WorldWideScience
 
 
1

First report of disseminated Mycobacterium skin infections in two liver transplant recipients and rapid diagnosis by hsp65 gene sequencing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present here the first report of disseminated skin Mycobacterium infections in two liver transplant recipients, in which hsp65 gene sequencing was used for rapid species identification. Both patients had hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus and presented with progressive generalized, nodular skin lesions. In one patient, a 50-year-old woman who had frequent contact with marine fish, an acid-fast bacillus was isolated from skin biopsy tissue after 2 months of culture. W...

Lau, Susanna K. P.; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Yeung, Chi-keung; Yuen, Kwok-yung; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

2011-01-01

2

Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de [...] pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

Maria das Graças Motta e, Bona; Maria José Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; José Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.

3

Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de [...] pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

Maria das Graças Motta e, Bona; Maria José Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; José Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.

2011-10-01

4

Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) in South Korea by sequencing analysis targeting hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinatorial molecular taxonomic approaches targeting 3 genes, 16S rRNA (1.2-1.3kbp), hsp65 (603-bp), and rpoB genes (711-bp) were applied to 43 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains isolated from a Korean native cattle from bronchial lymph nodes and lung, Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) in South Korea. Of 43 NTM isolates, Mycobacterium avium complex strains (MAC) were isolated with the highest frequency (31 strains, 72.1%). Contrary to other reports, M. intracellulare strains (23 strains, 53.5%) of MACs were more prevalent than M. avium strains (8 strains, 18.6%). Further separation of isolated M. intracellulare into genotype level by hsp65 analysis showed that isolates of the HG-1 genotype (60.9%, 14/23 isolates), known to be specific to Korean patients, was more prevalent than the HG-2 type (17.4%, 4/23 strains), which include the type strain, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950(T). Compared to NTM infections of Korean human patients, the pronounced difference found in this study is that no M. abscessus infections in Hanwoo were found. In conclusion, our data showed that the isolated species frequency of NTMs, particularly MACs from Hanwoo, was very comparable to that obtained from Korean human infection, suggesting that humans and Korean native cattle may share common environmental sources for NTM infections. PMID:25171916

Kim, Bo-Ram; Kim, Jae Myung; Kim, Byoung-Jun; Jang, Yunho; Ryoo, Soyoon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

2014-10-10

5

DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.

Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis, up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material.  A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk 

Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,

Joab Trajano Silva

2008-12-01

6

Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65) gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65) was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with [...] its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group) were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization), the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2) characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

D.M., Fonseca; V.L.D., Bonato; C.L., Silva; A., Sartori.

7

Oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HSP65 and tandemly repeated P277 reduces the incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is an autoimmune disease that gradually destroys insulin-producing beta-cells. We have previously reported that mucosal administration of fusion protein of HSP65 with tandem repeats of P277 (HSP65-6P277) can reduce the onset of DM1 in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. To deliver large amounts of the fusion protein and to enhance long-term immune tolerance effects, in the present study, we investigated the efficacy of using orally administrated L. lactis expressing HSP65-6P277 to reduce the incidence of DM1 in NOD mice. L. lactis strain NZ9000 was engineered to express HSP65-6P277 either constitutively or by nisin induction. After immunization via gavage with the recombinant L. lactis strains to groups of 4-week old female NOD mice for 36 weeks, we observed that oral administration of recombinant L. Lactis resulted in the prevention of hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulitis. Immunologic analysis showed that treatment with recombinant L. lactis induced HSP65- and P277- specific T cell immuno-tolerance, as well as antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes. The results revealed that the DM1-preventing function was in part caused by a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-? and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Orally administered recombinant L. lactis delivering HSP65-6P277 may be an effective therapeutic approach in preventing DM1. PMID:25157497

Ma, Yanjun; Liu, Jingjing; Hou, Jing; Dong, Yuankai; Lu, Yong; Jin, Liang; Cao, Rongyue; Li, Taiming; Wu, Jie

2014-01-01

8

Tissue distribution of DNA-Hsp65/TDM-loaded PLGA microspheres and uptake by phagocytic cells  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to demonstrate that microspheres, used as delivery vehicle of DNA-Hsp65/TDM [plasmid DNA encoding heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) coencapsulated with trehalose dimycolate (TDM) into PLGA microspheres], are widely spread among several organs after intramuscular administration in BALB/c mice. In general, we showed that these particles were phagocytosed by antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Besides, it was demonstrated herein that draining lymph node cells presented a significant increase in the number of cells expressing costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, and also that the administration of the DNA-Hsp65/TDM and vector/TDM formulations resulted in the up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and MHC class II expression when compared to control formulations (vector/TDM and empty). Regarding the intracellular trafficking we observed that following phagocytosis, the microspheres were not found in the late endosomes and/or lysosomes, until 15 days after internalization, and we suggest that these constructions were hydrolysed in early compartments. Overall, these data expand our knowledge on PLGA [poly (lactic-co- glycolic acid)] microspheres as gene carriers in vaccination strategies, as well as open perspectives for their potential use in clinical practice. PMID:17880727

Trombone, Ana Paula F; Silva, Celio L; Almeida, Luciana P; Rosada, Rogerio S; Lima, Karla M; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria C; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete AM

2007-01-01

9

Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT; grupo SB, tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%. A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente. Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%.O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão. CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving intratracheal (IT instillation of saline; SB, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%. The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively. The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%. The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

Adriana Ignacio de Padua

2008-11-01

10

Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina / Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT); grupo SB, [...] tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%). A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente) em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente). Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%).O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão). CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; SB [...] , injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure) was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%). The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively) than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively). The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%). The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung) than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

Adriana Ignacio de, Padua; Célio Lopes, Silva; Simone Gusmão, Ramos; Lúcia Helena, Faccioli; José Antônio Baddini, Martinez.

11

Factors associated with severe granulomatous pneumonia in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice vaccinated therapeutically with hsp65 DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistant C57BL/6 mice infected in the lungs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and then therapeutically vaccinated with Mycobacterium leprae-derived hsp65 DNA develop severe granulomatous pneumonia and tissue damage. Analysis of cells accumulating in the lungs of these animals revealed substantial increases in T cells secreting tumor necrosis factor alpha and CD8 cells staining positive for granzyme B. Stimulation of lung cells ex vivo revealed very high levels of interleukin-10, some of which was produced by B-1 B cells. This was probably an anti-inflammatory response, since lung pathology was dramatically worsened in B-cell gene-disrupted mice. PMID:16041037

Taylor, Jennifer L; Ordway, Diane J; Troudt, Jolynn; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Basaraba, Randall J; Orme, Ian M

2005-08-01

12

hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to four weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA of the hsp65 gene was used as a rapid method for identification of 103 clinical isolates. Band patterns were interpreted by comparison with published tables and patterns available at an Internet site (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005. Concordant results of PRA and biochemical identification were obtained in 76 out of 83 isolates (91.5%. Results from 20 isolates could not be compared due to inconclusive PRA or biochemical identification. The results of this work showed that PRA could improve identification of mycobacteria in a routine setting because it is accurate, fast, and cheaper than conventional phenotypic identification.

SILVA Carolina Feher da

2001-01-01

13

Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with [...] messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

C.D., Rocha; A.P.F., Trombone; J.C.C., Lorenzi; L.P., Almeida; A.F., Gembre; E., Padilha; S.G., Ramos; C.L., Silva; A.A.M., Coelho-Castelo.

1183-11-01

14

Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with [...] messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

C.D., Rocha; A.P.F., Trombone; J.C.C., Lorenzi; L.P., Almeida; A.F., Gembre; E., Padilha; S.G., Ramos; C.L., Silva; A.A.M., Coelho-Castelo.

15

Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization, we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

C.D. Rocha

2012-12-01

16

Protection against tuberculosis by a single intranasal administration of DNA-hsp65 vaccine complexed with cationic liposomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The greatest challenges in vaccine development include optimization of DNA vaccines for use in humans, creation of effective single-dose vaccines, development of delivery systems that do not involve live viruses, and the identification of effective new adjuvants. Herein, we describe a novel, simple technique for efficiently vaccinating mice against tuberculosis (TB. Our technique consists of a single-dose, genetic vaccine formulation of DNA-hsp65 complexed with cationic liposomes and administered intranasally. Results We developed a novel and non-toxic formulation of cationic liposomes, in which the DNA-hsp65 vaccine was entrapped (ENTR-hsp65 or complexed (COMP-hsp65, and used to immunize mice by intramuscular or intranasal routes. Although both liposome formulations induced a typical Th1 pattern of immune response, the intramuscular route of delivery did not reduce the number of bacilli. However, a single intranasal immunization with COMP-hsp65, carrying as few as 25 ?g of plasmid DNA, leads to a remarkable reduction of the amount of bacilli in lungs. These effects were accompanied by increasing levels of IFN-? and lung parenchyma preservation, results similar to those found in mice vaccinated intramuscularly four times with naked DNA-hsp65 (total of 400 ?g. Conclusion Our objective was to overcome the significant obstacles currently facing DNA vaccine development. Our results in the mouse TB model showed that a single intranasal dose of COMP-hsp65 elicited a cellular immune response that was as strong as that induced by four intramuscular doses of naked-DNA. This formulation allowed a 16-fold reduction in the amount of DNA administered. Moreover, we demonstrated that this vaccine is safe, biocompatible, stable, and easily manufactured at a low cost. We believe that this strategy can be applied to human vaccines to TB in a single dose or in prime-boost protocols, leading to a tremendous impact on the control of this infectious disease.

Silva Célio L

2008-07-01

17

The 'tubulin-like' S1 protein of Spirochaeta is a member of the hsp65 stress protein family  

Science.gov (United States)

A 65-kDa protein (called S1) from Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis was identified as 'tubulin-like' because it cross-reacted with at least four different antisera raised against tubulin and was isolated, with a co-polymerizing 45-kDa protein, by warm-cold cycling procedures used to purify tubulin from mammalian brain. Furthermore, at least three genera of non-cultivable symbiotic spirochetes (Pillotina, Diplocalyx, and Hollandina) that contain conspicuous 24-nm cytoplasmic tubules displayed a strong fluorescence in situ when treated with polyclonal antisera raised against tubulin. Here we summarize results that lead to the conclusion that this 65-kDa protein has no homology to tubulin. S1 is an hsp65 stress protein homologue. Hsp65 is a highly immunogenic family of hsp60 proteins which includes the 65-kDa antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (an active component of Freund's complete adjuvant), Borrelia, Treponema, Chlamydia, Legionella, and Salmonella. The hsp60s, also known as chaperonins, include E. coli GroEL, mitochondrial and chloroplast chaperonins, the pea aphid 'symbionin' and many other proteins involved in protein folding and the stress response.

Munson, D.; Obar, R.; Tzertzinis, G.; Margulis, L.

1993-01-01

18

Immunization of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDL-RD) mice with heat shock protein 65 (HSP-65) promotes early atherosclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock proteins are a family of approximately 25 highly conserved proteins upregulated in response to various forms of stress. They play an active role in the development autoimmune diseases in animals, and have been incriminated in human autoimmune diseases (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis). It has been previously shown, that an induced immune response against Heat shock protein 65 (HSP-65) results in atherosclerotic lesions in normocholesterolemic rabbits. We have supported these findings showing that C57BL/6 mice immunized with HSP-65 and fed a high-fat diet develop enhanced fatty streaks. To create a model that will eliminate the need for exogenous supplementation of a high-fat diet, we have immunized LDL receptor deficient (LDL-RD) mice with HSP-65 or with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt). Seven groups of LDL-RD mice (n=10), were immunized subcutaneously with different concentrations of HSP-65, Mt or bovine serum albumin (BSA). All mice were fed a normal chow-diet for 3 months. The mice immunized with the higher doses of Mt developed significantly larger fatty streaks when compared with their BSA immunized littermates. The size of the lesions in the aortic sinus were: 31,562+/-5,994 microm(2)in the 10 microg Mt and 52,777+/-5,245 microm(2)in the 100 microg Mt vs. 11, 500+/-3,750 microm(2)in the BSA group (Pvs. 11,500+/-3,750 microm(2)respectively, (Pfat diet supplementation. This model will enable us to further study the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis, via HSP-65 and raise novel immunomodulatory therapeutic modalities. PMID:10677242

Afek, A; George, J; Gilburd, B; Rauova, L; Goldberg, I; Kopolovic, J; Harats, D; Shoenfeld, Y

2000-03-01

19

Enhanced immune response of a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to construct a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with cytokine GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant (pIRES-Hsp65-ESAT-6-GM-CSF, pIRHEG), and the immune response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the recombinant plasmid to [...] detect the titer of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+, CD8+T cell and IFN ~ ?,IL-2 secretion. The titer of antibody, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+T and CD8+T cells and IFN ~ ?, IL-2 secretion of pIRHEG group was significant higher than other recombinant plasmid groups, which significant differed by statistical mean. The bicistronic DNA vaccine could induce an effective immune response in mice and could be used as vital ingredient of a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate.

Yan, Dong; Jun-Yuan, Gong; Xin, Liu; Jun-Wu, Li.

20

Enhanced immune response of a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to construct a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with cytokine GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant (pIRES-Hsp65-ESAT-6-GM-CSF, pIRHEG), and the immune response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the recombinant plasmid to [...] detect the titer of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+, CD8+T cell and IFN ~ ?,IL-2 secretion. The titer of antibody, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+T and CD8+T cells and IFN ~ ?, IL-2 secretion of pIRHEG group was significant higher than other recombinant plasmid groups, which significant differed by statistical mean. The bicistronic DNA vaccine could induce an effective immune response in mice and could be used as vital ingredient of a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate.

Yan, Dong; Jun-Yuan, Gong; Xin, Liu; Jun-Wu, Li.

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Combined rpoB duplex PCR and hsp65 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism with capillary electrophoresis as an effective algorithm for identification of Mycobacterial species from clinical isolates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria can be quickly and simply identified by PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA, but misidentification can occur because of similarities in band sizes that are critical for discriminating among species. Capillary electrophoresis can provide computer-aided band discrimination. The aim of this research was to develop an algorithm for identifying mycobacteria by combined rpoB duplex PRA (DPRA and hsp65 PRA with capillary electrophoresis. Results Three hundred and seventy-six acid-fast bacillus smear-positive BACTEC cultures, including 200 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complexes (MTC and 176 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM were analyzed. With combined hsp65 and rpoB DPRA, the accuracy rate was 100% (200 isolates for the MTC and 91.4% (161 isolates for the NTM. Among the discordant results (8.6% for the NTM, one isolate of Mycobacterial species and an isolate of M. flavescens were found as new sub-types in hsp65 PRA. Conclusions This effective and novel identification algorithm using combined rpoB DPRA and hsp65 PRA with capillary electrophoresis can rapidly identify mycobacteria and find new sub-types in hsp65 PRA. In addition, it is complementary to 16 S rDNA sequencing.

Huang Chen-Cheng

2012-07-01

22

Ten tandem repeats of ?-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of ?-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of ?-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with ?-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 and HSP65-?hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-?-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-?hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of ?-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens

23

Prevention of peritoneal adhesions: A promising role for gene therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adhesions are the most frequent complication of abdominopelvic surgery, yet the extent of the problem, and its serious consequences, has not been adequately recognized. Adhesions evolved as a life-saving mechanism to limit the spread of intraperitoneal inflammatory conditions. Three different pathophysiological mechanisms can independently trigger adhesion formation. Mesothelial cell injury and loss during operations, tissue hypoxia and inflammation each promotes adhesion formation separately, and potentiate the effect of each other. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that interruption of a single pathway does not completely prevent adhesion formation. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of adhesion formation and the results of single gene therapy interventions. It explores the promising role of combinatorial gene therapy and vector modifications for the prevention of adhesion formation in order to stimulate new ideas and encourage rapid advancements in this field.

Hussein M Atta

2011-01-01

24

Can Exercise Prevent Type 2 Diabetes? Your Genes May Be Key  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Can Exercise Prevent Type 2 Diabetes? Your Genes May Be ... 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Type 2 Exercise and Physical Fitness Genes and Gene Therapy TUESDAY, ...

25

Selenium prevents downregulation of antioxidant selenoprotein genes by methylmercury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient required by Se-dependent proteins, termed selenoproteins. The selenoprotein family is small but diverse and includes key proteins in antioxidant, redox signaling, thyroid hormone metabolism, and protein folding pathways. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a toxic environmental contaminant that affects seafood safety. Selenium can reduce MeHg toxicity, but it is unclear how selenoproteins are affected in this interaction. In this study we explored how Se and MeHg interact to affect the mRNA expression of selenoprotein genes in whole zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Embryos were obtained from adult zebrafish fed MeHg with or without elevated Se in a 2×2 factorial design. The embryo mRNA levels of 30 selenoprotein genes were then measured. These genes cover most of the selenoprotein families, including members of the glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin reductase, iodothyronine deiodinase, and methionine sulfoxide reductase families, along with selenophosphate synthetase 2 and selenoproteins H, J-P, T, W, sep15, fep15, and fam213aa. GPX enzyme activity and larval locomotor activity were also measured. We found that around one-quarter of the selenoprotein genes were downregulated by elevated MeHg. These downregulated genes were dominated by selenoproteins from antioxidant pathways that are also susceptible to Se-deficiency-induced downregulation. MeHg also decreased GPX activity and induced larval hypoactivity. Elevated Se partially prevented MeHg-induced disruption of selenoprotein gene mRNA levels, GPX activity, and larval locomotor activity. Overall, the MeHg-induced downregulation and subsequent rescue by elevated Se levels of selenogenes regulated by Se status suggest that Se deficiency is a contributing factor to MeHg toxicity. PMID:25064324

Penglase, S; Hamre, K; Ellingsen, S

2014-10-01

26

ORPSW: a new classifier for gene expression data based on optimal risk and preventive patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimal risk and preventive patterns are itemsets which can identify characteristics of cohorts of individuals who have significantly disproportionate representation in the abnormal and normal groups. In this paper, we propose a new classifier namely ORPSW (Optimal Risk and Preventive Sets with Weights) to classify gene expression data based on optimal risk and preventive patterns. The proposed method has been tested on four bench-mark gene expression data sets to compare with three state-of-...

Lei Ma; Jianfeng He; Junpeng Zhang; Jiuyong Li

2011-01-01

27

From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 2 decades, progress in deciphering the human gene map as well as the discovery of specific defective genes encoding particular proteins in some serious human diseases have resulted in attempts to treat sick patients with gene therapy. There has been considerable focus on human recombinant proteins which were gene-engineered and produced in vitro (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, erythropoietin). Unfortunately, these substances and methods also became improper tools for unscrupulous athletes. Biomedical research has focused on the possible direct insertion of gene material into the body, in order to replace some defective genes in vivo and/or to promote long-lasting endogenous synthesis of deficient proteins. Theoretically, diabetes, anaemia, muscular dystrophies, immune deficiency, cardiovascular diseases and numerous other illnesses could benefit from such innovative biomedical research, though much work remains to be done. Considering recent findings linking specific genotypes and physical performance, it is tempting to submit the young athletic population to genetic screening or, alternatively, to artificial gene expression modulation. Much research is already being conducted in order to achieve a safe transfer of genetic material to humans. This is of critical importance since uncontrolled production of the specifically coded protein, with serious secondary adverse effects (polycythaemia, acute cardiovascular problems, cancer, etc.), could occur. Other unpredictable reactions (immunogenicity of vectors or DNA-vector complex, autoimmune anaemia, production of wild genetic material) also remain possible at the individual level. Some new substances (myostatin blockers or anti-myostatin antibodies), although not gene material, might represent a useful and well-tolerated treatment to prevent progression of muscular dystrophies. Similarly, other molecules, in the roles of gene or metabolic activators [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics). PMID:23832852

Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

2013-10-01

28

[Gene doping--current possibilities, risks and means of prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advances in gene therapy fears of an abuse in sports arise. The WADA's definition of the term strictly differentiates between gene doping and gene therapy. There are in vivo and ex vivo practices to manipulate the different phases of gene expression in the organism, with viral vectors being looked upon as the most efficient ones. IGF-1, PPAR?, MSTN and EPO play the most important roles in today's scientific research. Their potential was proven in various animal studies, showing a significant improvement of performances. Potential risks for human users include severe immune reactions, mutagenesis, and raised risk for cancer. Big efforts are being put into the development of ways of detection, however until now there are neither practicable methods of control nor any reported cases of manipulated humans. Still, a usage of gene doping that has already taken place cannot be ruled out and is highly likely. PMID:21400389

Pleger, N; Vitzthum, K; Schöffel, N; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

2011-03-01

29

Cardiovascular Risk Genes in Prevention and Treatment Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

GENERAL AIM: To investigate how common single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) could be used in prevention and treatment of CVD. SUBJECTS: Subjects from the population-based Malmö-Diet-and-Cancer-(MDC)-Study (n=30447) and hypertensives from the Nordic-Diltiazem-(NORDIL)-Study (n=10881). METHODS AND RESULTS: A nine-SNP-lipid-genetic-risk-score was related to fluvastatin treatment-response in 395 MDC subjects with as...

Hamrefors, Viktor

2014-01-01

30

Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention. PMID:24129759

Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

2014-01-01

31

Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Delicious Reddit StubmleUpon Print About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

32

ORPSW: a new classifier for gene expression data based on optimal risk and preventive patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimal risk and preventive patterns are itemsets which can identify characteristics of cohorts of individuals who have significantly disproportionate representation in the abnormal and normal groups. In this paper, we propose a new classifier namely ORPSW (Optimal Risk and Preventive Sets with Weights to classify gene expression data based on optimal risk and preventive patterns. The proposed method has been tested on four bench-mark gene expression data sets to compare with three state-of-the-art classifiers: C4.5, Naive Bayes and SVM. The experiments show that ORPSW classifier is more accurate than C4.5 and Naive Bayes classifiers in general, and is comparable with SVM classifier. Observing that accuracy is sensitive to the prior distribution of the class, we also used false positive rate (FPR and false negative rate (FNR, to better characterize the performance of classifiers. ORPSW classifier is also very good under this measure. It provides differentially expressed genes in different classes, which help better understand classification process.

Junpeng Zhang

2011-06-01

33

Molecular genetic, diagnosis, prevention and gene therapy in prostatic cancer: review article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.

Noori Daloii MR

2009-04-01

34

Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 ?g of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Results After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. Conclusions In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.

