechanism by which rexinoid prevents cancer. Such rexinoid-regulated genes also represent potential biomarkers to assess the response of rexinoid treatment in clinical trials. PMID:18362934
Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between adiposity and socioeconomic deprivation. The lack of interventions (especially preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and studies focusing on this population group is noticeable. Discussion: There are only a few primary studies of high quality on adiposity prevention in children and adolescents. Especially studies which compare different measures are lacking. This holds also true for the economic analysis, which seems logical insofar, as the basis for economic analyses are usually primary studies (preferably randomized controlled trials (RCT due to their evidence level. Studies on interventions geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and towards specific population groups (i. e. the socially disadvantaged are hardly available. Conclusions: There are hardly any primary studies of high quality on adiposity prevention in children and adolescents, especially studies which compare different measures are lacking. Interventions geared towards specific population groups (particularly for the socioeconomically disadvantaged are specifically underrepresented. Establishing such studies is an essential requirement of adiposity prevention. Recommended are a combination of measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and towards specific population groups. Furthermore, it is recommended to systematically register future programs (preferably online in order to be able to draft criteria of success.
Schnitzer, Patricia G
Injuries are the leading cause of death in children and teenagers in the United States. The leading causes of unintentional injury vary by age and include drowning, poisoning, suffocation, fires, burns, falls, and motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian-related crashes. Most injuries are preventable by modifying the child's environment (e.g., use of stair gates) and having parents engage in safety practices (e.g., keeping matches or lighters out of reach of children). Effective injury prevention methods include the use of childproof caps on medications and household poisons, age-appropriate restraints in motor vehicles (i.e., car seats, booster seats, seat belts), bicycle helmets, and a four-sided fence with a locked gate around residential swimming pools. PMID:17168342
This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations
Lloyd, Emillia C O; Rodgers, Blake C; Michener, Michael; Williams, Michael S
Most burn injuries can be managed on an outpatient basis by primary care physicians. Prevention efforts can significantly lower the incidence of burns, especially in children. Burns should be managed in the same manner as any other trauma, including a primary and secondary survey. Superficial burns can be treated with topical application of lotions, honey, aloe vera, or antibiotic ointment. Partial-thickness burns should be treated with a topical antimicrobial agent or an absorptive occlusive dressing to help reduce pain, promote healing, and prevent wound desiccation. Topical silver sulfadiazine is the standard treatment; however, newer occlusive dressings can provide faster healing and are often more cost-effective. Physicians must reevaluate patients frequently after a burn injury and be aware of the indications for referral to a burn specialist. PMID:22230304
Soma, Kazui; Imai, Hiroshi; Arai, Masayasu
This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which is one of the most important infectious complications during the perioperative period. The definition of VAP is a nosocomial pneumonia occurring more than 48 h after endotracheal intubation and initiation of mechanical ventilation. Early liberation from the ventilator and the use of non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation are useful in preventing VAP. The early institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy contributes to a good outcome. The initial therapy to ensure adequate coverage of potentially infective organisms should be accompanied by deescalation, or discontinuation, when the microbiological data became available. Useful preventative strategies include subglottic suctioning of pooled secretions just above the endotracheal tube cuff and oral care because of the pathogenesis of VAP. PMID:15565903
Understanding how oral administration of aroma terpenes can prevent sunburn or skin cancer in mice could lead to more effective and safer ways of blocking sun damage to human skin. To establish sunburn preventive activity, female Skh-1 mice were given oral ?-damascenone followed by irradiation with UVR from fluorescent ‘sunlamps’. The following endpoints were evaluated versus controls at various times between 1 and 12 days after the terpene: whole genome gene expression and in situ immunohistochemistry of PCNA, keratin10, filaggrin and caspase 14, and sunburn was evaluated at 5 days. UVR-induced sunburn was prevented by a single oral ?-damascenone dose as low as 20 ?L (0.95 mg/g body weight). Microarray analysis showed sunburn prevention doses of ?-damascenone up-regulated several types of cornification genes, including keratins 1 and 10, filaggrin, caspase 14, loricrin, hornerin and 6 late cornified envelope genes. Immunohistochemical studies of PCNA labeling showed that ?-damascenone increased the proliferation rates of the following cell types: epidermal basal cells, follicular outer root sheath cells and sebaceous gland cells. Keratin 10 was not affected by ?-damascenone in epidermis, and filaggrin and caspase 14 were increased in enlarged sebaceous glands. The thickness of the cornified envelope plus sebum layer nearly doubled within 1 day after administration of the ?-damascenone and remained at or above double thickness for at least 12 days. ?-Damascenone protected against sunburn by activating a sebaceous gland-based pathway that fortified and thickened the cornified envelope plus sebum layer in a way that previously has been observed to occur only in keratinocytes. -- Highlights: ? Orally administered ?-damascenone prevented UVB-induced sunburn in Skh-1 mice. ? Filaggrin and caspase 14 genes were induced in sebaceous gland cells. ? Numerous cornification genes were up-regulated by ?-damascenone. ? ?-Damascenone stimulated cell division in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes. ? Results explained by induction of a novel sebaceous gland system of UVR protection.
Wehby George L; Goco Norman; Moretti-Ferreira Danilo; Felix Temis; Richieri-Costa Antonio; Padovani Carla; Queiros Fernanda; Guimaraes Camilla Vila; Pereira Rui; Litavecz Steve; Hartwell Tyler; Chakraborty Hrishikesh; Javois Lorette; Murray Jeffrey C
Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from ...
Bullock, KA; Clarke, R; Tilley, N
Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...
Prevention of injury involves identifying risk factors that would predispose one to injury and developing strategies to attenuate or eliminate their presence. Because muscle glycogen depletion is associated with fatigue and injury, it should be treated as a possible risk factor. Muscle glycogen stores are derived almost entirely from carbohydrate intake. Because there is a limited capacity to store muscle glycogen, and because muscle glycogen is the predominant fuel in exercise of moderate to...
Cristiano Alexandre Virgínio Cavalcante; Ana Paula Cabral Seixas Costa
It is extremely important to guarantee that the performance levels required by productive systems can be maintained. As well, it is essential to assure the quality of process outputs.
