WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Description of a new Mycobacterium intracellulare pattern of PCR restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work comprises 9 pulmonary nontuberculous mycobateria isolates obtained from sputum of 4 different patients from Brazil. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis allowed their accurate identification as Mycobacterium intracellulare. We report a mutation at position 453 creating a new HaeIII cutting site and, therefore, a new PRA-hsp65 M. intracellulare profile. PMID:24655570

Caldas, Paulo Cesar de Souza; Campos, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Dos Reis, Lusiano Motta; Ferreira, Nicole Victor; de Carvalho, Luciana Distásio; da Silva, Mariza Villas Boas; Medeiros, Reginalda Ferreira de Melo; Montes, Fátima Cristina Onofre Fandinho; Ramos, Jesus Pais

2014-06-01

2

Tissue distribution of a plasmid DNA encoding Hsp65 gene is dependent on the dose administered through intramuscular delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to assess a new strategy of DNA vaccine for a more complete understanding of its action in immune response, it is important to determine the in vivo biodistribution fate and antigen expression. In previous studies, our group focused on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of a plasmid DNA encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and achieved an efficient immune response induction as well as protection against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present study, we examined in vivo tissue distribution of naked DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, the Hsp65 message, genome integration and methylation status of plasmid DNA. The DNA-Hsp65 was detectable in several tissue types, indicating that DNA-Hsp65 disseminates widely throughout the body. The biodistribution was dose-dependent. In contrast, RT-PCR detected the Hsp65 message for at least 15 days in muscle or liver tissue from immunized mice. We also analyzed the methylation status and integration of the injected plasmid DNA into the host cellular genome. The bacterial methylation pattern persisted for at least 6 months, indicating that the plasmid DNA-Hsp65 does not replicate in mammalian tissue, and Southern blot analysis showed that plasmid DNA was not integrated. These results have important implications for the use of DNA-Hsp65 vaccine in a clinical setting and open new perspectives for DNA vaccines and new considerations about the inoculation site and delivery system. PMID:16445866

Coelho-Castelo, A A M; Trombone, A P; Rosada, R S; Santos, R R; Bonato, V L D; Sartori, A; Silva, C L

2006-01-01

3

hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory / PCR e análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 (PRA) para identificação de micobactérias no laboratório clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Mais de 70 espécies de micobactérias já foram definidas e algumas delas podem causar enfermidade em humanos, especialmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. A identificação de espécie, na maioria dos laboratórios clínicos, se baseia em características fenotípicas e testes bioquímicos e resultados def [...] initivos só são obtidos após duas a quatro semanas. Métodos rápidos de identificação reduzem o tempo necessário para o diagnóstico e podem antecipar a instituição do tratamento específico, aumentando as chances de sucesso. A análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 amplificado por PCR (PRA) foi utilizada como método rápido de identificação em 103 isolamentos clínicos. Os padrões de bandas foram interpretados por comparação com tabelas publicadas e padrões disponíveis em um site de Internet (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005). Resultados concordantes de PRA e identificação bioquímica foram obtidos em 76 de 83 isolamentos (91,5%). Os resultados de 20 isolamentos não puderam ser comparados porque a identificação fenotípica ou por PRA foi inconclusiva. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram que PRA pode ser útil para identificação de rotina de micobactérias por ser um método acurado, rápido e mais econômico do que a identificação convencional. Abstract in english More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to f [...] our weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was used as a rapid method for identification of 103 clinical isolates. Band patterns were interpreted by comparison with published tables and patterns available at an Internet site (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005). Concordant results of PRA and biochemical identification were obtained in 76 out of 83 isolates (91.5%). Results from 20 isolates could not be compared due to inconclusive PRA or biochemical identification. The results of this work showed that PRA could improve identification of mycobacteria in a routine setting because it is accurate, fast, and cheaper than conventional phenotypic identification.

Carolina Feher da, SILVA; Suely Yoko Mizuka, UEKI; Débora de Cássia Pires, GEIGER; Sylvia Cardoso, LEÃO.

4

Sequencing of hsp65 Gene for Identification of Mycobacterium Species Isolated from Environmental and Clinical Sources in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the biodiversity of 28 clinical and 24 environmental Mycobacterium isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by using hsp65 sequences, with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and usefulness of this marker. An extensive phylogenetic analysis was performed. The nucleotide diversity was similar between clinical (0.06508) and environmental (0.06221) isolates.

2008-01-01

5

Ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway: A new strategy for inducing CD8 cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an indispensable role in inducing MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. In this study, we exploited UPS to induce CD8+ T cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65 (mHSP65), one of the leading vaccine candidates against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A chimeric DNA termed pU-HSP65 encoding a fusion protein between murine ubiquitin and mHSP65 was constructed, and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were immunized with the DNA using gene gun bombardment. Mice immunized with the chimeric DNA acquired potent resistance against challenge with the syngeneic B16F1 melanoma cells transfected with the mHSP65 gene (HSP65/B16F1), compared with those immunized with DNA encoding only mHSP65. Splenocytes from the former group of mice showed a higher grade of cytotoxic activity against HSP65/B16F1 cells and contained a larger number of granzyme B- or IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells compared with those from the latter group of mice

2008-01-25

6

DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.

Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis, up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material.  A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk 

Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,

Joab Trajano Silva

2008-12-01

7

Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65 gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65 was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization, the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2 characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

D.M. Fonseca

2007-11-01

8

Sequencing of hsp65 Distinguishes among Subsets of the Mycobacterium avium Complex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mycobacterium avium complex consists of epidemiologically distinct subsets. The classification of these subsets is complicated by a number of factors, including the ambiguous results obtained with phenotypic and genetic assays and the recent appreciation that human and avian strains appear to be distinct. In previous work, sequencing based on a 441-bp portion of the hsp65 gene has proven to efficiently classify isolates within the Mycobacterium genus but provides low resolution for distin...

Turenne, Christine Y.; Semret, Makeda; Cousins, Debby V.; Collins, Desmond M.; Behr, Marcel A.

2006-01-01

9

Ub Combination Enhanced Cellular Immune Response Elicited by HSP65 DNA Vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  This study observed the immune response induced by a HSP65 DNA vaccine fused with UbGR against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were inoculated with HSP65 DNA vaccine, UbGR-fused HSP65 DNA vaccine (Ub-GR-HSP65 and blank vector respectively. HSP65 DNA vaccine elicited a Thl-polarized immune response. The Thl-type cytokine (IFN-? and proliferative T cell responses from spleen were improved significantly in UbGR-HSP65 group, compared with those in HSP65 DNA vaccine group. Furthermore, this fusion DNA vaccine also led to an increased ratio of IgG2ato IgGl and the cytotoxicity of T cells. IFN-? intracellular staining of splenocytes indicated that UbGR-HSP65 fusion DNA vaccine could activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with much higher CD8+ T cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that the UbGR fusion could improve HSP65-specific cellular immune responses, which is helpful to protect against TB infection.

Qingmin Wang

2013-08-01

10

Tissue distribution of DNA-Hsp65/TDM-loaded PLGA microspheres and uptake by phagocytic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to demonstrate that microspheres, used as delivery vehicle of DNA-Hsp65/TDM [plasmid DNA encoding heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) coencapsulated with trehalose dimycolate (TDM) into PLGA microspheres], are widely spread among several organs after intramuscular administration in BALB/c mice. In general, we showed that these particles were phagocytosed by antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Besides, it was demonstrated herein that draining lymph node cells presented a significant increase in the number of cells expressing costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, and also that the administration of the DNA-Hsp65/TDM and vector/TDM formulations resulted in the up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and MHC class II expression when compared to control formulations (vector/TDM and empty). Regarding the intracellular trafficking we observed that following phagocytosis, the microspheres were not found in the late endosomes and/or lysosomes, until 15 days after internalization, and we suggest that these constructions were hydrolysed in early compartments. Overall, these data expand our knowledge on PLGA [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microspheres as gene carriers in vaccination strategies, as well as open perspectives for their potential use in clinical practice. PMID:17880727

Trombone, Ana Paula F; Silva, Celio L; Almeida, Luciana P; Rosada, Rogerio S; Lima, Karla M; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria C; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete A M

2007-01-01

11

Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis. PMID:22983180

Rocha, C D; Trombone, A P F; Lorenzi, J C C; Almeida, L P; Gembre, A F; Padilha, E; Ramos, S G; Silva, C L; Coelho-Castelo, A A M

2012-12-01

12

Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E.; Ramos, S.G.; Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M.

2012-01-01

13

The Role of M. leprae Hsp65 Protein and Peptides in the Pathogenesis of Uveitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a well established model for immune-mediated organ-specific disease. Our group has recently shown that the M. leprae Hsp65 aggravated the uveitis in mice; in the present study, we evaluated the action of M. leprae??K409A mutant protein and the synthetic peptides Leader pep and K409A pep (covering amino acids residues 352–371 of WT and K409A proteins of M. leprae Hsp65, resp.) on the pathogenesis of EAU. Mice received the 161–180 IRBP peptide an...

Commodaro, Alessandra Gonc?alves; Marengo, Eliana Blini; Peron, Jean Pierre S.; Brandao, Wesley; Arslanian, Christina; Melo, Robson Lopes; Baldon, Estevam J.; Belfort, Rubens; Sant Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

2012-01-01

14

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Chaperonin 60.1 Is a More Potent Cytokine Stimulator than Chaperonin 60.2 (Hsp 65) and Contains a CD14-Binding Domain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much attention has focused on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular chaperone chaperonin (Cpn) 60.2 (Hsp 65) in the pathology of tuberculosis because of its immunogenicity and ability to directly activate human monocytes and vascular endothelial cells. However, M. tuberculosis is one of a small group of bacteria that contain multiple genes encoding Cpn 60 proteins. We have now cloned and expressed both M. tuberculosis proteins and report that the novel chaperonin 60, Cpn 60.1, is a more po...

2001-01-01

15

Administration of M. leprae Hsp65 Interferes with the Murine Lupus Progression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The heat shock protein [Hsp] family guides several steps during protein synthesis, are abundant in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and are highly conserved during evolution. The Hsp60 family is involved in assembly and transport of proteins, and is expressed at very high levels during autoimmunity or autoinflammatory phenomena. Here, the pathophysiological role of the wild type [WT] and the point mutated K409A recombinant Hsp65 of M. leprae in an animal model of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus...

Marengo, Eliana B.; Moraes, Luciana V.; Faria, Marcella; Fernandes, Beatriz L.; Carvalho, Luciana V.; Tambourgi, Denise V.; Rizzo, Luiz V.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Camargo, Anto?nio Carlos M.; Sant Anna, Osvaldo A.

2008-01-01

16

Humoral response to hsp 65 and hsp 70 in cerebrospinal fluid in Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder of unknown etiology. In PD immune abnormalities were reported, but the cause of such abnormalities has not been resolved. Recently, the increased proportion of gamma delta + T cells out of all T cells has been found in patients with PD. Heat shock proteins (hsps) could be targets for gamma delta + T lymphocytes. We examined serum and CSF of patients with PD, age-matched patients with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND old), young patients with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND young), and donors of blood (DB). Antibodies were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plates were coated with recombinant mycobacterial hsp 65 and hsp 70. The present study showed that the mean ELISA ratio of CSF from patients with PD was significantly greater than that of CSF from patients with OND old (tested against IgG anti-hsp 65 and IgG anti-hsp 70) and OND young (tested against IgG anti-hsp 70). There was no difference between the mean ELISA ratio of sera from patients with PD, OND old and OND young (tested against IgG anti-hsp 65 and IgG anti-hsp 70). The significance of hsps immunity is not completely clear. Increased hsps expression, which is induced by stress, provides cells with protection against the environmental insults. Alternatively, the antibodies may be present as a consequence of prior infections. PMID:8836974

Fiszer, U; Fredrikson, S; Cz?onkowska, A

1996-07-01

17

Identification and Characterization of Protective T Cells in hsp65 DNA-Vaccinated and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immunization by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expressing mycobacterial 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) protects mice against challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. During infection or after immunization, CD4+/CD8? and CD8+/CD4? hsp65-reactive T cells increased equally in spleens. During infection, the majority of these cells were weakly CD44 positive (CD44lo) and produced interleukin 4 (IL-4) whereas after immunization the majority were highly CD44 positive (...

1998-01-01

18

Protection against tuberculosis by a single intranasal administration of DNA-hsp65 vaccine complexed with cationic liposomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The greatest challenges in vaccine development include optimization of DNA vaccines for use in humans, creation of effective single-dose vaccines, development of delivery systems that do not involve live viruses, and the identification of effective new adjuvants. Herein, we describe a novel, simple technique for efficiently vaccinating mice against tuberculosis (TB. Our technique consists of a single-dose, genetic vaccine formulation of DNA-hsp65 complexed with cationic liposomes and administered intranasally. Results We developed a novel and non-toxic formulation of cationic liposomes, in which the DNA-hsp65 vaccine was entrapped (ENTR-hsp65 or complexed (COMP-hsp65, and used to immunize mice by intramuscular or intranasal routes. Although both liposome formulations induced a typical Th1 pattern of immune response, the intramuscular route of delivery did not reduce the number of bacilli. However, a single intranasal immunization with COMP-hsp65, carrying as few as 25 ?g of plasmid DNA, leads to a remarkable reduction of the amount of bacilli in lungs. These effects were accompanied by increasing levels of IFN-? and lung parenchyma preservation, results similar to those found in mice vaccinated intramuscularly four times with naked DNA-hsp65 (total of 400 ?g. Conclusion Our objective was to overcome the significant obstacles currently facing DNA vaccine development. Our results in the mouse TB model showed that a single intranasal dose of COMP-hsp65 elicited a cellular immune response that was as strong as that induced by four intramuscular doses of naked-DNA. This formulation allowed a 16-fold reduction in the amount of DNA administered. Moreover, we demonstrated that this vaccine is safe, biocompatible, stable, and easily manufactured at a low cost. We believe that this strategy can be applied to human vaccines to TB in a single dose or in prime-boost protocols, leading to a tremendous impact on the control of this infectious disease.

Silva Célio L

2008-07-01

19

The Role of M. leprae Hsp65 Protein and Peptides in the Pathogenesis of Uveitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a well established model for immune-mediated organ-specific disease. Our group has recently shown that the M. leprae Hsp65 aggravated the uveitis in mice; in the present study, we evaluated the action of M. leprae??K409A mutant protein and the synthetic peptides Leader pep and K409A pep (covering amino acids residues 352–371 of WT and K409A proteins of M. leprae Hsp65, resp.) on the pathogenesis of EAU. Mice received the 161–180 IRBP peptide and B. pertussis toxin followed by the intraperitoneal inoculation of K409A protein or the Leader pep or K409A pep. The Leader pep aggravated the disease, but mice receiving the K409A pep did not develop the disease and presented an increase in IL-10 levels by spleen cells and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+ IFN-?+ T cells. Moreover, animals receiving the Leader pep presented the highest scores of the disease associated with increase percentage of CD4+ IFN-?+ T cells. These results would contribute to understanding of the pathogenesis of EAU and support the concept that immune responses to Hsp are of potential importance in exacerbating, perpetuating, or even controlling organ-restricted autoimmune diseases, and it is discussed the irreversibility of autoimmune syndromes.

Commodaro, Alessandra Goncalves; Marengo, Eliana Blini; Peron, Jean Pierre S.; Brandao, Wesley; Arslanian, Christina; Melo, Robson Lopes; Baldon, Estevam J.; Belfort, Rubens; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

2012-01-01

20

Mycobacterial Hsp65 potentially cross-reacts with autoantibodies of diabetes sera and also induces (in vitro) cytokine responses relevant to diabetes mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Among the two types of diabetes, type-2 accounts for about 90% of all diabetic cases, whereas type-1 or juvenile diabetes is less prevalent and presents with humoral immune responses against some of the autoantigens. We attempted to test whether the sera of type-1 diabetes patients cross-react with mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) due to postulated epitope homologies between mycobacterial Hsp65 and an important autoantigen of type-1 diabetes, glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65). In our study, we used either recombinant mycobacterial Hsp65 protein or synthetic peptides corresponding to some of the potential epitopes of mycobacterial Hsp65 that are shared with GAD65 or human Hsp60, and a control peptide sourced from mycobacterial Hsp65 which is not shared with GAD65, Hsp60 and other autoantigens of type-1 diabetes. The indirect ELISA results indicated that both type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes sera cross-react with conserved mycobacterial Hsp65 peptides and recombinant mycobacterial Hsp65 protein but do not do so with the control peptide. Our results suggest that cross-reactivity of mycobacterial Hsp65 with autoantibodies of diabetes sera could be due to the presence of significantly conserved peptides between mycobacterial Hsp65 and human Hsp60 rather than between mycobacterial Hsp65 and GAD65. The treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with recombinant mycobacterial Hsp65 protein or the synthetic peptides resulted in a significant increase in the secretion of cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-? and IL-10. Taken together, these findings point towards a dual role for mycobacterial Hsp65: in inducing autoimmunity and in inflammation, the two cardinal features of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24056978

Rani, Pittu Sandhya; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Tulsian, Nikhil K; Begum, Mahabubunnisa; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Protection against tuberculosis by a single intranasal administration of DNA-hsp65 vaccine complexed with cationic liposomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The greatest challenges in vaccine development include optimization of DNA vaccines for use in humans, creation of effective single-dose vaccines, development of delivery systems that do not involve live viruses, and the identification of effective new adjuvants. Herein, we describe a novel, simple technique for efficiently vaccinating mice against tuberculosis (TB). Our technique consists of a single-dose, genetic vaccine formulation of DNA-hsp65 complexe...

Rosada Rogério S; Torre Lucimara; Frantz Fabiani G; Pf, Trombone Ana; Zárate-Bladés Carlos R; Fonseca Denise M; Rm, Souza Patri?cia; Brandão Izaíra T; Masson Ana P; Soares Édson G; Ramos Simone G; Faccioli Lúcia H; Silva Célio L; Ha, Santana Maria; Am, Coelho-castelo Arlete

2008-01-01

22

Molecular mimicry between HSP 65 of Mycobacterium leprae and cytokeratin 10 of the host keratin; role in pathogenesis of leprosy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacteria are known to induce autoimmune response in the host. Anti-host keratrin antibodies (AkAbs) might be responsible for the autoimmune phenomena in leprosy patients as majority of leprosy lesions are manifested in the skin and occurrence of keratosis is not an uncommon feature. The aim of this study was to find out the level of AkAbs in leprosy patients across the spectrum and to explore its correlation with the clinical manifestation of the disease. Further, mimicking epitopes of keratin and Mycobacterium leprae components were characterized. We screened 140 leprosy patients (27 BT, 28 BL, 41 LL, 25 T1R, 19 ENL), 74 healthy controls (HC) and 3 psoriasis patients as positive control. Highest AkAbs level was observed in the psoriasis patients followed by T1R, LL, BL, ENL, TT/BT. AkAbs level was significantly (pMLSA) induce higher level of AkAbs. The percentage of FoxP3(+) expressing Treg cells (total CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) andCD4(+)CD25(+hi)FoxP3(+)) in splenocytes and lymph nodes of hyperimmunized mice were declined in comparison to control mice. Further, it was found that this autoimmune response can be adoptively transferred in naïve mice by splenocytes and lymph node cells as well as T cells. Comparative molecular characterization between keratin and MLSA noted a cross-reactivity/similarity between these two antigens. The cross-reactive protein of keratin was found to be in molecular weight range ?74-51kDa and at pI 4.5 while the cross-reactive protein of MLSA was found to be in molecular weight ?65kDa and at pI 4-4.5. Cross-reactive protein of keratin and MLSA was identified and characterized by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis and Mascot software. It was found that the keratin (host protein) which reacted with anti-M. leprae sera is cytokeratin-10 and MLSA which reacted with anti-keratin sera is heat shock protein 65 (HSP 65). Seven B-cell epitopes of cytokeratin-10 and HSP 65 was found to be similar by multiple sequence alignment using ClustalW server and out of which 6 B-cell epitopes were found to be on the surface of HSP 65. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the existence of molecular mimicry between cytokeratin-10 of keratin (host protein) and 65kDa HSP (groEL2) of M. leprae. Presence of heightened CMI response of leprosy patients to keratin and positive correlation of AkAbs level with number of lesions of leprosy patients showed the clinical evidence for its role in the pathogenesis in leprosy. PMID:23121977

Singh, Itu; Yadav, Asha Ram; Mohanty, Keshar Kunja; Katoch, Kiran; Bisht, Deepa; Sharma, Prashant; Sharma, Bhawna; Gupta, U D; Sengupta, Utpal

2012-01-01

23

Ten tandem repeats of ?-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of ?-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of ?-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with ?-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 and HSP65-?hCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-?-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-?hCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-?hCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of ?-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens

2006-07-14

24

Longevity, genes and efforts: an optimal taxation approach to prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper applies the analytical tools of optimal taxation theory to the design of the optimal subsidy on preventive behaviours, in an economy where longevity varies across agents, and depends on preventive expenditures and on longevity genes. Public intervention can be here justified on three grounds: corrections for misperceptions of the survival process and for externalities related to individual preventive behaviour, and redistribution across both earnings and genetic dimensions. The optimal subsidy on preventive expenditures is shown to depend on the combined impacts of misperception, externalities and self-selection. It is generally optimal to subsidize preventive efforts to an extent depending on the degree of individual myopia, on how productivity and genes are correlated, and on the complementarity of genes and preventive efforts in the survival function. PMID:21093083

Leroux, M-L; Pestieau, P; Ponthiere, G

2011-01-01

25

Intranasal vaccination with messenger RNA as a new approach in gene therapy: Use against tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background mRNAs are highly versatile, non-toxic molecules that are easy to produce and store, which can allow transient protein expression in all cell types. The safety aspects of mRNA-based treatments in gene therapy make this molecule one of the most promising active components of therapeutic or prophylactic methods. The use of mRNA as strategy for the stimulation of the immune system has been used mainly in current strategies for the cancer treatment but until now no one tested this molecule as vaccine for infectious disease. Results We produce messenger RNA of Hsp65 protein from Mycobacterium leprae and show that vaccination of mice with a single dose of 10 ?g of naked mRNA-Hsp65 through intranasal route was able to induce protection against subsequent challenge with virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover it was shown that this immunization was associated with specific production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in spleen. In order to determine if antigen presenting cells (APCs present in the lung are capable of capture the mRNA, labeled mRNA-Hsp65 was administered by intranasal route and lung APCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that after 30 minutes until 8 hours the populations of CD11c+, CD11b+ and CD19+ cells were able to capture the mRNA. We also demonstrated in vitro that mRNA-Hsp65 leads nitric oxide (NO production through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7. Conclusions Taken together, our results showed a novel and efficient strategy to control experimental tuberculosis, besides opening novel perspectives for the use of mRNA in vaccines against infectious diseases and clarifying the mechanisms involved in the disease protection we noticed as well.