Singh Manpreet

2010-12-01

35

Neonatal thymulin gene therapy prevents ovarian dysgenesis and attenuates reproductive derangements in nude female mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70-71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:22700775

Reggiani, Paula C; Barbeito, Claudio G; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O; Cónsole, Gloria M; Flamini, Alicia M; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

2012-08-01

36

Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

2014-01-01

37

High-level gene cassette transcription prevents integrase expression in class 1 integrons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Class 1 integrons are widespread genetic elements responsible for dissemination of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Integrons allow bacteria to capture and express gene cassettes (GCs) via an integrase (IntI1) and a promoter (Pc) contained in the integron functional platform. GCs are transcribed from Pc, of which 13 variants of different strengths have been described, or, occasionally, from both Pc and a second promoter (P2). The intI1 promoter (PintI1) is repressed by LexA, which is the transcriptional repressor of the global regulatory SOS response network. Moreover, PintI1 lies face to face with Pc and overlaps P2, both configurations being propitious to transcriptional interference (TI). In this study, we analyzed possible transcriptional interference by quantifying transcripts produced from Pc, P2, and PintI1. We found that the Pc promoter interferes with the level of intI1 transcription but that this effect depends on the Pc variant: the strong Pc variant prevents intI1 expression, in contrast to the other variants. Although P2 formation results in LexA binding site disruption and thus prevents SOS regulation of intI1 expression, P2 does not interfere with PintI1. These findings reveal a tight relationship between GC and integrase expression. PMID:21856858

Guérin, Emilie; Jové, Thomas; Tabesse, Aurore; Mazel, Didier; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

2011-10-01

38

Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intramuscular (IM) administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency). However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope) caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (Nayak et al., 2009). This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX) in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion). Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10?BU within 1?month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to 4.5?months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200?ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg. PMID:22279442

Nayak, Sushrusha; Sarkar, Debalina; Perrin, George Q; Moghimi, Babak; Hoffman, Brad E; Zhou, Shangzhen; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W

2011-01-01

39

Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

T.S. Higa

2012-10-01

40

Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

Ramesh C. Gupta

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

RNA-directed gene editing specifically eradicates latent and prevents new HIV-1 infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIDS remains incurable due to the permanent integration of HIV-1 into the host genome, imparting risk of viral reactivation even after antiretroviral therapy. New strategies are needed to ablate the viral genome from latently infected cells, because current methods are too inefficient and prone to adverse off-target effects. To eliminate the integrated HIV-1 genome, we used the Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) system, in single and multiplex configurations. We identified highly specific targets within the HIV-1 LTR U3 region that were efficiently edited by Cas9/gRNA, inactivating viral gene expression and replication in latently infected microglial, promonocytic, and T cells. Cas9/gRNAs caused neither genotoxicity nor off-target editing to the host cells, and completely excised a 9,709-bp fragment of integrated proviral DNA that spanned from its 5' to 3' LTRs. Furthermore, the presence of multiplex gRNAs within Cas9-expressing cells prevented HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that Cas9/gRNA can be engineered to provide a specific, efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic approach against AIDS. PMID:25049410

Hu, Wenhui; Kaminski, Rafal; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yonggang; Cosentino, Laura; Li, Fang; Luo, Biao; Alvarez-Carbonell, David; Garcia-Mesa, Yoelvis; Karn, Jonathan; Mo, Xianming; Khalili, Kamel

2014-08-01

42

Monoclonal antibodies for migraine: preventing calcitonin gene-related peptide activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a well-studied neuropeptide of relevance for migraine pathophysiology. Jugular levels of CGRP are increased during migraine attacks, and intravenous CGRP administration induces migraine-like headache in most individuals with migraine. Several CGRP receptor antagonists (CGRP-RAs) were shown to be effective for the acute treatment of migraine, validating the target for the treatment of migraine. However, for a number of reasons, including issues of liver toxicity with chronic use, the development of CGRP-RAs has yet to produce a viable clinical therapeutic. Development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the CGRP pathway is an alternative approach that should avoid many of the issues seen with CGRP-RAs. The exquisite target specificity, prolonged half-lives, and reduced potential for hepatotoxicity and drug-drug interactions make mAbs suitable for the preventive treatment of migraine headaches. This manuscript provides an overview of the role of CGRP in the pathophysiology of migraine, followed by a review of the clinical development of CGRP-RAs. Some basic concepts on antibodies are then discussed along with the publicly disclosed information on the development of mAbs targeting the CGRP pathway. PMID:24638916

Bigal, Marcelo E; Walter, Sarah

2014-05-01

43

The muc+ gene of plasmid pKM101 prevents respiration shutoff in far ultraviolet-irradiated Salmonella typhimurium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasmid pKM101 is known to protect Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium against killing by far UV irradiation and to enhance UV-induced mutagenesis. The muc+ gene of the plasmid is responsible for both of these effects. This paper shows that respiration of S. typhimurium shuts off about an hour after UV irradiation and that pKM101 prevents the shutoff. Plasmids which contained Tn5 translocatable elements, either in (and having produced a muc mutation) or flanking the muc+ gene, have been introduced into S. typhimurium. The muc mutant plasmid, which does not protect its host against UV killing and does not enhance UV induced mutagenesis, also does not protect against UV induced respiration shutoff. Likewise, plasmids in which the Tn5 translocatable elements flank the muc+ gene protect against shutoff of respiration. Thus the muc+ gene of pKM101 is responsible for protection against UV induced shutoff of respiration in S. typhimurium. (orig.)

44

Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twelve weeks of daily L-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of L-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass andmuscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohyd...

Stephens, Francis B.; Wall, Benjamin T.; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E.; Constantin-teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A.; Greenhaff, Paul L.

2013-01-01

45

Gene-activation mechanisms in the regression of atherosclerosis, elimination of diabetes type 2, and prevention of dementia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia are major global health problems. Both endogenous and exogenous factors activate genes functioning in biological processes. This review article focuses on gene-activation mechanisms that regress atherosclerosis, eliminate DM type 2 (DM2), and prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Gene-activating compounds upregulating functions of liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and affecting lipid and protein metabolism, increase ER size through membrane synthesis, and produce an antiatherogenic plasma lipoprotein profile. Numerous gene-activators regress atherosclerosis and reduce the occurrence of atherosclerotic disease. The gene-activators increase glucose disposal rate and insulin sensitivity and, by restoring normal glucose and insulin levels, remove metabolic syndrome and DM2. Patients with DM2 show an improvement of plasma lipoprotein profile and glucose tolerance together with increase in liver phospholipid (PL) and cytochrome (CYP) P450. The gene-activating compounds induce hepatic protein and PL synthesis, and upregulate enzymes including CYPs and glucokinase, nuclear receptors, apolipoproteins and ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. They induce reparation of ER structures and eliminate consequences of ER stress. Healthy living habits activate mechanisms that maintain high levels of HDL and apolipoprotein AI, promote health, and prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Agonists of liver X receptor (LXR) reduce amyloid in brain plaques and improve cognitive performance in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. The gene activation increases the capacity to withstand cellular stress and to repair cellular damage and increases life span. Life free of major health problems and in good cognitive health promotes well-being and living a long and active life. PMID:21568932

Luoma, P V

2011-07-01

46

Differentiation and Phylogenetic Relationships in Mycobacterium spp with Special Reference to the RNase P RNA Gene rnpB.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rnpB gene encodes for the RNA subunit of the catalytic ribonuclease RNase P and is present in all bacteria and has both conserved and highly variable sequence regions. Determination of rnpB in 35 Mycobacterium spp. showed species specific sequences for all species except the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (four species). High sequence variation was seen in the P3, P15 and P19 regions of suggested secondary structures of the corresponding RNase P RNA molecules. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rnpB gave similar tree topologies as 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. A combined analysis of the three genes increased the number of nodes with significant support from 10 to 19. The results indicate that rnpB is useful for phylogenetic studies and is a possible target for identification and detection of Mycobacterium spp. PMID:24962595

Herrmann, Björn; Stolt, Pelle; Abdeldaim, Guma; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Kirsebom, Leif A; Thollesson, Mikael

2014-11-01

47

A genome-wide function of THSC/TREX-2 at active genes prevents transcription-replication collisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The THSC/TREX-2 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates the anchoring of transcribed genes to the nuclear pore, linking transcription elongation with mRNA export and genome stability, as shown for specific reporters. However, it is still unknown whether the function of TREX-2 is global and the reason for its relevant role in genome integrity. Here, by studying two TREX-2 representative subunits, Thp1 and Sac3, we show that TREX-2 has a genome-wide role in gene expression. Both proteins show similar distributions along the genome, with a gradient disposition at active genes that increases towards the 3' end. Thp1 and Sac3 have a relevant impact on the expression of long, G+C-rich and highly transcribed genes. Interestingly, replication impairment detected by the genome-wide accumulation of the replicative Rrm3 helicase is increased preferentially at highly expressed genes in the thp1? and sac3? mutants analyzed. Therefore, our work provides evidence of a function of TREX-2 at the genome-wide level and suggests a role for TREX-2 in preventing transcription-replication conflicts, as a source of genome instability derived from a defective messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) biogenesis. PMID:25294824

Santos-Pereira, José M; García-Rubio, María L; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Luna, Rosa; Aguilera, Andrés

2014-10-29

48

Elongin BC complex prevents degradation of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene causes the familial cancer syndrome, VHL disease, characterized by a predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other tumor types. Loss of VHL gene function also is found in a majority of sporadic renal carcinomas. A preponderance of the tumor-disposing inherited missense mutations detected in VHL disease are within the elongin-binding domain of VHL. This region mediates the formation of a multiprotein VHL complex containing el...

Schoenfeld, Alan R.; Davidowitz, Eliot J.; Burk, Robert D.

2000-01-01

49

Longevity genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans also mediate increased resistance to stress and prevent disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than 40 single-gene mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans have been demonstrated to lead to increased lifespan (a rigorous, operational test for being a gerontogene) of 20% or more; these are referred to collectively as 'Age' mutants. Age mutants must change key functions that are rate-limiting determinants of longevity; moreover, important genes can be identified independently of prior hypotheses as to actual mode of gene action in extending longevity and/or 'slowing' of ageing. These Age mutants define as many as nine (possibly) distinct pathways and/or modes of action, as defined by primary phenotype. Each of three well-studied mutants (age-1, clk-1, and spe-26) alters age-specific mortality rates in a fashion unique to itself. In age-1 mutants, the decreases in mortality rates are quite dramatic, with an almost tenfold drop in mortality throughout most of life. All Age mutants (so far without exception) increase the ability of the worm to respond to several (but not all) stresses, including heat, UV, and reactive oxidants. We have used directed strategies as well as random mutagenesis to identify novel genes that increase the worm's ability to resist stress. Two genes (daf-16 and old-1) are epistatic to the long-life phenotype of most mutants and also yield over-expression strains that are stress-resistant and long-lived. We have also used a variety of approaches to determine what transcriptional alterations are associated with increased longevity (and with ageing itself), including whole-genome expression studies using microarrays and GFP reporter constructs. We suggest that the role of the Age genes in both longevity and stress resistance indicates that a major evolutionary determinant of longevity is the ability to respond to stress. In mammals, both dietary restriction and hormesis are phenomena in which the endogenous level of resistance to stress has been upregulated; both of these interventions extend longevity, suggesting possible evolutionary conservation. PMID:12137228

Johnson, T E; Henderson, S; Murakami, S; de Castro, E; de Castro, S H; Cypser, J; Rikke, B; Tedesco, P; Link, C

2002-05-01

50

Preservation of graft-versus-infection effects after suicide gene therapy for prevention of graft-versus-host disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are graft-versus-host disease and poor immune reconstitution leading to severe infections. Mature donor T cells present in the transplant facilitate T cell reconstitution in adults, but also induce graft-versus-host disease, which itself impairs immune reconstitution. Thus, infusing a large number of donor T cells with a diverse repertoire should accelerate functional immune reconstitution after transplantation, only if graft-versus-host disease can be controlled. We previously demonstrated that preventive treatment with ganciclovir could control graft-versus-host disease in mice if donor T cells are made to express viral thymidine kinase as a "suicide" gene. Here we evaluated the recovery of functional antiviral immune responses in such mice. Irradiated mice received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with thymidine kinase-expressing T cells and were protected from graft-versus-host disease by ganciclovir treatment, and then challenged with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Grafted mice could mount efficient antilymphocytic choriomeningitis virus immune responses leading to viral elimination. Furthermore, when transplanted cells were obtained from mice previously immunized against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, grafted mice developed memory-type accelerated responses against the virus. We conclude that efficient graft-versus-infection effects can be mediated by naive T cells and memory donor T cells that persist after suicide gene therapy for prevention of graft-versus-host disease. PMID:11119419

Cohen, J L; Saron, M F; Boyer, O; Thomas-Vaslin, V; Bellier, B; Lejeune, L; Charlotte, F; Klatzmann, D

2000-12-10

51

Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

Suzana Makpol

2012-01-01

52

Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms o [...] f these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

Suzana, Makpol; Azalina, Zainuddin; Kien Hui, Chua; Yasmin Anum Mohd, Yusof; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

53

RNAi-mediated TCR Knockdown Prevents Autoimmunity in Mice Caused by Mixed TCR Dimers Following TCR Gene Transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified T cells that express a transduced T cell receptor (TCR) ?/? heterodimer in addition to their endogenous TCR are used in clinical studies to treat cancer. These cells express two TCR-? and two TCR-? chains that do not only compete for CD3 proteins but also form potentially self-reactive mixed TCR dimers, composed of endogenous and transferred chains. To overcome these deficits, we developed an RNAi-TCR replacement vector that simultaneously silences the endogenous TCR and expresses an RNAi-resistant TCR. Transduction of the virus-specific P14 TCR without RNAi resulted in unequal P14 TCR-? and -? chain surface levels, indicating heterodimerization with endogenous TCR chains. Such unequal expression was also observed following TCR gene optimization. Equal surface levels of the introduced TCR chains were however achieved by silencing the endogenous TCR. Importantly, all mice that received cells transduced with the native or optimized P14 TCR developed lethal TCR gene transfer-induced graft-versus-host-disease (TI-GVHD) due to formation of mixed TCR dimers. In contrast, TI-GVHD was almost completely prevented when using the RNAi-TCR replacement vector. Our data demonstrate that RNAi-assisted TCR replacement reduces the formation of mixed TCR dimers, and thereby significantly reduces the risk of TI-GVHD in TCR gene therapy. PMID:25048215

Bunse, Mario; Bendle, Gavin M; Linnemann, Carsten; Bies, Laura; Schulz, Stephan; Schumacher, Ton N; Uckert, Wolfgang

2014-11-01

54

Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained seden [...] tary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P

T.S., Higa; F.C., Bergamo; F., Mazzucatto; M.H., Fonseca-Alaniz; F.S., Evangelista.

2012-10-01

55

Gene flow in poplar - experiments, analysis and modeling to prevent transgene outcrossing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for energy and forestry products is globally increasing, raising the question if traditional breeding programs are efficient and fast enough to keep up with these demands. A possible solution seems to be the use of genetic engineering techniques, since classical breeding strategies are time-consuming and limited by species barriers. Besides the advantages of genetic engineering technologies, concerns are also raised by scientists regarding these methods. Consequently, risk analysis of genetic modified trees in plantation forestry is a fundamental research topic. This paper presents a sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modified poplars in realistic European landscapes. All steps are evaluated for their potential to forecast the risk of outcrossing of gene constructs into native po­pulations. The application of the results achieved to short rotation plantations are discussed.

Bialozyt R

2012-06-01

56

Elongin BC complex prevents degradation of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene products  

Science.gov (United States)

Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene causes the familial cancer syndrome, VHL disease, characterized by a predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other tumor types. Loss of VHL gene function also is found in a majority of sporadic renal carcinomas. A preponderance of the tumor-disposing inherited missense mutations detected in VHL disease are within the elongin-binding domain of VHL. This region mediates the formation of a multiprotein VHL complex containing elongin B, elongin C, cul-2, and Rbx1. This VHL complex is thought to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we report that VHL proteins harboring mutations which disrupt elongin binding are unstable and rapidly degraded by the proteasome. In contrast, wild-type VHL proteins are directly stabilized by associating with both elongins B and C. In addition, elongins B and C are stabilized through their interactions with each other and VHL. Thus, the entire VHL/elongin complex is resistant to proteasomal degradation. Because the elongin-binding domain of VHL is frequently mutated in cancers, these results suggest that loss of elongin binding causes tumorigenesis by compromising VHL protein stability and/or potential VHL ubiquitination functions. PMID:10900011

Schoenfeld, Alan R.; Davidowitz, Eliot J.; Burk, Robert D.

2000-01-01

57

Prevention and reversal of severe mitochondrial cardiomyopathy by gene therapy in a mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac failure is the most common cause of mortality in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a mitochondrial disease characterized by neurodegeneration, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and diabetes. FRDA is caused by reduced levels of frataxin (FXN), an essential mitochondrial protein involved in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, bioenergetics imbalance, deficit of Fe-S cluster enzymes and mitochondrial iron overload occur in the myocardium of individuals with FRDA. No treatment exists as yet for FRDA cardiomyopathy. A conditional mouse model with complete frataxin deletion in cardiac and skeletal muscle (Mck-Cre-Fxn(L3/L-) mice) recapitulates most features of FRDA cardiomyopathy, albeit with a more rapid and severe course. Here we show that adeno-associated virus rh10 vector expressing human FXN injected intravenously in these mice fully prevented the onset of cardiac disease. Moreover, later administration of the frataxin-expressing vector, after the onset of heart failure, was able to completely reverse the cardiomyopathy of these mice at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within a few days. Our results demonstrate that cardiomyocytes with severe energy failure and ultrastructure disorganization can be rapidly rescued and remodeled by gene therapy and establish the preclinical proof of concept for the potential of gene therapy in treating FRDA cardiomyopathy. PMID:24705334

Perdomini, Morgane; Belbellaa, Brahim; Monassier, Laurent; Reutenauer, Laurence; Messaddeq, Nadia; Cartier, Nathalie; Crystal, Ronald G; Aubourg, Patrick; Puccio, Hélène

2014-05-01

58

Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

2013-01-01

59

Neuroglobin gene therapy prevents optic atrophy and preserves durably visual function in Harlequin mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroglobin (NGB) is considered as an endogenous neuroprotective molecule against stroke, since the protein alleviates the adverse effects of hypoxic and ischemic insults. We previously demonstrated the functional link between NGB and mitochondria since it is required for respiratory chain function. Thus, here, we evaluated the relevance of this effect in the Harlequin (Hq) mouse strain, which exhibits retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic atrophy due to a respiratory chain complex I (CI) defect. A twofold decrease of NGB amounts was observed in Hq retinas. We constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus which combines to the mouse NGB open reading frame, its 5' and 3'UTR, for guarantying mRNA stability and translation capacity. The vector was administrated intravitreally to Hq mice and NGB expression was stable for up to 7 months without negative effect on retinal architecture or function. On the contrary, RGCs and their axons were substantially preserved from degeneration; consequently, CI activity in optic nerves was protected conferring improvements in vision. Hence, we established that NGB prevents respiratory chain impairment, therefore, protecting visual function otherwise compromised by mitochondrial energetic failure. PMID:24622090

Lechauve, Christophe; Augustin, Sébastien; Cwerman-Thibault, Hélène; Reboussin, Élodie; Roussel, Delphine; Lai-Kuen, René; Saubamea, Bruno; Sahel, José-Alain; Debeir, Thomas; Corral-Debrinski, Marisol

2014-06-01

60

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague–Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2. PMID:23923070

Gu, Qihua; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Qiong; Xia, Ying

2013-01-01

62

Local delivery of matrix metalloproteinase gene prevents the onset of renal sclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was undertaken to investigate whether matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) functions to prevent the occurrence of destructive fibrosis in progressive renal disease. As a sustained release carrier of plasmid DNA, biodegradable hydrogels and microspheres were formulated from cationized gelatin prepared through aminization. Plasmid DNA was released from the cationized gelatin hydrogels as a result of hydrogel degradation. A plasmid DNA including a cytomegalovirus promoter and human recombinant MMP-1 gene (pCMV-MMP) was constructed. Gelatin microspheres incorporating pCMV-MMP as well as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with or without pCMV-MMP were injected into the renal subcapsule of C57BL/6 mice, which were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes 7 days after operation. The mice were killed 4 weeks after STZ injection to sample their blood and kidneys for biochemical and histological examinations. An immunofluorescence study confirmed that MMP protein was expressed around the renal tissue injected with gelatin microspheres incorporating pCMV-MMP. When applied with cationized gelatin microspheres incorporating pCMV-MMP, the mice showed a level of blood urea nitrogen significantly lower than that of other groups. A reduced content of collagen in the kidneys of mice administered gelatin microspheres incorporating pCMV-MMP was histologically observed. Further, the hydroxyproline assay revealed a significantly decreased content of hydroxyproline in kidney. We conclude that sustained release of MMP-1 gene is a promising prophylactic trial for kidney fibrolysis and dysfunction in the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model. PMID:14674437

Aoyama, Teruyoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

2003-12-01

63

Prevention of gene erosion of old wheat varieties by back-crossing and X-ray irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The famous old Tisza riverside wheat varieties have several characteristics which are very valuable in modern plant breeding, the most important being their high protein content. The recently cultivated varieties contain 13-14%, whereas the old ones had 17-18% protein. Their winter hardiness and baking quality are also outstanding. Their preservation in the original form is very difficult. The fact that many thousand collected forms are sown in small plots (1-2m2) in the Agrobotanical Institute, Tapioszele, facilitates biological and man-caused accidental mixing. If the height of the old varieties is decreased and their stalk strength increased, varieties with high practical value are obtained. One way to breed dwarf varieties has been by back-crossing, as was done with Ble Tom, Norins, Oleson, etc. Another way has been by X-ray irradiation (10kR treatment for dry seeds). With this method a new homozygote dwarf (70-90cm) form of Bankuti 1201 was bred. The new mutant has almost all the characteristics of Bankuti 1201, but its stalk is shorter by 50-70cm than that of the original one. At the same time the disease resistance (stem rust and mildew) of the dwarf form is usually better than that of the old tall types. It seems that one of the most modern ways to prevent gene-erosion is through this type of ''transformation''. (author)

64

Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of liveation of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these in most developed countries is through a mixture of management and therapy. The former requires knowledge and considerable local understanding and the latter resources and supplies. Both of these are limited in the developing country situation, particularly in a rural setting. Given this complex of challenges, can gene-based technologies really make a difference to the management of livestock disease for the producer in developing countries? To be effective in the developing country situation, any intervention must be relatively simple, cost effective, sustainable and convincing. Can this be delivered? Perhaps an insight can be gained from an appreciation of the fundamental nature of gene-based technologies. Inherent in the approach is the recognition that the gene is the basic building block of biology. Management and manipulation of the gene therefore enables us to design and direct an endless array of precise solutions, whether this be designer livestock, genetically engineered biological products or genetically altered organisms. Without doubt, the availability of livestock resistant to disease, or at least one or two of the major diseases affecting livestock in a particular region, is a simple and applicable solution to the developing country situation. Attempts to understand the genetic basis of trypanotolerence are still on-going but if successful would enable livestock production in large areas of Africa currently restricted by the presence of trypanosomosis. Another example would be the demonstration of resistance to internal parasites by certain breeds of sheep. Locating the genetic basis of this could be revolutionary in the management of this particular disease risk. As work starts on sequencing both the bovine and the ovine genome, the future opportunities for designing livestock resistant or tolerant to a range of diseases looks highly promising. Looking at the causative agents of livestock disease, the ability to exquisitely alter these to better understand the way they cause disease is providing a fast tr

65

Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method. Venous blood t-PA and D-dimer contents were tested before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the operation.Results: The high expression of t-PA could be seen in myocardium with increases in blood t-PA and D-dimer contents and thrombosis was prevented 8 weeks after operation.Conclusion: We successfully fabricated an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent that could prevent dog thrombosis after mechanical heart valve replacement. Our study provides an experimental basis for prevention of human thrombosis-related diseases.Keywords: albumin nanoparticles, ultrasonic microbubbles, valve replacement

Ji J

2012-06-01

66

Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in gene expression of growth factors in two developmental stages of the female rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxytocin production and secretion is important for early development of the brain. Long-term consequences of manipulation of oxytocin system might include changes in markers of brain plasticity - cytoskeletal proteins and neurotrophins. The aim of the present study was (1) to determine whether neonatal oxytocin administration affects gene expression of nestin, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain of two developmental stages of rat and (2) to evaluate whether neonatal oxytocin administration protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Neonatal oxytocin did not prevent a decrease of body weight in the LPS treated animals. Oxytocin significantly increased gene expression of BDNF in the right hippocampus in 21-day and 2-month old rats of both sexes. Gene expression of NGF and MAP-2 significantly increased in males treated with oxytocin. Both, growth factors and intermediate filament-nestin mRNA levels, were reduced in females exposed to LPS. Oxytocin treatment prevented a decrease in the gene expression of only growth factors. In conclusion, neonatal manipulation of oxytocin has developmental and sex-dependent effect on markers of brain plasticity. These results also indicate, that oxytocin may be protective against inflammation particularly in females. PMID:25047873

Bakos, Jan; Lestanova, Zuzana; Strbak, Vladimir; Havranek, Tomas; Bacova, Zuzana

2014-10-01

67

Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked changes in the expression of genes regulating transcription and intracellular signaling may contribute to the time-dependent effects of nandrolone on gene expression.

Bauman William A

2010-10-01

68

SIRT1 prevents replicative senescence of normal human umbilical cord fibroblast through potentiating the transcription of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

SIRT1, the mammalian homolog of sirtuins, has emerged as a mediator of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. Among them, we focused on the SIRT1-induced prevention of cellular senescence, and tried to reveal the molecular mechanisms that define the effects of SIRT1. Firstly in this study, we observed that overexpression of SIRT1 resulted in the prevention of cellular senescence of normal human umbilical cord fibroblast HUC-F2 cells. Here, we focused on the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene as a target of the SIRT1-induced prevention of cellular senescence. Results showed that SIRT1, SIRT1 activator, resveratrol, and SIRT1 activating condition, starved condition, increased the transcription of hTERT in HUC-F2 cells. Next, we found that SIRT1 increased hTERT transcription in a c-MYC-dependent manner, triggered the transcription of the c-MYC gene and increased the amount of c-MYC recruited to the hTERT promoter. Further, SIRT1 increased the transcriptional activation ability of c-MYC and correspondingly increased the amount of acetylated H4 histone at the hTERT promoter. All of these results indicated that SIRT1 activates hTERT transcription through the involvement of c-MYC, and suggested that this SIRT1-induced augmentation of hTERT transcription resulted in the extension of the cellular life span of HUC-F2 cells. PMID:22197555

Yamashita, Shuntaro; Ogawa, Kaori; Ikei, Takahiro; Udono, Miyako; Fujiki, Tsukasa; Katakura, Yoshinori

2012-01-01

69

Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Excellence, Access

2005-03-12

70

Liposome-mediated transfer of IL-1 receptor antagonist gene to dispersed islet cells does not prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted NOD mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

IL-1beta is cytotoxic to pancreatic beta-cells in vitro but its role in the vicinity of beta-cells in vivo is unknown. We explored whether liposome-mediated transfer of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene to islet cells might prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mouse islet cells were transfected using liposome-mediated gene transfer with a human IL-1ra cDNA construct and transplanted two days later to prediabetic NOD mice. Graft infiltration and destruction were monitored three, five and eight days posttransplantation by histology and determination of insulin and cytokine content. IL-1ra gene transfer resulted in transient expression of IL-1ra protein in islet cells in vitro as assessed by ELISA and of IL-1ra mRNA in transplanted islets as revealed by RT-PCR. However, both control and IL-1ra transfected NOD grafts exhibited massive infiltration and loss of insulin-positive cells, paralleled by a decreased insulin content. Increased IL-1ra expression did not clearly affect other cytokine profiles (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-2), except for an increase of IL-10 on day eight. In conclusion, liposome-mediated IL-1ra gene transfer to mouse islet cells results in transient expression of IL-1ra which is, however, insufficient to confer resistance to destruction of grafted insulin-producing cells in the NOD mouse.