For this reason, preventative maintenance has become a very useful instrument to gain a competitive edge. In maintenance decisions, there are some contradictory criteria or points
of view that are vital and must to be looked at simultaneously. Optimization approaches are not so useful in th...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control. Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/7/2015.
Alexander C.H. Skorna; Johannes Paefgen; Stephan Von Watzdorf
The recent economic crisis has speeded up the concentration process within the European insurance sector. However, nowadays customers are more price sensitive, which increases pressure for the whole industry and in consequence leads to further premium erosions. Thus, some insurers are seeking new ways to differentiate their portfolio by offering innovative insurance products combined with prevention activities to compete with a high value-added service strategy. The objective of this research...
Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.
Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.
Peres, M. F. P.; Mercante, J. P. P.; Tanuri, F. C.; Nunes, M; E. Zukerman
Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling condition with not many treatment strategies available. Topiramate is effective in episodic migraine prevention, however little is known about its effect in CM. An open label study was performed. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with CM or probable CM according to the IHS diagnostic criteria were enrolled, 50 patients were available for analysis and an intention-to-treat methodology was applied. The primary endpoint cons...
Kobayashi, K; Ehrlich, S D; Albertini, A; Amati, G.; Andersen, K. K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S. C.; Bron, S; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J.
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among ?4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synth...
Manjila, Steffy B; Baby, Jomon N; Bijin, Elambilan N; Constantine, Icey; Pramod, Kannissery; Valsalakumari, Janardhanan
Gene therapy is an emerging field in medical and pharmaceutical sciences because of its potential in treating chronic diseases like cancer, viral infections, myocardial infarctions, and genetic disorders. Application of gene therapy is limited because of lack of suitable methods for proper introduction of genes into cells and therefore, this is an area of interest for most of the researchers. To achieve successful gene therapy, development of proper gene delivery systems could be one of the m...
Willhite, L A; O'Connell, M B
Fifteen percent of premenopausal women, 10-40% of postmenopausal women, and 10-25% of women receiving systemic hormone therapy experience urogenital atrophy. The most common symptoms are dryness, burning, pruritus, irritation, and dyspareunia. Estrogen loss, drugs, and chemical sensitivities are causes. Estrogen or hormone replacement therapy (ERT-HRT) is the treatment of choice in postmenopausal women. Dosages prescribed for menopause symptoms or to prevent osteoporosis (and, potentially, other conditions) can restore the vagina to premenopausal physiology and relieve symptoms. Concomitant progestins are necessary for women with an intact uterus to minimize or eliminate estrogen-induced endometrial cancer. Low-dosage oral and vaginal ERT can relieve urogenital atrophy but might not produce systemic effects. Progestins are not necessary with vaginal rings and vaginal tablets. If ERT is given only to treat urogenital atrophy, estrogen creams 1 or 2 times/week may prevent recurrence after symptoms are resolved. Progestins are not required for occasional estrogen cream use. Vaginal moisturizers provide longer relief by changing the fluid content of endothelium and lowering vaginal pH. Vaginal lubricants provide short-term relief. Women with contraindications to ERT-HRT could use lubricants for intercourse-related dryness or moisturizers for more continuous relief. The lay press promotes agrimony, black cohosh, chaste tree, dong quai, witch hazel, and phytoestrogens for vaginal dryness and dyspareunia; however, no evidence exists to support these specific claims. Pharmacists should be actively involved in identifying, preventing, and treating urogenital atrophy. PMID:11310520
Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.
Krishna, C. S. Muralidhara; Srikanta, S.
Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction (“Primary autoimmune insulitis”), culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb) are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ‘patchy’ or ‘lobular’ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity – destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. “Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis” refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or “anamnestic” beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow's milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies before the development of autoantibodies and Secondary prevention regimens after autoantibody development. Once islet cell autoantibodies have developed, the goal is to establish a therapeutic regimen to preserve at least 90% of the beta cells, and prevent the development of hyperglycaemia. The targets for T1DM reversal should include autoimmunity, beta cell regeneration and protection of beta cell mass. Anti-CD3 teplizumab and anti-CD3 otelixizumab have been shown to provide C-peptide preservation. The unanswered questions in diabetes research include elimination of autoimmune memory responses, reestablishment of immune self-tolerance, and mechanisms of disease initiation. PMID:25941654
Using a calendar format, this publication is designed for land managers to make management decisions for preventing weed invasions in a timely manner. For each month there are recommendations for wee prevention management actions....
... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...
... Pubic "Crab" Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Pubic ("crab") lice most commonly are spread directly ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of pubic ("crab") lice: All sexual ...
...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a) During...commercial fishing, or other uses of the ocean. (1) When pollution occurs as a result of operations...
... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers 5 Tips to Help Prevent Infections Language: English Español (Spanish) ... your hands: BEFORE Making food Eating Preventing Infections Tip Sheet Download and print this tip sheet Â» ...
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety & Prevention frame support disabled and/or ...
... their dog or cat contracting heartworms. If the animal becomes infected and the heartworm preventative is later resumed without testing, the owner may be putting the pet in danger. The preventive medicine can kill so many microfilariae (the offspring of ...
... How Can Deep Vein Thrombosis Be Prevented? Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Blood ...
... possibly prevent allergies or asthma from developing. Preventing Food Allergies Food allergies can cause problems ranging from eczema to life- ... has allergic conditions are at risk for developing food allergy, especially if they already exhibit allergic symptoms of ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Heart Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay coronary heart disease (CHD). Your risk for CHD increases with the ...