Silva Aristóbolo M

2010-10-01

26

Preventing Dangerous Nonsense: Selection for Robustness to Transcriptional Error in Human Genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD) degrades transcripts that contain a premature STOP codon resulting from mistranscription or missplicing. However NMD's surveillance of gene expression varies in efficiency both among and within human genes. Previous work has shown that the intron content of human genes is influenced by missplicing events invisible to NMD. Given the high rate of transcriptional errors in eukaryotes, we hypothesized that natural selection has promoted a dual strategy of "prevention...

Cusack, Brian; Arndt, Peter; Duret, Laurent; Roest Crollius, Hugues

2011-01-01

27

Prevention of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice is determined by multiple genetic factors, among the strongest of which is the inheritance of diabetes-permissive MHC class II alleles associated with susceptibility to disease. Here we examined whether expression of MHC class II alleles associated with resistance to disease could be used to prevent the occurrence of diabetes. Expression of diabetes-resistant MHC class II I-A? chain molecules in NOD mice following retroviral trans...

Tian, Chaorui; Bagley, Jessamyn; Cretin, Nathalie; Seth, Nilufer; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Iacomini, John

2004-01-01

28

RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

2003-11-15

29

Identification of Mycobacterium using the EF-Tu encoding (tuf) gene and the tmRNA encoding (ssrA) gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The partial nucleotide sequences encoding the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene) (652 bp) and transfer-mRNA (tmRNA or ssrA gene) (340 bp) were determined to assess the suitability of these two genes as phylogenetic markers for the classification of mycobacteria, and thus as alternative target molecules for identifying mycobacteria. A total of 125 reference strains of the genus Mycobacterium and 74 clinical isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Phylogenies of the two genes constructed by the neighbour-joining method were created and compared to a concatenated tree of 16S rDNA, hsp65, sodA and rpoB genes. The phylogenetic trees revealed the overall natural relationships among Mycobacterium species. The tmRNA phylogeny was similar to that of 16S rDNA, with low resolving power. The tuf gene provided better resolution of each mycobacterial species, with a phylogeny close to that of hsp65. However, none of these methods differentiated between the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex or the subspecies of the Mycobacterium avium complex. The correct identification of clinical isolates confirms the interest of these genes, especially tuf. It is suggested from these findings that tmRNA might be useful as another housekeeping gene in a polyphyletic approach to Mycobacterium species, but not as a first-line marker of species. tuf gene analysis suggests that this gene could be used effectively for phylogenetic analysis and to identify mycobacteria. PMID:17644709

Mignard, Sophie; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre

2007-08-01

30

A?42 gene vaccine prevents A?42 deposition in brain of double transgenic mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A?42 peptide aggregation and deposition is an important component of the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Gene-gun mediated gene vaccination targeting A?42 is a potential method to prevent and treat AD. APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic (Tg) mice were immunized with an A?42 gene construct delivered by the gene gun. The vaccinated mice developed Th2 antibodies (IgG1) against A?42. The A?42 levels in brain were decreased by 41% and increased in plasma 43% in the vaccinated compared wi...

Qu, Bao-xi; Xiang, Qun; Li, Liping; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Hynan, Linda S.; Rosenberg, Roger N.

2007-01-01

31

Preferential DNA damage prevention by the E. coli AidB gene: a new mechanism for protection of specific genes  

Science.gov (United States)

aidB is one of four genes of E. coli that is induced by alkylating agents and regulated by Ada protein. Three genes (ada, alkA, and alkB) encode DNA repair proteins that remove or repair alkylated bases. However, the role of AidB remains unclear despite extensive efforts to determine its function in cells exposed to alkylating agents. The E. coli AidB protein was identified as a component of the protein complex that assembles at strong promoters. We demonstrate that AidB protein preferentially binds to UP elements, AT rich transcription enhancer sequences found upstream of many highly expressed genes, several DNA repair genes, and housekeeping genes. AidB allows efficient transcription from promoters containing an UP element upon exposure to a DNA methylating agent and protects downstream genes from DNA damage. The DNA binding domain is required to target AidB to specific genes preferentially protecting them from alkylation damage. However, deletion of AidB’s DNA binding domain does not prevent its antimutagenic activity, instead this deletion appears to allow AidB to function as a cytoplasmic alkylation resistance protein. Our studies identify the role of AidB in alkylating agent exposed cells and suggest a new cellular strategy in which a subset of the genome is preferentially protected from damage by alkylating agents.

Rippa, Valentina; Duilio, Angela; di Pasquale, Pamela; Amoresano, Angela; Landini, Paolo; Volkert, Michael R.

2011-01-01

32

Cytomegalovirus immediate early genes prevent the inhibitory effect of cyclosporin A on interleukin 2 gene transcription.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of cyclosporin A (CsA) as an immunosuppressive agent has markedly improved the clinical outcome in solid organ transplantation. However, posttransplantation infection remains a significant problem and may contribute to subsequent organ rejection. In this study the effect of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early (IE) gene products on interleukin 2 (IL-2) gene transcription in the absence and presence of CsA was investigated using a transient transfection system. Jurkat T cells were tra...

1992-01-01

33

The DMM complex prevents spreading of DNA methylation from transposons to nearby genes in Neurospora crassa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transposable elements are common in genomes and must be controlled. Many organisms use DNA methylation to silence such selfish DNA, but the mechanisms that restrict the methylation to appropriate regions are largely unknown. We identified a JmjC domain protein in Neurospora, DNA METHYLATION MODULATOR-1 (DMM-1), that prevents aberrant spreading of DNA and histone H3K9 methylation from inactivated transposons into nearby genes. Mutation of a conserved residue within the JmjC Fe(II)-binding site...

Honda, Shinji; Lewis, Zachary A.; Huarte, Maite; Cho, Lucy Y.; David, Larry L.; Shi, Yang; Selker, Eric U.

2010-01-01

34

Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will...

Chavez, Nancy B.; Flores, Jose J.; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R.

2012-01-01

35

Gene-Activation Mechanisms in the Regression of Atherosclerosis, Elimination of Diabetes Type 2, and Prevention of Dementia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia are major global health problems. Both endogenous and exogenous factors activate genes functioning in biological processes. This review article focuses on gene-activation mechanisms that regress atherosclerosis, eliminate DM type 2 (DM2), and prevent cognitive decline and dementia.

2011-01-01

36

Identification and characterization of the p35 gene of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus that prevents virus-induced apoptosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) genome revealed the existence of a gene homologous to the p35 gene of Autographa californica NPV (AcNPV), which has been shown to prevent virus-induced apoptosis. The BmNPV p35 gene showed 96.1% nucleotide and 89.6% predicted amino acid sequence identity to the AcNPV p35 gene. A mutant BmNPV (BmP35Z) lacking a functional p35 gene induced apoptosis-like cell degradation in infected BmN cells. However, unlike the...

Kamita, S. G.; Majima, K.; Maeda, S.

1993-01-01

37

Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales. Motivados por estos resultados, hemos decidido investigar si la mazorca o el elote de las infrutescencias del híbrido sujetan los frutos con una fuerza comparable o mayor a la del maíz. Nuestras mediciones implican que la fuerza necesaria para liberar los frutos híbridos son substancial y significativamente menores que aquellas necesarias para desprender los frutos del maíz. Como conclusión sugerimos que en México, la mazorca o el elote no representan una barrera que impida la introgresión de los genes transgénicos del maíz al teocintle. PMID:22707759

Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

2012-06-01

38

Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 ?g of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Results After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. Conclusions In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.

Singh Manpreet

2010-12-01

39

Chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT): novel combinatorial approach for preventing and treating pancreatic cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest of all cancers despite aggressive surgical treatment combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemoresistance and radioresistance are the principal causes of failure of pancreatic cancer patients to respond to therapy. Conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA)-based cancer gene therapy is an innovative strategy for treating cancers displaying inherent resistance to treatment. Limitations of current adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specificity, and effective and targeted delivery. To remedy this situation, CRCAs have been designed that express E1A, necessary for Ad replication, under the control of a cancer-specific progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) with concomitant expression of an immunomodulatory cytokine, such as mda-7/IL-24 or interferon-? (IFN-?), under the control of a ubiquitous and strong cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV-Prom) from the E3 region. These bipartite CRCAs, when armed with a transgene, are called cancer terminator viruses (CTVs), i.e., Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-mda-7 (CTV-M7) and Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-IFN-? (CTV-?), because of their universal effectiveness in cancer treatment irrespective of p53/pRb/p16 or other genetic alterations in tumor cells. In addition to their selective oncolytic effects in tumor cells, the potent 'bystander antitumor' properties of MDA-7/IL-24 and IFN-? embody the CTVs with expanded treatment properties for both primary and distant cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells display a "translational block" of mda-7/IL-24 mRNA, limiting production of MDA-7/IL-24 protein and cancer-specific apoptosis. Specific chemopreventive agents abrogate this "translational block" resulting in pancreatic cancer-specific killing. This novel chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) strategy holds promise for both prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancers where all other strategies have proven ineffective. PMID:23157679

Sarkar, S; Azab, B M; Das, S K; Quinn, B A; Shen, X; Dash, R; Emdad, L; Thomas, S; Dasgupta, S; Su, Z-Z; Wang, X-Y; Sarkar, D; Fisher, P B

2013-08-01

40

Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC, a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers.

Cho-Lea Tso

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. PMID:24556215

Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A; Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M Flint; Dumont, Magali

2014-07-15

42

Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.

RolandW.Herzog

2011-12-01

43

Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

Ramesh C. Gupta

2008-03-01

44

SERCA2a gene transfer prevents intimal proliferation in an organ culture of human internal mammary artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary restenosis, a major complication of percutaneous balloon angioplasty, results from neointimal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a isoform (SERCA2a), specific to contractile VSMCs, has been reported previously to be involved in the control of the Ca(2+)-signaling pathways governing proliferation and migration. Moreover, SERCA2a gene transfer was reported to inhibit in vitro VSMC proliferation and to prevent neointimal thickening in a rat carotid injury model. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic interest of SERCA2a gene transfer for prevention of in-stent restenosis using a ex vivo model of human left internal mammary artery (hIMA) intimal thickening. Left hIMAs, obtained at the time of aorto-coronary bypass surgeries, were subjected to balloon dilatation followed by infection for 30 min with adenoviruses encoding either human SERCA2 and green fluorescence protein (GFP) or control gene (?-galactosidase, ?-gal) and GFP. Proliferation of subendothelial VSMCs and neointimal thickening were observed in balloon-injured hIMA maintained 14 days in organ culture under constant pressure and perfusion. SERCA2a gene transfer prevented vascular remodeling and significantly (P<0.01, n=5) reduced neointimal thickening in injured arteries (intima/media ratio was 0.07±0.01 vs 0.40±0.03 in ?-gal-infected arteries). These findings could have potential implications for treatment of pathological in-stent restenosis. PMID:22763406

Lipskaia, L; Hadri, L; Le Prince, P; Esposito, B; Atassi, F; Liang, L; Glorian, M; Limon, I; Lompre, A-M; Lehoux, S; Hajjar, R J

2013-04-01

45

The muc+ gene of plasmid pKM101 prevents respiration shutoff in far ultraviolet-irradiated Salmonella typhimurium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plasmid pKM101 is known to protect Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium against killing by far UV irradiation and to enhance UV-induced mutagenesis. The muc+ gene of the plasmid is responsible for both of these effects. This paper shows that respiration of S. typhimurium shuts off about an hour after UV irradiation and that pKM101 prevents the shutoff. Plasmids which contained Tn5 translocatable elements, either in (and having produced a muc mutation) or flanking the muc+ gene, have been introduced into S. typhimurium. The muc mutant plasmid, which does not protect its host against UV killing and does not enhance UV induced mutagenesis, also does not protect against UV induced respiration shutoff. Likewise, plasmids in which the Tn5 translocatable elements flank the muc+ gene protect against shutoff of respiration. Thus the muc+ gene of pKM101 is responsible for protection against UV induced shutoff of respiration in S. typhimurium. (orig.)

1981-01-01

46

Administration of Mycobacterium leprae rHsp65 Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 60kDa heat shock protein family, Hsp60, constitutes an abundant and highly conserved class of molecules that are highly expressed in chronic-inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Experimental autoimmune uveitis [EAU] is a T cell mediated intraocular inflammatory disease that resembles human uveitis. Mycobacterial and homologous Hsp60 peptides induces uveitis in rats, however their participation in aggravating the disease is poorly known. We here evaluate the effects of the Mycobacterium ...

Marengo, Eliana B.; Commodaro, Alessandra Gonc?alves; Peron, Jean Pierre S.; Moraes, Luciana V.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Belfort, Rubens; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Sant Anna, Osvaldo Augusto

2009-01-01

47

DNA methylation prevents the amplification of TROP1, a tumor-associated cell surface antigen gene.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tested the hypothesis that different genes can have different abilities to be amplified after transfection under comparable selection conditions. DNA from human lymphoid or choriocarcinoma cell lines was transfected into L cells. Transfectants for CD5, CD8A, TROP1, and TROP2, genes expressed on lymphocytes or trophoblast and carcinomas, were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. To select for amplification of the transfected gene we cloned twice by fluorescence-activated cell so...

1994-01-01

48

Preferential DNA damage prevention by the E. coli AidB gene: a new mechanism for protection of specific genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

aidB is one of four genes of E. coli that is induced by alkylating agents and regulated by Ada protein. Three genes (ada, alkA, and alkB) encode DNA repair proteins that remove or repair alkylated bases. However, the role of AidB remains unclear despite extensive efforts to determine its function in cells exposed to alkylating agents. The E. coli AidB protein was identified as a component of the protein complex that assembles at strong promoters. We demonstrate that AidB protein preferentiall...

Rippa, Valentina; Duilio, Angela; Di Pasquale, Pamela; Amoresano, Angela; Landini, Paolo; Volkert, Michael R.

2011-01-01

49

Dietary oxidized fat prevents ethanol-induced triacylglycerol accumulation and increases expression of PPARalpha target genes in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcoholic fatty liver results from an impaired fatty acid catabolism due to blockade of PPARalpha and increased lipogenesis due to activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. Because both oxidized fats (OF) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been demonstrated in rats to activate hepatic PPARalpha, we tested the hypothesis that these fats are able to prevent ethanol-induced triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver by upregulation of PPARalpha-responsive genes. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to 6 groups and fed isocaloric liquid diets containing either sunflower oil (SFO) as a control fat, OF prepared by heating of SFO, or CLA, in the presence and absence of ethanol, for 4 wk. Administration of ethanol lowered mRNA concentrations of PPARalpha and the PPARalpha-responsive genes medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I, and cytochrome P450 4A1 and increased triacylglycerol concentrations in the liver (P prevents an alcohol-induced triacylglycerol accumulation in rats possibly by upregulation of hepatic PPARalpha-responsive genes involved in oxidation of fatty acids, whereas CLA does not exert such an effect. PMID:17182804

Ringseis, Robert; Muschick, Alexandra; Eder, Klaus

2007-01-01

50

Gene transduction in skin cells: Preventing cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

UV radiation is the most common risk factor for skin cancer. Patients with the autosomal recessive DNA repair disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) suffer high incidence of skin cancer after sunlight exposure. XP-mutant mice are attractive models to study this syndrome, as they, too, develop UV radiation-induced skin tumors, mimicking the human phenotype. Recombinant adenovirus carrying the human XPA gene was used for in vivo gene therapy in UVB-irradiated skin of such mice. Virus s.c. injectio...

Marchetto, Maria Carolina N.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Burns, Dennis K.; Friedberg, Errol C.; Menck, Carlos F. M.

2004-01-01

51

Analysis of the Ketosynthase Genes in Streptomyces and Its Implications for Preventing Reinvestigation of Polyketides with Bioactivities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cucumber wilt by Fusarium oxysporium f sp. cucumarinum is one of the most important soil-borne diseases. Among control strategies for plant soil-borne pathogen, biocontrol systems eliminate neither pathogen nor disease but bring them into natural balance. Polyketides form the largest part of the known natural products, and most of them come from actinomycetes especially streptomyces. Analysis for the ketosynthase genes in streptomyces can implicate new polyketides. In the course of the screening for producers of polyketides with antifungal activities, 117 strains were isolated. The screening program was performed by means of PCR amplification using degenerated primers corresponding to type II ketosynthase (KS genes. Among 117 isolates, 33 isolates showed antifungal activities and 17 isolates showed positive amplification signal. Antagonism of the 17 isolates against Fusarium oxysporium f sp. cucumarinum, Bacillus subtilis and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in vitro were analyzed. The diversities of KS-II gene from the 17 isolates were abundant based on phylogenetic tree analysis. The 17 isolates were divided into 6 clades based on KS-II gene sequence. The results showed that different isolates which belong to the same species present different antagonism activities and also the different streptomyces species showed different bioactivities. Among 17 isolates, isolates DQ1, DQ23, GAN1, HVG60 and HVG71 have the potential ability to produce new type polyketides. This method may not only prevent reinvestigation to find bioactive molecules described previously, but also alleviate some of the biases introduced by using conventional cultivation techniques.

Qiu Liu

2012-05-01

52

Muc/sup +/ gene of plasmid pKM101 prevents respiration shutoff in far ultraviolet-irradiated Salmonella typhimurium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasmid pKM101 is known to protect Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium against killing by far UV irradiation and to enhance UV-induced mutagenesis. The muc/sup +/ gene of the plasmid is responsible for both of these effects. This paper shows that respiration of S. typhimurium shuts off about an hour after UV irradiation and that pKM101 prevents the shutoff. Plasmids which contained Tn5 translocatable elements, either in (and having produced a muc mutation) or flanking the muc/sup +/ gene, have been introduced into S. typhimurium. The muc mutant plasmid, which does not protect its host against UV killing and does not enhance UV induced mutagenesis, also does not protect against UV induced respiration shutoff. Likewise, plasmids in which the Tn5 translocatable elements flank the muc/sup +/ gene protect against shutoff of respiration. Thus the muc/sup +/ gene of pKM101 is responsible for protection against UV induced shutoff of respiration in S. typhimurium.

Swenson, P.A.

1981-08-01

53

Transmitochondrial mice as models for primary prevention of diseases caused by mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

We generated transmitochondrial mice (mito-mice) that carry a mutation in the tRNA(Lys) gene encoded by mtDNA for use in studies of its pathogenesis and transmission profiles. Because patients with mitochondrial diseases frequently carry mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Leu(UUR)) genes, we focused our efforts on identifying somatic mutations of these genes in mouse lung carcinoma P29 cells. Of the 43 clones of PCR products including the tRNA(Lys) or tRNA(Leu(UUR)) genes in mtDNA of P29 cells, one had a potentially pathogenic mutation (G7731A) in the tRNA(Lys) gene. P29 subclones with predominant amounts of G7731A mtDNA expressed respiration defects, thus suggesting the pathogenicity of this mutation. We then transferred G7731A mtDNA into mouse ES cells and obtained F0 chimeric mice. Mating these F0 mice with C57BL/6J (B6) male mice resulted in the generation of F1 mice with G7731A mtDNA, named "mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731)." Maternal inheritance and random segregation of G7731A mtDNA occurred in subsequent generations. Mito-mice-tRNA(Lys7731) with high proportions of G7731A mtDNA exclusively expressed respiration defects and disease-related phenotypes and therefore are potential models for mitochondrial diseases due to mutations in the mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) gene. Moreover, the proportion of mutated mtDNA varied markedly among the pups born to each dam, suggesting that selecting oocytes with high proportions of normal mtDNA from affected mothers with tRNA(Lys)-based mitochondrial diseases may be effective as a primary prevention for obtaining unaffected children. PMID:24510903

Shimizu, Akinori; Mito, Takayuki; Hayashi, Chisato; Ogasawara, Emi; Koba, Ryusuke; Negishi, Issei; Takenaga, Keizo; Nakada, Kazuto; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

2014-02-25

54

Klotho Gene Delivery Prevents the Progression of Spontaneous Hypertension and Renal Damage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Klotho is a recently discovered antiaging gene. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that klotho gene delivery attenuates the progression of spontaneous hypertension and renal damage in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). An adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying mouse klotho full-length cDNA (AAV.mKL) was constructed for in vivo expression of klotho. Four groups of male SHRs and 1 group of sex- and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (5 rats per group) were used. Blood pressure ...