Saldeen, J; Sandler, S

2000-01-01

71

Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-? of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD) rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat) and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-?. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-? gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression. PMID:18986529

de Mattos, Ana Barbosa Marcondes; Pinto, Monica Jordao S; Oliveira, Cristiane; Biz, Carolina; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Oyama, Lila Missae

2008-01-01

72

Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-?-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-?B signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-?-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis.

Takao Kataoka

2011-11-01

73

The Arabidopsis DCP2 gene is required for proper mRNA turnover and prevents transgene silencing in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-transcriptional gene silencing often limits the over-expression of transgenes in transgenic plants. It involves RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE?6 (RDR6), which recognizes aberrant transcripts, such as inaccurately processed or uncapped mRNA, and triggers silencing of target transcripts. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant displaying increased transgene silencing (its1). Reduced accumulation of transgene mRNA in the its1 mutant background was accompanied by accumulation of transgene-specific siRNAs and was overcome by potyvirus infection. We therefore speculated that ITS1 is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing. Map-based cloning and subsequent complementation revealed that ITS1 encodes DECAPPING?2 (DCP2), which is crucial for decapping, a prerequisite for mRNA degradation. In agreement with the proposed function of DCP2, we found a reduced accumulation of uncapped mRNA in the its1 mutant. Furthermore, silencing in the its1 mutant was dependent on RDR6 function, suggesting that reduced decapping leads to accumulation of aberrant capped mRNA. Hence, we provide evidence for a class of aberrant mRNA that accumulates upon impaired mRNA decapping and triggers post-transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. As DCP2 knockouts cause post-embryo lethality, we isolated a hypomorphic dcp2 allele, providing insights into mRNA degradation and its interplay with post-transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:22639932

Thran, Moritz; Link, Katrin; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-11-01

74

Adenovirus-mediated p16 gene transfer prevents drug-induced cell death through G1 arrest in human glioma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of full-length p16 gene transfer by recombinant adenovirus on cell growth and on sensitivity to CDDP or ACNU chemotherapies. We developed a recombinant adenovirus expressing the full-length human p16 gene (AxCA-hp16) by the COS-TPC method. AxCA-hp16 was infected into the p16-null human glioma cell line, U251MG. AxCA-hp16 infection inhibited proliferation of U251MG cells. A proliferation assay employing MTT showed that AxCA-hp16 infection induced chemoresistance, preventing CDDP-induced cell death (11- to 15-fold) and ACNU-induced cell death (80- to 92-fold). In the absence of AxCA-hp16, cell death was induced with CDDP or ACNU at 3 to 5 days after treatment, as demonstrated by Trypan-blue exclusion. Flow-cytometric analysis showed that CDDP or ACNU arrested cells in the G2 phase on day 1 and that cells re-entered the cycle on day 3. However, the cells infected with AxCA-hp16 after CDDP or ACNU treatment showed G1 arrest on day 5 after re-entering the cycle from G2 arrest on day 3. The cells infected with AxCA-hp16 before CDDP or ACNU treatment showed G1 arrest over the 5 days after the infection. This study demonstrated that G1 arrest induced with p16-gene expression prevents ACNU- or CDDP-induced cell death. The cell death induced by ACNU and CDDP therefore appears to occur in the phase after the G1/S check point. PMID:9639393

Hama, S; Heike, Y; Naruse, I; Takahashi, M; Yoshioka, H; Arita, K; Kurisu, K; Goldman, C K; Curiel, D T; Saijo, N

1998-07-01

75

Suicide plus immune gene therapy prevents post-surgical local relapse and increases overall survival in an aggressive mouse melanoma setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an aggressive B16-F10 murine melanoma model, we evaluated the effectiveness and antitumor mechanisms triggered by a surgery adjuvant treatment that combined a local suicide gene therapy (SG) with a subcutaneous genetic vaccine (Vx) composed of B16-F10 cell extracts and lipoplexes carrying the genes of human interleukin-2 and murine granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Pre-surgical SG treatment, neither alone nor combined with Vx was able to slow down the fast evolution of this tumor. After surgery, both SG and SG + Vx treatments, significantly prevented (in 50% of mice) or delayed (in the remaining 50%) post-surgical recurrence, as well as significantly prolonged recurrence-free (SG and SG + Vx) and overall median survival (SG + Vx). The treatment induced the generation of a pseudocapsule wrapping and separating the tumor from surrounding host tissue. Both, SG and the subcutaneous Vx, induced this envelope that was absent in the control group. On the other hand, PET scan imaging of the SG + Vx group suggested the development of an effective systemic immunostimulation that enhanced (18)FDG accrual in the thymus, spleen and vertebral column. When combined with surgery, direct intralesional injection of suicide gene plus distal subcutaneous genetic vaccine displayed efficacy and systemic antitumor immune response without host toxicity. This suggests the potential value of the assayed approach for clinical purposes. PMID:24973616

Villaverde, Marcela S; Combe, Kristell; Duchene, Adriana G; Wei, Ming X; Glikin, Gerardo C; Finocchiaro, Liliana M E

2014-09-01

76

Naturally occurring point mutation in the C terminus of the polymerase gene prevents duck hepatitis B virus RNA packaging.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) genome cloned from a domestic duck from the People's Republic of China has been sequenced and exhibits no variation in sequences known to be important in viral replication or generation of gene products. Intrahepatic transfection of a dimer of this viral genome into ducklings did not result in viremia or any sign of virus infection, indicating that the genome was defective. Functional analysis of this mutant genome, performed by transfecting the DNA into a chic...

1992-01-01

77

Folic acid supplementation prevents the changes in hepatic promoter methylation status and gene expression in intrauterine growth-retarded piglets during early weaning period.  

Science.gov (United States)

During intrauterine life, genome interacts with maternal signals to influence the mRNA expression levels of specific genes persistently by regulating DNA methylation status. The objective of this study was to examine the responses of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma (PPAR? and PPAR?) promoter methylation, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and metabolite concentrations of intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) piglets to dietary folic acid supplementation. According to a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement, 16 IUGR and 16 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 5?mg/kg of folic acid from weaning (day 14) to day 35 of age. Triglycerides in hepatic tissue and plasma were significantly elevated in control diets-fed IUGR piglets compared with NBW piglets but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of GR, PPAR?, PPAR?, fatty acid synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in IUGR piglets fed a control diet were significantly higher than that in NBW piglets, and promoter methylation status of GR, PPAR? and PPAR? in IUGR piglets was reduced significantly compared with NBW piglets. However, the changes in gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR piglets were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Hepatic DNA methyltransferase activity was greater with dietary folic acid supplementation regardless of birth weight. Taken together, these results demonstrated that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could prevent the changes of promoter methylation status and gene expressions in the liver of IUGR piglets. PMID:22853634

Jing-Bo, L; Ying, Y; Bing, Y; Xiang-Bing, M; Zhi-Qing, H; Guo-Quan, H; Hong, C; Dai-Wen, C

2012-08-01

78

Poison Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Children > Safety & Prevention > All Around > Poison Prevention Safety & Prevention Listen Poison Prevention Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1- ... Aid for Families (PedFACTs) Allergies and Asthma Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ...

79

MTERF1 binds mtDNA to prevent transcriptional interference at the light-strand promoter but is dispensable for rRNA gene transcription regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1, MTERF1, has been reported to couple rRNA gene transcription initiation with termination and is therefore thought to be a key regulator of mammalian mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis. The prevailing model is based on a series of observations published over the last two decades, but no in vivo evidence exists to show that MTERF1 regulates transcription of the heavy-strand region of mtDNA containing the rRNA genes. Here, we demonstrate that knockout of Mterf1 in mice has no effect on mitochondrial rRNA levels or mitochondrial translation. Instead, loss of Mterf1 influences transcription initiation at the light-strand promoter, resulting in a decrease of de novo transcription manifested as reduced 7S RNA levels. Based on these observations, we suggest that MTERF1 does not regulate heavy-strand transcription, but rather acts to block transcription on the opposite strand of mtDNA to prevent transcription interference at the light-strand promoter. PMID:23562081

Terzioglu, Mügen; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Harmel, Julia; Mourier, Arnaud; Jemt, Elisabeth; López, Marcela Dávila; Kukat, Christian; Stewart, James B; Wibom, Rolf; Meharg, Caroline; Habermann, Bianca; Falkenberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Claes M; Park, Chan Bae; Larsson, Nils-Göran

2013-04-01

80

Recombinant vaccinia virus K3L gene product prevents activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent, initiation factor 2 alpha-specific protein kinase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deletion of the vaccinia virus K3L gene, a homologue of the alpha subunit of protein synthesis initiation factor 2, has been reported to reduce the ability of the virus to grow in interferon-treated cells (Beattie, E., Tattaglia, J., and Paoletti, E. (1991) Virology 183, 419-422). Purified recombinant K3L gene product, pK3r, has potent effects on activation of double-stranded (ds) RNA-dependent, initiation factor-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha)-specific protein kinase (PKR) in in vitro reactions. Recombinant pK3 prevents the inhibition of protein synthesis by dsRNA in a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes at levels equal to, or lower than, the level of endogenous eIF-2 alpha. In the cell-free translation system, pK3r exerts its effects at all dsRNA concentrations tested, by preventing phosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha. In addition, pK3r reduces the autophosphorylation of immunopurified PKR, as well as its ability to phosphorylate the alpha subunit of purified eIF-2. At 400 mM NaCl, in vitro translated [35S]methionine-radiolabeled pK3 can be co-immunoprecipitated with human PKR, using a monoclonal antibody to PKR. This tight binding is consistent with a role for pK3 as a pseudosubstrate for the kinase, and identifies the amino-terminal 30% of eIF-2 alpha as the domain recognized by the eIF-2 alpha-specific protein kinases. In addition, the tight binding opens up the possibility of using binding assays to identify functional domains within the kinase and pK3. Recombinant pK3 also prevents activation of the heme-sensitive eIF-2 alpha-specific protein kinase, eIF-2 alpha-PKh, in both cell-free translation systems as well as in partially purified preparations. This suggests some similarity between the eIF-2 alpha binding domains of the two eIF-2 alpha specific protein kinases. PMID:8099586

Carroll, K; Elroy-Stein, O; Moss, B; Jagus, R

1993-06-15

 
 
 
 
81

Inactivation of the rhlA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevents rhamnolipid production, disabling the protection against polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Many of the virulence factors produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are quorum-sensing (QS) regulated. Among these are rhamnolipids, which have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, e.g. monocyte-derived macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We have previously shown that rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa cause necrotic death of PMNs in vitro. This raises the possibility that rhamnolipids may function as a 'biofilm shield' in vivo, which contributes significantly to the increased tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms to PMNs. In the present study, we demonstrate the importance of the production of rhamnolipids in the establishment and persistence of P. aeruginosa infections, using an in vitro biofilm system, an intraperitoneal foreign-body model and a pulmonary model of P. aeruginosa infections in mice. Our experimental data showed that a P. aeruginosa strain, unable to produce any detectable rhamnolipids due to an inactivating mutation in the single QS-controlled rhlA gene, did not induce necrosis of PMNs in vitro and exhibited increased clearance compared with its wild-type counterpart in vivo. Conclusively, the results support our model that rhamnolipids are key protective agents of P. aeruginosa against PMNs.

van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise Dahl

2009-01-01

82

Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed.lanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries to provide the 'field' genetic resource (endemic disease situation) in order to devise and test vaccines developed through molecular studies. Development of technologies cannot be divorced from an understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases found in developing countries. This is frequently not undertaken due to the many competing demands on the scarce resources available. However, increased livestock trade possibilities may provide the focus and catalyst needed to ensure that animal health science is applied appropriately and usefully for the benefit of developing countries. (author)

83

Salmonella Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Administration (FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Prevention Quick Tips for Preventing Salmonella Cook poultry, ground ... salmonellosis and many other health problems. More About Prevention There is no vaccine to prevent salmonellosis. Because ...

84

Anthrax: Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page: About CDC.gov . Anthrax Share Compartir Prevention Antibiotics Antibiotics can prevent anthrax from developing in ... patients with anthrax: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Panel Meetings on Prevention and Treatment of ...

85

Prevention of diet-induced obesity by apple polyphenols in Wistar rats through regulation of adipocyte gene expression and DNA methylation patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the mechanisms implicated in the beneficial effects of apple polyphenols (APs) against diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats, described in a previous study from our group. Supplementation of high-fat sucrose diet with AP prevented adiposity increase by inhibition of adipocyte hypertrophy. Rats supplemented with AP exhibited improved glucose tolerance while adipocytes isolated from these rats showed an enhanced lipolytic response to isoproterenol. AP intake led to reduced Lep, Plin, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) mRNA levels and increased aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (Aebp1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a) mRNA levels in epididymal adipocytes. In addition, we found different methylation patterns of Aqp7, Lep, Ppargc1a, and Srebf1 promoters in adipocytes from apple-supplemented rats compared to high-fat sucrose fed rats. The administration of AP protects against body weight gain and fat deposition and improves glucose tolerance in rats. We propose that AP exerts the antiobesity effects through the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation, in a process that could be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23529981

Boqué, Noemi; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; Olivares, Mónica; Bañuelos, Oscar; Soria, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Martínez, José Alfredo; Campión, Javier

2013-08-01

86

Energy restriction prevents the development of type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats : coordinated patterns of gene expression for energy metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues and pancreatic islets determined by oligonucleotide microarray analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Energy restriction (ER) causes metabolic improvement in the prediabetic and diabetic state. Little information exists on the mechanism of action of ER, for example, on the changes at the transcriptional gene level in insulin-sensitive tissues. To gain further insight, we have investigated changes in gene expressions in skeletal muscle, liver, fat, and pancreatic islets after ER in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Eighteen Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided at the age of 7 weeks into a control group (ad libitum diet) and an ER group (30% ER compared with the control group). Blood glucose, weight, and food intake were measured weekly. After 5 weeks, blood samples, and skeletal muscle, liver, visceral fat (epididymal fat pads), and islets tissue were collected. Gene expression was quantified with high-density oligonucleotide, microarray GeneChip technology. ER ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia, increased the levels of plasma insulin, and reduced plasma total cholesterol and the glucagon-insulin ratio (P <.05). In skeletal muscle, the expression of 55 genes increased and 245 decreased involving genes related to glucose metabolism (eg, phosphorylase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4), lipid metabolism (eg, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid transporter), and signaling pathways (eg, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C). In the liver, the expression of 123 genes increased and 103 decreased involving genes related primarily to lipid metabolism. In pancreatic islets, the expression of 110 genes increased and that of 127 decreased, whereas in visceral fat, the expression of 279 genes increased and that of 528 decreased. ER counteracts the development of diabetes and causes changes in the expression of multiple genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreatic islets, which may play an important role for the prevention of diabetes.

Colombo, Michele; Kruhoeffer, Mogens

2006-01-01

87

Indole-3-carbinol prevents diet-induced obesity through modulation of multiple genes related to adipogenesis, thermogenesis or inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue of mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a compound found in high concentrations in Brassica family vegetables, including broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage, and is regarded as a promising chemopreventive agent against various cancers. This study assesses the protective effect of I3C against diet-induced obesity in mice. Mice were randomly grouped to receive either a normal diet, high-fat (40% energy as fat) diet (HFD) or I3C-supplemented diet (1 g/kg diet) for 10 weeks. I3C supplementation significantly ameliorated HFD-induced increases in body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights and plasma lipid levels. The visceral adipose tissue mRNA levels of uncoupling proteins 1 and 3, crucial factors of thermogenesis, and their regulators such as sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and PPAR? coactivator 1?, which were down-regulated by HFD, were normalized by supplementation with I3C. In contrast, I3C supplementation significantly decreased expression levels of a key adipogenic transcription factor, PPAR?2, and its target genes, such as leptin and adipocyte protein 2, in the visceral adipose tissue of mice maintained on the HFD. Furthermore, HFD-induced up-regulation in mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, interferon ? and interleukin 6) was significantly ameliorated by I3C. These findings suggest that I3C has a potential benefit in preventing obesity and metabolic disorders, and the action for I3C in vivo may involve multiple mechanisms including decreased adipogenesis and inflammation, along with activated thermogenesis. PMID:22569347

Choi, Youngshim; Kim, Yunjung; Park, Soyoung; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Taesun

2012-12-01

88

Dengue Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Dengue Homepage Share Compartir Prevention This photograph shows a mother applying mosquito repellent ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

89

HPV Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Share Compartir Prevention How can people prevent HPV? There are several ... updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC- ...

90

Plague Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... and consensus statement CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response Prevention Reduce rodent habitat around your home, work place, ... page Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Bacterial Diseases Branch Foothills Campus Fort Collins, CO ...

91

Drowning Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Drowning Prevention Health Issues Listen Drowning Prevention Article Body Drowning is a leading cause ... nonfatal drowning. What You Should Do in a Drowning Emergency Get your child out of the water ...

92

Common Variants in 40 Genes Assessed for Diabetes Incidence and Response to Metformin and Lifestyle Intervention in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have begun to elucidate the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through targeted complementary approaches affect diabetes incidence in the at-risk population of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and whether they influence a response to preventive interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected SNPs identified by prior genome-wide association studies for type 2 di...

Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Mcateer, Jarred B.; Franks, Paul W.; Pollin, Toni I.; Hanson, Robert L.; Fowler, Sarah; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Knowler, William C.; Bakker, Paul I. Wen; Saxena, Richa; Altshuler, David Matthew; Florez, Jose Carlos

2010-01-01

93

Genomic structure and chromosome location of the human mutT homologue gene MTH1 encoding 8-oxo-dGTPase for prevention of A:T to C:G transversion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

8-Oxo-dGTP (8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanosine triphosphate) is produced by active oxygen species in the nucleotide pool of the cell and can be incorporated into cellular DNA. Human cells contain enzyme activity that hydrolyzes 8-oxo-dGMP to 8-oxo-dGMP, thereby preventing occurrence of mutations, caused by misincorporation. When the cDNA for human 8-oxo-dGTPase was expressed in Escherichia coli mutT{sup {minus}} mutant cells devoid of self 8-oxo-dGTPase activity, the elevated level of spontaneous A:T to C:G mutation frequency reverted to normal. We isolated the genomic sequence encoding the enzyme and named the gene MTH1 (for mutT human homologue). This gene is composed of at least 4 exons, spans approximately 9 kb, and is located on human chromosome 7p22. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Furuichi, Masato; Oda, Hisanobu; Tajiri, Tatsurou [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

1994-12-01

94

Long Term Effect of Curcumin in Regulation of Glycolytic Pathway and Angiogenesis via Modulation of Stress Activated Genes in Prevention of Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress, an important factor in modulation of glycolytic pathway and induction of stress activated genes, is further augmented due to reduced antioxidant defense system, which promotes cancer progression via inducing angiogenesis. Curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive phytochemical, is reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in various experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanism involved in anticarcinogenic action of curcumin due to its long term effect is still to be reported because of its rapid metabolism, although metabolites are accumulated in tissues and remain for a longer time. Therefore, the long term effect of curcumin needs thorough investigation. The present study aimed to analyze the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in liver, even after withdrawal of treatment in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. Oxidative stress observed during lymphoma progression reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, and induced angiogenesis as well as activation of early stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway. Curcumin treatment resulted in activation of antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase and down regulation of ROS level as well as activity of ROS producing enzyme NADPH:oxidase, expression of stress activated genes HIF-1?, cMyc and LDH activity towards normal level. Further, it lead to significant inhibition of angiogenesis, observed via MMPs activity, PKC? and VEGF level, as well as by matrigel plug assay. Thus findings of this study conclude that the long term effect of curcumin shows anticarcinogenic potential via induction of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of angiogenesis via down regulation of stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway in liver of lymphoma bearing mice. PMID:24932681

Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

2014-01-01

95

Preventative Maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

Migliorino, James

96

HIV Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... the relationship. Can I take medicines to prevent HIV after exposure? Yes. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is medicine that can prevent HIV after ... think they have had a possible exposure to HIV. Starting medicine immediately (known as post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP) and taking it daily for 4 ...

97

HIV Prevention  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâ??s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

2012-02-01

98

All-trans retinoic acid stimulates gene expression of the cardioprotective natriuretic peptide system and prevents fibrosis and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of obese ob/ob mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 ?g of ATRA dissolved in 100 ?L of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (?2 ?g·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice. PMID:25017112

Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta

2014-10-01

99

Self-complementary AAV-mediated gene therapy restores cone function and prevents cone degeneration in two models of Rpe65 deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

To test whether fast-acting, self-complimentary (sc), adeno-associated virus-mediated RPE65 expression prevents cone degeneration and/or restores cone function, we studied two mouse lines: the Rpe65-deficient rd12 mouse and the Rpe65-deficient, rhodopsin null ('that is, cone function-only') Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) mouse. scAAV5 expressing RPE65 was injected subretinally into one eye of rd12 and Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) mice at postnatal day 14 (P14). Contralateral rd12 eyes were injected later, at P35. Rd12 behavioral testing revealed that rod vision loss was prevented with either P14 or P35 treatment, whereas cone vision was only detected after P14 treatment. Consistent with this observation, P35 treatment only restored rod electroretinogram (ERG) signals, a result likely due to reduced cone densities at this time point. For Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) mice in which there is no confounding rod contribution to the ERG signal, cone cells and cone-mediated ERGs were also maintained with treatment at P14. This work establishes that a self-complimentary AAV5 vector can restore substantial visual function in two genetically distinct models of Rpe65 deficiency within 4 days of treatment. In addition, this therapy prevents cone degeneration but only if administered before extensive cone degeneration, thus supporting continuation of current Leber's congenital amaurosis-2 clinical trials with an added emphasis on cone subtype analysis and early intervention. PMID:20237510

Pang, J; Boye, S E; Lei, B; Boye, S L; Everhart, D; Ryals, R; Umino, Y; Rohrer, B; Alexander, J; Li, J; Dai, X; Li, Q; Chang, B; Barlow, R; Hauswirth, W W

2010-07-01

100

Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nandini Venkateswaran,1 Gabrielle Yeaney,2 Mina Chung,3,4 Holly B Hindman3,41University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3Flaum Eye Institute, 4Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USAObjective: To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient.Results: A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65 gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests.Conclusion: Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish between nontuberculous species reliably. We recommend the use of PCR in conjunction with sequencing of the hsp65 gene for reliable differentiation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus in atypical mycobacterial ocular infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility tests on cultured strains are the best guide to antibiotic selection, given the rapidly rising resistance to antimicrobials in atypical mycobacterial species.Keywords: atypical mycobacteria, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, hsp65, Mycobacterium chelonae, neurotrophic keratopathy, visual outcome

Venkateswaran N

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Cadmium-induced disruption in 24-h expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus. Prevention by melatonin.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH. To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age received CdCl2 (5 ppm and melatonin (3 ?g/mL or vehicle (0.015 % ethanol in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at 6 time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1 or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2 by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GSR and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1 and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression.

DanielPCardinali

2011-03-01

102

Octyl Methoxycinnamate Modulates Gene Expression and Prevents Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Formation but not Oxidative DNA Damage in UV-Exposed Human Cell Lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most widely used sunscreen ingredients. To analyze biological effects of OMC, an in vitro approach was used implying ultraviolet (UV) exposure of two human cell lines, a primary skin fibroblast (GM00498) and a breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. End points include cell viability assessment, assay of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and oxidated DNA lesions using alkaline elution and lesion-specific enzymes, and gene expression analysis of a panel o...

Duale, Nur; Olsen, Ann-karin; Christensen, Terje; Butt, Shamas T.; Brunborg, Gunnar

2010-01-01

103

Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65. With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusive. Novel PRA-hsp65 patterns were observed with 11 isolates. Medical data were evaluated for inference of clinical relevance of these isolates.Micobactérias não-tuberculosas isoladas no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso do Sul em 2003 e 2004 foram identificadas usando métodos fenotípicos convencionais (TI e PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA tendo o gene hsp65 como alvo (PRA-hsp65. Em 15 dos 32 isolados analisados os resultados obtidos com ambos métodos foram concordantes, sendo 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum e 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI de 12 isolados não foi conclusiva. Perfis não descritos de PRA-hsp65 foram observados com 11 isolados. Dados dos prontuários médicos foram avaliados para inferir a relevância clínica dos isolados.