Rossi, Teresa; Gallo, Cristina; Bassani, Barbara; Canali, Sara; Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino
Specific alimentary habits, including oriental and Mediterranean diets characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals and, for the Mediterranean diet, olive oil, are associated with a reduction of risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and some cancers. Numerous beverages contain diverse natural compounds, termed phytochemicals, that have been reported to exert antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant properties. Here we review the chemopreventive and angiopreventive properties of selected phytochemicals found in common beverages: epigallocatechin(green tea), triterpenoids (citrus juices), resveratrol (red wine), xanthohumol (beer), procyanidin (chocolate), and caffeine (coffee), focusing on their molecular mechanisms, providing "ready to drink" prevention approaches. PMID:25490889
Full Text Available Gene flow within populations can occur by sexual and/or parasexual means. Analyses of experimental and in silico work are presented relevant to possible gene flow within the aspergilli. First, the discovery of mating-type (MAT genes within certain species of Aspergillus is described. The implications for self-fertility, sexuality in supposedly asexual species and possible uses as phylogenetic markers are discussed. Second, the results of data mining for heterokaryon incompatibility (het and programmed cell death (PCD related genes in the genomes of two heterokaryon incompatible isolates of the asexual species Aspergillus niger are reported. Het-genes regulate the formation of anastomoses and heterokaryons, may protect resources and prevent the spread of infectious genetic elements. Depending on the het locus involved, hetero-allelism is not tolerated and fusion of genetically different individuals leads to growth inhibition or cell death. The high natural level of heterokaryon incompatibility in A. niger blocks parasexual analysis of the het-genes involved, but in silico experiments in the sequenced genomes allow us to identify putative het-genes. Homologous sequences to known het- and PCD-genes were compared between different sexual and asexual species including different Aspergillus species, Sordariales and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both het- and PCD-genes were well conserved in A. niger. However some point mutations and other small differences between the het-genes in the two A. niger isolates examined may hint to functions in heterokaryon incompatibility reactions.
This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers. Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 11/5/2014.
This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers. Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 11/5/2014.
This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...
Seid, C A; Ramachandran, R K; George, J.M.; Govindarajan, V.; González-Rimbau, M F; Flytzanis, C N; Tomlinson, C R
The extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to play an important role in development and tissue-specific gene expression, yet the mechanism by which genes receive signals from the ECM is poorly understood. The aboral ectoderm-specific LpS1-alpha and -beta genes of Lytechinus pictus , members of the Spec gene family, provide an excellent model system to study ECM- mediated gene regulation. Disruption of the ECM by preventing collagen deposition using the lathrytic agent beta-aminopropionitri...
Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar
Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. PMID:15157120
Hajeer, A H; Bernstein, R M
Inhibition ELISA and immunoblotting were used to examine the antigenic cross-reactivity claimed to exist between mycobacterial 65-kD heat shock protein (hsp65) and human lactoferrin. Commercially available anti-lactoferrin antibodies produced using either Freund's complete (FCA) or Freund's incomplete adjuvant were tested for binding to recombinant mycobacterial hsp65. Both antibody preparations showed reactivity with hsp65, this being greater with the antibody produced using FCA. However, we found no evidence of a cross-reaction. Lactoferrin failed to inhibit anti-hsp65 reactivity, while hsp65 itself did. Affinity purified anti-lactoferrin antibody showed no reaction with hsp65 by ELISA or immunoblotting. These data suggest that commercial anti-lactoferrin preparations are contaminated with antibodies to hsp65. A commercial anti-albumin antibody also bound to hsp65 in ELISA, so this may be a more general phenomenon. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7902791
Angastiniotis, M.; Modell, B; Englezos, P.; Boulyjenkov, V
In many developing countries the haemoglobinopathies (thalassaemias and sickle-cell disorder) are so common that they provide a convenient model for working out a genetic approach to control of chronic childhood diseases. At present, about 250 million people (4.5% of the world population) carry a potentially pathological haemoglobinopathy gene. Each year about 300,000 infants are born with major haemoglobinopathies. Haemoglobinopathy control programmes, based on WHO approaches and recommendat...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836.513 Section 836...CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and...
Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah
Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…
Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…
Randolph, Karen A.; Fincham, Frank; Radey, Melissa
The literature on engaging families in prevention programs is informed by the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Family Systems theory. Although useful, these frameworks have not facilitated the development of prevention-based practice strategies that recognize different levels of prevention (i.e., universal,…
John J. Kilbane II
The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.
Edward Susko; Roger, Andrew J; Matthew Spencer
The patchy distribution of genes across the prokaryotes may be caused by multiple gene losses or lateral transfer. Probabilistic models of gene gain and loss are needed to distinguish between these possibilities. Existing models allow only single genes to be gained and lost, despite the empirical evidence for multi-gene events. We compare birth-death models (currently the only widely-used models, in which only one gene can be gained or lost at a time) to blocks models (allowing gain and loss ...
The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact
Wehby George L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P, on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917
Güçlü E et al.
Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults and using shared needles amongst injection drug users are the predominant route. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization.
Kardinal, Carl G.; Cole, John T.
Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in American women and is second only to carcinoma of the lung in cancer deaths. The results of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) were released in April 1998. In the BCPT, 13,388 women at increased risk for the development of breast cancer were randomized to receive tamoxifen or placebo for 5 years, resulting in a 49% reduction in invasive breast cancer and a 50% reduction in noninvasiv...
Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Gerber, Bernd
Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22-72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50-65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice. PMID:25759621
Massougbodji Achille; Carrieu Ambre; Bonaventure Diana; Briand Valérie; Bertin Gwladys; Cot Michel; Deloron Philippe
Abstract Background The prevention of malaria faces with the repeated emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to drugs, often involving point mutations of the target gene. In the pregnant woman, currently the WHO recommendation is the administration of an intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance has increased for several years in Africa, stressing the need for alternative molecules. In this context, the first ra...
Keller, Johannes; Mayo, Ruth; Greifeneder, Rainer; Pfattheicher, Stefan
The current research suggests that taking self-regulatory mechanisms into account provides insights regarding individuals’ responses to threats in social interactions. In general, based on the notion that a prevention-focused orientation of self-regulation is associated with a need for security and a vigilant tendency to avoid losses and other types of negative events we advocate that a prevention-focused orientation, both as a disposition as well as a situationally induced state, lowers gene...
Fong, Louise Y Y; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L
Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats ...
Freeman, H.; Harten, T.; Springer, J.; Randall, P.; Curran, M.A.
The U.S. Congress passed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. Pollution prevention is clearly a concept that will be of increasing importance to U.S. companies and to the public agencies that are responsible for regulating those companies. In this critical review the authors present the current state of knowledge regarding pollution prevention approaches to environmental improvement, explore the state of development of various private and public approaches to encouraging the adoption of pollution prevention strategies, highlight selected clean technologies and clean products, and examine various technical and economic issues related to the concept of pollution prevention.
Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)
This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.
Simon, Eric J.
Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…
Wuttke, Daniel; Connor, Richard; Vora, Chintan; Craig, Thomas; Li, Yang; Wood, Shona; Vasieva, Olga; Shmookler Reis, Robert; Tang, Fusheng; de Magalhães, João Pedro
Dietary restriction (DR), limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR-essential genes and identified more than 100 in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice. In order for other researchers to benefit from this first curated list of genes essential for DR, we established an online database called GenDR (http://genomics.senescence.info/diet/). To dissect the interactions of DR-essential genes and discover the underlying lifespan-extending mechanisms, we then used a variety of network and systems biology approaches to analyze the gene network of DR. We show that DR-essential genes are more conserved at the molecular level and have more molecular interactions than expected by chance. Furthermore, we employed a guilt-by-association method to predict novel DR-essential genes. In budding yeast, we predicted nine genes related to vacuolar functions; we show experimentally that mutations deleting eight of those genes prevent the life-extending effects of DR. Three of these mutants (OPT2, FRE6, and RCR2) had extended lifespan under ad libitum, indicating that the lack of further longevity under DR is not caused by a general compromise of fitness. These results demonstrate how network analyses of DR using GenDR can be used to make phenotypically relevant predictions. Moreover, gene-regulatory circuits reveal that the DR-induced transcriptional signature in yeast involves nutrient-sensing, stress responses and meiotic transcription factors. Finally, comparing the influence of gene expression changes during DR on the interactomes of multiple organisms led us to suggest that DR commonly suppresses translation, while stimulating an ancient reproduction-related process. PMID:22912585
...FRL-9481-4] RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control...contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in the ``Proposed...List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance...
Jing Yang; Jiarui Si; Xiaoxuan Gu; Ouyan Shi
The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship among the interrelated gene sequences of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Further this paper will provide a study on genetic factor of the occurrence about Alzheimer’s disease, so as to provide more information on the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease, the clinical diagnosis and gene therapy for Alzheimer’s disease. The respective alignment of the Alzheimer’s disease interrelated gene sequences with those in The Nation...
Biffi, Alessandra; Capotondo, Alessia; Fasano, Stefania; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Marchesini, Sergio; Azuma, Hisaya; Malaguti, Maria Chiara; Amadio, Stefano; Brambilla, Riccardo; Grompe, Markus; Bordignon, Claudio; Quattrini, Angelo; Naldini, Luigi
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a demyelinating lysosomal storage disorder for which new treatments are urgently needed. We previously showed that transplantation of gene-corrected hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in presymptomatic myeloablated MLD mice prevented disease manifestations. Here we show that HSC gene therapy can reverse neurological deficits and neuropathological damage in affected mice, thus correcting an overt neurological disease. The efficacy of gene therapy ...
Small, Eliza C; Xi, Liqun; Wang, Ji-Ping; Widom, Jonathan; Licht, Jonathan D
Nucleosomes limit access to DNA, which antagonizes gene expression and prevents recruitment of transcription factors that cannot bind DNA wrapped around the histone octamer. Numerous studies using large cell populations determined that active genes promoters tend to be nucleosome-depleted. We developed a method to examine nucleosome positioning in single cells and revealed significant heterogeneity of nucleosome configurations within a population. In an inactive gene loaded with nucleosomes, ...
Yida, Zhang; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Sarega, Nadarajan; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Hou, Zhiping; Yusuf, Norhayati Binti
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is used traditionally in many parts of Asia to improve wellbeing, but there are limited studies on its efficacy. We explored the potential use of EBN for prevention of high fat diet- (HFD-) induced insulin resistance in rats. HFD was given to rats with or without simvastatin or EBN for 12 weeks. During the intervention period, weight measurements were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected at the end of the intervention and oral glucose tolerance test conducted, after which the rats were sacrificed and their liver and adipose tissues collected for further studies. Serum adiponectin, leptin, F2-isoprostane, insulin, and lipid profile were estimated, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance computed. Effects of the different interventions on transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling genes were also evaluated. The results showed that HFD worsened metabolic indices and induced insulin resistance partly through transcriptional regulation of the insulin signaling genes. Additionally, simvastatin was able to prevent hypercholesterolemia but promoted insulin resistance similar to HFD. EBN, on the other hand, prevented the worsening of metabolic indices and transcriptional changes in insulin signaling genes due to HFD. The results suggest that EBN may be used as functional food to prevent insulin resistance.
Yida, Zhang; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Sarega, Nadarajan; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Hou, Zhiping; Yusuf, Norhayati Binti
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is used traditionally in many parts of Asia to improve wellbeing, but there are limited studies on its efficacy. We explored the potential use of EBN for prevention of high fat diet- (HFD-) induced insulin resistance in rats. HFD was given to rats with or without simvastatin or EBN for 12 weeks. During the intervention period, weight measurements were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected at the end of the intervention and oral glucose tolerance test conducted, after which the rats were sacrificed and their liver and adipose tissues collected for further studies. Serum adiponectin, leptin, F2-isoprostane, insulin, and lipid profile were estimated, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance computed. Effects of the different interventions on transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling genes were also evaluated. The results showed that HFD worsened metabolic indices and induced insulin resistance partly through transcriptional regulation of the insulin signaling genes. Additionally, simvastatin was able to prevent hypercholesterolemia but promoted insulin resistance similar to HFD. EBN, on the other hand, prevented the worsening of metabolic indices and transcriptional changes in insulin signaling genes due to HFD. The results suggest that EBN may be used as functional food to prevent insulin resistance. PMID:26273674
Highlights: ? Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. ? Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. ? Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.
Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate and preventive measures in affective disorder are also touched upon. At the indicated prevention level, studies of fatal and non-fatal suicide acts after suicide attempt are mentioned. The evidence of preventive measures to reduce repetition rates is presented. Finally, the state of the art is discussed with regard to prevention at the universal, the selected and the indicated level and clinical and research implications are outlined.
Wallace Helen M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis, gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918 assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis, a largely environmental explanation for shared sibling risk is plausible, even if the classical heritability is high. The results therefore highlight the possibility – previously rejected on the basis of twin study results – that inherited genetic variants are important in determining risk only for the relatively rare familial forms of diseases such as breast cancer. If so, genetic models of familial aggregation may be incorrect and the hunt for additional susceptibility genes could be largely fruitless.
George William H
Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.