Wang, Yuhong; Sun, Zhongjie

2009-01-01

55

De novo DNA methylation promoted by G9a prevents reprogramming of embryonically silenced genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pluripotency determining gene, Oct-3/4 (also called Pou5f1) undergoes post implantation silencing in a process mediated by the histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a. Microarray analysis now shows that this enzyme may operate as a master regulator that inactivates multiple early embryonic genes by bringing about methylated-histone H3K9 heterochromatinization and de novo DNA methylation. Genetic studies in differentiating ES cells demonstrate that a point mutation in the G9a SET domain preven...

Epsztejn-litman, Silvina; Feldman, Nirit; Abu-remaileh, Monther; Shufaro, Yoel; Gerson, Ariela; Ueda, Jun; Deplus, Rachel; Fuks, Franc?ois; Shinkai, Yoichi; Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

2008-01-01

56

Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG) and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower conce...

Aiyer, Harini S.; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Radka Stoyanova; Caprio, Gerard D.; Clapper, Margie L.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2008-01-01

57

Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained seden [...] tary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P

T.S., Higa; F.C., Bergamo; F., Mazzucatto; M.H., Fonseca-Alaniz; F.S., Evangelista.

58

Cyclosporin A prevents induction of the interleukin 2 receptor gene in cultured murine thymocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blast formation and mitotic activation of G0-arrested mouse thymocytes were triggered by the addition of concanavalin A plus interleukin 2 (IL-2) to the culture medium. When added alone, Con A induces within 6 hr a complex reprogramming ("priming") that comprises the activation of the IL-2 receptor gene. The primed thymocytes are competent to interact with IL-2 and to respond to its growth-promoting effect, which corresponds to blast formation and mitotic activation. Cyclosporin A, an...

Gauchat, J. F.; Khandjian, E. W.; Weil, R.

1986-01-01

59

Gene disruption of caspace-3 prevents MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease in mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of Parkinson's disease is accompanied by concurrent activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons of human patients and rodent models. The role of caspase-3, a final executioner of apoptosis, in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, however, remains to be determined. Here, we show that gene disruption of caspase-3 protects mice from 1-methyle-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahmydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonian syndrome, as reflected by reversal of MPTP-induced b...

Yamada, Marina; Kida, Kotaro; Amutuhaire, Willington; Ichinose, Fumito; Kaneki, Masao

2010-01-01

60

Anti-Fas Gene Therapy Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity through Mechanisms Independent of Apoptosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activation of Fas signaling is a key mediator of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, which involves both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial inflammation. In this study, acute cardiotoxicity was induced in mice by doxorubicin, and some mice simultaneously received an intramuscular injection of adenoviral vector encoding mouse soluble Fas (sFas) gene (Ad.CAG-sFas), an inhibitor of Fas/Fas ligand interaction. Two weeks later, left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction were apparent in the LacZ-trea...

Miyata, Shusaku; Takemura, Genzou; Kosai, Ken-ichiro; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Esaki, Masayasu; Li, Longhu; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Maruyama, Rumi; Goto, Kazuko; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Takeyama, Toshiaki; Kawaguchi, Tomonori; Ohno, Takamasa; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Takako

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Immunomodulatory Gene Therapy Prevents Antibody Formation and Lethal Hypersensitivity Reactions in Murine Pompe Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infantile Pompe disease progresses to a lethal cardiomyopathy in absence of effective treatment. Enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human acid ?-glucosidase (rhGAA) has been effective in most patients with Pompe disease, but efficacy was reduced by high-titer antibody responses. Immunomodulatory gene therapy with a low dose adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (2 × 1010 particles) containing a liver-specific regulatory cassette significantly lowered immunoglobin G (IgG), IgG1,...

Sun, Baodong; Kulis, Michael D.; Young, Sarah P.; Hobeika, Amy C.; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Zhang, Haoyue; Li, Yifan; Clay, Timothy M.; Burks, Wesley; Kishnani, Priya S.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

2010-01-01

62

Implications of Gene–Behavior Interactions: Prevention and Intervention for Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A vast body of research exists to demonstrate that obesity is a complex disorder with a strong genetic basis and a multifactorial etiology. Yet despite the overwhelming evidence that genes play an important role in the development of obesity, many people argue that the increasing prevalence of obesity is simply due to an abundance of palatable food and a dearth of opportunities for physical exercise. While activity and eating behaviors contribute substantially to the development of obesity, c...

Bray, Molly S.

2008-01-01

63

The Polycomb group gene Ezh2 prevents hematopoietic stem cell exhaustion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The molecular mechanism responsible for a decline of stem cell functioning after replicative stress remains unknown. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to identify genes involved in the process of cellular aging. In proliferating and senescent MEFs one of the most differentially expressed transcripts was Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a Polycomb group protein (PcG) involved in histone methylation and deacetylation. Retroviral overexpression of ...

2006-01-01

64

Deletion of the Men1 Gene Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Hyperglycemia in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes ultimately results from an inadequate number of functional beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. Enhancing proliferation of functional endogenous beta cells to treat diabetes remains underexplored. Here, we report that excision of the Men1 gene, whose loss-of-function mutation leads to inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), rendered resistant to streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in a tamoxifen-inducible and temporally controlled Men1 excision mouse model as well a...

Yang, Yuqing; Wang, Haoren; Hua, Xianxin

2010-01-01

65

Mis-expression of a PISTILLATA-like MADS box gene prevents fruit development in grapevine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The FLESHLESS BERRY (Flb) somatic variant identified in the grapevine cultivar Ugni Blanc develops grape berries without flesh, suggesting a role for the altered gene in differentiation of flesh cells. Here we describe identification of the molecular defect responsible for this phenotype. Using a combination of genetic and transcriptomic approaches, we detected the insertion of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in the promoter region of the PISTILLATA-like (VvPI) gene, the grapevine homologue of Arabidopsis PISTILLATA. The transposon insertion causes specific ectopic expression of the corresponding VvPI allele during early fruit development, causing expression of genes specific for petal and stamen development within the fruit. A causal relationship between the insertion and the phenotype was demonstrated by phenotypic and molecular analyses of somatic revertants showing that ectopic expression and mutant phenotype were always linked to the presence of the transposon insertion. The various phenotypic effects of the flb mutation on ovary morphology, fruit set and fruit development, depending on the cell lineage affected, are presented for each phenotype, offering new insights into floral and fleshly fruit development. The results highlight the importance of VvPI repression after fertilization to achieve normal fleshy fruit development, and the complex genetic, genomic and cellular interactions required for the flower to fruit transition in grapevine. PMID:23181568

Fernandez, Lucie; Chaïb, Jamila; Martinez-Zapater, José-Miguel; Thomas, Mark R; Torregrosa, Laurent

2013-03-01

66

Targeting Activation of Specific NF-?B Subunits Prevents Stress-Dependent Atherothrombotic Gene Expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychosocial stress has been shown to be a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated entirely, it has been shown previously that the transcription factor nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is an important component of stress-activated signaling pathway. In this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms of stress-induced NF-?B-mediated gene expression, using an in vitro and in vivo model of psychosocial stress. Induction of stress led to NF-?B-dependent expression of proinflammatory (tissue factor, intracellular adhesive molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) and protective genes (manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) via p50, p65 or cRel. Selective inhibition of the different subunits and the respective kinases showed that inhibition of cRel leads to the reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein?/? (ApoE?/?) mice via suppression of proinflammatory gene expression. This observation may therefore provide a possible explanation for ineffectiveness of antioxidant therapies and suggests that selective targeting of cRel activation may provide a novel approach for the treatment of stress-related inflammatory vascular disease.

Djuric, Zdenka; Kashif, Muhammed; Fleming, Thomas; Muhammad, Sajjad; Piel, David; von Bauer, Rudiger; Bea, Florian; Herzig, Stephan; Zeier, Martin; Pizzi, Marina; Isermann, Berend; Hecker, Markus; Schwaninger, Markus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nawroth, Peter P

2012-01-01

67

A Defect in Nucleosome Remodeling Prevents IL-12(p35) Gene Transcription in Neonatal Dendritic Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To gain insight into the inability of newborns to mount efficient Th1 responses, we analyzed the molecular basis of defective IL-12(p35) expression in human neonatal monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Determination of IL-12(p35) pre-mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR revealed that transcriptional activation of the gene in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neonatal DCs was strongly impaired compared with adult DCs. We next showed that p50/p65 and p65/p65 dimers interact with kB#1 site, a critica...

Goriely, Stanislas; Lint, Carine; Dadkhah, Re?za; Libin, Myriam; Wit, Dominique; Demonte?, Dominique; Willems, Fabienne; Goldman, Michel

2004-01-01

68

Myxococcus xanthus sasN Encodes a Regulator That Prevents Developmental Gene Expression during Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Myxococcus xanthus multicellular fruiting body development is initiated by nutrient limitation at high cell density. Five clustered point mutations (sasB5, -14, -15, -16, and -17) can bypass the starvation and high-cell-density requirements for expression of the 4521 developmental reporter gene. These mutants express 4521 at high levels during growth and development in an asgB background, which is defective in generation of the cell density signal, A signal. A 1.3-kb region of the sasB locus ...

1998-01-01

69

Molecular evidence of lateral gene transfer in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium yongonense strains via multilocus sequence analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a novel species, Mycobacterium yongonense (DSM 45126(T)), was introduced and while it is phylogenetically related to Mycobacterium intracellulare, it has a distinct RNA polymerase ?-subunit gene (rpoB) sequence that is identical to that of Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum, which is a distantly related scotochromogen, which suggests the acquisition of the rpoB gene via a potential lateral gene transfer (LGT) event. The aims of this study are to prove the presence of the LGT event in the rpoB gene of the M. yongonense strains via multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). In order to determine the potential of an LGT event in the rpoB gene of the M. yongonense, the MLSA based on full rpoB sequences (3447 or 3450 bp) and on partial sequences of five other targets [16S rRNA (1383 or 1395 bp), hsp65 (603 bp), dnaJ (192 bp), recA (1053 bp), and sodA (501 bp)] were conducted. Incongruences between the phylogenetic analysis of the full rpoB and the five other genes in a total of three M. yongonense strains [two clinical strains (MOTT-12 and MOTT-27) and one type strain (DSM 45126(T))] were observed, suggesting that rpoB gene of three M. yongonense strains may have been acquired very recently via an LGT event from M. parascrofulaceum, which is a distantly related scotochromogen. PMID:23382812

Kim, Byoung-Jun; Hong, Seok-Hyun; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

2013-01-01

70

Gene flow in poplar - experiments, analysis and modeling to prevent transgene outcrossing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for energy and forestry products is globally increasing, raising the question if traditional breeding programs are efficient and fast enough to keep up with these demands. A possible solution seems to be the use of genetic engineering techniques, since classical breeding strategies are time-consuming and limited by species barriers. Besides the advantages of genetic engineering technologies, concerns are also raised by scientists regarding these methods. Consequently, risk analysis of genetic modified trees in plantation forestry is a fundamental research topic. This paper presents a sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modified poplars in realistic European landscapes. All steps are evaluated for their potential to forecast the risk of outcrossing of gene constructs into native po­pulations. The application of the results achieved to short rotation plantations are discussed.

Bialozyt R

2012-06-01

71

Prevention of PDT-induced esophageal stricture by MnSOD-PL gene therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is currently being used to treat esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus. PDT is very promising except that it results in a high rate of esophageal stricture. The clinical protocol involves the injection of Photofrin into the patient followed 48 hours later with a laser treatment of 630 nm of light. At this wavelength Photofrin reacts with the light and results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. To determine if MnSOD-PL prevents esophageal stricture we developed a pig model. Pigs (20 kg outbred female) were injected intravenously with Photofrin (2 mg/kg) and an endoscope was placed into the esophagus where MnSOD-PL (10 mg plasmid DNA) was administered at the site of PDT treatment. Control pigs received Photofrin only. Twenty-four hours later an endoscope was placed into the esophagus and the laser inserted through the endoscope to 10 cm above the GE junction where 400 Joules of light were administered to the esophagus. A second PDT treatment of 400 Joules was given 48 hours later. The pigs were followed for development of esophageal stricture as determined by a 10% weight loss, an endoscopic exam demonstrating esophageal stricture, and an x-ray following barium swallow. Upon detection of esophageal stricture, the pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed and pathological examination performed. By 14-21 days all control pigs developed esophageal stricture while pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged survival for at least 6 weeks after injection of MnSOD-PL. At this time, the MnSOD-PL-injected pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed from each animal and examined for the development of esophageal stricture. No esophageal stricture was detected by x-ray following barium swallow, endoscopic exam or pathological examination in esophagus samples from MnSOD-PL treated pigs. Results of these experiments demonstrate that MnSOD-PL may be effective in preventing normal esophageal tissue damage by PDT

2003-08-17

72

Replicative Stress and the FHIT Gene: Roles in Tumor Suppression, Genome Stability and Prevention of Carcinogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression.

Jenna R. Karras

2014-06-01

73

Prevention and reversal of severe mitochondrial cardiomyopathy by gene therapy in a mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac failure is the most common cause of mortality in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a mitochondrial disease characterized by neurodegeneration, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and diabetes. FRDA is caused by reduced levels of frataxin (FXN), an essential mitochondrial protein involved in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, bioenergetics imbalance, deficit of Fe-S cluster enzymes and mitochondrial iron overload occur in the myocardium of individuals with FRDA. No treatment exists as yet for FRDA cardiomyopathy. A conditional mouse model with complete frataxin deletion in cardiac and skeletal muscle (Mck-Cre-Fxn(L3/L-) mice) recapitulates most features of FRDA cardiomyopathy, albeit with a more rapid and severe course. Here we show that adeno-associated virus rh10 vector expressing human FXN injected intravenously in these mice fully prevented the onset of cardiac disease. Moreover, later administration of the frataxin-expressing vector, after the onset of heart failure, was able to completely reverse the cardiomyopathy of these mice at the functional, cellular and molecular levels within a few days. Our results demonstrate that cardiomyocytes with severe energy failure and ultrastructure disorganization can be rapidly rescued and remodeled by gene therapy and establish the preclinical proof of concept for the potential of gene therapy in treating FRDA cardiomyopathy. PMID:24705334

Perdomini, Morgane; Belbellaa, Brahim; Monassier, Laurent; Reutenauer, Laurence; Messaddeq, Nadia; Cartier, Nathalie; Crystal, Ronald G; Aubourg, Patrick; Puccio, Hélène

2014-05-01

74

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten

2014-01-01

75

Study of the gyrB gene polymorphism as a tool to differentiate among Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies further underlines the older evolutionary age of 'Mycobacterium canettii'.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation evaluated the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of hsp65 and gyrB targets for differentiation of the species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) both by including new restriction enzymes and previously unstudied species. The hsp65 restriction analysis using HhaI resulted in a characteristic 'Mycobacterium canettii' pattern. A study of the gyrB gene polymorphism using TaqIalpha and HinfI allowed the initial division of MTC into two major groups, one consisting of M. tuberculosis and 'M. canettii' as opposed to another single group with other species. Three different patterns were observed with RsaI, the first characteristic of Mycobacterium microti, the second with Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae was easily separated from M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG by SacII digestion), and the third with M. tuberculosis, 'M. canettii', Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and the dassie bacillus. Although further discrimination within the last group was not obtained using additional restriction enzymes, the HaeIII and RsaI digestions highlighted an important gyrB polymorphism among 'M. canettii' strains. A study of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gyrB by sequence analysis not only confirmed the results of the restriction analysis, but showed further differences among 'M. canettii' isolates that were not picked up using the existing battery of restriction enzymes. As many as 11 different SNPs were identified in the collection of eight 'M. canettii' isolates studied. Considering that gyrB variability among MTC member species other than 'M. canettii' is as restricted as hsp65 variability among MTC, our data corroborate a recent proposition that the 'M. canettii' group is evolutionary much older than the other MTC members. In conclusion, gyrB PCR-RFLP is a simple and rapid low-cost method that combined with phenotypic characteristics, may be helpful to differentiate most of the subspecies within the MTC. PMID:16517119

Goh, Khye Seng; Fabre, Michel; Huard, Richard C; Schmid, Solveig; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

2006-01-01

76

Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist prevents mTBI-induced changes in hippocampus gene expression and memory deficits in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global problem reaching near epidemic numbers that manifests clinically with cognitive problems that decades later may result in dementias like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presently, little can be done to prevent ensuing neurological dysfunctions by pharmacological means. Recently, it has become apparent that several CNS diseases share common terminal features of neuronal cell death. The effects of exendin-4 (Ex-4), a neuroprotective agent delivered via a subcutaneous micro-osmotic pump, were examined in the setting of mild TBI (mTBI). Utilizing a model of mTBI, where cognitive disturbances occur over time, animals were subjected to four treatments: sham; Ex-4; mTBI and Ex-4/mTBI. mTBI mice displayed deficits in novel object recognition, while Ex-4/mTBI mice performed similar to sham. Hippocampal gene expression, assessed by gene array methods, showed significant differences with little overlap in co-regulated genes between groups. Importantly, changes in gene expression induced by mTBI, including genes associated with AD were largely prevented by Ex-4. These data suggest a strong beneficial action of Ex-4 in managing secondary events induced by a traumatic brain injury. PMID:23059457

Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Lehrmann, Elin; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Perez, Evelyn; Miller, Jonathan; Hoffer, Barry J; Greig, Nigel H; Pick, Chaim G

2013-01-01

77

Prevention of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to factor IX-expressing hepatocytes by gene transfer-induced regulatory T cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Treatment of genetic disease such as the bleeding disorder hemophilia B [deficiency in blood coagulation factor IX (F.IX)] by gene replacement therapy is hampered by the risk of immune responses to the therapeutic gene product and to the gene transfer vector. Immune competent mice of two different strains were tolerized to human F.IX by hepatic gene transfer mediated by adenoassociated viral vector. These animals were subsequently challenged by systemic administration of an E1/E3-deleted aden...

2006-01-01

78

Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked changes in the expression of genes regulating transcription and intracellular signaling may contribute to the time-dependent effects of nandrolone on gene expression.

Bauman William A

2010-10-01

79

Differential expression of the TMV resistance gene N prevents a hypersensitive response in seeds and during germination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dominant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance gene N confers a hypersensitive response (HR) at the site of TMV infection and protects tobacco against systemic spread of the virus. To study N gene activity in seeds and early seedling development, the avirulence gene of N, the helicase domain (p50) of the TMV replicase, was constitutively expressed in a tobacco genotype without N (nn). Transgenic F1 expressing N and p50 were generated by crossing with an NN genotype. Surprisingly, Nn F1 seeds expressing p50 are viable and germinate. Only about 5 days after sowing, seedlings started to show an HR. This paralleled the upregulation of several pathogenesis-related and HR genes. The timing of the HR is consistent with the upregulation of N gene transcript 4-6 days after sowing. The expression of p50 has a stimulating effect on the N gene transcript level during germination. These results show that tobacco seeds and very young seedlings do not express a functional N gene product. PMID:23291787

Niemeyer, Julia; Ruhe, Jonas; Machens, Fabian; Hehl, Reinhard

2013-03-01

80

The Vaccinia Virus K1L Gene Product Inhibits Host NF-?B Activation by Preventing I?B? Degradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vaccinia virus wild-type strains such as Ankara and WR synthesize proteins capable of inhibiting the activation of host NF-?B, a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of inflammatory genes. In contrast, an infection by the attenuated MVA strain, whose genome lacks many immunoregulatory genes present in the DNA of its Ankara parent, induces NF-?B activation. Insertion of NF-?B inhibitory genes into the MVA DNA, then, would alter the MVA phenotype. By this method, a 5....