Paulo Ricardo de Souza Moraes

2008-06-01

104

Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance / Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Micobactérias não-tuberculosas isoladas no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso do Sul em 2003 e 2004 foram identificadas usando métodos fenotípicos convencionais (TI) e PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) tendo o gene hsp65 como alvo (PRA-hsp65). Em 15 dos 32 isolados analisados os [...] resultados obtidos com ambos métodos foram concordantes, sendo 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum e 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI de 12 isolados não foi conclusiva. Perfis não descritos de PRA-hsp65 foram observados com 11 isolados. Dados dos prontuários médicos foram avaliados para inferir a relevância clínica dos isolados. Abstract in english Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI) and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65). With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, [...] results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusive. Novel PRA-hsp65 patterns were observed with 11 isolates. Medical data were evaluated for inference of clinical relevance of these isolates.

Paulo Ricardo de Souza, Moraes; Erica, Chimara; Maria Alice da Silva, Telles; Suely Yoko Misuka, Ueki; Eunice Atsuko Totumi, Cunha; Michael Robin, Honer; Sylvia Cardoso, Leão.

2008-06-01

105

Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance / Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Micobactérias não-tuberculosas isoladas no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso do Sul em 2003 e 2004 foram identificadas usando métodos fenotípicos convencionais (TI) e PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) tendo o gene hsp65 como alvo (PRA-hsp65). Em 15 dos 32 isolados analisados os [...] resultados obtidos com ambos métodos foram concordantes, sendo 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum e 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI de 12 isolados não foi conclusiva. Perfis não descritos de PRA-hsp65 foram observados com 11 isolados. Dados dos prontuários médicos foram avaliados para inferir a relevância clínica dos isolados. Abstract in english Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI) and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65). With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, [...] results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusive. Novel PRA-hsp65 patterns were observed with 11 isolates. Medical data were evaluated for inference of clinical relevance of these isolates.

Paulo Ricardo de Souza, Moraes; Erica, Chimara; Maria Alice da Silva, Telles; Suely Yoko Misuka, Ueki; Eunice Atsuko Totumi, Cunha; Michael Robin, Honer; Sylvia Cardoso, Leão.

106

Choking Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Small hair bows, barrettes, rubber bands Pen or marker caps Small button-type batteries Refrigerator magnets Pieces ... Sick! Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine Preventable Diseases Privacy Policy Terms of Use Sponsor ...

107

Preventive analgesia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still an attractive working hypothesis but with inconclusive results. A plea for better design of clinical studies is forwarded.

Dahl, JØrgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

2011-01-01

108

Z-360, a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, prevents up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and phosphorylation of NR2B via suppression of interleukin-1 ? production in a cancer-induced pain model in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Z-360 is an orally active cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2/gastrin receptor antagonist currently under development as a therapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. It was previously reported that Z-360 treatment in combination with gemcitabine prolonged the survival period in a lethal pancreatic cancer xenograft model in mice. In a phase Ib/IIa clinical study, Z-360 treatment displayed a trend of reduced pain in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine including analgesics such as opioids. Here, we investigated the mechanism of analgesic action of Z-360 in a severe cancer-induced pain model in mice, which is considered to be opioid-resistant, by examining ephrin B1 gene expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit phosphorylation, and interleukin-1? (IL-1? production. Results In a mouse model of cancer-induced pain, ephrin B1 gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and the phosphorylation of NR2B in the spinal cord were induced. Z-360 treatment inhibited both ephrin B1 gene expression and the phosphorylation of NR2B. In addition, IL-1? production increased in the cancer-inoculated hind paw of mice, but could be suppressed by treatment with Z-360. Moreover, we observed that the CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide similarly suppressed up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and IL-1? production, and that the intraperitoneal injection of sulfated CCK-8 induced the production of IL-1? in the cancer-inoculated region. Conclusions We have identified a novel pain cascade, in which IL-1? production in cancer-inoculated regions induces ephrin B1 gene expression in DRGs and then ephrin B1 enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B via Eph B receptor in the spinal cord. Notably, Z-360 relieves cancer-induced pain by preventing this pain cascade through the suppression of IL-1? production, likely via the blockade of CCK1 receptor. The pre-clinical results presented here support the analgesic action of Z-360 in pancreatic cancer patients with severe, opioid-resistant pain. Pre-clinical and clinical results have demonstrated that Z-360 combined with gemcitabine represents a promising pancreatic cancer therapy approach with characteristic analgesic effects in addition to the prolongation of survival.

Hori Yuko

2010-10-01

109

Ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through down-regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenolic compounds and flavonoids ameliorate bodyweight, blood glucose, and serum lipid profile. Since seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known as a rich source of isoflavones and flavonoids, we hypothesized that ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) may have anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of SL, 32 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups, containing 8 mice in each group: normal diet group; high-fat diet (HD) control group; high-fat diet with SL extract, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) (SL1) group; and high-fat diet with SL extract, 1000 mg/kg BW (SL2) group. After 13 weeks, it was observed that oral administration of SL extract significantly reduced the energy intake; BW gain; epididymal fat pad weight; hepatic triglyceride, hepatic, and serum total cholesterol levels; and serum leptin levels in the SL groups compared to the HD group. However, differences in serum triglyceride and insulin levels in the SL groups were not significant in comparison to the HD group. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 along with PPAR-? were significantly increased in SL groups, whereas the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in SL groups compared to HD group. Our results indicated that SL is effective in preventing BW gain and fat accumulation in the liver; it also reduced adipose tissue mass, hepatic lipid profile, and serum leptin level in the mouse. Together, these observations suggest that SL is a potential agent to study in the management of obesity and related disorders. PMID:23176796

Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Moon, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Moon, Yeon-Jeong; Cha, Youn-Soo

2012-11-01

110

Enhanced endoplasmic reticulum SERCA activity by overexpression of hepatic stimulator substance gene prevents hepatic cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear, increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may link free fatty acids to NAFLD. Since we previously reported that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) could protect the liver from steatosis, this study is aimed to investigate whether HSS protection could be related with its inhibition on ER stress. The HSS gene was stably transfected into BEL-7402 hepatoma cells and effectively expressed in ER. The palmitic acid (PA)-induced heptocyte lipotoxicity was reproduced in the HSS-transfected cells, and HSS alleviation of the ER stress and apoptosis were subsequently examined. The results showed that PA treatment led to a heavy accumulation of fatty acids within the cells and a remarkable increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, in the HSS-expressing cells, production of ROS was inhibited and ER stress-related marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP-78), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), anti-phospho-PRK-1ike ER kinase (p-PERK), anti-phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (p-eIF2?), and anti-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were downregulated compared with the wild-type or mutant HSS-transfected cells. Furthermore, PA treatment severely impaired the activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), leading to imbalanced calcium homeostasis during ER stress, which could be rescued in the HSS-trasfected cells. The protection provided by HSS to the SERCA is identical to that observed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS), which are two typical free radical scavengers. As a consequence, the rate of ER stress-mediated apoptosis in the HSS-expressing cells was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the protective effect of HSS against ER stress may be associated with the removal of ROS to restore the activity of the SERCA. PMID:24284796

Zhang, Jing; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Shujun; Yu, Hao; An, Wei

2014-02-01

111

Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

Eriksson Johan G

2011-09-01

112

PREVENTIVE PANCHAKARMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Everyone strive for quality life rather just number of years without good health. Lifestyle has contributed a lot in the manifestation and exacerbation of different disorders. Ayurveda has rightly emphasized that health is not only the state of not having disease but, it is the state of normalcy of Dosha, Dathu, Agni and Malakriya. Ayurveda also gives utmost importance for prevention. Dosha will get provoked daily and seasonally when ever favorable condition arises. Whenever an individual indulge in Ahara and Vihara which provoke a particular Dosha in its aggravated stage, may produce respective disorders. So, Panchakarma becomes mandatory choice in order to eliminate the same and maintain the healthy status. Rasayana and Vajikarana Drugs also play an incredible role in prevention of disease prior administration of which Shodhana is obligatory. Benefits of Shodhana and Rasayana -Vajikarana are almost similar. Moreover, effect of Rasayana and Vajikarana Dravya are enhanced if performed after Shodhana.

Girish KJ

2013-06-01

113

Skin Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... may help prevent death from melanoma. Skin Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

114

Roles in Suicide Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide Prevention Basics About Suicide About Suicide Prevention About Surviving Suicide Loss Roles in Suicide Prevention National Organizations and ... Basics » Roles in Suicide Prevention Roles in Suicide Prevention Customized Information Sheets Does your job bring you ...

115

Prevent Bite Wounds  

Science.gov (United States)

... Conditions > Prevention > Prevent Bite Wounds Health Issues Listen Prevent Bite Wounds Article Body Each year, many parents ... bite Swollen glands that occur above the bite Prevention of Bites and Infections To prevent bites and ...

116

Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Terameprocol inhibits the NF-?B-dependent transcription of TNF-? and MCP-1/CCL2 genes by preventing RelA from binding its cognate sites on DNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid, also known as terameprocol (TMP, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the resin of the creosote bush. We have shown previously that TMP will suppress production of certain inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids from macrophages following stimulation with LPS or infection with H1N1 influenza virus. In this study our goal was to elucidate the mechanism underlying TMP-mediated suppression of cytokine and chemokine production. We focused our investigations on the response to LPS and the NF-?B protein RelA, a transcription factor whose activity is critical to LPS-responsiveness. Methods Reporter assays were performed with HEK293 cells overexpressing either TLR-3, -4, or -8 and a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of an NF-?B response element. Cells were then treated with LPS, poly(I:C, or resiquimod, and/or TMP, and lysates measured for luciferase activity. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were used in ChIP and EMSA assays. For ChIP assays, chromatin was prepared and complexes precipitated with anti-NF-?B RelA Ab. Cross-links were reversed, DNA purified, and sequence abundance determined by Q-PCR. For EMSA assays, nuclear extracts were incubated with radiolabeled probes, analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE and visualized by autoradiography. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were also used in fluorescence microscopy and western blot experiments. Translocation experiments were performed using a primary Ab to NF-?B RelA and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary Ab. Western blots were performed using Abs to I?B-? and phospho-I?B-?. Bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Results In reporter assays with TLR-3, -4, and -8 over-expressing cells, TMP caused strong inhibition of NF-?B-dependent transcription. ChIP assays showed TMP caused virtually complete inhibition of RelA binding in vivo to promoters for the genes for TNF-?, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 although the LPS-dependent synthesis of I?B-? was not inhibited. EMSA assays did not reveal an effect of TMP on the binding of RelA to naked DNA templates in vitro. TMP did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-?B RelA nor the phosphorylation of I?B-?. Conclusion TMP acts indirectly as an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent transcription by preventing RelA from binding the promoters of certain key cytokine and chemokine genes.

Scholle Frank

2010-12-01

117

Rotating preventers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

118

Prostate Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... Prostate Cancer Screening Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

119

Colorectal Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... used to help find colorectal cancer. Colorectal Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

120

Esophageal Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... carcinoma of the esophagus are decreasing. Esophageal Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

 
 
 
 
121

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... men to die from stomach cancer. Stomach Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

122

Oral Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... oral cancer and die from it. Oral Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

123

Cervical Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... the Pap test (Pap smear) began. Cervical Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

124

Endometrial Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... black women each year since 1998. Endometrial Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

125

Molecular Characterization of Environmental Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using PCR- RFLP Analysis of 441 Bp Heat Shock Protein 65 Fragments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Non- Tuberculous Mycobacteria are environmental opportunistic pathogens that can be found in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats. There are an epidemiological links between species isolated in tap water and those isolated from patients. hsp65 gene has more variability in its sequences, compared to the some more conserved genes in NTM, for identification of mycobacteria to species level. In this study, the prevalence of NTM in Isfahan City water samples was determined using culture, biochemical tests and PCR-RFLP analyses of hsp65 gene.Methods: Eighty-five water samples were collected and cultured. The mycobacterial isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. A 441 bp fragment of hsp65 genes was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeII. Digested products were analyzed using polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis (PAGE.Results: 25.9% of the water samples contained different species of NTM. Dominant isolates were M. fortuitum (26.7%, M. chelonae like organism (13.3% and M. mucogenicum (13.3%. Nineteen isolates of Mycobacteria were differentiated using hsp65 genes PCR-RFLP. Three isolates could not be identified at the species level because their RFLP patterns were different from other known PCR-RFLP profiles. There were different hsp65 gene PCR-RFLP profiles produced by digestion with BstEII and HaeIII. Conclusion: This study showed that PCR-RFLP of hsp65 gene in mycobacteria is more reliable method for identification of NTM at the specie level than conventional phenotypic methods (P<0.05. In comparing of RFLP patterns of this study to other investigation, some minor differences were negligible.

H Rezaei-Yazdi

2012-04-01

126

Discovering genes underlying QTL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positionalhes to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

127

Discovering genes underlying QTL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

2002-02-01

128

Prevent Unintentional Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... increasing by 160% from 1999 to 2009. This Poison Prevention Week, March 18–24, learn how to prevent unintentional poisoning. The 50th anniversary of Poison Prevention Week is March 18–24, 2012—an ...

129

Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Prevention & Treatment Español: Prevención y tratamiento On this Page ... Treatments at Home Treatments Prescribed by Your Doctor Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is to ...

130

Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Prevention Health Issues Listen Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention Article Body While those with darker skin coloring ... by your pediatrician or the nearest emergency facility. Prevention Many parents incorrectly assume that the sun is ...

131

Suicide Prevention for Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... Suicide Prevention For Children Health Issues Listen Suicide Prevention For Children Article Body Occasionally, during times of ... Denver, Colorado 80222 National Committee for Youth Suicide Prevention 230 Park Avenue, Suite 835 New York, New ...

132

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ... with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? Why is pressure relief so important ...

133

PREVENT Funded Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program Funded Projects Breast Cancer (vaccines) Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer prevention Efficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female

134

Tips to Prevent Poisonings  

Science.gov (United States)

... Recreational Safety Injury Center Share Compartir Tips to Prevent Poisonings On this Page Drugs and Medicines Household ... the emergency operator or poison control center. Poisoning Prevention in Your Community National Poison Prevention Week occurs ...

135

Child Maltreatment Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Injury Prevention & Control Share Compartir Child Maltreatment Prevention Child maltreatment includes all types of abuse and ... Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and carried out by the University of New ...

136

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... about preventing home fires with these free fire safety and prevention outreach materials and educational programs. “Fire ... with a unified message of fire prevention and safety to the public. The goal is to change ...

137

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Science.gov (United States)

Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

138

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

139

Pollution Prevention Toolbox  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pollution Prevention Toolbox is a series of four-page fact sheets containing lesson plans and hands-on activities about various pollution prevention concepts for schools. Topics include pollution prevention, energy conservation, pesticides reduction, and household hazardous waste reduction. The Toolbox also contains sample academic standards and frameworks which the Toolbox meets, and other pollution prevention education resources.

140

Increased frequency of {gamma}{delta} T cells in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis: Reactivity, cytotoxicity, and T cell receptor V gene rearrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infiltrating {gamma}{delta} T cells are potentially involved in the central nervous system demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). To further study this hypothesis, we analyzed the frequency and functional properties of {gamma}{delta} T cells in peripheral blood (PB) and paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS and control subjects, including patients with other neurologic diseases (OND) and healthy individuals. The frequency analysis was performed under limiting dilution condition using rIL-2 and PHA. After PHA stimulation, a significantly increased frequency of {gamma}{delta} T cells was observed in PB and in CSF of MS patients as compared with PB and CSF of patients with OND. The frequency was represented equally in OND patients and normal individuals. Similarly, the IL-2-responsive {gamma}{delta} T cells occurred at a higher frequency in PB of MS than of control subjects. Forty-three percent of the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones isolates from PB and CSF of MS patients responded to heat shock protein (HSP70) but not HSP65, whereas only 2 of 30 control {gamma}{delta} T cell clones reacted to the HSP. The majority of the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones were able to induce non-MHC-restricted cytolysis of Daudi cells. All clones displayed a substantial reactivity to bacterial superantigens staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, irrespective of their {gamma}{delta} V gene usage. Furthermore, the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones expressed predominantly TCRDV2 and GV2 genes, whereas the clones derived from CSF of MS patients expressed either DV1 or DV2 genes. The obtained {gamma}{delta} clones, in general, represented rather heterogeneous clonal origins, even though a predominant clonal origin was found in a set of 10 {gamma}{delta} clones derived from one patient with MS. The present study provides new evidence supporting a possible role of {gamma}{delta} T cells in the secondary inflammatory processes in MS. 39 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Stinissen, P.; Vandevyver, C.; Medaer, R. [Dr. L. Willems Institute, Diepenbeek (Belgium)] [and others

1995-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle.

Thakur, Aneesh

2012-01-01

142

Mycobacterium arupense pulmonary infection: Antibiotic resistance and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycobacterium arupense is a novel mycobacterium species. It was first identified from clinical specimens in 2006 and since then there have been only two reports of its recovery from clinical samples. In the present case M. arupense was isolated from the sputum of a 62-year-old man with a malignant mass in his left kidney, who presented with a one-month history of recurrent fever, dyspnea and haemoptysis. M. arupense was identified with sequencing of hsp65 and 16S rRNA genes. In the present study, its biochemical profile along with its resistance status and hsp65 RFLP analysis is presented.

Neonakis I

2010-01-01

143

Mycobacterium thermoresistibile: Case report of a rarely isolated mycobacterium from Europe and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycobacterium thermoresistibile is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium strongly associated with human infections. Since 1966, there have only been six reports of its isolation from clinical samples. We report on the first case from Europe and review all the previous cases. Identification was achieved with sequencing of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. This study presents its phenotypic and biochemical profile, susceptibilities to selected antibiotics and hsp65 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism profile with BsteII and Hae III .

Neonakis I

2009-01-01

144

HPV Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

HPV CANCER PREVENTION Preteens have a higher immune response to HPV vaccine than older teens. While there is very little ... AS OTHER TEEN VACCINES 1 HPV VACCINE IS CANCER PREVENTION 3 HPV VACCINE IS BEST AT 11-12 ...

145

Prevent Child Abuse America  

Science.gov (United States)

... the important work done by Grandparen?ts! Prevent Child Abuse America, founded in 1972 in Chicago, works to ... Mission Want to find out more about Prevent Child Abuse America? Learn about our mission and our organization . ?? ? ...

146

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, ...

147

Men's Health: Violence Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

148

Polio and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious disease. There is no cure, but there are safe and ... e.g. medications strenuous exercise injury. Treatment and prevention There is no cure for polio, only treatment ...

149

High Blood Cholesterol Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Cholesterol Share Compartir High Blood Cholesterol Prevention What You Can Do Guidelines and Recommendations Print ... Statistical Reports MMWRs Risk Factors Conditions Behavior Heredity Prevention What You Can Do Guidelines and Recommendations Publications ...

150

Preventing Children's Sports Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Causes of Sports Injuries Participation in any sport, whether it's recreational bike riding or Pee-Wee football, can teach kids to ... risks that can result in injuries. Continue Preventing Sports Injuries You can help prevent your kids from ...

151

Household Safety: Preventing Drowning  

Science.gov (United States)

... Social Media: Connect With Us Household Safety: Preventing Drowning KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Home Sweet Home > Household Safety: Preventing Drowning Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

152

Cryptosporidium: Prevention - Immunocompromised Persons  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Parasites - Cryptosporidium (also known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention – Immunocompromised Persons On ... most important step you can take to prevent Crypto and other illnesses. Always wash your hands before ...

153

Preventing High Blood Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

154

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical ...

155

Risk Factors and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions ...

156

Preventing Weight Gain  

Science.gov (United States)

... a diet, it's a lifestyle! Share Compartir Preventing Weight Gain If you're currently at a healthy ... of cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful ...

157

Prevention of Listeriosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Listeria (Listeriosis) Share Compartir Prevention On this Page General recommendations Recommendations for persons ... who are at higher risk. General recommendations to prevent an infection with Listeria : FDA recommendations for washing ...

158

Preventing HIV with Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

159

Preventive School Law.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this chapter is to suggest outlines of a preventive law practice, raise issues, and provoke further thought and discussion concerning the application of preventive law principles and techniques to the management and operation of educational systems. The theory of preventive law and some of its premises are examined in order to…

Bednar, William C., Jr.

160

Wildfire Prevention Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

 
 
 
 
161

PREVENT Governance Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

With the governance structure and unified PREVENT program mission, NCI will make data-driven decisions to maximize potential for success at each consecutive stage. As such, the PREVENT Program is envisioned to streamline the development and testing of promising new cancer preventative agents and expedite their delivery to bedside.

162

Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

2011-10-24

163

Prevention IS Care  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

2009-03-26

164

Prevention Of Stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual?s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

Nagaraja D

2005-01-01

165

Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen I (Fral), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (SD 4.26) years; 36% reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mu g, 200 mu g or 300 mu g Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise (R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQOI or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta

2008-01-01

166

Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (sd 4.26) years; 36 % reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mug, 200 mug or 300 mug Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise(R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQO1 or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

Ravn-Haren, Lejla Gitte; Krath, Britta Naimi

2007-01-01

167

Sternal Osteomyelitis Caused by Gordonia bronchialis after Open-Heart Surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a deep sternal wound infection with sternal osteomyelitis caused by Gordonia bronchialis after open-heart surgery. The isolate was identified as a G. bronchialis by 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing, having initially been misidentified as a Rhodococcus by a commercial phenotypic identification system. PMID:25024874

Chang, Jeong-Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang-Soo; Chung, Cheol-Hyun; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na

2014-06-01

168

Sternal Osteomyelitis Caused by Gordonia bronchialis after Open-Heart Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a deep sternal wound infection with sternal osteomyelitis caused by Gordonia bronchialis after open-heart surgery. The isolate was identified as a G. bronchialis by 16S rRNA and hsp65 gene sequencing, having initially been misidentified as a Rhodococcus by a commercial phenotypic identification system. PMID:25024874

Chang, Jeong-Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hong, Hyo-Lim; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang-Soo; Chung, Cheol-Hyun; Kim, Mi-Na

2014-01-01

169

The fission yeast dma1 gene is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, required to prevent septum formation and premature exit from mitosis if spindle function is compromised.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Premature initiation of cytokinesis can lead to loss of chromosomes, and 'cutting' of the nucleus. Therefore, the proper spatial and temporal co-ordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is essential for maintaining the integrity of the genome. The fission yeast cdc16 gene is implicated both in the spindle assembly checkpoint and control of septum formation. To identify other proteins involved in these controls, we have isolated multicopy suppressors of the cdc16-116 mutation, and the characteriz...

Murone, M.; Simanis, V.

1996-01-01

170

Ideology and Violence Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Interpersonal violence is a major problem in US society in terms of the death and destruction it causes, the fear it generates, and the attention it receives. A recent trend has been to regard the problem of violence as an epidemic and to shape ideas of violence prevention according to public-health formulations. This process does not take into account the ideological nature of the proposed violence-prevention measures. Problems arise because this ideology is relevant to the potential effectiveness of violence prevention. This paper delineates several ideological issues involved in violence prevention and discusses how they interact with frequently employed public-health prevention strategies. Based upon this discussion, a general perspective for violence prevention is proposed and guiding principles that emerge from this perspective are presented. PMID:3404554

Whitman, Steven

1988-01-01

171

Preventive Health Services for Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... Site Search Site Search Search Preventive care benefits Preventive health services for women Preventive health services for ... unique health care needs. Comprehensive coverage for women’s preventive care All Marketplace health plans and many other ...

172

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Home / Fire Prevention & Public Education / Outreach Materials & Educational Programs Outreach Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Outreach materials and ...

173

Preventing Eye Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... Computer Usage Diabetes Diet & Nutrition Eye Injuries Eye Screening Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries Smokers Sports Using Eye ...

174

Prevention of occupational dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational dermatitis is among the most frequent occupational diseases. Dermal exposure risk affects many professional categories such as healthcare workers, hairdressers, bakers, cleaning and kitchen employees. The economical burden of occupational dermatitis (OD) is huge (greater than 5 billion Euro per year in Europe), comprising direct costs (treatment, compensation), as well as indirect costs due to sick leave and lack of productivity. A scientifically based preventive program consisting of skin protection during work, cleaning and skin care after work has generally been recommended to prevent occupational contact dermatitis. However the rate of reported occupational skin diseases seems unchanged in the recent years. In cases of impaired skin condition the secondary prevention (i.e. therapeutic treatment by dermatologists and health-educational intervention seminars) is fundamental. For cases of occupational dermatoses in which these outpatient prevention measures are not successful, interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation measures have been developed (tertiary individual prevention). In the past years, various pilot-concepts to improve occupational dermatitis prevention have been successfully put into practice focussing on interdisciplinary (dermatological and educational) skin protection training programmes for high-risk professions. Currently a multi-step intervention approach is implemented which is aiming at offering quick preventive help at all levels of severity of occupational contact dermatitis. Recent data reveals that there are reliable evidence-based options for multidisciplinary prevention and patient management of occupational dermatitis using a combined approach by a network of clinics, practices and statutory social insurance bodies. At this stage, it seemed reasonable to form a European joint initiative for skin prevention. Recently a European network of preventive dermatology (European Initiative for the Prevention of Occupational Skin Diseases-EPOS) has been organized based on the German experience in the specific field. PMID:21329572

Sartorelli, P; Kezic, S; Larese Filon, F; John, S M

2011-01-01

175

DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

176

Statins and Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Statins and Cancer Prevention: Fact Sheet Key Points Statins are a type of drug that blocks the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which the ... cancer. People should not take statins for cancer prevention outside of a clinical trial. Why do scientists ...