Spalding, Mary C; Sebesta, Sean C
Preventive health care decisions and recommendations become more complex as the population ages. The leading causes of death (i.e., heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic lower respiratory disease) among older adults mirror the actual causes of death (i.e., tobacco use, poor diet, and physical inactivity) among persons of all ages. Many aspects of mortality in older adults are modifiable through behavior change. Patients 65 years and older should be counseled on smoking cessation, diets rich in healthy fats, aerobic exercise, and strength training. Other types of preventive care include aspirin therapy; lipid management; and administration of tetanus and diphtheria, pneumococcal, and influenza vaccines. Although cancer is the second leading cause of death in patients 65 years and older, a survival benefit from cancer screening is not seen unless the patient's life expectancy exceeds five years. Therefore, it is best to review life expectancy, functionality, and comorbidities with older patients when making cancer screening recommendations. Other recommended screenings include abdominal aortic aneurysm for men 65 to 75 years of age, breast cancer for women 40 years and older with a life expectancy greater than five years, and colorectal cancer for men and women 50 years and older with a life expectancy greater than five years. PMID:18697503
Syrjälä, A M; Knuuttila, M L; Syrjälä, L K
The aim was to determine what reasons restrict people's daily cleaning of their teeth and yearly attendance for a dental check-up, using as a theoretical background the ideas of Eichholz & Rogers on the rejection of innovation. The series consisted of young and middle-aged persons, 207 women and 183 men, who filled in a questionnaire on the above topics. The questions were phrased so as to cover different reasons for rejecting innovations. Factors analysis revealed the following factors: reasons preventing daily brushing, practical reasons, unpleasant experiences of dental care, laziness, and lack of appreciation. The reliability of the questionnaire was found to be good. Sex showed a significant correlation with reasons preventing daily brushing. Those for whom a long time had elapsed since the last visit to a dentist had more barriers relating to daily brushing, unpleasant experiences and laziness. The more educated the participants were, the fewer barriers they had in relation to the factors appreciation, unpleasant experiences, and daily brushing. PMID:1547605
Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 USC 1321) established United States policy that there shall be no discharges of oil or hazardous substances in harmful quantities into or upon navigables waters of the US or adjoining shorelines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was delegated responsibility for promulgating and enforcing the Oil Pollution Prevention Regulations for Non-Transportation Related Onshore and Offshore Facilities. These regulations provided a framework for the protection of navigable waters from oil discharges by requiring facility owners and operators to prepare and implement Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans. The EPA adopted a two-phased approach to implement revised these regulations for compliance with the new law. The EPA published proposed Phase 1 modifications to the SPCC regulations in the Federal Register on October 22, 1991. The EPA published more substantial modifications to the SPCC regulations in the Phase 2 revisions, which were issued as proposed rules in the Federal Register on February 17, 1993 and final rule on June 15, 1994. These modifications included requirements for facility-specific contingency planning and above ground storage tank integrity testing. The Phase 2 regulations also addressed requirements for ''complex'' facilities that are under multi-agency jurisdiction; that is, facilities that have a fuel pier component and a tank farm componentcomponent
The Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project in the Netherlands is developing a comprehensive set of scenarios to cover the full range of occupational accidents. The objective is to support companies in their risk analysis and prioritization of prevention. This paper describes how the modeling has developed through projects in the chemical industry, to this one in general industry and how this is planned to develop further in the future to model risk prevention in air transport. The core modeling technique is based on the bowtie, with addition of more explicit modeling of the barriers needed for risk control, the tasks needed to ensure provision, use, monitoring and maintenance of the barriers, and the management resources and tasks required to ensure that these barrier life cycle tasks are carried out effectively. The modeling is moving from a static notion of barriers which can fail, to seeing risk control dynamically as (fallible) means for staying within a safe envelope. The paper shows how concepts develop slowly over a series of projects as a core team works continuously together. It concludes with some results of the WORM project and some indications of how the modeling is raising fundamental questions about the conceptualization of system safety, which need future resolution
The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.
This paper reports that many proposals have come forth to ease the tension between East and West. Some focus on arms developments, others take up diplomatic issues. In addition, some have raised the question of crisis management and crisis prevention. Can crises be prevented even before they have taken place? The Palme Commission on Disarmament and Security suggested, in its 1982 report, ways of restraining superpower involvement in Third World conflicts. Such conflicts, it was argued, could escalate and ultimately result in nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Certainly, the commission also paid attention to conflicts over issues in Europe and to problems in Eastern or in Western Europe. However, the commission raised a question that lately has received increasing attention: the dangers of superpower confrontation over Third World issues. In his statement to the United Nations on 24 October 1985, President Regan pointed to the need for settling regional conflicts as they play a large role in building suspicions and tensions. Regan's initiative explicitly concerned Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Angola and Nicaragua. It included negotiations with the Soviet Union over Afghanistan, and, at a later stage, also over other issues. The goal, he the, was not to force a settlement on the parties. The initiative concerned issues that have for the American public, justified armaments and reduced Soviet credibility
Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health
Simone, Guidetti-Gonzalez; Helaine, Carrer.
Full Text Available Disease resistance in plants is usually associated with the activation of a wide variety of defense responses to prevent pathogen replication and/or movement. The ability of the host plant to recognize the pathogen and to activate defense responses is regulated by direct or indirect interaction betw [...] een the products of plant resistance (R) and pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes. Attempted infection of plants by avirulent pathogens elicits a battery of defenses often followed by the collapse of the challenged host cells. Localized host cell death may help to prevent the pathogen from spreading to uninfected tissues, known as hypersensitive response (HR). When either the plant or the pathogen lacks its cognate gene, activation of the plant’s defense responses fails to occur or is delayed and does not prevent pathogen colonization. In the CitEST database, we identified 1,300 reads related to R genes in Citrus which have been reported in other plant species. These reads were translated in silico, and alignments of their amino acid sequences revealed the presence of characteristic domains and motifs that are specific to R gene classes. The description of the reads identified suggests that they function as resistance genes in citrus.