Shisler, Joanna L.; Jin, Xiao-lu

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The tsr gene-coding plasmid pIJ702 prevents thiopeptin from inhibiting ppGpp synthesis in Streptomyces lividans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptomyces lividans normally accumulated high levels of ppGpp during nutritional shift-down. Its accumulation was, however, severely inhibited when a small amount of thiopeptin (an analogue of thiostrepton) was included in the transfer medium. In contrast, a S. lividans strain, which harbours the plasmid pIJ702 carrying the tsr gene resist to thiopeptin through methylation of the 23S rRNA, was still capable of accumulating ppGpp in the presence of large amounts of thiopeptin. These results indicate that the rRNA methylation resulting from the action of tsr gene prevents thiopeptin not only from inhibiting cell-growth but also from inhibiting ppGpp synthesis. The results also indicate that the observed accumulation of ppGpp during nutritional shift-down was associated with ribosomal function, as has been shown in E. coli and B. subtilis. PMID:2599357

Ochi, K

1989-10-01

82

The muc/sup +/ gene of plasmid pKM101 prevents respiration shutoff in far ultraviolet-irradiated Salmonella typhimurium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasmid of pKM101 is known to protect Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium againt killing by far UV irradiation and to enhance UV-induced mutagenesis. The muc/sup +/ gene of the plasmid is responsible for both of these effects. This paper shows that respiration of S. typhimurium shuts off about an hour after UV irradiation and that pKM101 prevents the shutoff. Plasmids which contained Tn5 translocatable elements, either in (and having produced a muc mutation) or flanking the muc/sup +/ gene, have been introduced into S. typhimurium. The muc mutant plasmid, which does not protect its host against UV killing and does not enhance UV induced mutagenesis, also does not protect against UV induced respiration shutoff. Likewise, plasmids in which the Tn5 translocatable elements flank the muc/sup +/ gene protect against shutoff of respiration. Thus the muc/sup +/ gene of pKM101 is responsible for protection against UV induced shutoff of respiration in S. typhimurium.

Swenson, P.A.

1981-01-01

83

Liposome-mediated transfer of IL-1 receptor antagonist gene to dispersed islet cells does not prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted NOD mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

IL-1beta is cytotoxic to pancreatic beta-cells in vitro but its role in the vicinity of beta-cells in vivo is unknown. We explored whether liposome-mediated transfer of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene to islet cells might prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mouse islet cells were transfected using liposome-mediated gene transfer with a human IL-1ra cDNA construct and transplanted two days later to prediabetic NOD mice. Graft infiltration and destruction were monitored three, five and eight days posttransplantation by histology and determination of insulin and cytokine content. IL-1ra gene transfer resulted in transient expression of IL-1ra protein in islet cells in vitro as assessed by ELISA and of IL-1ra mRNA in transplanted islets as revealed by RT-PCR. However, both control and IL-1ra transfected NOD grafts exhibited massive infiltration and loss of insulin-positive cells, paralleled by a decreased insulin content. Increased IL-1ra expression did not clearly affect other cytokine profiles (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-2), except for an increase of IL-10 on day eight. In conclusion, liposome-mediated IL-1ra gene transfer to mouse islet cells results in transient expression of IL-1ra which is, however, insufficient to confer resistance to destruction of grafted insulin-producing cells in the NOD mouse.

Saldeen, J; Sandler, S

2000-01-01

84

Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-? of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-?. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-? gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

Andersen Monica

2008-11-01

85

Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-?-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-?B signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-?-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis.

Takao Kataoka

2011-11-01

86

Gene therapy prevents photoreceptor death and preserves retinal function in a Bardet-Biedl syndrome mouse model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) experience severe retinal degeneration as a result of impaired photoreceptor transport processes that are not yet fully understood. To date, there is no effective treatment for BBS-associated retinal degeneration, and blindness is imminent by the second decade of life. Here we report the development of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector that rescues rhodopsin mislocalization, maintains nearly normal-appearing rod outer segments, and prevents photo...

2011-01-01

87

Two B3 domain transcriptional repressors prevent sugar-inducible expression of seed maturation genes in Arabidopsis seedlings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During development of plant seeds, embryos import nutrients and store massive amounts of reserves. Seed reserves are rapidly degraded and mobilized to support seedling development after germination. HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION OF SUGAR-INDUCIBLE GENE 2 (HSI2) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a B3 DNA-binding domain protein that represses the transcription of sugar-inducible reporter gene. Although disruption of HSI2 or HSI2-Like 1 (HSL1) did not affect growth, seeds with disruption of both HSI2 and HSL1 ...

Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Morikami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kenzo

2007-01-01

88

IL-4 gene therapy for collagen arthritis suppresses synovial IL-17 and osteoprotegerin ligand and prevents bone erosion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bone destruction is the most difficult target in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we report that local overexpression of IL-4, introduced by a recombinant human type 5 adenovirus vector (Ad5E1mIL-4) prevents joint damage and bone erosion in the knees of mice with collagen arthritis (CIA). No difference was noted in the course of CIA in the injected knee joints between Ad5E1mIL-4 and the control vector, but radiographic analysis revealed impressive reduction of joint erosion a...

2000-01-01

89

Kruppel-like Factor 4 (Klf4) Prevents Embryonic Stem (ES) Cell Differentiation by Regulating Nanog Gene Expression*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is essential for somatic cell reprogramming. In addition, Klf4 seems to play a redundant role along with other Klf family proteins in embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal. However, how Klf4 regulates ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is still poorly understood. Here we report that Klf4 is required for both ES cell self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency and that the expression of Klf4 prevents ES cell differentiation in...

2010-01-01

90

Naturally occurring point mutation in the C terminus of the polymerase gene prevents duck hepatitis B virus RNA packaging.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) genome cloned from a domestic duck from the People's Republic of China has been sequenced and exhibits no variation in sequences known to be important in viral replication or generation of gene products. Intrahepatic transfection of a dimer of this viral genome into ducklings did not result in viremia or any sign of virus infection, indicating that the genome was defective. Functional analysis of this mutant genome, performed by transfecting the DNA into a chic...

Chen, Y.; Robinson, W. S.; Marion, P. L.

1992-01-01

91

Liraglutide Prevents Hypoadiponectinemia-Induced Insulin Resistance and Alterations of Gene Expression Involved in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Liraglutide is a glucagonlike peptide (GLP)-1 analog that reduces blood glucose levels, increases insulin secretion and improves insulin sensitivity through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the metabolic impact and underlying mechanisms of liraglutide in a hypoadiponectinemia and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) model. Adiponectin gene targeting was achieved using adenovirus-transduced RNAi and was used to lower plasma adiponect...

Li, Ling; Miao, Zongyu; Liu, Rui; Yang, Mengliu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi

2011-01-01

92

Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-? of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD) rats....

Mattos, Ana Barbosa Marcondes; Pinto, Mo?nica Jorda?o S.; Oliveira, Cristiane; Biz, Carolina; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Oyama, Lila Missae

2008-01-01

93

AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF + FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF + FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF + FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF + FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. - Research Highlights: ? Co-exposure of the PAHs BkF and FL causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. ? BkF and FL co-exposure upregulates certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes. ? AHR2 knockdown prevents the deformities caused by BkF and FL co-exposure. ? AHR2 knockdown prevents upregulation of certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes.

2011-08-01

94

Gene Silencing of Complement C5a Receptor Using siRNA for Preventing Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in organ transplantation significantly contributes to graft failure and is untreatable using current approaches. I/R injury is associated with activation of the complement system, leading to the release of anaphylatoxins, such as C5a, and the formation of the membrane attack complex. Here, we report a novel therapy for kidney I/R injury through silencing of the C5a receptor (C5aR) gene using siRNA. Mice were injected with 50 ?g of C5aR siRNA 2 days before in...

Zheng, Xiufen; Zhang, Xusheng; Feng, Biao; Sun, Hongtao; Suzuki, Motohiko; Ichim, Thomas; Kubo, Norihiko; Wong, Arthur; Min, Lisa R.; Budohn, Marianne E.; Garcia, Bertha; Jevnikar, Anthony M.; Min, Wei-ping

2008-01-01

95

The Intrathymic Expression of Insulin-Related Genes: Implications for Pathophysiology and Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent experimental work has challenged and shattered the old concept of a sequestration of pancreatic islet antigens from developing T-cells within the thymic environment. There is now compelling evidence that the central immunological tolerance of the whole insulin family may be induced during the process of T-cell ontogeny in the thymus. Transcripts of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), IGF-I and insulin genes have been characterized in human, rat and mouse thymuses. At the peptide le...

Geenen, Vincent; Lefebvre, P. J.

1998-01-01

96

AAV8-Mediated Gene Transfer of Interleukin-4 to Endogenous ?-Cells Prevents the Onset of Diabetes in NOD Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously demonstrated that intra-peritoneal delivery of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) stably transduces the pancreas, including the ?-cells in the endogenous islets. We also demonstrated the ability to deliver and express genes specifically in ?-cells for at least 6 months using a murine insulin promoter (mIP) in a double-stranded, self-complementary AAV vector (dsAAV8-mIP). Here we evaluated the effects of dsAAV8-mIP mediated delivery of interleukin 4 (mIL-4) to endogenous ...

Rehman, Khaja K.; Trucco, Massimo; Wang, Zhong; Xiao, Xiao; Robbins, Paul D.

2008-01-01

97

Rapid identification of strains belonging to the Mycobacterium abscessus group through erm(41) gene pyrosequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense lung infections have different clarithromycin susceptibilities, making proper identification important; however, standard multi-gene sequencing in clinical laboratories is laborious and time consuming. We developed a pyrosequencing-based method for rapid identification of strains belonging to the M. abscessus group by targeting erm(41). We examined 55 isolates from new pulmonary M. abscessus infections and identified 28 M. abscessus, 25 M. massiliense, and 2 Mycobacterium bolletii isolates. Multi-gene sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB, and the 16S-23S ITS region was concordant with the results of erm(41) pyrosequencing; thus, the M. abscessus group can be identified by single-nucleotide polymorphisms in erm(41). The method also enables rapid identification of polymorphic, inducible clarithromycin-resistant sequevars (T28 or C28). Pyrosequencing of erm(41) is a rapid, reliable, high-throughput alternative method for identifying and characterizing M. abscessus species. Further testing of a diverse collection of isolates is necessary to demonstrate the discriminatory power of erm(41) sequencing to differentiating species with this highly divergent group. PMID:24809859

Yoshida, Shiomi; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Tomita, Motohisa; Okada, Masaji; Shimada, Ryoko; Hayashi, Seiji

2014-07-01

98

Mild irritant prevents ethanol-induced gastric mucosal microcirculatory disturbances through actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide and PGI2 in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pretreatment with a mild irritant such as 1 M NaCl prevented ethanol-induced mucosal injury, which was abolished by indomethacin, suggesting involvement of endogenous PGs. With the use of intravital microscopy, we investigated the mechanism in microcirculation whereby a mild irritant prevents ethanol-induced mucosal injury. Microcirculation of the basal part of gastric mucosa in anesthetized rats was observed through a window with transillumination. Diameters of arterioles, collecting venules, and venules were measured with an electric microscaler. One molar NaCl alone caused dilation of arterioles and constrictions of collecting venules and venules, which were inhibited by indomethacin. Ethanol (50%) applied to mucosa constricted collecting venules and venules but dilated arterioles. Constriction of collecting venules resulted in mucosal congestion. Pretreatment with 1 M NaCl inhibited ethanol-induced constrictions of collecting venules and venules, and administration of indomethacin or a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist, CGRP-(8-37), abolished elimination of constrictions. Topical application (1 nM-10 microM) of PGE2 or beraprost sodium (a PGI2 analog) to microvasculature markedly and dose-dependently dilated arterioles, whereas that of PGE2, but not beraprost, slightly constricted collecting venules. Pretreatment of microvasculature with a nonvasoactive concentration of PGE2 (100 nM) or beraprost (1 nM) completely inhibited ethanol-induced constriction of collecting venules. The inhibitory effect of beraprost but not of PGE2 was abolished by CGRP-(8-37). Present results suggest that the mechanism whereby 1 M NaCl prevents ethanol-induced injury is elimination of constrictions of collecting venules and venules by CGRP whose release may be enhanced by PGI2 but not by PGE2. PMID:14665438

Saeki, Takeo; Ohno, Takashi; Kamata, Kazuhisa; Arai, Katsuharu; Mizuguchi, Sumito; Katori, Makoto; Saigenji, Katsunori; Majima, Masataka

2004-01-01

99

A seven-gene, multilocus, genus-wide approach to the phylogeny of mycobacteria using supertrees.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first study that estimates mycobacterial phylogeny using the maximum-likelihood method (PhyML-aLRT) on a seven-gene concatenate (hsp65, rpoB, 16S rRNA, smpB, sodA, tmRNA and tuf) and the super distance matrix (SDM) supertree method. Two sets of sequences were studied: a complete seven gene sequence set (set R, type strains of 87 species) and an incomplete set (set W, 132 species) with some missing data. Congruencies were computed by using the consense program (phylip package). The evolution rate of each gene was determined, as was the evolution rate of each strain for a given gene. Maximum-likelihood trees resulting from concatenation of the R and W sets resulted in a similar phylogeny, usually showing an early separation between slow-growing (SG) and rapidly growing (RG) mycobacteria. The SDM tree for the W set resulted in a different phylogeny. The separation of SG and RG was still evident, but it was located later in the nodes. The SG were therefore positioned as a subgroup of RG. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction was less affected by increasing the number of strains (with incomplete data), but did seem to cushion the variability of the evolution rate (ER), whereas the SDM method seemed to be more accurate and took into account both the differing ER values and the incomplete data. With regard to ER, it was observed that the 16S rRNA gene was the gene that displayed the slowest evolution, whereas smpB was the most rapidly evolving gene. Surprisingly, these two genes alone accurately separated the SG from the RG on the basis of their ER values. This study focused on the differences in ER between genes and in some cases linked the ER to the phenotypic classification of the mycobacteria. PMID:18523191

Mignard, Sophie; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre

2008-06-01

100

Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Excellence, Access

2005-03-12

 
 
 
 
101

Inactivation of the rhlA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevents rhamnolipid production, disabling the protection against polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of the virulence factors produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are quorum-sensing (QS) regulated. Among these are rhamnolipids, which have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, e.g. monocyte-derived macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We have previously shown that rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa cause necrotic death of PMNs in vitro. This raises the possibility that rhamnolipids may function as a ‘biofilm shield’ in vivo, which contributes significantly to the increased tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms to PMNs. In the present study, we demonstrate the importance of the production of rhamnolipids in the establishment and persistence of P. aeruginosa infections, using an in vitro biofilm system, an intraperitoneal foreign-body model and a pulmonary model of P. aeruginosa infections in mice. Our experimental data showed that a P. aeruginosa strain unable to produce any detectable rhamnolipids, due to an inactivating mutation in the single QS-controlled rhlA gene, did not induce necrosis of PMNs in vitro and exhibited increased clearance compared with its wild-type counterpart in vivo. Conclusively, the results support our model that rhamnolipids are key protective agents of P. aeruginosa against PMNs.

VAN GENNIP, MARIA; CHRISTENSEN, LOUISE DAHL; ALHEDE, MORTEN; PHIPPS, RICHARD; JENSEN, PETER ?STRUP; CHRISTOPHERSEN, LARS; PAMP, SUNJE JOHANNA; MOSER, CLAUS; MIKKELSEN, PER JENSEN; KOH, ANDREW Y.; TOLKER-NIELSEN, TIM; PIER, GERALD B.; H?IBY, NIELS; GIVSKOV, MICHAEL; BJARNSHOLT, THOMAS

2010-01-01

102

Preventing Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Preventing Suicide Each year, more than 36,000 Americans take ... for self-inflicted injuries. September 10th is World Suicide Prevention Day. Help prevent suicide in your community. ...

103

Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries to provide the 'field' genetic resource (endemic disease situation) in order to devise and test vaccines developed through molecular studies. Development of technologies cannot be divorced from an understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases found in developing countries. This is frequently not undertaken due to the many competing demands on the scarce resources available. However, increased livestock trade possibilities may provide the focus and catalyst needed to ensure that animal health science is applied appropriately and usefully for the benefit of developing countries. (author)

2003-10-06

104

Expression of a GALACTINOL SYNTHASE Gene in Tomato Seeds Is Up-Regulated before Maturation Desiccation and Again after Imbibition whenever Radicle Protrusion Is Prevented1  

Science.gov (United States)

Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) have been implicated in mitigating the effects of environmental stresses on plants. In seeds, proposed roles for RFOs include protecting cellular integrity during desiccation and/or imbibition, extending longevity in the dehydrated state, and providing substrates for energy generation during germination. A gene encoding galactinol synthase (GOLS), the first committed enzyme in the biosynthesis of RFOs, was cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) seeds, and its expression was characterized in tomato seeds and seedlings. GOLS (LeGOLS-1) mRNA accumulated in developing tomato seeds concomitant with maximum dry weight deposition and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. LeGOLS-1 mRNA was present in mature, desiccated seeds but declined within 8 h of imbibition in wild-type seeds. However, LeGOLS-1 mRNA accumulated again in imbibed seeds prevented from completing germination by dormancy or water deficit. Gibberellin-deficient (gib-1) seeds maintained LeGOLS-1 mRNA amounts after imbibition unless supplied with gibberellin, whereas abscisic acid (ABA) did not prevent the loss of LeGOLS-1 mRNA from wild-type seeds. The presence of LeGOLS-1 mRNA in ABA-deficient (sitiens) tomato seeds indicated that wild-type amounts of ABA are not necessary for its accumulation during seed development. In all cases, LeGOLS-1 mRNA was most prevalent in the radicle tip. LeGOLS-1 mRNA accumulation was induced by dehydration but not by cold in germinating seeds, whereas both stresses induced LeGOLS-1 mRNA accumulation in seedling leaves. The physiological implications of LeGOLS-1 expression patterns in seeds and leaves are discussed in light of the hypothesized role of RFOs in plant stress tolerance.

Downie, Bruce; Gurusinghe, Sunitha; Dahal, Petambar; Thacker, Richard R.; Snyder, John C.; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki; Yim, Kyuock; Fukanaga, Keith; Alvarado, Veria; Bradford, Kent J.

2003-01-01

105

Interleukin-17 Retinotoxicity Is Prevented by Gene Transfer of a Soluble Interleukin-17 Receptor Acting as a Cytokine Blocker: Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common yet complex retinal degeneration that causes irreversible central blindness in the elderly. Pathology is widely believed to follow loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration. Here we report aberrant expression of interleukin-17A (IL17A) and the receptor IL17RC in the macula of AMD patients. In vitro, IL17A induces RPE cell death characterized by the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipids and autophagosomes with subsequent activation of pro-apoptotic Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. This pathology is reduced by siRNA knockdown of IL17RC. IL17-dependent retinal degeneration in a mouse model of focal retinal degeneration can be prevented by gene therapy with adeno-associated virus vector encoding soluble IL17 receptor. This intervention rescues RPE and photoreceptors in a MAPK-dependent process. The IL17 pathway plays a key role in RPE and photoreceptor degeneration and could hold therapeutic potential in AMD.

Ardeljan, Daniel; Wang, Yujuan; Park, Stanley; Shen, Defen; Chu, Xi Kathy; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tuo, Jingsheng; Eberhart, Charles G.; Olsen, Timothy W.; Mullins, Robert F.; White, Gary; Wadsworth, Sam; Scaria, Abraham; Chan, Chi-Chao

2014-01-01

106

Prevention of diet-induced obesity by apple polyphenols in Wistar rats through regulation of adipocyte gene expression and DNA methylation patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the mechanisms implicated in the beneficial effects of apple polyphenols (APs) against diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats, described in a previous study from our group. Supplementation of high-fat sucrose diet with AP prevented adiposity increase by inhibition of adipocyte hypertrophy. Rats supplemented with AP exhibited improved glucose tolerance while adipocytes isolated from these rats showed an enhanced lipolytic response to isoproterenol. AP intake led to reduced Lep, Plin, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) mRNA levels and increased aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (Aebp1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a) mRNA levels in epididymal adipocytes. In addition, we found different methylation patterns of Aqp7, Lep, Ppargc1a, and Srebf1 promoters in adipocytes from apple-supplemented rats compared to high-fat sucrose fed rats. The administration of AP protects against body weight gain and fat deposition and improves glucose tolerance in rats. We propose that AP exerts the antiobesity effects through the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation, in a process that could be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23529981

Boqué, Noemi; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; Olivares, Mónica; Bañuelos, Oscar; Soria, Ana Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Martínez, José Alfredo; Campión, Javier

2013-08-01

107

Genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to describe a cell at molecular level, a notion of a “gene” is neither necessary nor helpful. It is sufficient to consider the molecules (i.e., chromosomes, transcripts, proteins) and their interactions to describe cellular processes. The downside of the resulting high resolution is that it becomes very tedious to address features on the organismal and phenotypic levels with a language based on molecular terms. Looking for the missing link between biological disciplines dealing w...

Prohaska, Sonja J.; Stadler, Peter F.

2008-01-01

108

Drowning Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Drowning Prevention Health Issues Listen Drowning Prevention Article Body Drowning is a leading cause ... nonfatal drowning. What You Should Do in a Drowning Emergency Get your child out of the water ...