177

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... injuries in America. Along with USFA and partner organizations across the country, the fire community is speaking out with a unified message of fire prevention and safety to the public. The goal is to change how people think about fire and fire prevention ...

178

Influenza prevention and treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This year’s influenza guideline was published in the South African Medical Journal. It adds important new data with regard to influenza prevention and treatment. This article highlights the role of the nurse in influenza prevention and management strategies in South Africa.

Green, Robin J.

2008-01-01

179

Skin Cancer Prevention Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.

180

Prevention of preterm birth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

Flood, Karen

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Gene therapy and its implications in Periodontics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense mechanism against infection by transfecting host cells with an antimicrobial peptide protein-encoding gene. -Periodontal vaccination. Gene therapy is one of the recent entrants and its applications in the field of periodontics are reviewed in general here.

Mahale Swapna

2009-01-01

182

CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

Akula Annapurna

2013-09-01

183

National Crime Prevention Council  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing out of the National Citizens' Crime Prevention Campaign in the late 1970s, the organization gained great publicity through its use of the popular spokesperson McGruff the Crime Dog, and later became the National Crime Prevention Council. Today the Council is perhaps the best known nonprofit educational organization dedicated to crime prevention, and its website is an important place for the web-surfing public citizens to gather materials about working towards the prevention of crime in their own communities. Many of these resources are brought together in the section called Topics in Crime Prevention, accessible through the top right-hand side of the homepage. Here visitors can browse for materials by subject (such as bullying, civil rights organizations, and cybercrime), or by an extensive list of subjects, including funding opportunities, crime prevention, and violence prevention. Of course, visitors would be remiss not to examine the section that tells about the genesis of McGruff the Crime Dog, who has been one of the most enduring public service announcement characters of the past few decades.

184

Preventive pharmacotherapy in migraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migraine prevention can be instrumental in the effective management of the migraine patient but remains underused in treatment of this common, chronic, and often debilitating condition. The development of methysergide as the first migraine preventive agent not only laid the groundwork for our current thinking about migraine prevention, but also created a paradigm shift away from migraine as a psychological issue and toward migraine as a legitimate medical condition. This short review is intended to help the reader select patients appropriate for prevention and to initiate, monitor, and adjust preventive treatment. Goals in discussing preventive management are to facilitate provider familiarity with and confidence in this therapy leading to improved clinical outcomes and to a reduced burden of headache-related disability. Optimal therapeutic success is best achieved in the setting of a strong therapeutic alliance. Medication options for prevention are reviewed. Continued educational efforts directed at both patient and provider may be required to improve treatment utilization and reduce headache impact. PMID:24261479

Rizzoli, Paul

2014-02-01

185

Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-?B pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-?B, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

186

Prevention of Eye Injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

Pashby, Tom

1981-01-01

187

Disaster prevention surveillance system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

188

Preventive Antepartum Care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist evolves to include primary care, the obstetrician must assume greater responsibility for providing prenatal preventive care, particularly regarding the STORCH5 pathogens.

Ledger, William J.

1994-01-01

189

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... After a home fire Arson awareness Burn prevention Carbon monoxide Clothes dryers Cooking Electrical Escape planning Fire ... Sesame Street Fire Safety Station preschool curriculum An activity book and the accompanying CD of songs and ...

190

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores ... Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with ...

191

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and educational programs Help your fire department increase community awareness about preventing home fires with these free ... and partner organizations across the country, the fire community is speaking out with a unified message of ...

192

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... sores? What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? What are the most important things for ... in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? What ...

193

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ...

194

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Materials & Educational Programs Outreach Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Outreach materials and educational programs ... people think about fire and fire prevention using social marketing strategies to address the broadest possible audience. ...

195

Can I Prevent Acne?  

Science.gov (United States)

... to Manage a Serious Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Can I Prevent ... Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne is not caused by dirty skin. Acne is caused by overactive oil glands in ...

196

Conflict and Violence Prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preventing and handling aggressive or potentially violent situations in the hospitality industry and especially in bars and nightclubs is unfortunately a common area of concern for operators and staff

Murphy, James Peter

2008-01-01

197

Pollution Prevention & Control  

The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, (the IPPC Directive) was adopted in October 1996. The IPPC Directive requires an integrated approach to the permitting and ongoing regulation of certain ...

198

Pollution Prevention & Control Permits  

...UsSpeech EnabledSite MapConsultationsWaste and ResourcesRegulationLegislationPublic RegistersDuty of CareLicensingPollution Prevention and Control PermitsPackaging Waste ProducersApproved Batteries...

199

Preventing Colorectal Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the player. Preventing Colorectal Cancer HealthDay August 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Colonoscopy Colorectal Cancer Health Screening ... of Health Page last updated on 16 October 2014

200

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... think about fire and fire prevention using social marketing strategies to address the broadest possible audience. Learn ... alarms Smoking Sprinklers (fire) Summer Winter Wildfire Educational programs Planning for public fire education Are you new ...

 
 
 
 
201

Preventing Colorectal Cancer  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... right-hand corner of the player. Preventing Colorectal Cancer HealthDay August 13, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Colonoscopy Colorectal Cancer Health Screening Transcript Using flexible sigmoidoscopy to screen ...

202

Automating Preventive Maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

Oshier, Michael J.

1984-01-01

203

Primary prevention of cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is organized under the following headings: Cancer registration in Europe; Coordination and role in cancer control, Chemoprevention of cancer, Smokeless tobacco and cancer, Occupational risks from radiation, Stochholm cancer prevention program.

Eylenbosch, W.J. (Univ. Instelling Antwerpen, Epidemiologie en Sociale Geneeskunde, 2610 Antwerpen (BE)); Depoorter, A.M. (Vrije Univ. Brussel, School voor Maatschappelijke, Gezondheidszorg, 1090 Brussel (BE)); Van Larebeke, N. (Lab. voor Histologie, 9000 Gent (BE))

1988-01-01

204

Primary prevention of cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is organized under the following headings: Cancer registration in Europe; Coordination and role in cancer control, Chemoprevention of cancer, Smokeless tobacco and cancer, Occupational risks from radiation, Stochholm cancer prevention program

205

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... about fire and fire prevention using social marketing strategies to address the broadest possible audience. Learn how ... Mitigation of Cooking Fires Research-based fire safety strategies, presentations and educational video messages to convince adults ...

206

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Technology Outreach materials and educational programs Help your fire department increase community awareness about preventing home fires with ... Safe Seniors The “Fire-Safe Seniors” program helps fire departments and other community organizations to plan and implement ...

207

Leishmaniasis: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Leishmaniasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control No vaccines ... EST/ Monday-Friday Closed Holidays Contact CDC-INFO Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

208

Prevention & Detection Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Links to information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach. Links within DCP and throughout NCI offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts.

209

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... adults People with disabilities Children Outreach materials by topic After a home fire Arson awareness Burn prevention ... some hints and techniques on a variety of topics, such as methods for locating partners to assist ...

210

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... think about fire and fire prevention using social marketing strategies to address the broadest possible audience. Learn ... Research-based fire safety strategies, presentations and educational video messages to convince adults to cook safely. Mitigation ...

211

Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... on any of the outcomes ( 23 ). Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) : This U.S. trial ... cancer treatment alters the effectiveness or reduces the toxicity of specific therapies ( 28 ). Although these trials had ...

212

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Arson awareness Burn prevention Carbon monoxide Clothes dryers Cooking Electrical Escape planning Fire extinguishers Garage (home) fires ... to help you implement the program. Mitigation of Cooking Fires Research-based fire safety strategies, presentations and ...

213

Other Prevention Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

... Helpful Links Prevention and Vaccination > Other Measures Other Measures In addition to vaccination, there are other simple ... History General Recommendations Vaccine Safety Vaccine Guidelines Other Measures Other Hepatitis Vaccines Guidelines for Healthcare Professionals Non- ...

214

Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Measles - Recommendations for Prevention On this Page Children Teens ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...

215

Industrial pollution prevention handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

216

Prevention of relapsing backache  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course...

Raspe, Heiner; Burkhardt-hammer, Tatjana; Stoll, Susanne; Lu?hmann, Dagmar

2006-01-01

217

Trauma: A Preventable Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While driver restraints have reduced fatalities in those provinces which have enacted seatbelt legislation, motor vehicle accidents still account for 80% of all deaths in those aged 15-24. Prevention is paramount, but better prehospital care could prevent much morbidity and mortality. This article describes seven years' experience in British Columbia with emergency health services, including the organization of an ambulance service, construction of emergency vehicles, training of emergency me...

Ransford, Peter M.

1982-01-01

218

Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The All Ireland Cancer Consortium (AICC) has promoted a collaboration between CGH and the Health Research Board (HRB), and Irish Cancer Society. In an effort to promote careers in cancer prevention in Ireland, these organizations work together with the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) to award fellowships to qualified scientists from Ireland and Northern Ireland. CPFP is part of the Center for Cancer Training (CCT), under the NCI Office of the Director.

219

HPV Prevention series  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural ...

de Sanjosé Silvia

2012-01-01

220

Prevention of Football Injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury.In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods: MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results: A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion: The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective.

Jiri Dvorak

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress  

Science.gov (United States)

... prevention of breast cancer. First was the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT), which included more than 13,000 ... beginning from which a new paradigm for breast cancer prevention evolved," says Bernard Fisher, M.D., principal investigator ...

222

TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... remove ruptured blood vessels or bruised brain tissue Prevention To prevent head injury and reduce the risk ...

223

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Prevention How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases This page includes information about STD prevention, testing, and resources. Get the Facts Arm yourself ...

224

Staying Healthy: Medicare's Preventive Services  

Science.gov (United States)

CENTERSFORMEDICARE&MEDICAIDSERVICES Staying Healthy Medicare’s Preventive Services A n easy and important way to stay healthy is to get disease prevention and early detection services. Disease prevention and early ...

225

Primary Prevention of Child Abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses primary prevention of child abuse, child injury, substance abuse with children and adolescents, and school maladjustment. Describes methods of prevention research with children, action approaches to primary prevention, and a school-based divorce intervention program. (MCF)

Rosenberg, Mindy S.; Reppucci, N. Dickon

1985-01-01

226

Giardia Infection Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Parasites - Giardia Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control On This Page Practice good hygiene. Avoid ... on: Preventing Illness While Traveling Back To Top Prevent contact and contamination with feces (poop) during sex. ...

227

Molecular genetic analysis of a compound heterozygote for the glycoprotein (GP) IIb gene associated with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: disruption of the 674-687 disulfide bridge in GPIIb prevents surface exposure of GPIIb-IIIa complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was aimed at elucidating the molecular genetic lesion(s) responsible for the thrombasthenic phenotype of a patient whose low platelet content of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa indicated that it was a case of type II Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT). The parents did not admit consanguinity and showed a reduced platelet content of GPIIb-IIIa. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA showed no mutations in the patient's GPIIIa and two novel mutations in the GPIIb gene: one of them was a heterozygous splice junction mutation, a C-->A transversion, at position +2 of the exon 5-intron 5 boundary [IVS5(+2)C-->A] inherited from the father. The predicted effect of this mutation, insertion of intron 5 (76 bp) into the GPIIb-mRNA, was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of platelet mRNA. The almost complete absence of this mutated form of GPIIb-mRNA suggests that it is very unstable. Virtually all of the proband's GPIIb-mRNA was accounted for by the allele inherited from the mother showing a T2113-->C transition that changes Cys674-->Arg674 disrupting the 674-687 intramolecular disulfide bridge. The proband showed a platelet accumulation of proGPIIb and minute amounts of GPIIb and GPIIIa. Moreover, transfection and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that [Arg674]GPIIb is capable of forming a heterodimer complex with GPIIIa, but the rate of subunit maturation and the surface exposure of GPIIb-IIIa are strongly reduced. Thus, the intramolecular 674-687 disulfide bridge in GPIIb is essential for the normal processing of GPIIb-IIIa complexes. The additive effect of these two GPIIb mutations provides the molecular basis for the thrombasthenic phenotype of the proband. PMID:9920835

González-Manchón, C; Fernández-Pinel, M; Arias-Salgado, E G; Ferrer, M; Alvarez, M V; García-Muñoz, S; Ayuso, M S; Parrilla, R

1999-02-01

228

Gene transfer and gene therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book reports the progress in gene transfer that has been made in various species, from Drosophila to higher mammals, including illustrative examples of germline gene transfer and tissue-specific somatic gene regulation in the mouse. Important new information regarding developmental control of gene transcription includes the delineation of distal elements, both cis and trans, controlling specific gene regulation. The book also offers an overview of vectors for gene transfer, including retroviral vectors and new retroviral packaging cell lines designed to minimize production of replication-competent virus.

Beaudet, A.L.; Mulligan, R.; Verma, I.M.

1988-01-01

229

Antiplatelets in stroke prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide and one of the leading cause of disability. Due to the high rate of recurrence, in high risk-patients (eg patients affected by atherosclerotic vascular disease), long-term antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of vascular events such as non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or vascular death. The percentage of reduction of the events can be estimated in approximately 25%. These data justify the directions that are given to us by the current guidelines for prevention of secondary stroke, which recommend the broad use of antiplatelet therapy both for the secondary prevention of stroke in patients with a history of non-cardioembolic stroke or TIA. As for the primary prevention indications are less accurate because the absolute benefi ts of aspirin in reducing the happening of vascular events, are generally much lower than in secondary prevention. Although several trials have been investigated use of antiplatelet drugs in ischemic stroke patients, ascertaining the sure benefit, especially in secondary prevention in non-cardioembolic stroke, various issues remains unclarified, and new questions raises with the analysis of the results of available trials. PMID:24484461

Pinto, Antonio; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Buttà, Carmelo; Licata, Giuseppe

2013-11-01

230

Sodium leak prevention device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To prevent fire accidents due to reaction of sodium and air by preventing sodium vapor from directly jetting into a pit chamber above the reactor. Constitution: A leak prevention plate is provided so as to form a space including the joining portion between the container of a reactor and a shield plug and a metal mesh is provided to the inside of the leak prevention plate for catching sodium vapor jetting out through the joining portion. Gas release apertures are provided in plurality to the upper portion of the leak prevention plate for discharging sodium gas. When the shield plug floats up to jet out the sodium vapor from the joining portion upon reactor accident, the sodium vapor collides against the metal mesh, is cooled into liquid and falls in a sodium tank. The sodium vapor partially reacts with air into gas and released through the gas release apertures. Since the leakage of the sodium vapor is localized, the reactor safety can be secured. (Seki, T.)

231

Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes

232

Imaging after vascular gene therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

233

Imaging after vascular gene therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy.

Manninen, Hannu I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie 2, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: Hannu.manninen@kuh.fi; Yang, Xiaoming [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States)

2005-11-01

234

Genes | About  

... JLPEA JMSE JPM JRFM JSAN Land Laws Life Lubricants Machines Marine Drugs Materials Mathematics Medical Sciences Membranes Metabolites Metals Microarrays Micromachines Microorganisms Minerals ...access journal which provides an advanced forum for studies related to genes, genetics and genomics. It publishes reviews, research articles, communications ...as supplementary material Scope This journal covers all topics related to genes, genetics and genomics. Topics of interest include but are not limited ...to: DNA; RNA; chromosomes; reproduction; heredity; genealogy; interaction of multiple genes; genetic code; pseudogene; gene structure; gene expression; recombination and ...

235

Prevention of traveler's diarrhea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing traveler's diarrhea is usually a matter of common sense, good luck, and the host's ability to defend against enteric pathogens, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Untreated tap water, ice cubes, unpasteurized milk products, salads, food from street vendors, and dining in unhygienic-appearing restaurants should be avoided. Well-cooked food that is served hot and carbonated, commercially bottled beverages are usually safe. Food and water precautions, however, are no guarantee of success in preventing traveler's diarrhea. Bismuth subsalicylate used prophylactically is somewhat inconvenient and is only moderately effective. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is very effective for traveler's diarrhea, particularly the quinolones, it should be reserved for high-risk travelers. PMID:1624780

Tellier, R; Keystone, J S

1992-06-01

236

HPV Prevention series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history studies, impact of screening interventions or impact of HPV vaccines will be most welcome.

de Sanjosé Silvia

2012-12-01

237

Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

2010-08-01

238

Developing preventive maintenance programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a methodology for developing preventive maintenance (PM) programs in plants. It is based on the premise that a carefully conceived and supported preventive maintenance program can effectively reduce the impact of equipment failures on plant availability and corrective maintenance efforts. The methodology utilizes plant and industry failure information to single out important equipment for consideration in a PM program and draws upon the experience of plant personnel to predict the effectiveness of potential PM actions, considering uncertainty. A cost-benefit analysis determines the best combination of proposed maintenance actions within budget and manpower constraints

239

Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and dying from cancer. Scientists believe that cigarette smoking causes about 30% of all cancer deaths in the United States. See the following PDQ summaries for more information: Lung Cancer Prevention Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit Infections Certain ...

240

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... risk group of older adults. It uses home assessments, smoke alarm installation, education and follow-up to ensure a comprehensive approach to fire prevention. A free toolkit is available to help you implement the program. Mitigation of Cooking Fires Research-based fire safety ...

 
 
 
 
241

Prevention as Public Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The former United States Attorney General articulated her vision of how our communities can act in creative ways to choose prevention instead of prisons for our troubled children and youth at the Spirit of Crazy Horse Award Ceremony held July 1, 2001, in Custer, South Dakota. (Author)

Reno, Janet

2002-01-01

242

Preventing Classroom Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence affects one in every five teenagers. Everyday 160,000 students miss school because they fear attack, intimidation, or bullying. While tragedies such as school shootings are rare, many youngsters feel threatened. School officials and administrators take steps to make school safer, yet many teachers remain frustrated. Violence prevention

Druck, Ken; Kaplowitz, Matthew

2005-01-01

243

Preventing School Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

2011-01-01

244

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline  

Science.gov (United States)

... National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. You will hear hold music while your call is being routed. You will be helped by a skilled, trained crisis worker who will listen to your problems and will tell you about mental health services in your area. Your call is ...

245

[Prevention in regional policy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention, safety and health promotion represent fondamental issues in the Regional policy. With this regard, the implementation of the Regional policy has been thought as the promotion of an integrated system which links different fields such as health, work-related information and education, job orientation and work in general. It is recommended that a good standard of prevention is achieved through the synergic actions and the collaborations among all the different actors playing a role in safety and prevention in workplace, including occupational physicians, safety and prevention operators, safety representatives for workers, trade unions, employers associations and public institutions. It is also necessary to adopt a strategy in order to decrease the number of misdiagnosed occupational diseases as well as to promote the "culture of safety in workplaces", increasing the awareness of all figures, with special focus on employers category. All this has to be set in the new scenario of the nowadays work characterized by the progressive increase of atypical job contracts, renewing the emphasis on the necessity of keeping joined "the right to a job with the right to health". PMID:17144418

Masi, M; Caponetti, A

2006-01-01

246

Preventing Flare-Ups  

Science.gov (United States)

... can do around the home that may help relieve the signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis Bathing and Moisturizing Guidelines Tips to maximize the benefits of bathing and moisturizing Stress Reduction Techniques Many have found these methods effective Winter Skin Care Guidelines Tips for preventing ...

247

Approaches to Truancy Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

248

Suicide prevention and audit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suicide is a devastating event and a major public health issue. On average one person dies every 2 hours in England as a result of suicide. It is the commonest cause of death in men under the age of 35 years. This article reviews the epidemiology, causal factors and prevention of suicide, and also briefly discusses the role of audit in this area.

Saunders, K.; Hawton, K.

2005-01-01

249

Student Leadership. Prevention Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

2010-01-01

250

Preventive Maintenance Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The Preventive Maintenance (PM) program at Stennis Space Center (SSC) evolved from an ineffective and poorly organized state to a highly organized state in which it became capable of tracking equipment, planning jobs with man hour estimates, and supporting outsourcing. This viewgraph presentation traces the steps the program took to improve itself.

Ciaruffoli, Veronica; Bramley, Craig; Matteson, Mike

2001-01-01

251

Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

252

Why Prevention? Why Now?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

Tabachnick, Joan

2013-01-01

253

Prevention of relapsing backache  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the methodological requirements of DAHTA. Proceedings of the electronic literature searches are documented in the appendix. In addition references of review articles were searched. Methodological quality of publications (systematic reviews, HTA reports was assessed using the checklists developed by the German Scientific Working Group for Technology Assessment in Health Care (GSWGTAHC or with the Jadad-Score (controlled trials respectively. Due to the large number of relevant publications the assessment is mainly based on data reported by systematic reviews and supplemented by the results of newer trials. A separate economic assessment was not performed because of the low amount of available data. An assessment of ethical, legal and social impact was omitted due to resource constraints.ResultsFor preventive interventions based on exercise programs most of the analysed trials demonstrate some effectiveness. Due to the heterogeneity of the programs it is not possible to conclude whether positive effects are associated with a special type, duration or intensity of exercise. For purely educational measures or information strategies applied in a workplace setting the available trials were not able to demonstrate effectiveness. Back school programs, which in addition to theoretical instructions offer intensive exercising may in the short term, be successful in reducing the incidence of new episodes of back pain. Some trials in high risk groups demonstrate effectiveness of multidimensional interventions on time lost from work. These programs include education and exercise as well as cognitive behavioural interventions to change pain perception. The assessment of the benefits of back belts for the prevention of back pain is based on results of high quality efficacy as well as effectiveness trials. Their results imply for the otherwise healthy working population no protective effect of back belts on time lost from work due to back pain, on the incidence of painful episodes or on days with impairment by back pain. So far there are no data from controlled trials that demonstrate the eff

Raspe, Heiner

2006-05-01

254

Adhesions: preventive strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesions, which occur after 67% to 93% of abdominal operations, represent a major clinical problem, resulting in intestinal obstruction, infertility, and pain and incurring considerable economic costs. The magnitude and seriousness of the problem of adhesions have been underappreciated. Moreover, efforts to prevent or reduce adhesions largely have been unsuccessful, hindered by their empirical basis, the lack of good predictive animal models, and the biochemical complexities of adhesiogenesis. The two major strategies for adhesion prevention or reduction are adjusting surgical technique and applying adjuvants. Modifications in technique that all surgeons should implement include minimizing the invasiveness of surgery, minimizing surgical trauma, such as ischemia from peritoneal suturing, and avoiding the introduction of foreign material, e.g., starch glove powder, into the body. Given the adhesiogenic nature of peritoneal repair, however, improvements in surgical technique alone will help decrease but not prevent adhesion formation. Adjuvant therapy is necessary. Adjuvants fall into two main categories, drugs and barriers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have shown questionable clinical efficacy, possibly because of difficulties in drug delivery. Corticosteroids, alone or with antihistamines, also have had equivocal clinical results and may be immunosuppressive and delay wound healing. Experimentally, fibrinolytics such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), administered systemically or intraperitoneally (i.p.), have demonstrated conflicting results and hemorrhagic complications. However, recently, tPA, administered topically in a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) gel, has been effective in reducing and preventing adhesions in rabbits. Phosphatidylcholine, given i.p. or orally, also has shown promise in animal studies. Barriers, by separating traumatized surfaces for the critical first five to seven days of peritoneal re-epithelialization, are useful adjuvants, and include macromolecular solutions and mechanical devices. Dextran, a macromolecular solution, has been studied widely, but has not demonstrated consistent clinical efficacy and has been largely abandoned as an anti-adhesion barrier. A newly developed hyaluronic acid-phosphate-buffered saline solution applied intraoperatively to protect peritoneal surfaces from indirect surgical trauma effectively and safely reduced adhesions in a large multicenter study of women undergoing gynecological laparotomy. Three recently developed mechanical barriers also have demonstrated clinical progress in adhesion prevention. A bioresorbable membrane consisting of hyaluronic acid and CMC has gained regulatory approval for clinical use in both general and gynecological surgery following demonstration of efficacy and safety in reducing adhesions. A barrier made of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene and another developed from oxidized regenerated cellulose are currently available for gynecological surgery. With continued research, new and improved approaches hopefully will become available to prevent adhesion formation. PMID:9076450

Risberg, B

1997-01-01

255

Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

Letícia Muraro, Wildner; Maria Luiza, Bazzo; Susie Coutinho, Liedke; Christiane Lourenço, Nogueira; Gabriela, Segat; Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Aline Daiane, Schlindwein; Jaquelline Germano de, Oliveira; Darcita B, Rovaris; Claudio A, Bonjardim; Erna G, Kroon; Paulo CP, Ferreira.