Full Text Available Disease resistance in plants is usually associated with the activation of a wide variety of defense responses to prevent pathogen replication and/or movement. The ability of the host plant to recognize the pathogen and to activate defense responses is regulated by direct or indirect interaction between the products of plant resistance (R and pathogen avirulence (Avr genes. Attempted infection of plants by avirulent pathogens elicits a battery of defenses often followed by the collapse of the challenged host cells. Localized host cell death may help to prevent the pathogen from spreading to uninfected tissues, known as hypersensitive response (HR. When either the plant or the pathogen lacks its cognate gene, activation of the plant’s defense responses fails to occur or is delayed and does not prevent pathogen colonization. In the CitEST database, we identified 1,300 reads related to R genes in Citrus which have been reported in other plant species. These reads were translated in silico, and alignments of their amino acid sequences revealed the presence of characteristic domains and motifs that are specific to R gene classes. The description of the reads identified suggests that they function as resistance genes in citrus.
Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...
Lheriteau, Elsa; Davidoff, Andrew M; Nathwani, Amit C
Current treatment for haemophilia entails life-long intravenous infusion of clotting factor concentrates. This is highly effective at controlling and preventing haemorrhage and its associated complications. Clotting factor replacement therapy is, however, demanding, exceedingly expensive and not curative. In contrast, gene therapy for haemophilia offers the potential of a cure as a result of continuous endogenous expression of biologically active factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX) proteins following stable transfer of a normal copy of the respective gene. Our group has recently established the first clear proof-of-concept for a gene therapy approach to the treatment of severe haemophilia B. This entails a single intravenous administration of an adeno-associated virus vector encoding an optimised FIX gene, resulting in a long-term (>4years) dose dependent increase in plasma FIX levels at therapeutic levels without persistent or late toxicity. Gene therapy therefore has the potential to change the treatment paradigm for haemophilia but several hurdles need to be overcome before this can happen. This review provides a summary of the progress made to date and discusses the remaining changes. PMID:26049173
Lustig, Lawrence R.; Akil, Omar
The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in cochlear gene therapy over the past several years. Cochlear gene therapy has undergone tremendous advances over the past decade. Beginning with some groundbreaking work in 2005 documenting hair cell regeneration using virallymediated delivery of the mouse atonal 1 gene, gene therapy is now being explored as a possible treatment for a variety of causes of hearing loss.
Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad; Gravenor, Michael B.; Art F.Y. Poon; Frost, Simon D.W.
Over time, natural selection molds every gene into a unique mosaic of sites evolving rapidly or resisting change—an “evolutionary fingerprint” of the gene. Aspects of this evolutionary fingerprint, such as the site-specific ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), are commonly used to identify genetic features of potential biological interest; however, no framework exists for comparing evolutionary fingerprints between genes. We hypothesize that protein-coding genes wi...
Wood, KJ; Prior, TG
In transplantation, gene therapy strategies to prolong graft survival involve gene transfer and expression of immunomodulatory or graft-protecting molecules. The local production of immunosuppressive molecules has the potential to reduce their systemic side effects, and to increase their bioavailability and hence their therapeutic efficiency. Ex vivo gene transfer enables manipulation prior to engraftment. Vectors have now been developed that can optimally transfer the relevant genes to vario...
Baoutina, Anna; Alexander, Ian E; Rasko, John E J; Emslie, Kerry R
After only a short history of three decades from concept to practice, gene therapy has recently been shown to have potential to treat serious human diseases. Despite this success, gene therapy remains in the realm of experimental medicine, and much additional preclinical and clinical study will be necessary for proving the efficacy and safety of this approach in the treatment of diseases in humans. However, a potential complicating factor is that advances in gene transfer technology could be misused to enhance athletic performance in sports, in a practice termed "gene doping". Moreover, gene doping could be a precursor to a broader controversial agenda of human "genetic enhancement" with the potential for a significant long-term impact on society. This review addresses the possible ways in which knowledge and experience gained in gene therapy in animals and humans may be abused for enhancing sporting prowess. We provide an overview of recent progress in gene therapy, with potential application to gene doping and with the major focus on candidate performance-enhancement genes. We also discuss the current status of preclinical studies and of clinical trials that use these genes for therapeutic purposes. Current knowledge about the association between the natural "genetic make-up" of humans and their physical characteristics and performance potential is also presented. We address issues associated with the safety of gene transfer technologies in humans, especially when used outside a strictly controlled clinical setting, and the obstacles to translating gene transfer strategies from animal studies to humans. We also address the need for development and implementation of measures to prevent abuse of gene transfer technologies, and to pursue research on strategies for its detection in order to discourage this malpractice among athletes. PMID:17680029
Wu, Yong; Zhao, Weidong; Zhao, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuanfei; Qin, Weiping; Pan, Jiangping; Bauman, William A; Blitzer, Robert D; Cardozo, Christopher
Glucocorticoids are a well-recognized and common cause of muscle atrophy that can be prevented by testosterone. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such protection have not been described. Thus, the global effects of testosterone on dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression were evaluated in rat gastrocnemius muscle using DNA microarrays. Gene expression was analyzed after 7-d administration of dexamethasone, dexamethasone plus testosterone, or vehicle. Dexamethasone changed expression of 876 probe sets by at least 2-fold. Among these, 474 probe sets were changed by at least 2-fold in the opposite direction in the dexamethasone plus testosterone group (genes in opposition). Major biological themes represented by genes in opposition included IGF-I signaling, myogenesis and muscle development, and cell cycle progression. Testosterone completely prevented the 22-fold increase in expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1), and attenuated dexamethasone induced increased expression of eIF4E binding protein 1, Forkhead box O1, and the p85 regulatory subunit of the IGF-I receptor but prevented decreased expression of IRS-1. Testosterone attenuated increases in REDD1 protein in skeletal muscle and L6 myoblasts and prevented dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at the mTOR-dependent site Thr389 in L6 myoblast cells. Effects of testosterone on REDD1 mRNA levels occurred within 1 h, required the androgen receptor, were blocked by bicalutamide, and were due to inhibition of transcriptional activation of REDD1 by dexamethasone. These data suggest that testosterone blocks dexamethasone-induced changes in expression of REDD1 and other genes that collectively would otherwise down-regulate mTOR activity and hence also down-regulate protein synthesis. PMID:20032058
Han, Ricai; Cladel, Nancy M.; Reed, Cynthia A.; Peng, Xuwen; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Pickel, Martin; Christensen, Neil D
Malignant progression is a life-threatening consequence of human papillomavirus-associated lesions. In this study, we tested the efficacy of papillomavirus early-gene-based vaccines for prevention of carcinoma development of papillomavirus-induced skin papillomas on rabbits. Rabbit skin papillomas were initiated by infection with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). The papillomas were allowed to grow for 3 months without any treatment intervention. Rabbits were then immunized by gene gun...