109

Deletion of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene or scavenge of superoxide prevents chronic alcohol-induced aortic damage and remodelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate whether chronic alcohol consumption induces vascular injury via angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT1) receptor-dependent superoxide generation, male transgenic mice with knockout of AT1 gene (AT1-KO) and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin control liquid diet for 2 months. Ethanol content (%, W/V) in the diet was 4.8 (34% of total calories) at initiation, and gradually increased up to 5.4 (38% of total calories). For some WT mice with and without alcohol treatment, superoxide dismutase mimetic (MnTMPyP) was given simultaneously by intraperitoneal injection at 5 mg/kg body weight daily for 2 months. At the end of studies, aortas were harvested for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Significant increases in the wall thickness and structural disarrangement of aorta were found in alcohol group, along with significant increases in aortic oxidative and/or nitrosative damage, expressions of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), inflammatory response, cell death and proliferation, and remodelling (fibrosis). However, these pathological changes were completely attenuated in alcohol-treated AT1-KO mice or in alcohol-treated WT mice that were also simultaneously treated with MnTMPyP for 2 months. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption may activate NOX via Ang II/AT1 receptor, to generate superoxide and associated peroxynitrite that in turn causes aortic nitrosative damage, inflammation, cell death and proliferation, and remodelling. Therefore, blocking Ang II/AT1 system or scavenging superoxide may become a potential preventive and/therapeutic approach to alcoholic vascular damage. PMID:22435601

Bai, Yang; Tan, Yi; Wang, Bo; Miao, Xiao; Chen, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

2012-10-01

110

Preventative Maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

Migliorino, James

111

HIV Prevention  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâ??s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

2012-02-01

112

Preventing Pneumoconiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... or man-made carbon. Workers should wear a mask to help prevent pneumoconiosis and follow other personal safety procedures. And companies are required by law to enforce maximum dust levels that surround workers. ...

113

Plague Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Plague Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info ... Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Related Links USGS National Wildlife Health ...

114

Preventive analgesia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term â??pre-emptive analgesiaâ?? should be abandoned and replaced by the term â??preventive analgesiaâ??. Recent studies of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still an attractive working hypothesis but with inconclusive results. A plea for better design of clinical studies is forwarded.

Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

2011-01-01

115

Transcriptome Analysis of Epigenetically Modulated Genome Indicates Signature Genes in Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes and Its Prevention in NOD Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Classic genetic studies implicated several genes including immune response genes in the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in humans. However, recent evidence including discordant diabetes incidence among monozygotic twins suggested a role for epigenetics in disease manifestation. NOD mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes like humans and serve as an excellent model system to study the mechanisms of type 1 diabetes as well as the efficacy of maneuvers to manipulate the disease. Using this preclinical model, we have recently demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases can lead to histone hyperacetylation, selective up-regulation of interferon-? and its transactivator Tbx21/Tbet, and amelioration of autoimmune diabetes. In the current study, we show that chromatin remodeling can render splenocytes incapable of transferring diabetes into immunodeficient NOD.scid mice. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of drug-mediated protection against type 1 diabetes, we performed global gene expression profiling of splenocytes using high throughput microarray technology. This unbiased transcriptome analysis unraveled the exaggerated expression of a novel set of closely related inflammatory genes in splenocytes of acutely diabetic mice and their repression in mice cured of diabetes by chromatin remodeling. Analysis of gene expression by qRT-PCR using RNA derived from spleens and pancreata of cured mice validated the suppression of most of these genes, indicating an inverse correlation between the high levels of these inflammatory genes and protection against diabetes in NOD mice. In addition, higher-level expression of genes involved in insulin sensitivity, erythropoiesis, hemangioblast generation, and cellular redox control was evident in spleens of cured mice, indicating their possible contribution to protection against type 1 diabetes. Taken together, these results are consistent with the involvement of epistatic mechanisms in the manifestation of autoimmune diabetes and further indicate the utility of chromatin remodeling in curing this complex autoimmune disorder.

Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Patel, Akshay; Jayaraman, Arathi; Patel, Vasu; Holterman, Mark; Prabhakar, Bellur

2013-01-01

116

Angelina Jolie's faulty gene: newspaper coverage of a celebrity's preventive bilateral mastectomy in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose:This study investigates the portrayal of Angelina Jolie's preventive bilateral mastectomy in the news media. Content analysis of print news was conducted to identify major frames used in press coverage, the overall tone of discussions, how journalists report broader questions about BRCA1/2 testing and hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, and whether they raise concerns about the impact of celebrities on patients' choices and public opinion.Methods:The Factiva database was used to collect publications on Jolie's preventive mastectomy in elite newspapers in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The data set consisted of 103 newspaper articles published in the first month of media coverage.Results:The results show that although the press discussed key issues surrounding predictive genetic testing and preventive options for women at high risk of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer, important medical information about the rarity of Jolie's condition was not communicated to the public.Conclusion:The results highlight the media's overwhelmingly positive slant toward Jolie's mastectomy, while overlooking the relative rarity of her situation, the challenges of "celebrity medicine," and how celebrities influence people's medical decisions. Future research is required to investigate whether the media hype has influenced demand and use of BRCA1/2 testing and preventive mastectomies.Genet Med 16 7, 522-528. PMID:24357851

Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy

2014-07-01

117

Roles in Suicide Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide Prevention Basics About Suicide About Suicide Prevention About Surviving Suicide Loss Roles in Suicide Prevention National ... Prevention Basics » Roles in Suicide Prevention Roles in Suicide Prevention Customized Information Sheets Does your job bring ...

118

Plagiarism Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent

Probett, Christine

2011-01-01

119

Long Term Effect of Curcumin in Regulation of Glycolytic Pathway and Angiogenesis via Modulation of Stress Activated Genes in Prevention of Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress, an important factor in modulation of glycolytic pathway and induction of stress activated genes, is further augmented due to reduced antioxidant defense system, which promotes cancer progression via inducing angiogenesis. Curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive phytochemical, is reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in various experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanism involved in anticarcinogenic action of curcumin due to its long term effect is still to be reported because of its rapid metabolism, although metabolites are accumulated in tissues and remain for a longer time. Therefore, the long term effect of curcumin needs thorough investigation. The present study aimed to analyze the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in liver, even after withdrawal of treatment in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. Oxidative stress observed during lymphoma progression reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, and induced angiogenesis as well as activation of early stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway. Curcumin treatment resulted in activation of antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase and down regulation of ROS level as well as activity of ROS producing enzyme NADPH:oxidase, expression of stress activated genes HIF-1?, cMyc and LDH activity towards normal level. Further, it lead to significant inhibition of angiogenesis, observed via MMPs activity, PKC? and VEGF level, as well as by matrigel plug assay. Thus findings of this study conclude that the long term effect of curcumin shows anticarcinogenic potential via induction of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of angiogenesis via down regulation of stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway in liver of lymphoma bearing mice.

Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

2014-01-01

120

Rosiglitazone but not losartan prevents Nrf-2 dependent CD36 gene expression up-regulation in an in vivo atherosclerosis model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazolidinediones exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles and attenuate atherosclerosis by mechanisms partially independent of their metabolizing actions. High doses of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R blocker losartan (LST seem to promote fat cell formation by preserving PPAR? activity. Methods C57BL/6J diet-induced atherosclerotic susceptible mice randomly received a normal or a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet and were treated with rosiglitazone (RG, LST or a vehicle for 12 weeks. Results HFHC was associated with increased PPAR? gene expression without an over regulation of PPAR? responsive genes, whereas RG and LST treatments were found to maintain PPAR? activity without resulting in increased PPAR? gene expression. A better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile in mice treated with RG regarding LST was observed in spite of a similar PPAR? preserved activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that animals under HFHC diet treated with RG showed a significant nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2-dependent down-regulation of the expression of the CD36 gene. Conclusion The PPAR? agonist RG exerts antioxidant properties that significantly reduced Nrf-2-dependent CD-36 up-regulation in mice under HFHC diet. Because LST treatment was also associated with a preserved PPAR? activity, our data suggests that these RG antioxidant effects are partially independent of its PPAR? metabolizing properties.

Caballero-Hidalgo A

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Targeting the myofibroblast genetic switch: inhibitors of myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor-regulated gene transcription prevent fibrosis in a murine model of skin injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic sclerosis (SSc), or scleroderma, similar to many fibrotic disorders, lacks effective therapies. Current trials focus on anti-inflammatory drugs or targeted approaches aimed at one of the many receptor mechanisms initiating fibrosis. In light of evidence that a myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-and serum response factor (SRF)-regulated gene transcriptional program induced by Rho GTPases is essential for myofibroblast activation, we explored the hypothesis that inhibitors of this pathway may represent novel antifibrotics. MRTF/SRF-regulated genes show spontaneously increased expression in primary dermal fibroblasts from patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc. A novel small-molecule inhibitor of MRTF/SRF-regulated transcription (CCG-203971) inhibits expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and collagen 1 (COL1A2) in both SSc fibroblasts and in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)-stimulated fibroblasts. In vivo treatment with CCG-203971 also prevented bleomycin-induced skin thickening and collagen deposition. Thus, targeting the MRTF/SRF gene transcription pathway could provide an efficacious new approach to therapy for SSc and other fibrotic disorders. PMID:24706986

Haak, Andrew J; Tsou, Pei-Suen; Amin, Mohammad A; Ruth, Jeffrey H; Campbell, Phillip; Fox, David A; Khanna, Dinesh; Larsen, Scott D; Neubig, Richard R

2014-06-01

122

Cadmium-induced disruption in 24-h expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus. Prevention by melatonin.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH. To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age received CdCl2 (5 ppm and melatonin (3 ?g/mL or vehicle (0.015 % ethanol in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at 6 time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1 or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2 by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GSR and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1 and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression.

DanielPCardinali

2011-03-01

123

The expression in Escherichia coli of a synthetic gene coding for the precursor of papain is prevented by its own putative signal sequence.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 1048-bp gene coding for prepropapain was assembled from chemically synthesized oligodeoxyribonucleotides and cloned into a variety of Escherichia coli expression plasmids. We observed loss of plasmid when the preproP gene was expressed in E. coli either as the native precursor or fused at the C terminus of the first 592 amino acids (aa) of beta-galactosidase (beta Gal). Deletion of the putative 26-aa signal peptide (pre-region) increased plasmid stability. The level of maintenance for the different plasmid constructs correlated with the level of expression detected by immunoblotting. Constitutive expression of the beta Gal-propapain fusion generated insoluble granules in a protease-deficient E. coli host. The fusion protein was easily purified to near homogeneity by differential solubilization of the granules. PMID:2666263

Vernet, T; Tessier, D C; Laliberté, F; Dignard, D; Thomas, D Y

1989-04-30

124

A genetic variant of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in a non-diabetic population - the Malmo preventive project study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Epidemiological studies have shown considerable heritability of blood pressure, thus suggesting a role for genetic factors. Previous studies have shown an association of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs5068 in the NPPA locus gene with higher levels of circulating atrial natriuretic peptide as well as with lower intra individual blood pressure, but up to date, no association between rs5068 and cardiac organ damage, i.e. left ventricular hypertrophy, has been accounted for in hum...

Jujic, Amra; Leosdottir, Margre?t; O?stling, Gerd; Gudmundsson, Petri; Nilsson, Peter; Melander, Olle; Magnusson, Martin

2013-01-01

125

High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses Repress Constitutive Kappa Interferon Transcription via E6 To Prevent Pathogen Recognition Receptor and Antiviral-Gene Expression ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Persistent infections with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, or HPV31 are necessary for the development of cervical cancer, implying that HPVs have evolved immunoevasive mechanisms. Recent global transcriptome analyses indicated that these HPV types downregulate the constitutive expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Comparative analyses of ISG transcription in keratinocytes with complete HPV16, -18, and -31 geno...

Reiser, Jeanette; Hurst, Jose?; Voges, Maike; Krauss, Peter; Mu?nch, Peter; Iftner, Thomas; Stubenrauch, Frank

2011-01-01

126

PREVENTIVE PANCHAKARMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Everyone strive for quality life rather just number of years without good health. Lifestyle has contributed a lot in the manifestation and exacerbation of different disorders. Ayurveda has rightly emphasized that health is not only the state of not having disease but, it is the state of normalcy of Dosha, Dathu, Agni and Malakriya. Ayurveda also gives utmost importance for prevention. Dosha will get provoked daily and seasonally when ever favorable condition arises. Whenever an individual indulge in Ahara and Vihara which provoke a particular Dosha in its aggravated stage, may produce respective disorders. So, Panchakarma becomes mandatory choice in order to eliminate the same and maintain the healthy status. Rasayana and Vajikarana Drugs also play an incredible role in prevention of disease prior administration of which Shodhana is obligatory. Benefits of Shodhana and Rasayana -Vajikarana are almost similar. Moreover, effect of Rasayana and Vajikarana Dravya are enhanced if performed after Shodhana.

Girish KJ

2013-06-01

127

Lysine Represses Transcription of the Escherichia coli dapB Gene by Preventing Its Activation by the ArgP Activator? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Escherichia coli dapB gene encodes one of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway leading to lysine and its immediate precursor, diaminopimelate. Expression of dapB is repressed by lysine, but no trans-acting regulator has been identified so far. Our analysis of the dapB regulatory region shows that sequences located in the ?81/?118 interval upstream of the transcription start site are essential for full expression of dapB, as well as for lysine repression. Screening a genomic library...

Bouvier, Jean; Stragier, Patrick; Morales, Violette; Re?my, Elisabeth; Gutierrez, Claude

2008-01-01

128

Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-?-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expr...

Tomonobu Yokomichi; Kyoko Morimoto; Nana Oshima; Yuriko Yamada; Liwei Fu; Shigeru Taketani; Masayoshi Ando; Takao Kataoka

2011-01-01

129

Impact of protein supplementation and exercise in preventing changes in gene expression profiling in woman muscles after long-term bedrest as revealed by microarray analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long duration space flights have a dramatic impact on human physiology and under such a condition, skeletal muscles are known to be one of the most affected systems. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to muscle impairment under microgravity, which causes significant loss of muscle mass as well as structural disorders, is necessary for the development of efficient space flight countermeasures. This study was conducted under the aegis of the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the French "Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales" (CNES). It gave us the opportunity to investigate for the first time the effects of prolonged disuse (long-term bedrest, LTBR) on the transcriptome of different muscle types in healthy women (control, n=8), as well as the potential beneficial impact of protein supplementation (nutrition, n=8) and a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training program (exercise, n=8). Pre- (LTBR -8) and post- (LTBR +59) biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from each subject. Skeletal muscle gene expression profiles were obtained using a custom made microarray containing 6681 muscle-relevant genes. 555 differentiallyexpressed and statistically-significant genes were identified in control group following 60 days of LTBR, including 348 specific for SOL, 83 specific for VL, and 124 common for the two types of muscle (p<0.05). After LTBR, both muscle types exhibited a consistent decrease in pathways involved in fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation (p<0.05). However, the postural SOL muscle exhibited a higher level of changes with mRNA encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation (mainly ubiquitinproteasome components) (p<0.05). Major changes in muscle function, such as those involved in calcium signaling and muscle structure including modifications of extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal components, were significant in SOL. Among the two recently described markers of atrophy, only MAFbx transcripts exhibited an increase in VL following 60 days of LTBR. While protein supplementation reduced the number of differentially-expressed genes by 40 and 25% for SOL and VL, respectively, the combined exercise regimen resulted in a marked beneficial and compensatory effect by decreasing the number of differentially-expressed mRNAs by more than 90% in both SOL and VL muscles. Together, these findings provide an overview of skeletal muscle impairment following prolonged disuse by identifying specific groups of genes related to muscle function, as well as metabolic and canonical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of regular exercise in the maintenance of both slow and fast muscle phenotypes. Finally, our approach will prove useful in designing and optimizing specific countermeasures aimed at counteracting muscle atrophy in a microgravity environment.

Chopard, Angele; Lecunff, Martine; Danger, Richard; Teusan, Raluca; Jasmin, Bernard J.; Marini, Jean-Francois; Leger, Jean

130

Blowout preventer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blowout preventer assembly for sealing off a well blowout within the confines of the drill stem is disclosed. The blowout preventer assembly comprises an elongated collar member which is located around and is slidable along a section of the drill pipe. Each end of the collar member has an expandable portion made of rubber or the like, which is capable of being expanded to the width of the drill pipe casing. Fixedly attached to the section of drill pipe at a location above the slidable collar member is a rigid metal collar section having around its circumference a plurality of equally-spaced wing flanges tapering down from a right angle at the top of the fixed collar to a slope at the lower end thereof. The sudden pressure surge of the blowout forces the slidable member upwardly so that the rubberized end portion thereof engages and is expanded outwardly into contact with the inner wall of the well casing by means of the sloping flange wings of the fixed collar, thus sealing off the space between the drill pipe and well casing, and in effect, stopping the surge of the blowout at that point.

Strickland, W.N.

1982-01-05

131

AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF+FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF+FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF+FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF+FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. PMID:21600235

Van Tiem, Lindsey A; Di Giulio, Richard T

2011-08-01

132

Rotating preventers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

1992-10-01

133

Ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through down-regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenolic compounds and flavonoids ameliorate bodyweight, blood glucose, and serum lipid profile. Since seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known as a rich source of isoflavones and flavonoids, we hypothesized that ethanolic extract of seabuckthorn leaves (SL) may have anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects. To investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of SL, 32 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 4 dietary groups, containing 8 mice in each group: normal diet group; high-fat diet (HD) control group; high-fat diet with SL extract, 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) (SL1) group; and high-fat diet with SL extract, 1000 mg/kg BW (SL2) group. After 13 weeks, it was observed that oral administration of SL extract significantly reduced the energy intake; BW gain; epididymal fat pad weight; hepatic triglyceride, hepatic, and serum total cholesterol levels; and serum leptin levels in the SL groups compared to the HD group. However, differences in serum triglyceride and insulin levels in the SL groups were not significant in comparison to the HD group. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 along with PPAR-? were significantly increased in SL groups, whereas the level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was significantly reduced in SL groups compared to HD group. Our results indicated that SL is effective in preventing BW gain and fat accumulation in the liver; it also reduced adipose tissue mass, hepatic lipid profile, and serum leptin level in the mouse. Together, these observations suggest that SL is a potential agent to study in the management of obesity and related disorders. PMID:23176796

Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Moon, Hye-Jung; Park, Jeong-Eun; Moon, Yeon-Jeong; Cha, Youn-Soo

2012-11-01

134

Depletion of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation partially prevents pathology before isoenzyme activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the lamin A/C gene (LMNA) encoding A-type nuclear lamins cause dilated cardiomyopathy with variable muscular dystrophy. These mutations enhance mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart and pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 improves cardiac function in Lmna(H222P/H222P) mice. In the current study, we crossed mice lacking ERK1 to Lmna(H222P/H222P) mice and examined cardiac performance and survival. Male Lmna(H222P/H222P)/Erk1(-/-) mice lacking ERK1 had smaller left ventricular end systolic diameters and increased fractional shortening (FS) at 16 weeks of age than Lmna(H222P/H222P/)Erk1(+/+) mice. Their mean survival was also significantly longer. However, the improved cardiac function was abrogated at 20 weeks of age concurrent with an increased activity of ERK2. Lmna(H222P/H222P)/Erk1(-/-) mice treated with an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation had smaller left ventricular diameters and increased FS at 20 weeks of age. These results provide genetic evidence that ERK1 and ERK2 contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy caused by LMNA mutations and reveal interplay between these isoenzymes in maintaining a combined pathological activity in heart. PMID:23933734

Wu, Wei; Iwata, Shinichi; Homma, Shunichi; Worman, Howard J; Muchir, Antoine

2014-01-01

135

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fire Prevention Burn and Scald Prevention Burn and scald prevention outreach materials This page may contain links ... full of burn awareness education. Handout: burn and scald prevention Download this handout (PDF, 593 Kb) and ...