256

Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

Letícia Muraro, Wildner; Maria Luiza, Bazzo; Susie Coutinho, Liedke; Christiane Lourenço, Nogueira; Gabriela, Segat; Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Aline Daiane, Schlindwein; Jaquelline Germano de, Oliveira; Darcita B, Rovaris; Claudio A, Bonjardim; Erna G, Kroon; Paulo CP, Ferreira.

2014-05-07

257

Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

Letícia Muraro, Wildner; Maria Luiza, Bazzo; Susie Coutinho, Liedke; Christiane Lourenço, Nogueira; Gabriela, Segat; Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Aline Daiane, Schlindwein; Jaquelline Germano de, Oliveira; Darcita B, Rovaris; Claudio A, Bonjardim; Erna G, Kroon; Paulo CP, Ferreira.

2014-06-01

258

Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references

259

[Prevention of diabetic foot].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia, lipid disorders (treatment with fenofibrate reduces the incidence of DF amputations (EBM-Ib/A), hypertension, hyperuricemia, neuropathy, and angiopathy (surgical reconstructive bypass) or endovascular (percutaneous transluminar angioplasty). In the low-risk group of PwDM, no particular results can be achieved, in contrast to the high-risk groups of PwDM where patient and professional education has shown significant achievement (EBM-IV/C). In secondary prevention of DF, it is necessary to perform patient and professional education how to avoid most of external influences for DE Patient education should include all topics from primary prevention, danger of neural analgesia (no cooling or warming the foot), careful selection of shoes, daily observation of foot, early detection all foot changes or small wounds, daily hygiene of foot skin, which has to be clean and moist, regular self measurements of skin temperature between the two feet (EBM-Ib/A), prevention of self treatment of foot deformities, changing wrong habits (walking footless), medical consultation for even small foot changes (EBM-Ib/A) and consultation by multidisciplinary team (EBM-IIb/B). Tertiary DF prevention includes ulcer treatment, prevention of amputation and level of amputation. In spite of the primary and secondary prevention measures, DF ulcers develop very often. Because of different etiologic reasons as well as different principles of treatment which are at the same time prevention of the level of amputation, the approach to PwDF has to be multidisciplinary. A high place in the treatment of DF ulcers, especially neuropathic ulcers, have the off-loading principles (EBM-Ib/A), even instead of surgical treatment (EBM-Ib/A). Necrectomy, taking samples for analysis from the deep of ulcer, together with x-ray diagnostics (in particular NMR), the size of the changes can be detected, together with appropriate antibiotic use and indication for major surgical treatment. The patient has to be instructed to the involved DF with off-loading (EBM-IIb/A). Negative pressure wound therapy can accelerate th

Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljaci? Crkvenci?, Neva

2013-10-01

260

Preventive Radiation Protection Act  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST)

 
 
 
 
261

Fire prevention in buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The multitude of regulations by many different authorities on fire prevention in the planning and construction of plants and systems has made it necessary for BBC to set up a catalogue of coordinated guidelines for planning and construction. This catalogue, however, does not relieve users of the duty, during projection and construction of systems, to adhere strictly to the individual regulations. Further, auxiliary guidelines for construction and assembly have been worked out in order to reduce the fire hazard in the construction and assembly phase (part C). These guidelines are up to the state of the art of legislation and technology. If new findings should be obtained, the guidelines will have to be updated. For changed operating conditions, facilities must be adapted to these new conditions in order to ensure fire prevention. Nuclear facilities are also subject to the regulations of the nuclear licensing procedure. (orig./HP)

262

Obesity - A Preventable Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...

Ofei, F.

2005-01-01

263

Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

264

[Prevention of cutaneous melanoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous melanoma exhibited a rapidly increasing incidence during the 70 s and 80 s. As a consequence primary and secondary prevention campaigns were developed, starting in Australia, where the incidence was by far the highest, but later also in the Netherlands. Mortality from melanoma in the Netherlands is stable at a rate of 2.4 per 100,000 person years since 1980. The melanoma incidence has stabilized since 1989 at a level of about 11 per 100,000. In the development of the melanoma it is not so much the accumulated exposure to sun that is of importance, as in squamous carcinoma, but rather incidental serious sunburn. It is especially exposure at an early age that increases the risk of melanoma as well as that of basal cell carcinoma. Primary prevention must be focussed on avoiding sunburn in young people. Secondary prevention can be realised by frequent controls of risk groups and a raised awareness for changing moles in the general population but also in physicians who see patients' skins for whatever reason. PMID:10416492

van der Rhee, H J; Coebergh, J W

1999-06-26

265

Trichoderma genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

2012-06-19

266

Gene therapy for fanconi anemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fanconi anemia is a hereditary syndrome of bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and a predisposition to malignancy. Most patients die from bone marrow failure. Cells from patients display a heightened sensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents with increased chromosomal breakage and increased cytotoxicity. Bone marrow from patients with Fanconi anemia have decreased numbers of hematopoietic progenitors when grown in culture. Transfer of the normal Fanconi anemia cDNA into cells from patients corrects the laboratory abnormalities, suggesting that gene transfer may prevent or reverse the bone marrow failure. Advances in gene transfer into human hematopoietic cells make this approach seem feasible. However, decreased numbers of stem cell targets may represent a significant obstacle. In addition, new insights on potential toxicities related to gene transfer have heightened a cautious approach. Fanconi anemia represents a prototype disorder for gene therapy and highlights the difficulties in adapting this technology to human disease. PMID:12901331

Croop, James M

2003-07-01

267

Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Thyroid Cancer » Detailed Guide » Can thyroid cancer be prevented? ... Topic Can thyroid cancer be found early? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ...

268

Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries Who shouldn't play? If you have a history of heart problems, you should probably avoid ...

269

Cancer Prevention Checklist for Men  

Science.gov (United States)

... For information on skin self-exam, read Skin Cancer Prevention and Early Detection on www.cancer.org. ? Check ... our Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activities for Cancer Prevention on www.cancer.org. ? Get to and stay ...

270

Pneumocystis Pneumonia Risk and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Risk & Prevention Who gets pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)? PCP is extremely ... updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 800-CDC- ...

271

Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?  

Science.gov (United States)

... studies, Gardasil was found to prevent anal and genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11 and ... It is also approved to prevent anal and genital warts. Cervarix, another HPV vaccine available in the United ...

272

Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?  

Science.gov (United States)

... this vaccine was found to prevent anal and genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11 and ... and women. It’s approved to prevent anal and genital warts in both men and women, too. Cervarix, another ...

273

PREVENTION GUIDELINES SYSTEM/DATABASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prevention Guidelines System gives public health practitioners quick access to the most current CDC recommendations and guidelines for the prevention, control, treatment and detection of infectious and chronic diseases, environmental hazards, natural or human-generated disast...

274

Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation  

Science.gov (United States)

... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Christian T. Ruff , MD, MPH ... rest of their lives. Previous Section Next Section Prevention Following a healthy lifestyle and taking steps to ...

275

Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Topics NIOSH Share Compartir NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Occupational hearing loss is the most common work- ... Facts and Statistics Publications and Tools Hearing Loss Prevention National Goals, Policies, and Standards Features Buy Quiet ...

276

Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating and ... top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime of ...

277

Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control of Cryptosporidiosis On This Page Practice Good Hygiene Avoid Water ... recommendations are intended to help prevent and control cryptosporidiosis. Practice Good Hygiene Everywhere Wash hands with soap ...

278

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the most common causes of back pain, and measures you can take to prevent back pain. Anatomy ... the degeneration of the spine and disks. Preventive measures include strengthening of the back and adopting good ...

279

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Prevention Text Size Print Bookmark Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention People with diabetes are prone to having ... complication is so severe that surgery, and occasionally amputation, may become necessary. Poor blood flow. In diabetes, ...

280

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Science.gov (United States)

How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most ... back pain, and measures you can take to prevent back pain. Anatomy The back has two main ...

 
 
 
 
281

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... steps to safeguard your home, you can help prevent many common home injuries from occurring. Read the ... and use safety netting around railings to help prevent falls from elevated spots around your home. Window ...

282

Risk and Prevention of Aspergillosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Aspergillosis Risk & Prevention Who gets aspergillosis? The different types of aspergillosis ... and animals from the lungs. How can I prevent aspergillosis? It’s difficult to avoid breathing in Aspergillus ...

283

Body Lice Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lice - Body Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Body lice are spread most commonly by direct ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

284

Insulin use: preventable errors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin is vital for patients with type 1 diabetes and useful for certain patients with type 2 diabetes. The serious consequences of insulin-related medication errors are overdose, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia, causing seizures, coma and even death; or underdose, resulting in hyperglycaemia and sometimes ketoacidosis. Errors associated with the preparation and administration of insulin are often reported, both outside and inside the hospital setting. These errors are preventable. By analysing reports from organisations devoted to medication error prevention and from poison control centres, as well as a few studies and detailed case reports of medication errors, various types of error associated with insulin use have been identified, especially in the hospital setting. Generally, patients know more about the practicalities of their insulin treatment than healthcare professionals with intermittent involvement. Medication errors involving insulin can occur at each step of the medication-use process: prescribing, data entry, preparation, dispensing and administration. When prescribing insulin, wrong-dose errors have been caused by the use of abbreviations, especially "U" instead of the word "units" (often resulting in a 10-fold overdose because the "U" is read as a zero), or by failing to write the drug's name correctly or in full. In electronic prescribing, the sheer number of insulin products is a source of confusion and, ultimately, wrong-dose errors, and often overdose. Prescribing, dispensing or administration software is rarely compatible with insulin prescriptions in which the dose is adjusted on the basis of the patient's subsequent capillary blood glucose readings, and can therefore generate errors. When preparing and dispensing insulin, a tuberculin syringe is sometimes used instead of an insulin syringe, leading to overdose. Other errors arise from confusion created by similar packaging, between different insulin products or between insulin and other drugs, such as heparin. Sometimes patients receive insulin intended for another patient. A risk of viral contamination exists when the same injection pen is used for several patients. In practice, many of these errors, which expose diabetic patients to sometimes serious blood glucose fluctuations, can be prevented by involving patients in the details of their treatment, by making use of their experience in managing their diabetes, and by implementing certain preventive measures. PMID:24516905

2014-01-01

285

Overtraining: consequences and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overtraining refers to prolonged fatigue and reduced performance despite increased training. Its roots include muscle damage, cytokine actions, the acute phase response, improper nutrition, mood disturbances, and diverse consequences of stress hormone responses. The clinical features are varied, non-specific, anecdotal and legion. No single test is diagnostic. The best treatment is prevention, which means (1) balancing training and rest, (2) monitoring mood, fatigue, symptoms and performance, (3) reducing distress and (4) ensuring optimal nutrition, especially total energy and carbohydrate intake. PMID:8897319

Eichner, E R

1995-01-01

286

Selenium for preventing cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship b [...] etween selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to answer research question (b). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91) and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83) with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05) than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77). These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No reliable conclusions can be drawn regarding a causal relationship between low selenium exposure and an increased risk of cancer. Despite evidence for an inverse association between selenium exposure and the risk of some types of cancer, these results should be interpreted with care due to the potential limiting factors of heterogeneity and influences of unknown biases, confounding and effect modification. The effect of selenium supplementation from RCTs yielded inconsistent results. To date, there is no convincing evidence that selenium supplements can prevent cancer in men, women or children.

Gabriele, Dennert; Marcel, Zwahlen; Maree, Brinkman; Marco, Vinceti; Maurice P. A., Zeegers; Markus, Horneber.

287

Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention Key Points Vitamin D helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is obtained ... the potential role of vitamin D in the prevention of cancer. The Vitamin D/Calcium Polyp Prevention ...

288

Drowning Prevention: A Community Affair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drowning prevention is a focus of safety professionals nationwide. Many local coalitions provide ongoing activities and can give advice on how to get started. The article describes different community drowning prevention programs, looks at various resources, and explains how to begin and maintain local drowning prevention programs. (SM)

Moler, Chris

1993-01-01

289

Inaccuracy of Single-Target Sequencing for Discriminating Species of the Mycobacterium abscessus Group?  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined nucleotide sequences of rpoB, hsp65, and sodA in 59 clinical isolates (from 58 patients) of the Mycobacterium abscessus group. Identification to the species level, based on three target genes, was concordant for 44 isolates (25 M. abscessus, 13 Mycobacterium massiliense, and 6 Mycobacterium bolletii isolates) and discordant for 15 isolates which had “interspecific composite patterns.” Sequence analysis of five housekeeping genes also showed composite patterns in 8 of these 15 isolates. PMID:19515839

Macheras, Edouard; Roux, Anne-Laure; Ripoll, Fabienne; Sivadon-Tardy, Valerie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate

2009-01-01

290

A Multiplex Approach to Molecular Detection of Brucella abortus and/or Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A multiplex amplification and detection platform for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis and Brucella abortus infection simultaneously in bovine milk and nasal secretions was developed. This system (designated the bovine pathogen detection assay [BPDA]-PCR) consists of duplex amplification of species-specific targets (a region of the BCSP31K gene of B. abortus and a repeat-sequence region in the hsp65 gene of M. bovis, respectively). This is followed by a solid-phase probe capture hybridizat...

Sreevatsan, Srinand; Bookout, Jack B.; Ringpis, Fidel; Perumaalla, Veera S.; Ficht, Thomas A.; Adams, L. Garry; Hagius, Sue D.; Elzer, Philip H.; Bricker, Betsy J.; Kumar, Girish K.; Rajasekhar, M.; Isloor, Srikrishna; Barathur, Raj R.

2000-01-01

291

Initiatives for proliferation prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

292

Initiatives for proliferation prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

NONE

1997-04-01

293

Prevention of foodborne listeriosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including elderly and immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, newborns and infants. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicemia or meningitis. Contaminated meats (such as hot dogs, delicatessen meats and pat?, dairy products and seafood have all been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly because listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness, ranking second after salmonellosis. L. monocytogenes emerged as an important foodborne pathogen in the latter part of the 20th century. Extensive work has been performed in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. An important reduction occurred in listeriosis incidence in some of these countries during the 90s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and incidence decrease of human listeriosis.

Rebagliati Victoria

2009-04-01

294

Prevention of bacterial adhesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation. As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future.

Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

2010-01-01

295

Protective and preventative measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

296

Snowball prevention questioned.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'snowball Earth' hypothesis interprets geological evidence as indicating multi-million-year episodes of global glaciation near the beginning and end of the Proterozoic eon. On the basis of a coupled carbon cycle-climate model, Peltier et al. propose that temperature-dependent remineralization of organic carbon in a Neoproterozoic ocean with 100-1,000x more dissolved organic carbon than today could create a negative climate feedback, thereby preventing a snowball Earth. Their results are sensitive to initial conditions and model parameters; moreover, important geological observations and components of the carbon cycle are not considered-notably the absence of sources or sinks of carbon. Their model results fall short of explaining the geological evidence in the absence of global glaciation. PMID:19092866

Hoffman, Paul F; Crowley, John W; Johnston, David T; Jones, David S; Schrag, Daniel P

2008-12-18

297

Hydrogen permeation preventive structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To effectively prevent or suppress the permeation of hydrogen isotopes. Constitution: A high silicon concentration region is formed to a substrate made of stainless steels. The silicon high concentration region may be prepared by forming a single layer in the substrate, forming a plurality of layers in the substrate, uniformly forming the region over the entire substrate, or forming the region with a concentration slope. Thus, hydrogen isotopes diffused into the substrate material are captured to maintain at the lattice defects formed in the material due to neutron irradiation or the like. The bonding force between the maintained isotope and the silicon defects is extremely strong and the hydrogen isotopes once captured by the silicon defects can move no more to other places but are maintained as they are by the silicon defects. (Yoshihara, H.)

298

Prevention of postoperative ileus.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Postoperative ileus (PI) is a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and prolonged convalescence after major surgical procedures. The pathophysiology of PI is multifactorial, including activation of the stress response to surgery, with inhibitory sympathetic visceral reflexes and inflammatory mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have generally been disappointing with the exception of cisapride and the introduction of the new selective peripherally acting m-opioid antagonists. Presently, introduction of a multi-modal rehabilitation programme (including continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, early oral feeding and enforced mobilization) is the most effective technique to reduce PI in abdominal procedures.

Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

2002-01-01

299

Can we really prevent suicide?  

Science.gov (United States)

Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297

Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A

2012-12-01

300

Does CCR5 gene-D32 deletion protect C.trachomatis infected Indian women from tubal pathology?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deletion in chemokine receptor CCR5 gene is reported to prevent development of tubal pathology among Dutch Caucasian C. trachomatis infected women. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken, to evaluate the involvement of CCR5 gene in tubal pathology among Indian women with or without Chlamydia infection. Three hundred women with or without Chlamydia infection and with different reproductive manifestations were screened for CCR5 gene using a standardized PCR. Only 6 C. trachomatis infected women without tubal block had heterozygous deletion for this gene. The rest had wild type CCR5 gene, that includes fertile women infected and non infected; infertile women infected and non infected with and without tubal block as well as infected women with history of recurrent spontaneous abortions. The study indicates no role of heterozygous CCR5 D32 gene deletion in prevention of tubal pathology in Chlamydia infected Indian women. Only 2% heterozygous deletion in CCR5 gene is observed in the studied population.

Jayanti Mania-Pramanik

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

HIV treatment for prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely measure the incidence of HIV infection. Such trials face formidable logistical, practical and ethical obstacles. However, without definitive data, the intuitive appeal of "test-and-treat" is unlikely to translate into action on a global scale. In the meantime, based on the available evidence, we must strive to provide treatment to all those in medical need under the current medical guidelines. This will lead to a decrease in HIV transmission while "test-and-treat" is fully explored in prospective clinical trials.

Ambrosioni Juan

2011-05-01

302

Group B Strep Infection: Prevention in Newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC.gov . Group B Strep (GBS) Share Compartir Prevention in Newborns On this Page Preventing Early-Onset ... preventing late-onset group B strep disease. Alternative Prevention Strategies There is no group B strep vaccine ...

303

Gene therapy in status epilepticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene therapy in human disease has expanded rapidly in recent years with the development of safer and more effective viral vectors, and presents a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy. Studies in animals models have demonstrated that overexpression of inhibitory peptides can modify seizure threshold, prevent the development of epilepsy, and modify established epilepsy. More recently there has been a flurry of studies using optogenetics in which light-activated channels expressed in neurons can transiently change neuronal excitability on exposure to light, thereby enabling the development of closed loop systems to detect and stop seizure activity. The treatment of status epilepticus presents its own challenges. Because of both the delay in gene expression following transfection and also the necessity of using focal transfection, there are a limited number of situations in which gene therapy can be used in status epilepticus. One such condition is epilepsia partialis continua (EPC). We have used gene therapy in a model of EPC and have shown that we can "cure" the condition. Recent evidence suggesting that gene therapy targeting subcortical regions can modify generalized or more diffuse epilepsies, indicates that the range of situations in status epilepticus in which gene therapy could be used will expand. PMID:24001071

Walker, Matthew C; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Wykes, Robert C; Heeroma, Joost H; Mantoan, Laura

2013-09-01

304

Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... updated: October 28, 2014 Content source: Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities , NCBDDD , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Follow CDC Email Recommend Tweet Post RSS CDC ...

305

Pollution prevention: A regulatory update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

306

Municipal water pollution prevention program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

307

Occupational health physicians and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational medicine has added the promotion and maintenance of employee health to the traditional concerns of safety and workplace exposures. Attention to these areas of health management has been spurred by growing recognition of the adverse impact of preventable or controllable risk factors in health benefit and disability costs and employee productivity. The four major prevention opportunities for occupational physicians are helping to inculcate effective preventive services in health benefit plans, providing cost-effective and health-effective services directly to employees, initiating and coordinating work site health promotion and employee assistance programs, and using results of health surveillance of employees to formulate preventive strategies and to evaluate their effectiveness. PMID:2030431

Fielding, J E

1991-03-01

308

Preventive self-governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”

Sturloni Giancarlo

2003-06-01

309

Prevention of nuclear war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

310

[Cardiovascular secondary prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular secondary prevention plays a fundamental role due to the rising average age of the population. The reorganization of the health care system is also becoming more important. Especially the needs of high-risk patients have to be prioritized. A change of habits (e. g. abnegation of nicotine, change in eating habits, obtaining a BMIeffectivity of drug therapy. Here the application of statins takes center stage (if there are no contraindications) which minimizes the risk of coronary incidences by 30%. In case of high lipid blood level, fibrates have to be applied at a low level of HDL-cholesterol and omega-3 fatty acids at high values of triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids must be given in the form of 1 g ethyl esters of EPA and DHA, otherwise a significant reduction of fatal cardiovascular incidences cannot be proven. Recently ACE inhibitors have gained in importance because of their ability to reduce the formation of plaques. Furthermore beta-blockers and aspirin can be applied for therapeutic measures, whereas different periods of treatment are recommended by the guidelines. With the aid of algorithms it is possible to specify the risk of experiencing a second myocardial infarction. PMID:17013578

Rupprecht, H-J

2006-01-01

311

PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

Jovica Jovanovic

2004-01-01

312

Hydrogen explosion prevention device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If an emergency core cleaning system is not operated upon loss of coolant accident, temperature of fuels is increased due to after-heat, by which zirconium alloy as the fuel can material and water as coolants react to generate hydrogen. If the inside of the container is replaced with a nitrogen gas, etc., hydrogen is not burnt. Then, as the pressure and the temperature are increased to break the container and the hydrogen gas leaks into nuclear buildings, since the inside of the nuclear buildings is not replaced with the nitrogen gas, there may be a risk of hydrogen gas explosion. In view of the above, water is sprayed to the inside of the nuclear buildings upon occurrence of accidents. Although the hydrogen gas is exploded or burnt with aid of oxygen in air, if moisture is present in the air, explosion or combustion of the hydrogen gas is suppressed. The sprayed water droplets are easily evaporated to increase the moisture content in air thereby enabling to prevent explosion and combustion of the hydrogen gas. (N.H.)

313

Preventing Suicide Among Inpatients  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Inpatient suicide comprises a proportionately small but clinically important fraction of suicide. This study is intended as a qualitative analysis of the comprehensive English literature, highlighting what is known and what can be done to prevent inpatient suicide. Method: A systematic search was conducted on the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and a personal database for articles on cohort series, preferably controlled, of inpatient suicide (not deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide, unless they also dealt specifically with suicide data). Results: A qualitative discussion is presented, based on the findings of the literature searched. Conclusions: The bulk of inpatient suicides actually occur not on the ward but off premises, when the patient was on leave or had absconded. Peaks occur shortly after admission and discharge. It is possible to reduce suicide risk on the ward by having a safe environment, optimizing patient visibility, supervising patients appropriately, careful assessment, awareness of and respect for suicide risk, good teamwork and communication, and adequate clinical treatment. PMID:24881161

Sakinofsky, Isaac

2014-01-01

314

Calcification prevention tablets  

Science.gov (United States)

Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

1991-01-01

315

Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

2008-01-01

316

Attention Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

2007-01-01

317

Can coffee prevent caries?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society?s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients? histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.

Anila Namboodiripad P

2009-01-01

318

Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities

319

DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study....

320

Prevent Injury After a Disaster  

Science.gov (United States)

... Control Prevent or Respond to Snake Bite Animal Disposal Following an Emergency Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Preventing Carbon ... medical attention. If you are bitten by a snake, try to identify it, so that if it is poisonous, you can be given the correct anti-venom. Do not cut the wound or attempt to ...

 
 
 
 
321

Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... WC. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2003;12(12):1403-1409. [PubMed ... Whittemore AS, et al. Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic ... Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2000;9(8):795-804. [PubMed ...

322

Prevention of embrittlement of metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Embrittlement of a metal such as W, Mo, Ta, or alloy steel in an inert atmosphere (He) at high temperature, may be prevented by adding to the atmosphere small amounts of an oxidizing gas (250 ppM O2) and also of hydrogen to prevent oxidation. (U.S.)

323

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

324

Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

Wilson, Howard D.

1974-01-01

325

Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.

326

PREVENT IP and Data Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The following outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program. Please note that the NCI has a variety of agreement mechanisms by which these terms may be applied and will work with the NCI Technology Transfer Center to determine the appropriate agreement for the studies approved by the PREVENT Program.

327

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most ... back pain, and measures you can take to prevent back pain. Anatomy The back has two main ...