Ojala, Ville; Laitalainen, Jarkko; Jalasvuori, Matti
The emergence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics is a serious worldwide public health concern. Whenever antibiotics are applied, the genes encoding for antibiotic resistance are selected for within bacterial populations. This has led to the prevalence of conjugative plasmids that carry resistance genes and can transfer themselves between diverse bacterial groups. In this study, we investigated whether it is feasible to attempt to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistan...
Singhal, Sharad S; Singhal, Jyotsana; Figarola, James L; Riggs, Arthur; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is one of the top 10 diagnosed cancers in the USA, and the incidence is rising. Despite major improvements in drug therapy strategies, RCC remains a deadly malignancy if not found and removed in its early stages. RCC is so highly drug-resistant that no effective life-prolonging regimen of cytotoxic chemotherapy has been demonstrated for RCC, despite several decades of effort. It is also highly radiation-resistant, thus circumventing therapies to prevent local recurrence or to control metastatic disease. In the last few years, extensive research has been conducted to elucidate the functional significance of the plant-derived compounds, and their derivatives, as anticancer agents. This review is focussed on a chemo-dietary prevention strategy against RCC using a citrus-derived compound called 2'-hydroxyflavanone. RCC is frequently caused by VHL gene mutations, which contribute to 75% of all RCCs. These mutations are positively linked to cigarette smoking, and exposure to the tobacco carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine and benzopyrene, can disrupt VHL. According to in vitro and preclinical mouse studies, 2'-hydroxyflavanone can both protect the VHL locus and prevent the progression of VHL-mutant cancer. Human clinical trials examining the effect of supplementation of 2'-hydroxyflavanone, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, on RCC prevention have not been conducted, although there is considerable potential for 2'-hydroxyflavanone and its derivatives to be developed as RCC chemoprevention agents. Therefore, the discovery of plant-derived cancer therapies, such as 2'-hydroxyflavanone, offers a new strategy for combating this highly resistant cancer. PMID:25957660
Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA
Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network?s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network?s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.
Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or in combination with current approaches.
Brandon, Barbara; Pearce, P Z
Golf is a popular sport, with almost 30 million active participants in the United States each year. It is a leisure-time activity that satisfies the Surgeon General's recommendation for daily physical activity. Despite being a low-impact sport, 60% of professional and 40% of amateur golfers suffer from injury each season. One explanation for this high rate includes the repetitive bending and twisting of the swing. However, it is suspected that most golfers do not participate in any form of off-season training for their sport, nor do they warm up before exercise. This is especially important in the large number of retirees who have the time and resources to play golf. A basic review of golf swing biomechanics reveals significant torque stress on the shoulders, elbows, wrists, and lower back, which also corresponds to the most common areas of injury. Understanding the underlying mechanism makes it possible to design a sport-specific injury prevention program. PMID:19436170
Full Text Available Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke, migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.
Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure. This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...
Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370
WHEELER COSETTE M
Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.
The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody’s interest we advise the following precautions: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly “safe” hiding places such as drawers, even locked, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS Offices, workshops and meeting-rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. VANDALISM If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. REPORTING INCIDENTS Every misdemeanour solved increases the chances of others be...
The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change. PMID:25937591
Full Text Available This contribution is based on the four presentations made at the Special Interest Group (SIG meeting titled Gene Expression in Fungi held during IMC9 in Edinburgh. This overview is independent from other articles published or that will be published by each speaker. In the SIG meeting, basic principles of in vivo animal models for virulence studies were discussed. Infection associated genes of Candida albicans and fungal adaptation to the host was summarized. Azole susceptibility was evaluated as a combined result of several changes in expression of pertinent genes. Gene transfer in fungi, resulting in fungal evolution and gene adaptation to environmental factors, was reported.
Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))
The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes
The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene clusters are of interest for the understanding of genome evolution since they provide insight in large-scale duplications events as well as patterns of individual gene losses. Vertebrates tend to have multiple copies of gene clusters that typically are only single clusters or are not present at all in genomes of invertebrates. We investigated the genomic architecture and conserved non-coding sequences of vertebrate KCNA gene clusters. KCNA genes encode shaker-related voltage-gated potassium channels and are arranged in two three-gene clusters in tetrapods. Teleost fish are found to possess four clusters. The two tetrapod KNCA clusters are of approximately the same age as the Hox gene clusters that arose through duplications early in vertebrate evolution. For some genes, their conserved retention and arrangement in clusters are thought to be related to regulatory elements in the intergenic regions, which might prevent rearrangements and gene loss. Interestingly, this hypothesis does not appear to apply to the KCNA clusters, as too few conserved putative regulatory elements are retained. Results We obtained KCNA coding sequences from basal ray-finned fishes (sturgeon, gar, bowfin and confirmed that the duplication of these genes is specific to teleosts and therefore consistent with the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD. Phylogenetic analyses of the genes suggest a basal position of the only intron containing KCNA gene in vertebrates (KCNA7. Sistergroup relationships of KCNA1/2 and KCNA3/6 support that a large-scale duplication gave rise to the two clusters found in the genome of tetrapods. We analyzed the intergenic regions of KCNA clusters in vertebrates and found that there are only a few conserved sequences shared between tetrapods and teleosts or between paralogous clusters. The orthologous teleost clusters, however, show sequence conservation in these regions. Conclusion The lack of overall conserved sequences in intergenic regions suggests that there are either other processes than regulatory evolution leading to cluster conservation or that the ancestral regulatory relationships among genes in KCNA clusters have been changed together with their regulatory sites.
Full Text Available GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person?s genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is ?the use of genes as medicine?. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.