136

Transcriptional gene silencing of kallikrein 5 and kallikrein 7 using siRNA prevents epithelial cell detachment induced by alkaline shock in an in vitro model of eczema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eczema is widely considered to be an exacerbation of alkaline stress to the skin. Epidermal barrier dysfunction is a feature of eczema pathology, which predisposes affected individuals to distressing morbid symptoms. At least two serine proteases, stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme (kallikrein 7 [KLK7]) and stratum corneum tryptic enzyme (kallikrien 5 [KLK5]), have increased activity levels in eczematous lesions and both have been implicated in the destruction of corneodesomosomes, which are crucial to epidermal integrity. The present in vitro study investigated whether transcriptional gene silencing after siRNA transfection could influence the activity of these signature enzymes in an in vitro model of eczema induced by alkaline shock. HaCaT epithelial cells were subjected to alkaline stress by the addition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl guanidine "superbase" (TMG) to the culture media. The culture media were subsequently tested for chymotryspin, trypsin, plasmin, and urokinase activity using colorimetric peptide assays and for reactive oxygen species using WST1 cell viability reagent. Cells that had been transfected with small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) against KLK5 and KLK7 for 24 h before alkaline shock did not exhibit the increase in serine protease levels observed in untreated controls. Moreover, an endpoint MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) confirmed that detachment of cells from the culture substrate observed in alkaline-stressed cells did not occur in siRNA-treated cells. This in vitro study has established the proof-of-principle that siRNA therapy appears to mitigate the consequences of alkaline shock to the serine protease-associated fragility of epithelial cells that is characteristic of eczema. PMID:22095688

Britland, Stephen; Hoyle, Milli

2012-01-01

137

Enhanced endoplasmic reticulum SERCA activity by overexpression of hepatic stimulator substance gene prevents hepatic cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear, increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may link free fatty acids to NAFLD. Since we previously reported that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) could protect the liver from steatosis, this study is aimed to investigate whether HSS protection could be related with its inhibition on ER stress. The HSS gene was stably transfected into BEL-7402 hepatoma cells and effectively expressed in ER. The palmitic acid (PA)-induced heptocyte lipotoxicity was reproduced in the HSS-transfected cells, and HSS alleviation of the ER stress and apoptosis were subsequently examined. The results showed that PA treatment led to a heavy accumulation of fatty acids within the cells and a remarkable increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, in the HSS-expressing cells, production of ROS was inhibited and ER stress-related marker glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP-78), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), anti-phospho-PRK-1ike ER kinase (p-PERK), anti-phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (p-eIF2?), and anti-C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were downregulated compared with the wild-type or mutant HSS-transfected cells. Furthermore, PA treatment severely impaired the activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), leading to imbalanced calcium homeostasis during ER stress, which could be rescued in the HSS-trasfected cells. The protection provided by HSS to the SERCA is identical to that observed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS), which are two typical free radical scavengers. As a consequence, the rate of ER stress-mediated apoptosis in the HSS-expressing cells was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the protective effect of HSS against ER stress may be associated with the removal of ROS to restore the activity of the SERCA. PMID:24284796

Zhang, Jing; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Shujun; Yu, Hao; An, Wei

2014-02-01

138

Preventive maintenance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information contained in this paper should be used in conjunction with the maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer of each valve. When there is any question or conflict between the procedure described and the manufacturer's, the author suggests determining the best method for the applications. A good long range preventative maintenance program for valves will eliminate costly repairs or replacement of valves long before their time. A little flush, lube, and what was once called elbow grease will also go a long way in reducing your downtime and maintenance budget. This paper will discuss one of the most misunderstood theories concerning valve maintenance, i.e., that periodic maintenance of valves includes the injection of sealants. Sealants are injected into valves as a secondary seal for most valves. Under normal conditions, valves do not require sealant injection. Solid fillers in sealants tend to plug the system making it virtually impossible to inject either sealant or a lubricant, requiring the injection of flush or cleaners to dislodge the solids. Topics covered in this paper will range from general maintenance requirements to valve flushing, cleaning and lubrication

1991-06-01

139

Preventing Genocide  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Holocaust Museum website contains a section on genocide which offers eyewitness accounts of victims of various genocides, a timeline that details the concept and law of genocide, and information about the peoples who are at risk of becoming victims of genocide in our own time. The "World is Witness" link, located on the left hand menu, takes visitors to a map of the areas at risk, "Field Updates", and a "Gallery" of photos of "Burundi", "Chad", "Rwanda", "Sudan", "Congo" and "Other Regions". Visitors can read the caption for the photograph by clicking on it. In the "Chad" gallery, there are drawings by children at refugee camps of attacks on their villages. In the "Rwanda" area there are many photos of the memorial site of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The mass graves of those who were killed are also pictured, as well as the graves of those few who received individual burial plots. Lastly, the website offers the ability to "View and Download the Report" of the Genocide Prevention Task Force, which is co-chaired by Madeleine Albright.

140

Melatonin enhances antioxidative enzyme gene expression (CAT, GPx, SOD), prevents their UVR-induced depletion, and protects against the formation of DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) in ex vivo human skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

UV radiation (UVR) induces serious structural and functional alterations in human skin leading to skin aging and carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species are key players in UVR-mediated photodamage and induce the DNA-base-oxidized, intermediate 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Herein, we report the protective action of melatonin against UVR-induced 8-OHdG formation and depletion of antioxidative enzymes using ex vivo human full-thickness skin exposed to UVR in a dose (0, 100, 300 mJ/cm(2))- and time-dependent manner (0, 24, 48 hr post-UVR). Dynamics of depletion of antioxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), or 8-OHdG formation were studied by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence/immunohistochemical staining. UVR-treated skin revealed significant and immediate (0 hr 300 mJ/cm(2)) reduction of gene expression, and this effect intensified within 24 hr post-UVR. Simultaneous increase in 8-OHdG-positive keratinocytes occurred already after 0 hr post-UVR reaching 71% and 99% up-regulation at 100 and 300 mJ/cm(2), respectively (P < 0.001). Preincubation with melatonin (10(-3) M) led to 32% and 29% significant reductions in 8-OHdG-positive cells and the prevention of antioxidative enzyme gene and protein suppression. Thus, melatonin was shown to play a crucial role as a potent antioxidant and DNA protectant against UVR-induced oxidative damage in human skin. PMID:23110400

Fischer, Tobias W; Kleszczy?ski, Konrad; Hardkop, Lena H; Kruse, Nathalie; Zillikens, Detlef

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Citizens Home Fire Prevention Burn and Scald Prevention Burn and scald prevention outreach materials This page may ... U.S. government websites. What this means to you » Burn Awareness Week: February 2-8, 2014 Download the ...

142

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, ...

143

Strategies for preventing type I diabetes mellitus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Type I diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease in which there is T cell-mediated destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. Susceptibility to the disease is determined by several genes, with HLA genes having the strongest effect. The onset of the disease is predictable, at least in the relatives of affected persons, using a combination of autoantibody measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance testing, and genetic typing. The disease may be preventable, and several large clinical tr...

Verge, C. F.; Eisenbarth, G. S.

1996-01-01

144

Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient. Results A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests. Conclusion Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish between nontuberculous species reliably. We recommend the use of PCR in conjunction with sequencing of the hsp65 gene for reliable differentiation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus in atypical mycobacterial ocular infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility tests on cultured strains are the best guide to antibiotic selection, given the rapidly rising resistance to antimicrobials in atypical mycobacterial species.

Venkateswaran, Nandini; Yeaney, Gabrielle; Chung, Mina; Hindman, Holly B

2014-01-01

145

Preventing Flare-Ups  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing Flare-Ups Lifestyle modifications are the first line of defense in controlling eczema, regardless of whether ... stress . Stress reduction plays a key role in preventing eczema flares. In today’s fast-paced world, reducing ...

146

Preventing Construction Falls  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Preventing Construction Falls Share Compartir In April 2008, a ... ladders more safely is one way to start preventing falls at your work site. Set an example ...

147

Preventing Children's Sports Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... take risks that can result in injuries. Continue Preventing Sports Injuries You can help prevent your kids ... better than returning to the hospital! Back Continue Treating Sports Injuries Treatment of sports injuries varies by ...

148

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Burn and Scald Prevention Burn and scald prevention outreach materials This page may contain links to non- ... 593 Kb) and customize with your organization's logo Outreach materials and messages from the U.S. Fire Administration ...

149

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... A public service announcement (PSA) and safety tip sheet on scald prevention. The National Fire Protection Association ... training and education. Safe Kids Worldwide . A fact sheet and educational videos to help prevent burns in ...

150

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and scald prevention in your community with these free materials. Public service announcements and messages Prevent scalds ... away from cooking areas by enforcing a "kid-free zone" of 3 feet (1 meter) around the ...

151

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 8, 2014 Download the American Burn Association's Scald Injury Prevention Guide for Educators, PowerPoint Presentations (English, Spanish) ... Worldwide is a global organization dedicated to preventing injuries in children. Related content Mitigation of cooking fires ...

152

Suicide Prevention for Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... Problems > Suicide Prevention For Children Health Issues Listen Suicide Prevention For Children Article Body Occasionally, during times ... the six-to-twelve age range rarely commit suicide, but there is an increasing trend for them ...

153

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Audio by Topic NIMH Video August 22, 2011 Suicide Prevention and Research NIMH researcher Dr. Jane Pearson ... about warning signs as well as progress in suicide prevention. Download this video. Watch on YouTube. Transcript ...

154

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... Audio by Topic NIMH Video August 22, 2011 Suicide Prevention and Research NIMH researcher Dr. Jane Pearson ... about warning signs as well as progress in suicide prevention. Download this video. Watch on YouTube. Transcript ...

155

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... two to three days. Fire Prevention and Public Education Exchange The Exchange serves as a centralized location ... fire prevention and life safety practices and public education materials that organizations may wish to share with ...

156

Prevention of Flu (Influenza)  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Prevention The single best way to prevent the flu is to get a flu vaccine each year. ...

157

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Popular Links: After a Fire Carbon Monoxide Escape Planning Fire Extinguishers Fire Prevention Campaigns Home Fire Sprinklers ... Prevention: Technical Hazardous Materials Incident Management Management Science Planning & Information Mgmt Responder Health & Safety Training Programs MORE: » ...

158

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... these numbers. More Information about: Suicide Prevention More Video and Audio about: Suicide Prevention Subscribe to RSS Feeds NIMH Video NIMH Audio Director’s Blog Recent Updates Bookmark & Share ...

159

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... need to know about pressure sores? What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

160

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Topic: Fire Prevention Campaigns Home Fire Fatalities Map Photos & B-roll PIO Media Guide Product Recalls Public ... Stories Fire Prevention Campaigns Fire Spokesperson's Media Guide Photos & B-roll Public Service Announcements Press Releases All ...

 
 
 
 
161

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... logo Outreach materials and messages from the U.S. Fire Administration Encourage burn and scald prevention in your ... does not heal in two to three days. Fire Prevention and Public Education Exchange The Exchange serves ...

162

Prevention Of Stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual?s risk for developing fatal ...

2005-01-01

163

Molecular epidemiology and cancer prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of recent studies of biologic markers in populations with model exposures to carcinogens (cigarette smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) illustrates their potential role in cancer prevention. Data on macromolecular adducts and oncogene activation from cross-sectional, serial sampling and case-control studies demonstrate the usefulness of biologic markers in signalling a potential carcinogenic risk and in estimating the magnitude of interindividual variation within exposed groups. Recommendations for future research include nested case-control studies to establish the relationship between markers of biologic dose and effect (e.g., adducts, gene mutation, oncogene activation) and cancer risk. 31 references.

Perera, F.P.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Brandt-Rauf, P.W.; Brenner, D.; Mayer, J.L.; Smith, S.J.; Latriano, L.; Hemminki, K.; Santella, R.M. (Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (USA))

1990-01-01

164

Wildfire Prevention Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

165

Prevention IS Care  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

2009-03-26

166

Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

2011-10-24

167

Prevention Of Stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual?s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

Nagaraja D

2005-01-01

168

Prevention of major depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before the 1980s, no randomized controlled trials had been carried out to test whether major depressive episodes could be prevented. In the past 30 years, several trials have reported success in reducing the incidence (the number of new cases) of major depressive episodes. These studies suggest that major depression can be prevented. Given the large burden of disease caused by major depression, it is time for substantial systematic efforts to replicate these studies, carry out multisite trials, and widely disseminate prevention interventions found to be effective. The present review examines the conceptual and practical differences between treatment and prevention trials and the importance of identifying groups at high short-term risk for major depressive episodes to make prevention trials feasible. We also list the randomized controlled prevention trials that have been carried out to date and discuss the need for prevention interventions that go beyond the limits of traditional face-to-face interventions. PMID:20192789

Muñoz, Ricardo F; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Barrera, Alinne Z; Leykin, Yan

2010-01-01

169

Mycobacterium thermoresistibile: Case report of a rarely isolated mycobacterium from Europe and review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycobacterium thermoresistibile is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium strongly associated with human infections. Since 1966, there have only been six reports of its isolation from clinical samples. We report on the first case from Europe and review all the previous cases. Identification was achieved with sequencing of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. This study presents its phenotypic and biochemical profile, susceptibilities to selected antibiotics and hsp65 polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism profile with BsteII and Hae III .

Neonakis I

2009-01-01

170

Candida Infections and Their Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections caused by Candida species have been increased dramatically worldwide due to the increase in immunocompromised patients. For the prevention and cure of candidiasis, several strategies have been adopted at clinical level. Candida infected patients are commonly treated with a variety of antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine. Moreover, early detection and speciation of the fungal agents will play a crucial role for administering appropriate drugs for antifungal therapy. Many modern technologies like MALDI-TOF-MS, real-time PCR, and DNA microarray are being applied for accurate and fast detection of the strains. However, during prolonged use of these drugs, many fungal pathogens become resistant and antifungal therapy suffers. In this regard, combination of two or more antifungal drugs is thought to be an alternative to counter the rising drug resistance. Also, many inhibitors of efflux pumps have been designed and tested in different models to effectively treat candidiasis. However, most of the synthetic drugs have side effects and biomedicines like antibodies and polysaccharide-peptide conjugates could be better alternatives and safe options to prevent and cure the diseases. Furthermore, availability of genome sequences of Candida??albicans and other non-albicans strains has made it feasible to analyze the genes for their roles in adherence, penetration, and establishment of diseases. Understanding the biology of Candida species by applying different modern and advanced technology will definitely help us in preventing and curing the diseases caused by fungal pathogens.

Kabir, M. Anaul; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

2013-01-01

171

[Prevention of posterior capsule opacification in experimental studies].  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmaceuticals inhibiting proliferation of epithelium cells or causing their death were tested in experimental studies on PCO prevention. The following antymetabolites were tested: 5-fluorouracil, dounomycin, methotrexat and colchicine, epithelial antibodies against epithelial cells, toxins, hyperosmolar agents and heparin, indomethacine and lignocaine. Moreover, gene therapy with the use of apoptose genes was applied. None of the attempts to prevent PCO was useful for effective and safe clinical treatment. PMID:21913452

?ukaszewska-Smyk, Agnieszka; Ka?uzny, Józef

2011-01-01

172

Tandem repeats of the 5' non-transcribed spacer of Tetrahymena rDNA function as high copy number autonomous replicons in the macronucleus but do not prevent rRNA gene dosage regulation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rRNA genes in the somatic macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila are normally on 21 kb linear palindromic molecules (rDNA). We examined the effect on rRNA gene dosage of transforming T.thermophila macronuclei with plasmid constructs containing a pair of tandemly repeated rDNA replication origin regions unlinked to the rRNA gene. A significant proportion of the plasmid sequences were maintained as high copy circular molecules, eventually consisting solely of tandem arrays of origin region...

Pan, W. J.; Blackburn, E. H.

1995-01-01

173

Increased frequency of {gamma}{delta} T cells in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of patients with multiple sclerosis: Reactivity, cytotoxicity, and T cell receptor V gene rearrangements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infiltrating {gamma}{delta} T cells are potentially involved in the central nervous system demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). To further study this hypothesis, we analyzed the frequency and functional properties of {gamma}{delta} T cells in peripheral blood (PB) and paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS and control subjects, including patients with other neurologic diseases (OND) and healthy individuals. The frequency analysis was performed under limiting dilution condition using rIL-2 and PHA. After PHA stimulation, a significantly increased frequency of {gamma}{delta} T cells was observed in PB and in CSF of MS patients as compared with PB and CSF of patients with OND. The frequency was represented equally in OND patients and normal individuals. Similarly, the IL-2-responsive {gamma}{delta} T cells occurred at a higher frequency in PB of MS than of control subjects. Forty-three percent of the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones isolates from PB and CSF of MS patients responded to heat shock protein (HSP70) but not HSP65, whereas only 2 of 30 control {gamma}{delta} T cell clones reacted to the HSP. The majority of the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones were able to induce non-MHC-restricted cytolysis of Daudi cells. All clones displayed a substantial reactivity to bacterial superantigens staphylococcal enterotoxin B and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, irrespective of their {gamma}{delta} V gene usage. Furthermore, the {gamma}{delta} T cell clones expressed predominantly TCRDV2 and GV2 genes, whereas the clones derived from CSF of MS patients expressed either DV1 or DV2 genes. The obtained {gamma}{delta} clones, in general, represented rather heterogeneous clonal origins, even though a predominant clonal origin was found in a set of 10 {gamma}{delta} clones derived from one patient with MS. The present study provides new evidence supporting a possible role of {gamma}{delta} T cells in the secondary inflammatory processes in MS. 39 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Stinissen, P.; Vandevyver, C.; Medaer, R. [Dr. L. Willems Institute, Diepenbeek (Belgium)] [and others

1995-05-01

174

Blowout preventer control apparatus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Control apparatus is claimed for preventing inadvertent operation of the drawworks of a drilling rig upon closure of an associated blowout preventer, the drawworks being at least partially operated by air from an air source connected thereto by an air conduit. The control apparatus may comprise control components for connection to the air conduit and movable from a first mode, in which air is permitted to communicate with the drawworks through the air conduit, and a second mode, in which air is prevented from communicating with the drawworks. Also included are monitor components for connection to the blowout preventer and the control components for sensing whether the blowout preventer is in opened or closed positions and initiating movement of the control components to the second mode upon movement of the blowout preventer to the closed position.

Bradford, J.; Manuel, W.S.

1983-05-24

175

Acne Scars: Tips for Preventing  

Science.gov (United States)

... scars Tips for preventing Acne scars: Tips for preventing Gentle skin care can help you prevent acne ... less likely you are to develop acne scars. Treating acne is especially important to prevent scarring, if ...

176

Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

Eremin O.V.

2011-03-01

177

The Suicide Prevention Continuum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how ...

Caldwell, Dawn

2008-01-01

178

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Fire Prevention: Technical Hazardous Materials Incident Management Management Science Planning & Information Mgmt Responder Health & Safety Training Programs MORE: » Students & ...

179

Discovering genes underlying QTL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

2002-02-01

180

Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)  

Science.gov (United States)

... precancerous condition or to keep cancer from starting). Carcinogenesis Carcinogenesis is the process in which normal cells turn ... muscle cell. Changes (mutations) in genes occur during carcinogenesis. Changes ( mutations ) in genes can cause normal controls ...

 
 
 
 
181

Skin Cancer Prevention Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.

182

Vaccines for tumour prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite tremendous progress in basic and epidemiological research, effective prevention of most types of cancer is still lacking. Vaccine use in cancer therapy remains a promising but difficult prospect. However, new mouse models that recapitulate significant features of human cancer progression show that vaccines can keep precancerous lesions under control and might eventually be the spearhead of effective and reliable ways to prevent cancer.

Forni, Guido; Cavallo, Federica

2006-01-01

183

IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

2003-01-01

184

niea preventing fires  

...water supply? Are there any fire breaks or physical fire barriers on site to prevent...barriers on site to prevent fire spreading? Can fire water be contained? Do you...the site potentially spreading the fire or injuring fire fighters. How much separation is...

185

fire prevention guidance  

...water supply? Are there any fire breaks or physical fire barriers on site to prevent...barriers on site to prevent fire spreading? Can fire water be contained? Who and...the site potentially spreading the fire or injuring fire fighters. How do you manage...

186

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and Scald Prevention Burn and scald prevention outreach materials This page may contain links to non-U.S. ... Kb) and customize with your organization's logo Outreach materials and messages from the U.S. Fire Administration Encourage ...

187

Prevention of preterm birth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

Flood, Karen

2012-02-01

188

CNS Genes Implicated in Relapse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse is a condition that impacts not only the individual drug user, but society as a whole. Although prevention of initial drug use is the most effective way to prevent addiction, avoiding relapse is a crucial component of drug addiction recovery. Recent studies suggest that there is a set of genes whose expression is robustly and stably altered following drug use and ensuing abstinence. Such stable changes in gene expression correlate with ultrastructural changes in brain as well as alterations in behavior. As persistent molecular changes, these genes may provide targets for the development of therapeutics. Developing a list of well-characterized candidate genes and examining the effect of manipulating these genes will contribute to the ultimate goal of developing effective treatments to prevent relapse to drug use.

Willard M. Freeman

2008-01-01

189

CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

Akula Annapurna

2013-09-01

190

Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen I (Fral), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (SD 4.26) years; 36% reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mu g, 200 mu g or 300 mu g Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise (R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQOI or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta

2008-01-01

191

Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (sd 4.26) years; 36 % reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mug, 200 mug or 300 mug Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise(R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQO1 or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

Ravn-Haren, Lejla Gitte; Krath, Britta Naimi

2007-01-01

192

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After SCI Coping with ...

193

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... NIMH Video August 22, 2011 Suicide Prevention and Research NIMH researcher Dr. Jane Pearson talks about warning ... RSS Feeds NIMH Video NIMH Audio Director’s Blog Recent Updates Bookmark & Share Newsletters RSS Feeds Facebook Twitter ...

194

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Handout: burn and scald prevention Download this handout (PDF, 593 Kb) and customize with your organization's logo ... explosions in grain elevators usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/coffee-break/cb_fp_2014_27.pdf Jul ...

195

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... sores? What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? What are the most important things for ... in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? What ...