328

Detection of EPO gene doping in blood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene doping--or the abuse of gene therapy--will continue to threaten the sports world. History has shown that progress in medical research is likely to be abused in order to enhance human performance. In this review, we critically discuss the progress and the risks associated with the field of erythropoietin (EPO) gene therapy and its applicability to EPO gene doping. We present typical vector systems that are employed in ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy trials. Due to associated risks, gene doping is not a feasible alternative to conventional EPO or blood doping at this time. Nevertheless, it is well described that about half of the elite athlete population is in principle willing to risk its health to gain a competitive advantage. This includes the use of technologies that lack safety approval. Sophisticated detection approaches are a prerequisite for prevention of unapproved and uncontrolled use of gene therapy technology. In this review, we present current detection approaches for EPO gene doping, with a focus on blood-based direct and indirect approaches. Gene doping is detectable in principle, and recent DNA-based detection strategies enable long-term detection of transgenic DNA (tDNA) following in vivo gene transfer. PMID:22508654

Neuberger, Elmo W I; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Moser, Dirk A; Simon, Perikles

2012-11-01

329

[Relapse prevention in drug addicts].  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

Rácz, József

2013-12-01

330

Social, community, and preventive interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychology can and should be at the forefront of participation in social, community, and preventive interventions. This chapter focuses on selective topics under two general areas: violence as a public health problem and health promotion/competence promotion across the life span. Under violence prevention, discussion of violence against women, youth violence, and child maltreatment are the focal points. Under health and competence promotion, attention is paid to the prevention of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS. We highlight a few significant theoretical and empirical contributions, especially from the field of community/prevention psychology. The chapter includes a brief overview of diversity issues, which are integral to a comprehensive discussion of these prevention efforts. We argue that the field should extend its role in social action while emphasizing the critical importance of rigorous research as a component of future interventions. PMID:10074683

Reppucci, N D; Woolard, J L; Fried, C S

1999-01-01

331

Genotypic characterization of five subspecies of Mycobacterium kansasii.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different molecular typing methods including restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the major polymorphic tandem repeat (MPTR) probe and the IS1652 probe, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, and PCR restriction analysis of the hsp-65 gene (PRA) were applied to clinical and water isolates of Mycobacterium kansasii. RFLP with the MPTR probe, PRA, PFGE, and AFLP analysis revealed five homogeneous clusters which a...

Picardeau, M.; Prod Hom, G.; Raskine, L.; Lepennec, M. P.; Vincent, V.

1997-01-01

332

The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

333

Reactivation Methylation-Silenced Genes by Polyphenols  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is an important mechanism to silence the expression of many tumor suppressors, DNA repair, and other genes in cancer. The long-term goal of this project is to study the inhibition and reversal of this process by dietary polyphenols for the purpose of prevention and treatment of cancer.

334

The prevention of cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The major causes of cancer are as follows: (a) Smoking: about a third of U.S. cancer (90% of lung cancer). (b) Dietary imbalances, e.g., lack of dietary fruits and vegetables: The quarter of the population eating the least fruits and vegetables has double the cancer rate for most types of cancer compared to the quarter eating the most; micronutrients may account for much of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables. Excess calories may also contribute to cancer. (c) Chronic infections: mostly in developing countries. (d) Hormonal factors influenced by life-style. 2. There is no epidemic of cancer, except for lung cancer due to smoking. Cancer mortality rates have declined 16% since 1950 (excluding lung cancer and adjusted for the increased life span of the population). 3. Regulatory policy that is focused on traces of synthetic chemicals is based on misconceptions about animal cancer tests. Recent research contradicts these ideas: (a) Rodent carcinogens are not rare. Half of all chemicals tested in standard high-dose animal cancer tests, whether occurring naturally or produced synthetically, are "carcinogens." (b) There are high-dose effects in these rodent cancer tests that are not relevant to low-dose human exposures and which can explain the high proportion of carcinogens. (c) Though 99.9% of the chemicals humans ingest are natural, the focus of regulatory policy is on synthetic chemicals. Over 1000 chemicals have been described in coffee: 27 have been tested and 19 are rodent carcinogens. Plants that we eat contain thousands of natural pesticides which protect plants from insects and other predators: 64 have been tested and 35 are rodent carcinogens. 4. There is no convincing evidence that synthetic chemical pollutants are important for human cancer. Regulations that try to eliminate minuscule levels of synthetic chemicals are enormously expensive: EPA estimates that total expenditures on environmental regulations cost $140 billion/year. It has been estimated by others that the United States spends 100 times more to prevent one hypothetical, highly uncertain death from a synthetic chemical than it spends to save a life by medical intervention. Attempting to reduce tiny hypothetical risks also has costs; for example, if reducing synthetic pesticides makes fruits and vegetables more expensive, thereby decreasing consumption, then cancer will be increased. 5. Improved health will come from knowledge due to biomedical research and from life-style changes by individuals. Little money is spent on biomedical research or on educating the public about lifestyle hazards, compared to the cost of regulations. PMID:9606601

Ames, B N; Gold, L S

1998-05-01

335

Melatonin prevents neonatal dexamethasone induced programmed hypertension: Histone deacetylase inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by corticosteroid exposure in early life. Oxidative stress, epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the developmental programming of hypertension. We examined whether melatonin prevented neonatal dexamethasone (DEX)-induced programmed hypertension and how melatonin prevented these processes. We also examined whether HDAC inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) had similar effects. Male offspring were assigned to 5 groups (n=6/group): control, DEX, melatonin, DEX+melatonin, and DEX+TSA. Male rat pups were injected i.p. with DEX on day 1 (0.5mg/kg BW), day 2 (0.3mg/kg BW), and day 3 (0.1mg/kg BW) after birth. Melatonin was administered in drinking water at the dose of 0.01% during the lactation period. The DEX+TSA group received DEX and 0.5mg/kg TSA subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week. All rats were killed at 16 weeks of age. Neonatal DEX exposure induced hypertension in male offspring at 16 weeks of age, which melatonin prevented. Neonatal DEX exposure decreased gene expression related to apoptosis, nephrogenesis, RAS, and sodium transporters. Yet DEX treatment increased protein levels of HDAC-1, -2, and -3 in the kidney. Melatonin therapy preserved the decreases of gene expression and decreased HDACs. Similarly, HDAC inhibition prevented DEX-induced programmed hypertension. In conclusion, melatonin therapy exerts a long-term protection against neonatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. Its beneficial effects include alterations of RAS components and inhibition of class I HDACs. Given that the similar protective effects of melatonin and TSA, melatonin might inhibit HDACs to epigenetic regulation of hypertension-related genes to prevent programmed hypertension. PMID:25090636

Wu, Ting-Hsin; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Lin, I-Chun; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

2014-10-01

336

Periderm prevents pathological epithelial adhesions during embryogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate development of stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelia, such as the epidermis and oral epithelia, generates an outer protective permeability barrier that prevents water loss, entry of toxins, and microbial invasion. During embryogenesis, the immature ectoderm initially consists of a single layer of undifferentiated, cuboidal epithelial cells that stratifies to produce an outer layer of flattened periderm cells of unknown function. Here, we determined that periderm cells form in a distinct pattern early in embryogenesis, exhibit highly polarized expression of adhesion complexes, and are shed from the outer surface of the embryo late in development. Mice carrying loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding IFN regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), I?B kinase-? (IKK?), and stratifin (SFN) exhibit abnormal epidermal development, and we determined that mutant animals exhibit dysfunctional periderm formation, resulting in abnormal intracellular adhesions. Furthermore, tissue from a fetus with cocoon syndrome, a lethal disorder that results from a nonsense mutation in IKKA, revealed an absence of periderm. Together, these data indicate that periderm plays a transient but fundamental role during embryogenesis by acting as a protective barrier that prevents pathological adhesion between immature, adhesion-competent epithelia. Furthermore, this study suggests that failure of periderm formation underlies a series of devastating birth defects, including popliteal pterygium syndrome, cocoon syndrome, and Bartsocas-Papas syndrome. PMID:25133425

Richardson, Rebecca J; Hammond, Nigel L; Coulombe, Pierre A; Saloranta, Carola; Nousiainen, Heidi O; Salonen, Riitta; Berry, Andrew; Hanley, Neil; Headon, Denis; Karikoski, Riitta; Dixon, Michael J

2014-09-01

337

Periderm prevents pathological epithelial adhesions during embryogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Appropriate development of stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelia, such as the epidermis and oral epithelia, generates an outer protective permeability barrier that prevents water loss, entry of toxins, and microbial invasion. During embryogenesis, the immature ectoderm initially consists of a single layer of undifferentiated, cuboidal epithelial cells that stratifies to produce an outer layer of flattened periderm cells of unknown function. Here, we determined that periderm cells form in a distinct pattern early in embryogenesis, exhibit highly polarized expression of adhesion complexes, and are shed from the outer surface of the embryo late in development. Mice carrying loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding IFN regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), I?B kinase-? (IKK?), and stratifin (SFN) exhibit abnormal epidermal development, and we determined that mutant animals exhibit dysfunctional periderm formation, resulting in abnormal intracellular adhesions. Furthermore, tissue from a fetus with cocoon syndrome, a lethal disorder that results from a nonsense mutation in IKKA, revealed an absence of periderm. Together, these data indicate that periderm plays a transient but fundamental role during embryogenesis by acting as a protective barrier that prevents pathological adhesion between immature, adhesion-competent epithelia. Furthermore, this study suggests that failure of periderm formation underlies a series of devastating birth defects, including popliteal pterygium syndrome, cocoon syndrome, and Bartsocas-Papas syndrome. PMID:25133425

Richardson, Rebecca J.; Hammond, Nigel L.; Coulombe, Pierre A.; Saloranta, Carola; Nousiainen, Heidi O.; Salonen, Riitta; Berry, Andrew; Hanley, Neil; Headon, Denis; Karikoski, Riitta; Dixon, Michael J.

2014-01-01

338

Primary prevention of Down's syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

2005-07-01

339

Signal Transduction Molecules as Targets for Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental and life-style aspects are major contributors to human carcinogenesis and, therefore, many human cancers may be preventable. Cancer is the end result of defects in cellular signaling processes that play a key role in the control of cell growth, survival, division, and differentiation. Therefore, identifying molecular and cellular targets critical in cancer development and prevention is an area of intensive research, driving the development of highly specific small-molecule inhibitors. A major idea today is that cancer may be prevented or treated by targeting the products of specific cancer-related genes, frequently encoding signaling proteins or transcription factors. Participants in these joint conferences discussed their latest findings in the identification of promising molecular targets and the development of agents directed against these targets with the goal of effectively transitioning these into the clinical setting.

Ann M. Bode (University of Minnesota;The Hormel Institute REV); Zigang Dong (University of Minnesota;The Hormel Institute REV)

2009-02-24

340

Prevention of adolescent chemical dependency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical dependency is part of a significant pattern of serious health problems resulting from the breakdown of social control over impulsive, pleasure-driven adolescent behavior. The drug epidemic in North America, after two decades of relentless increases, shows encouraging signs that stopping it may be possible. Chemical dependency prevention became a serious concern in the 1970s in response to the rising drug epidemic. Initial efforts focused on drug-specific education in the mass media and in the schools. After discouraging and even counterproductive results, nonspecific or generic prevention efforts were tried in both areas. These efforts, too, did not prevent drug use or drug problems. More recently, using cigarette smoking prevention initiatives in schools as a model, hopeful results have been achieved. These efforts combine education about immediate negative effects of drug use with training in skills to resist peer pressure to use drugs. These efforts also build youth peer rejection of drug use. Promising a wider community effort to prevent chemical dependency are several macro prevention programs. These include efforts to decrease tolerance for drug use and to identify drug users in four specific areas: families, schools, highways, and the workplace. Chemical dependency can be prevented by a variety of interventions, including one-to-one encounters, school-based skills training, and society-wide initiatives to reject drug use. The teenage years are a time of unique vulnerability to initiation of drug and alcohol use. The clear goal of prevention is to help young people to survive these years without using drugs, including the gateway drugs: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine. The pediatrician can play a vital role in successful prevention activities with patients, with their families, in communities, and in the nation as a whole. PMID:3562105

DuPont, R L

1987-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Isoflavones (IF) such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans. PMID:25322458

Pudenz, Maria; Roth, Kevin; Gerhauser, Clarissa

2014-01-01

342

Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

Maria Pudenz

2014-10-01

343

Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

Sultan, Sherif

2012-10-01

344

Genes and Hearing Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

345

Traditional healers and cancer prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of cancer in South Africa necessitates the expansion of preventative efforts. This study shows that traditional healers in Atteridgeville are consulted by a range of people in their communities, have a basic knowledge of cancer, provide health education to their patients and are willing to participate in cancer preventative strategies. They are therefore ideally suited to augment the services of westernized health care workers. The issue of professionalization is explored and a procedure is suggested whereby the training of traditional healers can be enhanced so as to facilitate their professionalization and their collaboration with other health care workers in the prevention of cancer.

M Steyn

2000-09-01

346

Strategies for the prevention of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

European experts on autoimmune Type 1 diabetes met for 2 days in October 2010 in Cambridge, to review the state-of-the-art and to discuss strategies for prevention of Type 1 diabetes (http://www-gene.cimr.cam.ac.uk/todd/sub_pages/T1D_prevention_Cambridge_workshop_20_21Oct2010.pdf). Meeting sessions examined the epidemiology of Type 1 diabetes; possible underlying causes of the continuing and rapid increase in Type 1 diabetes incidence at younger ages; and lessons learned from previous prevention trials. Consensus recommendations from the meeting were: 1. Resources such as national diabetes registries and natural history studies play an essential role in developing and refining assays to be used in screening for risk factors for Type 1 diabetes. 2. It is crucial to dissect out the earliest physiological events after birth, which are controlled by the susceptibility genes now identified in Type 1 diabetes, and the environmental factors that might affect these phenotypes, in order to bring forward a mechanistic approach to designing future prevention trials. 3. Current interventions at later stages of disease, such as in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes, have relied mainly on non-antigen-specific mechanisms. For primary prevention-preventing the onset of autoimmunity-interventions must be based on knowledge of the actual disease process such that: participants in a trial would be stratified according the disease-associated molecular phenotypes; the autoantigen(s) and immune responses to them; and the manipulation of the environment, as early as possible in life. Combinations of interventions should be considered as they may allow targeting different components of disease, thus lowering side effects while increasing efficacy. PMID:21812815

Todd, J A; Knip, M; Mathieu, C

2011-10-01

347

Evaluating gene × gene and gene × smoking interaction in rheumatoid arthritis using candidate genes in GAW15  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We examined the potential gene × gene interactions and gene × smoking interactions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the candidate gene data sets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 2. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to test gene × gene interactions among candidate genes. The case-only sample was used to test gene × smoking interactions. The best predictive model was the single-locus model with single-nucleotide polymorphism ...

Mei Ling; Li Xiaohui; Yang Kai; Cui Jinrui; Fang Belle; Guo Xiuqing; Rotter Jerome I

2007-01-01

348

In Search of Target Gene(s to Quantify Pea Pathogenic Nectria haematococca in Agricultural Soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Footrot disease due to N. haematococca (anamorph Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi is a globally, economically important disease of peas. The disease has been linked to the presence of six pea pathogenicity (PEP genes (PDA1, PEP1, PEP2, PEP3, PEP4 and PEP5 inherent in pathogenic forms of the causal fungus N. haematococca MPIV. The disease is prevented only through avoidance of fields with high disease potential. Identifying agricultural fields with a high disease potential prior to pea cultivation has been paramount in the implementation of preventive measures. Although molecular techniques have been successfully used to quantify pathogenic strains of N. haematococca in agricultural soils, targeting all six pathogenicity genes in these assays would not be cost effective. This study therefore attempts to review the functions and roles of the different genes linked with pea pathogenicity with the aim of identifying gene(s that would serve as a logical target in a quantitative molecular assay. Findings suggest that, whilst the PDA gene may be targeted in a preliminary diagnostic measure, a conclusive assay, targeting the PEP3 gene may be required to affirm pea footrot disease potential of agricultural fields. Agricultural fields with the PEP3 gene copy numbers of up to 100 per g soil prior to cultivation may be deemed unsafe for peas.

Ebimieowei Etebu

2011-05-01

349

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... detectors and carbon monoxide detectors on every floor. Test batteries monthly and change twice a year when ... plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . ...

350

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... home, you can help prevent many common home injuries from occurring. Read the following list, and check the box after you have successfully completed the task described: Keep emergency numbers on every ...

351

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... space heaters in unvented rooms, and never keep cars, motorcycles or lawnmowers running in a closed or ... prevent scalding. Unplug curling irons, hair dryers and electric razors when not in use. Lock up any ...

352

Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide 1998 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number ... proteins that cause allergic reactions. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins ...

353

Preventing and Treating Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Preventing and Treating Food Allergy There is currently no cure for food allergies, ...

354

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... medicines, vitamins and household products with child-resistant caps. Store in their original containers and place out ... or similar medication, consider using color-coded medicine caps on the original container to prevent mixing up ...

355

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... help prevent many common home injuries from occurring. Read the following list, and check the box after ... to call 911. Never leave young children unattended. Read this list, and check the box after you ...

356

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... prevent scalding. Unplug curling irons, hair dryers and electric razors when not in use. Lock up any ... away from lawnmowers. Wear protective eyewear when operating power tools. If you have a swimming pool, install ...

357

Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. PMID:24810191

Ten Have, Marieke

2014-04-01

358

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

359

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . Avoid home and garden applications of pesticides and herbicides ... 2 3/8 inches (6 centimeters) apart. To avoid risk of suffocation, never place blankets, pillows or ...

360

Pollution Prevention Guidelines PPG21  

PPG 21 page 1 March PPG212009 Pollution Prevention Guidelines Incident Response Planning: PPG 21 These guidelines are produced jointly by the Environment Agency for England and Wales, the Northern Ireland Environment ...

 
 
 
 
361

Prevention: What You Can Do  

Science.gov (United States)

... WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Prevention: What You Can Do Share Compartir Live ... WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

362

Prevention of disability in leprosy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy is curable now-a-days if initiatives are taken for prevention of disability along with complete and regular chemotherapy. Common disabilities encountered in leprosy are: Claw hand, foot drop, lagophthalmos, plantar ulcers and depressed bridge of nose. Objectives of prevention of disabilities are preservation of nerve function, preservation of vision, to regain functional ability and self-esteem. Measures to prevent disabilities include early diagnosis and treatment with effective chemotherapy, to train leprosy cases to perform self-care practices, providing them with protective aids and referring the cases for surgery if indicated. Lepra reactions are episodes of sudden increase in the activity of the disease. Lepra reactions are treated by bed rest, analgesics rest to affected nerve by splints and a suggested course of prednisolone. Besides, leprosy-affected persons should be encouraged for self-care practices. Counselling and holding care and concern camps (POD camps) are very much integrated wtih the prevention of disabilities. PMID:15871351

Manglani, P R

2004-12-01

363

Stroke prevention in hypertensive patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Importance of the stroke as one of the main reason of population mortality and invalidity is considered. Stroke risk factors including arterial hypertension are described. The main pharmacotherapy ways of primary and secondary stroke prevention are discussed.

S.Y. Martsevich

2006-01-01

364

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... themselves in. Set your water heater at a temperature no higher than 125 degrees F to prevent ... the tub or shower has a non-skid surface. Install an elevated toilet seat. Consider using a ...

365

Pollution Prevention and Control Guidance  

...can be viewed on the EA WebsiteThis guidance refers to the Environmental Permitting Regulations (EPR) rather than the Pollution Prevention and Control Regulations, however NIEA endorses the technical content...

366

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... at a temperature no higher than 125 degrees F to prevent scalding. Unplug curling irons, hair dryers ... To help minimize the chance of your loved one getting hurt, review the checklist below: Arrange furniture ...

367

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... phased out by the Environmental Protection Agency.) Buy medicines, vitamins and household products with child-resistant caps. ... same or similar medication, consider using color-coded medicine caps on the original container to prevent mixing ...

368

Immunopreventive Effects against Murine H22 Hepatocellular Carcinoma in vivo by a DNA Vaccine Targeting a Gastrin- Releasing Peptide.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a continuing need for innovative alternative therapies for liver cancer. DNA vaccines for hormone/ growth factor immune deprivation represent a feasible and attractive approach for cancer treatment. We reported a preventive effect of a DNA vaccine based on six copies of the B cell epitope GRP18-27 with optimized adjuvants against H22 hepatocarcinoma. Vaccination with pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2 (vaccine) elicited much higher level of anti-GRP antibodies and proved efficacious in preventing growth of transplanted hepatocarcinoma cells. The tumor size and weight were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the vaccine subgroup than in the control pCR3.1-VS-TP-HSP65-TP-GRP6, pCR3.1-VS-TP-HSP65-TP-M2 or saline subgroups. In addition, significant reduction of tumor-induced angiogenesis associated with intradermal tumors of H22 cells was observed. These potent effects may open ways towards the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25374249

Meko'o, Jean Louis Didier; Xing, Yun; Zhang, Huiyong; Lu, Yong; Wu, Jie; Cao, Rongyue

2014-01-01

369

Allergy and asthma prevention 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable. PMID:25224992

Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

2014-10-01

370

The prevention of stimulant misuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term 'stimulant' refers to a class of drugs that increase psychophysiological arousal. From the viewpoint of prevention, it is more useful to look primarily at the social consequences and functions of stimulants. Every society has a documented use of stimulants. When planning interventions the dynamics of use must be placed in the foreground. Stimulant epidemics, like problematic stimulant users, have a natural tendency to burn themselves out. Different types of stimulants may differ in their origins, but their epidemiological consequences and use functions tend to be similar. Implications for prevention can be drawn from the characteristics of stimulant use epidemics. Users at risk for socially unacceptable patterns should be targeted for prevention efforts. Mass media campaigns that single out stimulants should be avoided. Much of the harm associated with stimulants is a consequence of life-styles characterized by polydrug use and unhealthy practices. Prevention should be timed to the appropriate period of the epidemic. Interventions useful at period 1 will not work at period 2. The recommendations of the WHO Advisory Group on the Adverse Effects of Cocaine and Coca provide a good model for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention for all forms of stimulant misuse. Stimulant prevention must be creative in finding ways of encouraging the movements of the drug to the periphery of users' lives. PMID:7841865

Kaplan, C D; Husch, J A; Bieleman, B

1994-11-01

371

Gene expression and gene therapy imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

Rome, Claire; Couillaud, Franck [Universite Victor Segalen, Laboratory for Molecular and Functional Imaging, From Physiology to Therapy ERT CNRS, Bordeaux (France); Moonen, Chrit T.W. [Universite Victor Segalen, Laboratory for Molecular and Functional Imaging, From Physiology to Therapy ERT CNRS, Bordeaux (France); Universite Victor Segalen, Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle, ERT CNRS, Bordeaux (France)

2007-02-15

372

Gene expression and gene therapy imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

373

Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have ... day. search Features Can We Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? Mind Your Mouth Wise Choices Links To Prevent Gum ...

374

48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836.513 Section 836.513 ...Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts...

2010-10-01

375

30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section...CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a) During...of components which could cause unreasonable...

2010-07-01

376

45 CFR 96.125 - Primary prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary prevention. 96.125 Section 96.125 Public...ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.125 Primary prevention. (a) For purposes of §...

2010-10-01

377

About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention Brain Health Resource Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease: What Do ...

378

Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Child Maltreatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Task Force FINAL | 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Child Maltreatment The U.S. ... 2 Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Child Maltreatment Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect ...

379

29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151...AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY...REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a)...

2010-07-01

380

7 CFR 2902.44 - Corrosion preventatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 2902.44 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition...designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Eyes Healthy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Series : Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy On this ... t smoke. [ Top ] What can I do to prevent diabetes eye problems? You can do a lot ...

382

Preventing atopy and allergic disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study. PMID:24504215

Heine, Ralf G

2014-01-01

383

Measurement of glyoxalase gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glyoxalase system is an important component of the enzymatic defence against glycation, preventing particularly quantitatively and functionally important glycation of protein and DNA by methylglyoxal. Expression of genes encoding Glo1 (glyoxalase I) and Glo2 (glyoxalase II) may be induced or suppressed, and rates of proteolysis of Glo1 and Glo2 proteins may change in health and disease. Quantitative assessment of glyoxalase gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels has become a key part of glyoxalase system characterization. For mRNA, there is the common technique of real-time RT (reverse transcription)-PCR and direct quantification of mRNA copy number by the Nanostring™ method. For glyoxalase protein quantification, there is the commonly used Western blotting, and also immunoassay and, in proteome-wide studies, quantitative proteomics and proteome dynamics. We provide protocols for the common methods below and briefly review their application. PMID:24646267

Xue, Mingzhan; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

2014-04-01

384

PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The PREVENT Cancer Drug Development Program is a National Cancer Institute-supported pipeline to bring new cancer preventing interventions and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials.