Full Text Available The patchy distribution of genes across the prokaryotes may be caused by multiple gene losses or lateral transfer. Probabilistic models of gene gain and loss are needed to distinguish between these possibilities. Existing models allow only single genes to be gained and lost, despite the empirical evidence for multi-gene events. We compare birth-death models (currently the only widely-used models, in which only one gene can be gained or lost at a time to blocks models (allowing gain and loss of multiple genes within a family. We analyze two pairs of genomes: two E. coli strains, and the distantly-related Archaeoglobus fulgidus (archaea and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive bacteria. Blocks models describe the data much better than birth-death models. Our models suggest that lateral transfers of multiple genes from the same family are rare (although transfers of single genes are probably common. For both pairs, the estimated median time that a gene will remain in the genome is not much greater than the time separating the common ancestors of the archaea and bacteria. Deep phylogenetic reconstruction from sequence data will therefore depend on choosing genes likely to remain in the genome for a long time. Phylogenies based on the blocks model are more biologically plausible than phylogenies based on the birth-death model.
The prevention of the HIV infection remains relevant considering the dynamics of the epidemic and the slackening of the preventive behavior of certain populations. The strategies associate initiatives of universal prevention: information, education, communication, screening; and specific actions in the direction of the most exposed populations. The paradigms of prevention evolved a lot these last years to take into account the preventive efficiency of antiretrovirals. If the condom remains the reference method, it is advisable for the populations the most exposed today to associate all the tools of prevention: behavioral methods, screening and antiretroviral. The possibility given to non-governmental organizations to realize test of fast screening allowed to go to closer of the most exposed populations.The arrival on the market of the autotests must be supervised to touch the people who do not turn to the screening. PMID:25510127
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention is an international patient safety issue. The author has observed gaps in prescription and provision of VTE prophylaxis, and that the attitude to VTE is often reactive rather than proactive. This concept analysis aims to explore proactivity and apply it to VTE prevention to address this. Ten databases were searched (1992-2012) using the keywords proactive, proactivity, nurse, nursing, VTE/venous thromboembolism, prevent/prevention/preventing, behaviour, DVT/PE (deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism). The Walker and Avant (2010) method of concept analysis identified the defining attributes as personal initiative, taking charge and feedback-seeking behaviour. Antecedents and consequences have been identified, and empirical referents are demonstrated. Defining proactivity in VTE prevention has the potential to increase prescription and, crucially, provision of prophylaxis, thereby improving patient care, reducing avoidable harm and improving the patient experience. PMID:25541872
Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA; Pamela K. Brown, MPA; Steven Coughlin, PhD; Maria E. Fernandez, PhD; James R. Hebert, ScD; Jon Kerner, PhD; Marianne Prout, MD, MPH; Randy Schwartz, MSPH; Eduardo J. Simoes, MD, MSc, MPH; Carol White, MPH; Katherine Wilson, PhD
The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered throu...
Amit Solanki; S.R.Dogiwal; Jitendra Sharma
Phishing is a widespread problem that is impacting both business and consumers.phishing is the criminally fraudulent process ofattempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication . This paper explains the method used for phishing prevention using Hardware based Login technique to prevent phishing and with the help of this technique user can prevent form phishing easily using ...
Waste prevention can be seen as a form of waste treatment, and it is then considered as the most desirable option to mitigate the environmental impacts of waste generation. However, some have already pointed out the fact that the true potential of waste prevention might lie in its connection to sustainable consumption, and not as a substitute to waste treatment (Ekvall 2008, Olofsson 2004). Sustainable consumption and waste prevention are concepts that are closely related. Goods that people c...
Waste prevention is the prioritized waste management option within EU waste policy. There is however a scarcity of research on and policy measures for waste prevention. Improved resource productivity in consumption practices may prevent waste. Literature suggests that Product Service Systems (PSS, ‘a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling a user’s needs’ (Goedkoop et al. 1999)) have potential for increased resource productivity compared with self-...
Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund
Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material...
Yang, Chung S.; Suh, Nanjoo; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng
The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been suggested by many epidemiological studies. However, several recent large-scale human trials with ?-tocopherol, the most commonly recognized and used form of vitamin E, failed to demonstrate a cancer preventive effect. The recently finished follow-up of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) even showed higher prostate cancer incidence in subjects who took ?-tocopherol supplementation. The scientific community and the ge...
An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensing bitter tastes is crucial for many animals because it can prevent them from ingesting harmful foods. This process is mainly mediated by the bitter taste receptors (T2R, which are largely expressed in the taste buds. Previous studies have identified some T2R gene repertoires, and marked variation in repertoire size has been noted among species. However, the mechanisms underlying the evolution of vertebrate T2R genes remain poorly understood. Results To better understand the evolutionary pattern of these genes, we identified 16 T2R gene repertoires based on the high coverage genome sequences of vertebrates and studied the evolutionary changes in the number of T2R genes during birth-and-death evolution using the reconciled-tree method. We found that the number of T2R genes and the fraction of pseudogenes vary extensively among species. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, we showed that T2R gene families in teleost fishes are more diverse than those in tetrapods. In addition to the independent gene expansions in teleost fishes, frogs and mammals, lineage-specific gene duplications were also detected in lizards. Furthermore, extensive gains and losses of T2R genes were detected in each lineage during their evolution, resulting in widely differing T2R gene repertoires. Conclusion These results further support the hypotheses that T2R gene repertoires are closely related to the dietary habits of different species and that birth-and-death evolution is associated with adaptations to dietary changes.
Angastiniotis, M.; Modell, B.; Englezos, P.; Boulyjenkov, V.
In many developing countries the haemoglobinopathies (thalassaemias and sickle-cell disorder) are so common that they provide a convenient model for working out a genetic approach to control of chronic childhood diseases. At present, about 250 million people (4.5% of the world population) carry a potentially pathological haemoglobinopathy gene. Each year about 300,000 infants are born with major haemoglobinopathies. Haemoglobinopathy control programmes, based on WHO approaches and recommendations, have been established in different countries in all WHO Regions and have been successful in management of the problem. Following WHO recommendations the health burden of hereditary anaemias could be significantly reduced. This article summarizes the presentations and discussion made at a joint WHO/TIF (Thalassaemia International Federation) meeting, held in Cyprus in April 1993, and reviews the experience of programmes in several countries for the control of haemoglobinopathies in the world. PMID:7614670
Noar, Seth M.; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed. PMID:22519523
Amin, A.R.M Ruhul; Kucuk, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximatel...
For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)
Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. (authors)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program....