196

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and Spanish. The American Burn Association and its members dedicate their efforts and resources to promoting and supporting burn-related research, education, care, rehabilitation, and prevention. Centers for Disease ...

197

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Fire Extinguishers Fire Prevention Campaigns Home Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By Topic: Arson/Youth ... usfire Facebook Watch Videos Subscribe Email Updates Citizens Smoke Alarms Home Fire Sprinklers Fire Escape Planning After ...

198

Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... species ,” or “ROS” ( 1 , 2 ). 2. What are antioxidants? Antioxidants are chemicals that interact with and neutralize free radicals , thus preventing them from causing damage. Antioxidants are also known as “free radical scavengers.” The ...

199

Prevent CO Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention When power outages occur after severe ... and healthy during winter weather. How to Recognize CO Poisoning The most common symptoms of CO poisoning ...

200

High Blood Cholesterol Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Cholesterol Share Compartir High Blood Cholesterol Prevention What You Can Do Guidelines and Recommendations ... 800-CDC-INFO Fax: 770-488–8151 Email Cholesterol Home About Cholesterol LDL and HDL Signs and ...

 
 
 
 
201

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Fatalities Grants & Funding Incident Reporting (NFIRS) By Topic: Critical Infrastructure Protection Emergency Medical Services Fire Investigation Techniques Firefighter Health & Safety Incident Management Teams Operations & Tactics Fire Prevention & Public ...

202

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... this means to you » Burn Awareness Week: February 2-8, 2014 Download the American Burn Association's Scald ... possible if the burn does not heal in two to three days. Fire Prevention and Public Education ...

203

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... raquo To prevent spills due to overturn of appliances containing hot food or liquids, use the back ... pot handles away from the stove's edge. All appliance cords need to be kept coiled and away ...

204

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Public Service Announcements Tips for News Stories Latest News: "); } USFA Press Office: 301-447-1853 MORE: » Media & ... All Students & Instructors Topics » Media & PIOs Tips for News Stories Fire Prevention Campaigns Fire Spokesperson's Media Guide ...

205

Pollution Prevention & Control  

The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, (the IPPC Directive) was adopted in October 1996. The IPPC Directive requires an integrated approach to the permitting and ongoing regulation of certain ...

206

Leishmaniasis: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... to prevent infection is to protect themselves from sand fly bites. To decrease the risk of being bitten, ... outdoor activities, especially from dusk to dawn, when sand flies generally are the most active. When outdoors (or ...

207

Prevention & Detection Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Links to information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach. Links within DCP and throughout NCI offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts.

208

Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips  

Science.gov (United States)

... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

209

Lead Poisoning Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead Poisoning Prevention Report Suspected Violations of RRP Rule If you suspect the Lead Renovation, Repair and ... tip/complaint. New Requirements to Protect Children from Lead-Based Paint Hazards To further protect children from ...

210

Household Safety: Preventing Drowning  

Science.gov (United States)

... Aid & Safety > Home Sweet Home > Household Safety: Preventing Drowning Print A A A Text Size What's in ... you have babies or toddlers in your home. Drowning can happen very quickly and in less than ...

211

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ... Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with SCI What is a ...

212

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your organization's logo Outreach materials and messages from the U.S. Fire Administration Encourage burn and scald prevention ... of appliances containing hot food or liquids, use the back burner when possible and/or turn pot ...

213

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Monoxide Escape Planning Fire Extinguishers Fire Prevention Campaigns Home Fire Sprinklers Smoke Alarms Winter Fire Safety By ... Adults Parents People with Disabilities Teachers MORE: » Citizens Home » Product Recalls » Focus on Fire Safety: Holiday Cooking ...

214

Cryptosporidium: Prevention - Immunocompromised Persons  

Science.gov (United States)

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Prevention – Immunocompromised Persons On this Page Wash your hands Practice safer ... about the use of tap water by immunocompromised persons. You may also wish to take some additional ...

215

Disaster prevention surveillance system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

2001-07-01

216

Unintended Pregnancy Prevention: Vasectomy  

Science.gov (United States)

... throughout the world. Vasectomy, a form of permanent contraception, is also known as male sterilization. This procedure ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Home Contraception Medical Eligibility Criteria Female Sterilization Vasectomy Reproductive Health ...

217

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and social media tools to help spread the word about children and burn prevention. As our nation’s ... Customize this flyer w/ your logo & spread the word about fire safety & home fire sprinklers www.usfa. ...

218

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... burn right away by putting it in cool water. Cool the burn for three to five minutes. ... Exchange serves as a centralized location for national, state and local fire prevention and life safety practices ...

219

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ... Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After SCI Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social ...

220

Pollution Prevention and Control  

i Pollution Prevention and Control Northern Ireland Guidance for Operators on Preparing an Agricultural Water Audit for IPPC Farming installations. Version 3 January 2011 Guidance for Operators on Preparing an ...

 
 
 
 
221

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Emergency Medical Services Emergency Response to Terrorism Executive ... a common burn awareness and prevention message in our communities. Burn Awareness Week, celebrated early in the year, ...

222

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ... Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with ...

223

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Error processing SSI file Home Video and Audio by Topic NIMH Video August 22, 2011 Suicide Prevention ... Share Newsletters RSS Feeds Facebook Twitter YouTube Widget Error processing SSI file The National Institute of Mental ...

224

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... through consensus codes and standards, research, training and education. Safe Kids Worldwide . A fact sheet and educational videos to help prevent burns in children. Safe Kids Worldwide is a global organization dedicated ...

225

Preventing Measles Outbreaks  

Science.gov (United States)

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Preventing Measles Outbreaks HealthDay June 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Measles Transcript Each year, there are an estimated 20 ...

226

Primary prevention of cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is organized under the following headings: Cancer registration in Europe; Coordination and role in cancer control, Chemoprevention of cancer, Smokeless tobacco and cancer, Occupational risks from radiation, Stochholm cancer prevention program

1988-01-01

227

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Strategies Residential Fire Sprinklers MORE: » Fire Service Home » State Fire Contacts » USFA Position Statements » Training & Education Students & ... Exchange serves as a centralized location for national, state and local fire prevention and life safety practices ...

228

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Video and Audio about: Suicide Prevention Subscribe to RSS Feeds NIMH Video NIMH Audio Director’s Blog Recent Updates Bookmark & Share Newsletters RSS Feeds Facebook Twitter YouTube Widget Error processing SSI file ...

229

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Suicide Prevention and Research NIMH researcher Dr. Jane Pearson talks about warning signs as well as progress ... this video. Watch on YouTube. Transcript Dr. Jane Pearson: Suicide is a major public health problem in ...

230

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... state and local fire prevention and life safety practices and public education materials that organizations may wish to share with other communities. Visit the Exchange . Outreach materials from other organizations ...

231

Stroke Prevention and Women  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... prevention guidelines focused exclusively on women. American women face a higher lifetime risk for stroke accounting for ... women. According to the AHA and ASA women face some unique concerns due to hormones, pregnancy, child- ...

232

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Safety tips and social media tools to help spread the word about ... NFIRS) Fire Department Census Alerts & Advisories Grants & Funding State Fire Contacts All Fire Service Topics » Students & Instructors ...

233

[HIV test and prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful prevention of an HIV epidemic is still a desirable goal. As young people are mainly affected by new infections and AIDS mortality has fallen virtually to zero, the long-term total costs of HIV management are increasing. This report describes how the targeted application of HIV testing can influence the HIV epidemic. The crucial point is the early diagnosis of primary HIV infection in standard situations whereby early diagnosis and counselling result in behavioral modifications preventing new transmission. PMID:22986541

Bickel, A; Vernazza, P

2012-10-01

234

HPV Prevention series  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history studies, im...

Sanjose?, Silvia

2012-01-01

235

HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain p...

2009-01-01

236

Prevention of childhood obesity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood obesity is a complex disease with different genetic, metabolic, environmental and behavioural components that are interrelated and potentially confounding, thus making causal pathways difficult to define. Given the tracking of obesity and the associated risk factors, childhood is an important period for prevention. To date, evidence would support preventative interventions that encourage physical activity and a healthy diet, restrict sedentary activities and offer behavioural suppor...

2005-01-01

237

Prevention of relapsing backache  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course...

Lu?hmann, Dagmar; Stoll, Susanne; Burkhardt-hammer, Tatjana; Raspe, Heiner

2006-01-01

238

Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-?B pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-?B, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

2007-11-01

239

Molecular targets for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in some areas of the world with an extremely poor prognosis. The major etiologic risk factors for HCC development include toxins (alcohol, aflatoxin B1), androgens and estrogens, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as various inherited metabolic disorders, such as alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and hemochromatosis. The molecular pathogenesis of HCC development is very complex and involves alterations in the structure or expression of several tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes and, possibly, mechanisms leading to a genetic instability due to mismatch repair deficiency or chromosomal instability and aneuploidy due to defective chromosomal segregation. Central to the molecular pathogenesis of HCCs are mutations of various genes and a genetic instability which in most cases result from chronic liver disease and the associated enhanced liver cell regeneration and mitotic activity. The prognosis of HCC patients is generally very poor. Most studies report a five year survival rate of less than 5% in symptomatic HCC patients. Furthermore, these tumors have been shown to be quite resistant to radio- or chemotherapy. Investigations of the natural history and clinical course of HCCs revealed long-term survival of patients only with small asymptomatic HCCs that could be treated surgically or by non-surgical interventions. Apart from exploring and refining new HCC treatment strategies, the implementation of existing and the development of novel measures to prevent HCC development are most important. Primary HCC prevention includes among others universal hepatitis B vaccination, antiviral therapy of patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, reduction of food contamination with aflatoxins, elimination of excessive alcohol etc. Also for some genetic diseases there is the potential for HCC prevention by identifying affected family members at risk, such as patients with precirrhotic hemochromatosis. Reduction of iron overload by phlebotomy has been shown to eliminate the progression hemochromatosis to liver cirrhosis and HCC. Preventive measures, therefore, should have a major impact on the incidence of HCCs in patients with acquired and inherited liver diseases. Further, the prevention of a local recurrence or the development of new HCC lesions in patients after successful surgical or non-surgical HCC treatment (secondary prevention) is of paramount importance and is expected to significantly improve disease-free and overall patient survival. Based on rapid scientific advances, molecular diagnosis, gene therapy and molecular prevention are becoming increasingly part of our patient management and will eventually complement and in part replace existing diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive strategies. Overall, this should result in a reduction of the incidence of HCCs, one of the most devastating malignancies worldwide. PMID:12145424

Blum, Hubert E

2002-01-01

240

Pancreatic Cancer: Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and t...

Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Li, Yiwei

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Preventing and Treating Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Preventing and Treating Food Allergy There is currently no ... food allergy reaction Treating a food allergy reaction Preventing a food allergy reaction You can only prevent ...

242

Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes  

Science.gov (United States)

... Winter Storm Preparedness › Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes Being prepared and informed ... or no insulation are also subject to freezing. Preventing Frozen Pipes Before the onset of cold weather, ...

243

Preventing Ticks on Your Pets  

Science.gov (United States)

... Other Spotted Fevers Questions & Answers Tickborne Diseases Abroad Preventing Ticks on Your Pets Dogs are very susceptible ... tick comes into contact with the chemical, thus preventing a bite. Pros: Prevents bite wounds and possible ...

244

Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

245

Pneumocystis Pneumonia Risk and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diseases Share Compartir Risk & Prevention Who gets pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)? PCP is extremely rare in healthy people. ... chronic lung diseases How can I prevent pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)? There is no vaccine to prevent PCP. ...

246

Prevention des Rickettsioses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ;rhe di~cove!y of antibiotics having an highly effective and specific action on th~ rickettsial diseases has greatly' deprived of importance the formerly outstanding prevention of these diseases. However, the prevention of Typhus: fever, the single rickettsiosis to be purely human and the <;>nly. one to: be epidemic, remains an important problem. The methods of. prevention.m the mveterate foci 'can be determined in the light of the last attainments, WhICh are: non-transmission of the infection by the bite of the louse, ~pread by the dusty faeces of the ectoparasite, long-lived conservation of the VIruS ~ that dust, possibility of lasting latency in man and of resurgences from the earner

M. Baltazard

1962-01-01

247

Shear ram blowout preventer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is disclosed a ram type blowout preventer having a pair of shear rams adapted to shear pipes suspended in the bore of the preventer and subsequently seal off the bore. The rams utilize a transverse packing for sealing between the shear blades when they are closed. One shear ram has a ramp adapted to engage a shoulder on the opposing ram so as to urge the shearing blades closer together as they are closing and thereby reduce the vertical gap which the transverse seal must bridge.

Jones, M.R.

1982-09-07

248

HPV Prevention series  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history studies, impact of screening interventions or impact of HPV vaccines will be most welcome.

de Sanjosé Silvia

2012-12-01

249

HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

Ionela – Corina Chersan

2009-09-01

250

[Novel vaccines against M. tuberculosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

CDC and ACET in U.S.A. reported that novel vaccines instead of BCG are required for the protection against infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis worldwide. However, no novel vaccine for clinical use has not yet been developed in the world including U.S.A. and Europe. We have developed two novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines; a DNA vaccine combination expressing mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (HSP 65) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) by using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome (HSP 65 + IL-12/HVJ). A mouse IL-12 expression vector (mIL-12 DNA) encoding single-chain IL-12 proteins comorised of p40 and p35 subunits were constructed. In a mouse model, a single gene gun vaccination with the combination of HSP 65 DNA and mIL-12 DNA provided a remarkably high degree of protection against challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis; bacterial numbers were 100 fold lower in the lungs compared to BCG-vaccinated mice. To explore the clinical use of the DNA vaccines, we evaluated HVJ-liposome encapsulated HAP 65 DNA and mIL-12 DNA (HSP 65 + mIL-12/ HVJ). The HVJ-liposome method improved the protective efficacy of the HSP 65 DNA vaccine compared to gene gun vaccination. This vaccine provide remarkable protective efficacy in mouse and guinea pig models, as compared to the current by available BCG vaccine. HSP 65 + IL-12/HVJ vaccine induced CD8+cytoxic T lymphocyte activity against HSP 65 antigen. Protective efficacy of this vaccine was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells and activation of proliferative T cells as well as CTL induction upon stimulation with the HSP 65 and antigens from M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, we extended our studies to a cynomolgus monkey model, which is currently the best animal model of human tuberculosis, to evaluate the HSP 65 + IL-12/HVJ vaccine. Vaccination with HSP 65 + IL-12/HVJ provided better protective efficacy as assessed by the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, chest X-ray findings, and immune responses than BCG. Most importantly, HSP 65 + IL-12/HVJ resulted in an increased survival for over a year. This is the first report of successful DNA vaccination against M. tuberculosis in the monkey model. Novel TB vaccines using the monkey model will be discussed in this issue. The development of novel vaccines against tuberculosis was also studied in murine and cynomolgus monkey systems. Four distinct methods; DNA vaccination (1. plasmid, 2. adenovirus vector, 3. adenoassouated virus), 4. recombinant BCG, and 5. subunit (recombinant protein) were used for the development of novel vaccines. Genes (HSP 65 gene, IL-12 gene as well as Ag 85A-, 85B-, MPB51-gene) and IL-6 related genes (IL-6 gene + IL-6R gene +gp130 gene) were administered into the Balb/c mice infected (i.v. or intra-tracheal injection) with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Elimination of M. tuberculosis in lungs, liver, and spleen of these mice and survival were studied in these models. HSP 65 gene + IL-12 gene vaccination, or recombinant BCG (BA51 : Antigen 85B(-) + Antigen 85A(-) + MPB51-gene recombinant BCG) were more prophylactically efficient than parental BCG Tokyo vaccination. In contrast, IL-6 related genes vaccination using adenovirus vector showed therapeutic effect on M. tuberculosis infected mice. Cytotoxic T cells (CTL) activity against M. tuberculosis in the spleen cells from mice treated with IL-6 related genes vaccination were significantly augmented. Furthermore, NOD-SCID-PBL/hu mice treated with anti-IL-2 receptor beta-chain antibody provide an useful tool for analyzing in vivo human T cell immunity against tuberculosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate the development of a novel HVJ-liposome DNA vaccine encapsulating HSP 65 DNA plus IL-12 DNA. These results suggest that HSP 65 + IL-12/HVJ could be a promising candidate for a new tuberculosis DNA vaccine, which is superior to the currently available BCG vaccine. The goal of our study is to develop a new tuberculosis vaccine superior to BCG. To this aim, we believe that the protective efficacy and protective immune responses f

Okada, Masaji

2006-12-01

251

PREVENTING DISEASES AND INFECTIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

DESK Standard: Determine how communicable diseases are spread. . DATES: You can begin this activity on January 8. You should complete it by January 12. OBJECTIVE: Everyone wants to feel healthy because being sick is a drag! We have been discussing ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases during class. There are many ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-19

252

Preventing & Detecting Specific Cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

This section provides information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach. Links offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts. Information on other types of cancers, along with treatment and diagnosis information can be found on the NCI's Cancer Topics web page.

253

Injury Prevention Research  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

2009-09-01

254

Student Leadership. Prevention Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

2010-01-01

255

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... organization dedicated to preventing injuries in children. Related content Mitigation of cooking fires Statistical reports: cooking fires ... YouTube Learn About USFA » Home Site Index USFA Jobs FOIA Important Notices/Privacy Policy Forms Plug-Ins ...

256

Bottom hole blowout preventer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An automatically controlled ball-valve type bottom-hole blowout preventer is provided for use in drilling oil or gas wells. The blowout preventer of the invention operates under normal drilling conditions in a fully open position with an unrestricted bore. This condition is maintained by a combination of spring and mud flow pressure acting against the upper surfaces of the valve. In the event of a well kick or blowout, pressures from gas or fluid volumes acting against the lower surfaces of the valve force it into the fully closed position. A system of ports and check valves within the blowout preventer forces hydraulic fluid from one chamber to another. The metering effect of these ports determines the rate of closure of the valve, thereby allowing normal running and pulling of the drill string or tubing, without interference to pipe fill-up or drainage, from valve closure. The blowout preventer is placed in a subassembly that is an integral part of the drill string and can be incorporated in a string in any location. 3 figs.

Lineham, D.H.

1991-04-24

257

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... globe now benefit from advances in suicide prevention research and guidelines that emerged from national and global strategies formed a decade ago. An example of specific action steps that have been developed can be found in medical emergency rooms. Dr. Jane Pearson: We can do ...

258

Stroke Prevention and Women  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. For closed captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Stroke Prevention and ...

259

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Injury Prevention Guide for Educators, PowerPoint Presentations (English, Spanish) Burn Awareness Week, observed the first full week ... educator's guide and PowerPoint presentations in English and Spanish. The American Burn Association and its members dedicate ...

260

Preventing clogged water sprays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clogging of water spray nozzles in underground mines is almost always caused by coal or rock particles in the water. There are three ways to prevent clogging: remove the particles from the water, keep the particles away from the nozzles, or use spray nozzles which allow the particles to pass through the nozzle orifice. 3 figs.

Divers, E.F. (Advanced Technology Systems Inc., Monroeville, PA (USA))

1989-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Preventing Weight Gain  

Science.gov (United States)

... Calculator Children's BMI Tool for Schools Child and Teen - About BMI Measuring Children's Height and Weight Accurately At Home Balancing Calories Other Factors in Weight Gain Preventing Weight Gain Losing Weight Getting Started Improving Your Eating Habits Keeping it Off Healthy Eating for a Healthy ...

262

Suicide Prevention and Research  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Error processing SSI file Home Video and Audio by Topic NIMH Video August 22, 2011 Suicide Prevention and Research NIMH researcher ... RSS Feeds Facebook Twitter YouTube Widget Error processing SSI file The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) ...

263

Preventing School Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

2011-01-01

264

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... thing to do to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ... Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries and the members of their families. Our ...

265

Unintended Pregnancy Prevention: Contraception  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sponsored Assignees Archived Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology Conferences American Indian and Alaska Native Activities Building Tribal MCH ... its benefits. Contraception . 2012;85(6):552–557. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecology Data and ... Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 ...

266

Burn and Scald Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to three days. Fire Prevention and Public Education Exchange The Exchange serves as a centralized location for national, state ... wish to share with other communities. Visit the Exchange . Outreach materials from other organizations The U.S. Fire ...