385

Falls prevention for the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical integrity. Discussion and

Dagmar Lühmann

2012-04-01

386

HIV prevention strategies in Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper concerns the administration of governmental and nongovernmental programs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Africa. A 1986 government campaign in the prevention of HIV in Senegal has been initiated and has been guided consistently. The Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) which assembles young population, women, and communities, towards their goal to prevent HIV infection. Marocaine de Lutte Contre le SIDA (ALCS), another NGO in Morocco believes that early intervention and education could help prevent further spread of infection. ALCS focused on the education of sex workers and the use of condoms. They also work with a group of men to promote safe sex and tackle the need for better testing facilities. In Uganda, the focus of the organization is to control the high incidence found in couples with only one infected partner. Another organization incorporates accurate HIV/AIDS information during prayers and other religious activities. Another approach was adopted by teaching English in secondary schools with AIDS information, values on education, family, and employment as content. An NGO in Cape Town was established to form loose cooperative to exchange information and resources within the community. An ongoing nationwide campaign for HIV prevention and control especially among high-risk groups and an effort on STD treatment is being organized. PMID:12322296

Menting, A

2000-01-01

387

Prevention of diseases after menopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium. PMID:24969415

Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J

2014-10-01

388

The Money Laundering Prevention System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

Sonja Cindori

2007-03-01

389

Evaluation of Preventive Studies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45

Müyesser Sayki Arslan

2013-06-01

390

Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

2009-04-06

391

Preventing type II diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burgeoning obesity is increasing the prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus. As a consequence, there will be an even greater burden of cardiovascular disease, end-stage renal disease, blindness, and lower extremity amputations. If diagnosed, impaired glucose tolerance presents an opportunity for intervention that potentially could delay or prevent the development of diabetes. Recent prospective studies document the effectiveness of exercise and weight reduction in preventing diabetes. Metformin is less effective than intense lifestyle interventions. Acarbose, losartan, orlistat, pravastatin, ramipril, and hormone replacement therapy are associated with lower rates of the development of diabetes. The Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) trial and the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial were designed to assess not only the prevention of diabetes but also the impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:15051749

Prisant, L Michael

2004-04-01

392

Preventing cardiovascular disease in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Women's Healthy Heart Initiative clinic was launched in 2009 at the McGill University Health Centre to provide women with comprehensive primary prevention care. The mission of this nurse-led clinic is to increase awareness among women of their risk of heart disease and to empower them to be proactive in achieving heart health. In this article, the author discusses the findings from an analysis of clinical measures in the clinic's first three years of operation. The clinic has helped patients reduce their blood pressure, cholesterol levels and weight. The clinic's nurses have gained insights into the importance of self-referral and family history in preventive care. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this collaborative care model in heart disease prevention. PMID:24822465

Wray, Wendy

2014-04-01

393

Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ?non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ?offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ?injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ?fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ?discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ?multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ?and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ?successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ?initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.?

Dehran Swart

2009-07-01

394

Fracture prevention in postmenopausal women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lifetime risk of fracture in white women is 20% for the spine, 15% for the wrist, and 18% for the hip, with an exponential increase in risk beyond the age of 50 years. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of pharmacological treatments other than bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of non-pharmacological treatments to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

Vestergaard, Peter; Mosekilde, Leif

2011-01-01

395

Action indicators for injury prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable confusion about the nature of indicators, their use in the injury field and surprisingly little discussion about these important tools. To date discussions of injury indicators have focused on the content and presentation of health outcome measures and on the dearth of data on exposure measures. Whereas these are valuable measures and assessing the optimal use of available routinely collected data in forming indicators is important, they do not provide sufficient information to support comprehensive prevention efforts, nor do they harness the full potential of indicators as tools to support prevention efforts. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics and uses of indicators for the field of injury prevention in order to make the case for action indicators and provide a framework for their appropriate use. PMID:20570988

MacKay, J Morag; Macpherson, Alison K; Pike, Ian; Vincenten, Joanne; McClure, Rod

2010-06-01

396

Needlestick and Sharps Injury Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every day while caring for patients, nurses are at risk to exposure to bloodborne pathogens potentially resulting in infections such as HIV or hepatitis B and C. These exposures, while preventable, are often accepted as being a part of the job. In the United States, needlestick injuries have begun to decrease from an estimated one million exposures per year in 1996 to 385,000 per year in 2000. This decline has resulted from the protections afforded by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Reasons for the success in decreasing needlestick and sharps injuries may be attributed to the elimination of needle recapping and the use of safer needle devices, sharps collection boxes, gloves and personal protective gear, and universal precautions. The prevention of needlestick injuries has made slow progress over the past 20 years since the HIV epidemic drew attention to the deadly nature of health care work and to protection of health care worker health and safety. In Africa, where the AIDS virus originated and where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among hospitalized patients is highest in the world, attention has been directed only recently at protecting health care workers. Nurses, especially those infected from a preventable exposure, have been at the forefront of advocacy for prevention. This article includes a review about the hazard of exposure to bloodborne pathogens and epidemiology of occupational infection. The author discusses how to apply standard methods of occupational health and industry hygiene using the hierarchy of controls framework to prevent exposure to blood, and discusses evidence-based prevention and efficacy of particular control measures. Legislative progress and implementation of enforceable policy to protect health care workers is outlined.

Wilburn, S

2004-09-01

397

@Prevention: a website project for prevention in the healthcare setting.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the field of prevention, Internet websites and their related instruments constitute valuable tools for healthcare facilities, and particularly for Local Healthcare Authorities (LHA). As yet, however, their undoubted potential remains largely unexploited. Many LHA websites currently operating in Italy are organized in such a way that they fail to make adequate use of this precious resource. Indeed, communication regarding prevention is all too often limited to the simple reproduction of information and indications in a static and heterogeneous manner, so much so that it resembles a mere "online notice-board". The aim of the present research was to analyze the current situation and the various innovative proposals that have been made, in order to construct a more effective website model that could be used nationwide. To this end, the research was carried out through a two-pronged approach: on the one hand, all 190 LHA websites in Italy were analyzed; on the other, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of habitual users of the most modern and widespread social network, Facebook. Analysis and elaboration of the data gathered led to the creation of the model "@Prevention". This project is intended to introduce an innovative perspective into the field of online communication for healthcare prevention by providing a highly useful tool for the LHA, healthcare workers and, obviously, citizens. PMID:21842707

Rosselli, R; Onesti, A; Martini, M; Cartiglia, C; Sticchi, L; Alberti, M

2011-06-01

398

Latest opportunistic infection prevention guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although people with HIV are living longer than ever before, they continue to suffer from infections that are associated with low T4-cell counts. The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) have updated the guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections, including their positions on when prophylaxis is indicated. Summaries are given for preventing the following infections: cytomegalovirus (CMV), cryptosporidiosis, fungal infections, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes-related infections, mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), streptococcal pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis. PMID:11365000

D'Amico, R

1998-01-01

399

Recent topics of flaw prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flaws resulting from corrosion are still a significant issue in nuclear power plants. Prevention of these flaws is one of the biggest themes of plant maintenance and new countermeasures have been developed year by year. In this paper three newly proposed techniques are presented: (1) ceramics coatings on flange seal surface by surface hardening due to laser-alloying to prevent pitting corrosion; (2) Induction Heating Stress Improvement (IHSI) on nozzle safe-end with thermal sleeve by using forced cooling; and (3) TIG Torch Heating Stress Improvement (THSI) to reduce welding residual stress on small diameter pipes. (author)

400

Prevention of hypovolemic circulatory collapse by IL-6 activated Stat3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Half of trauma deaths are attributable to hypovolemic circulatory collapse (HCC). We established a model of HCC in rats involving minor trauma plus severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). HCC in this model was accompanied by a 50% reduction in peak acceleration of aortic blood flow and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HCC and apoptosis increased with increasing duration of hypotension. Apoptosis required resuscitation, which provided an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. Administration of IL-6 completely reversed HCC, prevented cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced mortality 5-fold and activated intracardiac signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3. Pre-treatment of rats with a selective inhibitor of Stat3, T40214, reduced the IL-6-mediated increase in cardiac Stat3 activity, blocked successful resuscitation by IL-6 and reversed IL-6-mediated protection from cardiac apoptosis. The hearts of mice deficient in the naturally occurring dominant negative isoform of Stat3, Stat3beta, were completely resistant to HS-induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis of hearts focusing on apoptosis related genes revealed that expression of 29% of apoptosis related genes was altered in HS vs. sham rats. IL-6 treatment normalized the expression of these genes, while T40214 pretreatment prevented IL-6-mediated normalization. Thus, cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes are important components of HCC; IL-6 administration prevented HCC by blocking cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes via Stat3 and warrants further study as a resuscitation adjuvant for prevention of HCC and death in trauma patients. PMID:18270592

Alten, Jeffrey A; Moran, Ana; Tsimelzon, Anna I; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Poli, Valeria; Tweardy, David J

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Antioxidative nanofullerol prevents intervertebral disk degeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xinlin Yang,1 Li Jin,1 Lu Yao,2,3 Francis H Shen,1 Adam L Shimer,1 Xudong Li11Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Beijing Tongrentang Co., Ltd, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Compelling evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in disk degeneration. Fullerol nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution have been demonstrated to have outstanding ability to scavenge ROS. In this report, in vitro and in vivo models were used to study the efficacy of fullerol in preventing disk degeneration. For in vitro experiments, a pro-oxidant H2O2 or an inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-1? was employed to induce degenerated phenotypes in human nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in alginate beads, and fullerol was added in the culture medium. For the animal study, an annulus-puncture model with rabbit was created, and fullerol was injected into disks. It was shown that cytotoxicity and cellular ROS level induced by H2O2 were significantly diminished by fullerol. IL-1? -induced nitric oxide generation in culture medium was suppressed by fullerol as well. Gene-profile and biochemical assays showed that fullerol effectively reversed the matrix degradation caused by either H2O2 or IL-1?. The animal study delineated that intradiskal injection of fullerol prevented disk degeneration, increasing water and proteoglycan content and inhibiting ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that antioxidative fullerol may have a potential therapeutic application for disk degeneration.Keywords: free radical, extracellular matrix, intervertebral disk, antioxidant, fullerol

Yang X

2014-05-01

402

Cell type specific, traceable gene silencing for functional gene analysis during vertebrate neural development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many genes have several, sometimes divergent functions during development. Therefore, timing of gene knockdown for functional analysis during development has to be done with precise temporal control, as loss of a gene's function at early stages prevents its analysis later in development. RNAi, in combination with the accessibility of chicken embryos, is an effective approach for temporally controlled analysis of gene function during neural development. Here, we describe novel plasmid vectors that contain cell type-specific promoters/enhancers to drive the expression of a fluorescent marker, followed directly by a miR30-RNAi transcript for gene silencing. These vectors allow for direct tracing of cells experiencing gene silencing by the bright fluorescence. The level of knockdown is sufficient to reproduce the expected pathfinding defects upon perturbation of genes with known axon guidance functions. Mixing different vectors prior to electroporation enables the simultaneous knockdown of multiple genes in independent regions of the spinal cord. This permits complex cellular and molecular interactions to be examined during development, in a fast and precise manner. The advancements of the in ovo RNAi technique that we describe will not only markedly enhance functional gene analysis in the chicken, but also could be adapted to other organisms in developmental studies. PMID:21824915

Wilson, Nicole H; Stoeckli, Esther T

2011-11-01

403

Pollution prevention program implementation plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

404

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most people at least ... doctor or healthcare professional or a Causes of Back Pain The most common cause of back pain is ...

405

Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

Vidal, John A.

1986-01-01

406

Medical errors and their prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New protocols and procedures for reducing medical errors will be discussed and evaluated in this paper. Further Computerized Physician Order Entry and Clinical Decision Support Systems coupled with monitoring of adverse drug events will be explored. Then lastly some common mistakes of “Wrong-Side” type surgeries and methods to prevent them will be discussed.

Veronika Sniegirova; Pavlo Lyovkin; Mariusz Tybinski; Daniel Kopec

2012-01-01

407

Medical errors and their prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New protocols and procedures for reducing medical errors will be discussed and evaluated in this paper. Further Computerized Physician Order Entry and Clinical Decision Support Systems coupled with monitoring of adverse drug events will be explored. Then lastly some common mistakes of “Wrong-Side” type surgeries and methods to prevent them will be discussed.

Veronika Sniegirova

2012-04-01

408

Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT)  

Science.gov (United States)

A fact sheet about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), which found that 25 percent fewer men taking the drug finasteride developed prostate cancer than men not taking the drug but that men who developed prostate cancer while taking finasteride were more likely to have high-grade cancers.

409

Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

410

Virus infections: strategies of prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different approaches can be adopted in preventing virus infections. Public health measures can reduce the risk of infection but virus-specific prophylaxis, passive and most importantly active immunization are the most effective strategies for controlling and eradicating virus infections. PMID:1524569

Deinhardt, F

1992-04-01

411

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in an emergency situation. Install smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors on every floor. Test batteries monthly and ... at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . Avoid home and garden ... exposure to pesticides, consider using integrated pest management (IPM), ...

412

Epidemiological Perspectives on Maltreatment Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Fred Wulczyn explores how data on the incidence and distribution of child maltreatment shed light on planning and implementing maltreatment prevention programs. He begins by describing and differentiating among the three primary sources of national data on maltreatment. Wulczyn then points out several important patterns in the data. The first…

Wulczyn, Fred

2009-01-01

413

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most people at least once ... or healthcare professional or a Causes of Back Pain The most common cause of back pain is ...

414

Automated System Programs Preventive Maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A preventive maintenance system provides for the monitoring and inspection of school building elements in a programmed way through an automatic checklist. Utility cost savings are expected along with reduction of travel and wait time, and measurable standards of performance for all maintenance and repair work. (MLF)

Locke, Richard C.

1987-01-01

415

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

Merchant Anwar T

2005-09-01

416

Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... 75 with at least 10 years life expectancy. Pap smear (gynecologic/pelvic examination) At least every 3 years. ... and older if they have had 3 normal Pap smears up to that age; if never tested before, ...

417

Role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in prevention of colon cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are important for the proliferation of cancer cells. One of their binding proteins, known as insulin-like growth factor binding protein -4 (IGFBP-4 is well known for its inhibitory action on IGFs in vitro. We assessed the effect of IGFBP-4 in prevention of development of colon cancer in vivo. Methods Nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with HT-29 colon cancer cells and they were also simultaneously injected either gene construct containing mammalian expression vector pcDNA3 with or without IGFBP-4 gene or phosphate buffered saline. The effect was assessed 4 weeks later by evaluating the tumours for mitosis, necrosis, apoptosis, and expressions of IGFBP-4, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Results The results showed that the IGFBP-4 gene therapy did not prevent the tumour establishment but it increased the tumour apoptosis which was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. The IGFBP-4 protein was low in tumours which received IGFBP-4 gene construct which may be due to a feed back mechanism of IGFBP-4 upon its own cells. Conclusion IGFBP-4 gene therapy in the form localised gene transfer did not prevent colon cancer initiation and establishment but it resulted in increased apoptosis and Bax protein expression and a decrease in tumour cellular mitosis

Seifalian Alexander M

2007-11-01

418

Antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Migraineurs may continue to experience attacks, despite daily use of one or more agents from a wide range of drugs, including beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, serotonin antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and antiepileptic agents. Divalproex sodium is the only antiepileptic drug approved for migraine prevention. Gabapentin, topiramate, and other antiepileptic agents are being evaluated for migraine prevention and treatment. Prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex, gabapentin, and topiramate for migraine prevention generally were composed of a prospective baseline period, a dose titration period, and a fixed-dose treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was a reduction in the 28-day frequency of migraine headache. Patients receiving divalproex for 12 weeks at doses up to 1500 mg/day achieved significant decreases in the migraine frequency (Pvomiting, somnolence, tremor, and alopecia were common adverse events associated with divalproex. Significant reductions in migraine frequency were also observed with gabapentin (1800 to 2400 mg/day) when compared with placebo (Pgabapentin-treated patients. Two single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluated topiramate for migraine prevention. A lower 28-day migraine frequency was seen during 18 weeks of administration at a maximum daily dose of 200 mg (P =.09). In a second study, a significantly lower mean 28-day migraine frequency was observed during 16 weeks of treatment with topiramate (P =.0015). Mean reduction in migraine frequency was also significantly greater in topiramate-treated patients (P =.0037). Paresthesias, diarrhea, somnolence, and altered taste were commonly reported adverse events in the topiramate-treated patients. Unlike some patients given divalproex or gabapentin, some given topiramate reported weight loss. Large, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials may prove the effectiveness of novel antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention. PMID:11903536

Mathew, N T

2001-01-01

419

BREAST CANCER RISK FACTORS: PREVENTABLE AND NON-PREVENTABLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers in women. The incidence of breast cancer is rising in every country of the world especially in developing countries such as India. In 1940, the lifetime risk of a woman developing breast cancer was 5%, or one in 20. The American Cancer Society estimates that risk being 13% in 2012, or more than one in 8. Studies have shown that certain factors, called risk factors, increase the likelihood that a woman will develop breast cancer. Many of these risk factors are not reversible, but some can be modified. A “risk factor” is anything that increases the risk of developing breast cancer. Many of the most important risk factors for breast cancer are beyond control (non-preventable, such as age, family history, and medical history. However, there are some risk factors that are preventable, such as weight, physical activity, and alcohol consumption.

R. Lakshmi

2012-10-01

420

Imaging gene expression in gene therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on `suicide gene therapy` of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k{sup +}) has been use for `suicide` in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene expression where the H S V-1 t k{sup +} gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([{sup 18} F]F H P G; [{sup 18} F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([{sup 123}/{sup 131} I]I V R F U; [{sup 124}/{sup 131I}]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [{sup 123}/{sup 131I}]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k{sup +} reporter gene will be presented

Wiebe, Leonard I. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research

1997-12-31

 
 
 
 
421

Imaging gene expression in gene therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131rimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

422

Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of effect in some of these trials. In this paper we explore the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy within an RCT. Analysis We used simple quantitative methods to illustrate the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy by assuming a uniform population in terms of sexual behavior and the binomial model for the transmission probability per partnership. At 100% adherence the measured efficacy within an RCT is a reasonable approximation of the true biological efficacy. However, as adherence levels fall, the efficacy measured within a trial substantially under-estimates the true biological efficacy. For example, at 60% adherence, the measured efficacy can be less than half of the true biological efficacy. Conclusion Poor adherence during a trial can substantially reduce the power to detect an effect, and improved methods of achieving and maintaining high adherence within trials are needed. There are currently 12 ongoing HIV prevention trials, all but one of which require ongoing user-adherence. Attention must be given to methods of maximizing adherence when piloting and designing RCTs and HIV prevention programmes.

Hayes Richard J

2008-07-01

423

Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical activity exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis that are channeled through our genes. Where variation in the target genes of physical activity exists, gene-physical activity interactions may occur, such that individual genetic profiles inflict differing physiological responses to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the biological mechanisms of how type 2 diabetes develops, which could open up new avenues for the development of novel treatments. It has also been postulated that knowledge of interactions could improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes by enabling targeted interventions. The present chapter will introduce the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Finally, we will discuss the existing and emerging strategies that might enhance our ability to identify and exploit gene-physical activity interactions in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

2014-01-01

424

[Memorandum - research funding of prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

The memorandum of the research funding of prevention has been devised within the framework of the Prevention Research Funding Programme of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It consists not only of the obtained findings of the research-practice co-operation but also of recommendations for the implementation of prospective, innovational, effective, practice-oriented and sustainable research. The respective knowledge has been acquired from quantitative surveys on the experiences of scientists and practice partners within the prevention research funding project as well as from extensive qualitative methods of structured group evaluation. A participatory co-operation between research and practice based on mutual respect, trust and recognition is seen as mandatory for the further development of both prevention and health promotion research. Research and practice partners are required to engage in an ab initio collaboration starting from the conception phase, whereby it is advisable to encourage and fortify the communication between research, practice and funding partners by systematic surveillance in form of a meta-project. In addition, the inclusion of the target population from the outset and on a collaborative basis is considered as beneficial in order to ensure the practical application of the research findings. Furthermore, innovatory research designs which are able to provide a framework for internal flexibility, continuous re-assessment and adjustment are fundamental for the implementation of practice-oriented research. Moreover, a dynamic co-operation between different groups of interest not only depends on sharing responsibility but also on sufficient funding for both research and practice, which is particularly important for the transfer and communication of the attained findings. With regard to the evaluation of both effectiveness and sustainability of interventions, a research funding project is required which makes long-term results possible through the utilization of regulated monitoring and guarantees quality and continuous effectiveness. Furthermore, in order to stimulate progress within the basic theories of prevention and health promotion, it is also essential for a funding project to focus on elementary concepts. Additionally, for the efficient and sustainable development of health within a population it is advisable to apply both self-contained research and the involvement of primary prevention and health promotion to research projects concerning health, social affairs, education, work and environment. PMID:22941740

Walter, U; Gold, C; Hoffmann, W; Jahn, I; Töppich, J; Wildner, M; Dubben, S; Franze, M; John, J; Kliche, T; Lehmann, H; Naegele, G; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Pott, E; Robra, B-P

2012-08-01

425

Curcumin prevents and reverses murine cardiac hypertrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromatin remodeling, particularly histone acetylation, plays a critical role in the progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We hypothesized that curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound abundant in the spice turmeric and a known suppressor of histone acetylation, would suppress cardiac hypertrophy through the disruption of p300 histone acetyltransferase-dependent (p300-HAT-dependent) transcriptional activation. We tested this hypothesis using primary cultured rat cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts as well as two well-established mouse models of cardiac hypertrophy. Curcumin blocked phenylephrin-induced (PE-induced) cardiac hypertrophy in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, curcumin both prevented and reversed mouse cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding (AB) and PE infusion, as assessed by heart weight/BW and lung weight/BW ratios, echocardiographic parameters, and gene expression of hypertrophic markers. Further investigation demonstrated that curcumin abrogated histone acetylation, GATA4 acetylation, and DNA-binding activity through blocking p300-HAT activity. Curcumin also blocked AB-induced inflammation and fibrosis through disrupting p300-HAT-dependent signaling pathways. Our results indicate that curcumin has the potential to protect against cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis through suppression of p300-HAT activity and downstream GATA4, NF-kappaB, and TGF-beta-Smad signaling pathways. PMID:18292803

Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Chen; de Couto, Geoffrey; Ouzounian, Maral; Sun, Mei; Wang, Ai-Bing; Huang, Yue; He, Cheng-Wei; Shi, Yu; Chen, Xin; Nghiem, Mai P; Liu, Youan; Chen, Manyin; Dawood, Fayez; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Zhang, Liyong; Leask, Andrew; Ghosh, Asish K; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A; Liu, Peter P

2008-03-01

426

Targeting polyamines and inflammation for cancer prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased polyamine synthesis and inflammation have long been associated with intraepithelial neoplasia, which are risk factors for cancer development in humans. Targeting polyamine metabolism (by use of polyamine synthesis inhibitors or polyamine catabolism activators) and inflammation (by use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) has been studied for many cancers, including colon, prostate, and skin. Genetic epidemiology results indicate that a genetic variant associated with the expression of a polyamine biosynthetic gene is associated with risk of colon and prostate cancers. A clinical trial of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a selective inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, showed that the 1 year treatment duration reduced prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen doubling time in men with a family history of prostate cancer. A second, clinical trial of DFMO in combination with sulindac, a NSAID in patients with prior colon polyps found that the 3-year treatment was associated with a 70% reduction of all, and over a 90% reduction of advanced and/or multiple metachronous colon adenomas. In this chapter, we discuss that similar combination prevention strategies of targeting polyamines and inflammation can be effective in reducing risk factors associated with the development of human cancers. PMID:21253788

Babbar, Naveen; Gerner, Eugene W

2011-01-01

427

The National Birth Defects Prevention Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight states. Infants used as controls are randomly selected from birth certificates or birth hospital records. Mothers of case and control infants are interviewed and parents are asked to collect buccal cells from themselves and their infants for DNA testing. Information gathered from the interviews and the DNA specimens will be used to study independent genetic and environmental factors and gene-environment interactions for a broad range of birth defects. As of December 2000, 7,470 cases and 3,821 controls had been ascertained in the eight states. Interviews had been completed with 70% of the eligible case and control mothers, buccal cell collection had begun in all of the study sites, and researchers were developing analysis plans for the compiled data. This study is the largest and broadest collaborative effort ever conducted among the nation's leading birth defect researchers. The unprecedented statistical power that will result from this study will enable scientists to study the epidemiology of some rare birth defects for the first time. The compiled interview data and banked DNA of approximately 35 categories of birth defects will facilitate future research as new hypotheses and improved technologies emerge. PMID:11889273

Yoon, P W; Rasmussen, S A; Lynberg, M C; Moore, C A; Anderka, M; Carmichael, S L; Costa, P; Druschel, C; Hobbs, C A; Romitti, P A; Langlois, P H; Edmonds, L D

2001-01-01

428