267

Molecular therapy and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in some areas of the world with an extremely poor prognosis. The major etiologic risk factors for HCC development include hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, toxins (alcohol, aflatoxin B1) and various inherited metabolic liver diseases, such as hemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Central to the molecular pathogenesis of HCC are mutations of various genes and genetic/chromosomal instability that result from chronic liver disease and the associated enhanced liver cell regeneration and mitotic activity. Alterations in the structure or expression of several tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes have been described. In addition, mechanisms leading to genetic instability due to mismatch repair deficiency or chromosomal instability and aneuploidy due to defective chromosomal segregation appear to be involved. The prognosis of HCC patients is generally very poor. Most studies have shown a five-year survival rate of less than 5% in symptomatic patients. HCC has been found to be quite resistant to radio- or chemotherapy. Investigations of the natural history and clinical course of HCC revealed a long-term survival of patients only with small asymptomatic HCC that could be treated surgically or nonsurgically. For patients with advanced symptomatic HCC, novel therapeutic strategies such as gene therapy are urgently needed. Apart from exploring and refining new HCC treatment strategies, the implementation of the existing measures or the development of novel measures to prevent HCC is most important. Primary HCC prevention could have a major impact on the incidence of HCC. Further, secondary prevention of a local recurrence or of new HCC lesions in patients after successful surgical or nonsurgical HCC treatment is of paramount importance and is expected to significantly improve disease-free and overall survival rates of patients. Based on rapid scientific advances, molecular diagnosis, gene therapy and molecular prevention are becoming increasingly part of our patient management and will eventually complement or in part replace the existing diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive strategies. Overall, this should result in a reduced HCC incidence and an improved clinical outcome for patients with HCC, one of the most devastating malignancies worldwide. PMID:14599923

Blum, Hubert E

2003-02-01

268

Guidelines for prevention in psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188360

2014-04-01

269

Preventing Chronic Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Persons with an interest in public health will want to make a beeline for this rather helpful and well-done journal offered by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). This online-only publication was started in January 2004, and contains a healthy mix of peer-reviewed articles, CDC announcements, and general interest pieces. The journal's interests are quite broad and include reproductive health, oral health, health risk behavior, and the value of policy and legislation in preventing chronic disease. Some of the recent articles in the journal have included pieces on childhood obesity prevention legislation, diabetes and tooth loss, and more specifically, "The Cradle to Prison Pipeline: An American Health Crisis". The site also contains an online archive and information for potential authors, peer reviewers, and information about email updates about new issues.

270

How blowout preventers work  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In normal drilling operations, the primary well control is the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the drilling fluid in the well. This pressure can be adjusted to the specific conditions by a variation in the fluid density. Proper well planning requires the hydrostatic head of the drilling fluid to overbalance the formation pressure by a certain safety margin. In case of primary control loss resulting from a sudden increase of formation pressure or lost circulation, it becomes necessary to seal off the well by some other means to prevent an uncontrollable flow, or blowout, of formation fluids. The equipment that performs this secondary control function is the blowout preventer (BOP). BOP's are mounted directly to the wellhead in combinations called the BOP stack. Such a stack will normally contain several of the two basic BOP types: ram and annular. In special situations, a third BOP type-the rotating BOP-can also be used in combination with rams and annulars.

Vujasinovic, A.N.

1986-09-01

271

[Prevention of diabetic foot].  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia, lipid disorders (treatment with fenofibrate reduces the incidence of DF amputations (EBM-Ib/A), hypertension, hyperuricemia, neuropathy, and angiopathy (surgical reconstructive bypass) or endovascular (percutaneous transluminar angioplasty). In the low-risk group of PwDM, no particular results can be achieved, in contrast to the high-risk groups of PwDM where patient and professional education has shown significant achievement (EBM-IV/C). In secondary prevention of DF, it is necessary to perform patient and professional education how to avoid most of external influences for DE Patient education should include all topics from primary prevention, danger of neural analgesia (no cooling or warming the foot), careful selection of shoes, daily observation of foot, early detection all foot changes or small wounds, daily hygiene of foot skin, which has to be clean and moist, regular self measurements of skin temperature between the two feet (EBM-Ib/A), prevention of self treatment of foot deformities, changing wrong habits (walking footless), medical consultation for even small foot changes (EBM-Ib/A) and consultation by multidisciplinary team (EBM-IIb/B). Tertiary DF prevention includes ulcer treatment, prevention of amputation and level of amputation. In spite of the primary and secondary prevention measures, DF ulcers develop very often. Because of different etiologic reasons as well as different principles of treatment which are at the same time prevention of the level of amputation, the approach to PwDF has to be multidisciplinary. A high place in the treatment of DF ulcers, especially neuropathic ulcers, have the off-loading principles (EBM-Ib/A), even instead of surgical treatment (EBM-Ib/A). Necrectomy, taking samples for analysis from the deep of ulcer, together with x-ray diagnostics (in particular NMR), the size of the changes can be detected, together with appropriate antibiotic use and indication for major surgical treatment. The patient has to be instructed to the involved DF with off-loading (EBM-IIb/A). Negative pressure wound therapy can accelerate th

Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljaci? Crkvenci?, Neva

2013-10-01

272

The Inhibition of Stat5 by a Peptide Aptamer Ligand Specific for the DNA Binding Domain Prevents Target Gene Transactivation and the Growth of Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The signal transducer and activator of transcription Stat5 is transiently activated by growth factor and cytokine signals in normal cells, but its persistent activation has been observed in a wide range of human tumors. Aberrant Stat5 activity was initially observed in leukemias, but subsequently also found in carcinomas. We investigated the importance of Stat5 in human tumor cell lines. shRNA mediated downregulation of Stat5 revealed the dependence of prostate and breast cancer cells on the expression of this transcription factor. We extended these inhibition studies and derived a peptide aptamer (PA ligand, which directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Stat5 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen. The Stat5 specific PA sequence is embedded in a thioredoxin (hTRX scaffold protein. The resulting recombinant protein S5-DBD-PA was expressed in bacteria, purified and introduced into tumor cells by protein transduction. Alternatively, S5-DBD-PA was expressed in the tumor cells after infection with a S5-DBD-PA encoding gene transfer vector. Both strategies impaired the DNA-binding ability of Stat5, suppressed Stat5 dependent transactivation and caused its intracellular degradation. Our experiments describe a peptide based inhibitor of Stat5 protein activity which can serve as a lead for the development of a clinically useful compound for cancer treatment.

Vida Vafaizadeh

2013-08-01

273

The inhibition of stat5 by a Peptide aptamer ligand specific for the DNA binding domain prevents target gene transactivation and the growth of breast and prostate tumor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The signal transducer and activator of transcription Stat5 is transiently activated by growth factor and cytokine signals in normal cells, but its persistent activation has been observed in a wide range of human tumors. Aberrant Stat5 activity was initially observed in leukemias, but subsequently also found in carcinomas. We investigated the importance of Stat5 in human tumor cell lines. shRNA mediated downregulation of Stat5 revealed the dependence of prostate and breast cancer cells on the expression of this transcription factor. We extended these inhibition studies and derived a peptide aptamer (PA) ligand, which directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Stat5 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen. The Stat5 specific PA sequence is embedded in a thioredoxin (hTRX) scaffold protein. The resulting recombinant protein S5-DBD-PA was expressed in bacteria, purified and introduced into tumor cells by protein transduction. Alternatively, S5-DBD-PA was expressed in the tumor cells after infection with a S5-DBD-PA encoding gene transfer vector. Both strategies impaired the DNA-binding ability of Stat5, suppressed Stat5 dependent transactivation and caused its intracellular degradation. Our experiments describe a peptide based inhibitor of Stat5 protein activity which can serve as a lead for the development of a clinically useful compound for cancer treatment. PMID:24276378

Weber, Axel; Borghouts, Corina; Brendel, Christian; Moriggl, Richard; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Groner, Bernd

2013-01-01

274

Blowout preventer ram lock  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A ram lock for blowout preventer rams which permits locking of the ram at multiple and adjustable positions. Automatic locking of the ram at a desired position, such as in adjustable sealing positions to compensate for ram elastomer wear, is obtained. The ram also automatically unlocks in response to opening fluid pressure acting on a cylinder liner which contains a ram carrier moving the ram.

Olson, R.A.

1981-09-22

275

Prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to resul...

Haines, A.; Patterson, D.; Rayner, M; Hyland, K.

1992-01-01

276

PREVENTION OF HEPATITIS B  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice of first year MBBS students, for the prevention ofHepatitis B. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted at Lahore Medical &Dental College, Lahore. The data was collected in two weeks in December, 2006. Methodology: A total of 50 studentswere recruited using a non probability random sampling technique, through the lottery method. A pre-tested structuredquestionnaire was administered to collect information ab...

2007-01-01

277

Selenium for preventing cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and...

2012-01-01

278

Prevention of broadface sticking  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the cause of broadface sticking occurring shortly after submerged nozzle or tundish changes has been investigated. Conclusions from the study show sticking to have occurred due to ZrO2 pickup, which adversely affects the lubrication properties of the mold flux. Improved mold flux application, controlled cast speed ramping and good insulation of the submerged nozzle are effective in preventing this broadface sticking, which can lead to breakouts

1990-03-25

279

Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

Timofte, Jack

2008-01-01

280

Prevention of criticality accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Gene therapy and its implications in Periodontics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense...

Mahale Swapna; Dani Nitin; Ansari Shumaila; Kale Triveni

2009-01-01

282

Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

2006-03-01

283

The New Mexico Clinical Prevention Initiative: A Statewide Prevention Partnership  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The New Mexico Department of Health and the New Mexico Medical Society invited organizations to participate in an initiative to promote clinical preventive services. The Clinical Preventive Initiative (CPI) focuses on the following interventions based on burden of illness, preventability of the condition, cost, current level of services, availability of leadership, and programmatic support: adult pneumococcal vaccination, tobacco use prevention and cessation, mammography screening, colorectal...

Espey, David K.; Baum, Susan L.; Jung, Ann Moore; Kozoll, Richard L.

2007-01-01

284

Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling. Expression measurement of thousands of genes can yield a more complete and in-depth insight into the mode of action of the compounds. Effects of quercetin (a flavonoid present in e.g. apples and onions), cu...

2004-01-01

285

Immunoglobulin genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book reports on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. Topics covered are: B Cells; Organization and rearrangement of immunoglobin genes; Immunoglobin genes in disease; Immunoglobin gene expression; and Immunoglobin-related genes.

Honjo, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Alt, F.W. (Columbia Univ., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA). Hudson Labs.); Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

1989-01-01

286

Preventing Falls and Related Fractures  

Science.gov (United States)

... your browser. Home Bone Basics Falls and Fractures Preventing Falls and Related Fractures Publication available in: PDF ( ... Senior Health) Caídas y fracturas (NIA) Director’s Comments: Preventing Falls

287

Head Lice: Tips for Preventing  

Science.gov (United States)

... H Head lice Tips Head lice: Tips for preventing Head lice: Most children get head lice through ... Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome Head lice: Tips for preventing References: Frankowski BL, Bocchini JA. “Head Lice.” Pediatrics ...

288

Preventing Ticks in the Yard  

Science.gov (United States)

... Other Spotted Fevers Questions & Answers Tickborne Diseases Abroad Preventing Ticks in the Yard Apply Pesticides Outdoors to ... Tick Management Handbook [PDF - 8.53 MB] for preventing tick bites. Here are some simple landscaping techniques ...

289

Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Prevention & Control of Cryptosporidiosis On This Page Practice Good Hygiene Avoid Water ... recommendations are intended to help prevent and control cryptosporidiosis. Practice Good Hygiene Everywhere Wash hands with soap ...

290

Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries Indoor Racquet Sports: Preventing Injuries Who shouldn't play? If you have a history of heart problems, you should probably avoid ...

291

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It ... of back pain, and measures you can take to prevent back pain. Anatomy The back has two ...

292

Vitamins, Supplements and Disease Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Vitamins, Supplements and Disease Prevention HealthDay February 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Dietary Supplements Heart Diseases--Prevention Vitamin E Transcript An extensive ...

293

The political economy of prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevention in public policy is much discussed but rarely theorized. This article begins with a theoretical framework for reflecting on the political economy of prevention in advanced capitalist economies that integrates the analysis of preventive policies across the social, environmental and economic domains. The next two sections survey prevention initiatives in social policy and climate change policy, respectively. These mainly focus on the last three decades and are based mainly on UK evid...

Gough, Ian

2013-01-01

294

Drowning Prevention: A Community Affair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drowning prevention is a focus of safety professionals nationwide. Many local coalitions provide ongoing activities and can give advice on how to get started. The article describes different community drowning prevention programs, looks at various resources, and explains how to begin and maintain local drowning prevention programs. (SM)

Moler, Chris

1993-01-01

295

Measures for prevention of breakdown  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decisive strategy in reactor safety and thus in prevention of break-down lies in preventing an inadmissible imbalance between the heat produced in the fuel elements and the heat extracted from the fuel elements. The events which can lead to breakdowns are essentially divided into 'undesirable external events' and 'undesirable internal events'. Measures for preventing these possibilities of breakdown are described. (orig.)

1980-01-01

296

Rotating blowout preventer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved rotating blowout preventer is disclosed which includes a stationary housing, a bearing housing and a bearing means assembly and seal assembly for mounting an internally located, rotating sleeve for rotating, sealable movement within the bearing housing. The bearing housing and rotatable sleeve cooperate to provide a circumferential passageway and radial ports to direct outwardly of the bearing housing any fluid which leaks past the seal assembly. The structure of the seal and bearing mountings provide for replacement of the seal without contaminating the bearing.

Morrow, J.T.

1982-01-26

297

Waste prevention 2014 -  

... Simply showing someone some facts and telling them that they are wrong merely encourages them to recoil, to retreat further into their existing beliefs. (Who among us likes to be told we’re wrong?) To challenge myths requires not ever more impressive or persuasive facts; but new and better stories. 5.      The biggest myth we have these days is that buying things will make us happy. And the myth of consumerism is the deepest challenge facing those of us engaged in ‘waste prevention’. If ...

298

Preventive measures for emergencies?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH)

1989-11-20

299

Selenium for preventing cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship b [...] etween selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to answer research question (b). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91) and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83) with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05) than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77). These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No reliable conclusions can be drawn regarding a causal relationship between low selenium exposure and an increased risk of cancer. Despite evidence for an inverse association between selenium exposure and the risk of some types of cancer, these results should be interpreted with care due to the potential limiting factors of heterogeneity and influences of unknown biases, confounding and effect modification. The effect of selenium supplementation from RCTs yielded inconsistent results. To date, there is no convincing evidence that selenium supplements can prevent cancer in men, women or children.

Gabriele, Dennert; Marcel, Zwahlen; Maree, Brinkman; Marco, Vinceti; Maurice P. A., Zeegers; Markus, Horneber.

300

Genes, Tolerance and Systemic Autoimmunity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The characterization of functional CD8+ inhibitory or regulatory T cells and their gene regulation remains a critical challenge in the field of tolerance and autoimmunity. Investigating the genes induced in regulatory cells and the regulatory networks and pathways that underlie mechanisms of immune resistance and prevent apoptosis in the CD8+ T cell compartment are crucial to understanding tolerance mechanisms in systemic autoimmunity. Little is currently known about the genetic control that ...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Suramin prevents duck hepatitis B virus infection in vivo.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of suramin on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection was investigated in vivo. Suramin pretreatment of Pekin ducklings completely prevented DHBV infection. In contrast, suramin given at the time of or after inoculation with DHBV did not inhibit viral infection, replication, or gene expression. These data indicate that suramin effectively blocks the early stages of DHBV infection in vivo.

Offensperger, W. B.; Offensperger, S.; Walter, E.; Blum, H. E.; Gerok, W.

1993-01-01

302

Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

Letícia Muraro, Wildner; Maria Luiza, Bazzo; Susie Coutinho, Liedke; Christiane Lourenço, Nogueira; Gabriela, Segat; Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Aline Daiane, Schlindwein; Jaquelline Germano de, Oliveira; Darcita B, Rovaris; Claudio A, Bonjardim; Erna G, Kroon; Paulo CP, Ferreira.

303

Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB) and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-p [...] erform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA) that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC) were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2%) to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

Wildner, Letícia Muraro; Bazzo, Maria Luiza; Liedke, Susie Coutinho; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Segat, Gabriela; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano de; Rovaris, Darcita B; Bonjardim, Claudio A; Kroon, Erna G; Ferreira, Paulo CP.

2014-05-07

304

Scientific Methods for Prevention Intervention Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Introduction: Scientific Methods for Prevention Intervention Research; Prevention Intervention Research: Focus and Perspective; Testing Theory through Developmental Epidemiologically Based Prevention Research; Hypothesis Formulation and Testing ...

A. Cazares L. A. Beatty

1994-01-01

305

[Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:24480288

Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

2014-06-01

306

Protective and preventative measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

2002-10-01

307

Preventive maintenance optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiences gained with Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) by Ontario Hydro Service Company`s Transmission Division are discussed. An RCM pilot study was completed in 1997 after an exhaustive review of available Predictive Based Maintenance (PBM) techniques indicated that given the rapid evolution of new technology and relatively high installation costs, the PBM technology may not be economically justifiable for wide scale application, although it may be cost effective in a situation where equipment failure may have high consequences. Implementation of the RCM system commenced in 1998. Since then a Preventive Maintenance Optimization (PMO) process has been developed based on RCM principles. This paper provides an overview of the general principles underlying the PMO/RCM process, describes efforts to optimize the process by a computerized maintenance management system and provides a summary of key observations made during the PMO/RCM implementation during 1998 and operation to date. 3 figs.

Yung, C. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

1999-09-01

308

Endocrine genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the titles are: Gene Transfer and Expression of Mammalian Cell Receptors; Mapping Endocrine Genes with Sorted Human Chromosomes; Structure, Function, Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Enzyme Genes; Molecular Analysis of Steroid Hormone Action Using the Human Metallothionein Genes as a Model.

Lau, Y.F.

1988-01-01

309

Posttranscriptional Regulation of the Neurofibromatosis 2 Gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is associated with a homozygous inactivation of the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene. Despite intense study of the NF2 gene, the mechanism by which the NF2 tumor suppressor acts to prevent tumor formation is not well understoo...

L. Chang

2006-01-01

310

Extension of Type 2 Diabetes Genome-Wide Association Scan Results in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE— Genome-wide association scans (GWASs) have identified novel diabetes-associated genes. We evaluated how these variants impact diabetes incidence, quantitative glycemic traits, and response to preventive interventions in 3,548 subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), which examined the effects of lifestyle intervention, metformin, and troglitazone versus placebo.

Moore, Allan F.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Mcateer, Jarred B.; Saxena, Richa; Pollin, Toni I.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Knowler, William C.; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C.

2008-01-01

311

Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... Force FINAL | 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services ... 2 Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer During office visits, if ...

312

Primary prevention of Down's syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1) avoiding re...

2005-01-01

313

The Money Laundering Prevention System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from...

2007-01-01

314

Blowout preventer and guideline handling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method are provided for handling guidelines for an ocean drilling platform rig. A cart for guiding the lines rides on a track and can be moved away from a drill well when a blowout preventer is moved into place over the well on its own cart. When the load of the blowout preventer is transferred to a drilling string, the blowout preventer support cart is moved away from the drill well and the guideline handling cart is positioned over the well. The guidelines are then attached to a guideline frame on the blowout preventer.

Bolding, V.E.

1983-01-11

315

Pollution prevention: A regulatory update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

1993-03-04

316

How we prevent prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace.  

Science.gov (United States)

American businesses face huge costs for work-related musculoskeletal pain. Work-related musculoskeletal pain is not new or unique to the population of the United States. Many historic manifestations of workplace pain have been related to innovation and technology changes. Incidence rates and severity of symptoms have had an interesting relationship to the public concern and governmental decisions. In 1999, a National Academy of Sciences study found total costs to be more than US dollar 1 trillion per year and concluded that effective prevention of workplace pain through active intervention is not only possible, but results in a significant cost savings for the employer while reducing the disability experienced by the employee. Employers have been reluctant to embrace the benefits of workplace prevention for work-related musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this review is to examine (1). what is know about prevention of work-related musculoskeletal pain and workplace musculoskeletal disorders, (2). a brief description of several prevention preventing behaviors, (3). an analysis of how these preventing behaviors are maintained, and (4). suggestions on how to reverse these prevention preventing behaviors. PMID:15021167

Melhorn, J Mark; Gardner, Peggy

2004-02-01

317

Method of preventing blowouts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the invention is to improve reliability and effectiveness of preventing blowouts by uniform and deep development of fractures, change in the stressed state and properties of the coal massif and deeper degasification of the massif to be cut. This is achieved because according to the method which includes vibrotreatment of the blowout-dangerous coal massif, which is continuous through movement of the vibration emitter, and subsequent cutting of the coal bed, in the nonloaded bed zone, parallel to the line of the cleaning face for its entire length, as the line of the cleaning face is advanced, a series of boreholes is drilled; the first borehole is drilled at a distance from the face line which is safe for the blowout factor, and the massif is treated for blowouts as the boreholes are drilled, starting with the least distant; in this case, the vibration emitter is moved over the entire length of the borehole, observing strict contact of the vibration emitter-monlithic coal with simultaneous increase in the coal temperature around this borehole, and the rate of movement of the vibration emitter is determined from a formula. After treatment, the borehole is connected to the degasification network, and in an evacuation mode, the gas is suctioned from the boreholes until they are destroyed during coal cutting. When the bed is very thick, an additional series of boreholes is drilled in the most blowout-dangerous and thick block, and they are treated by vibration simultaneously with the main series of boreholes.

Poturayev, V.N.; Gaynutdinov, I.A.; Mineyev, S.P.; Zorin, A.N.

1984-01-01

318

PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

Jovica Jovanovic

2004-01-01

319

Prevention of nuclear war  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

Lifton, R.J.

1980-10-01

320

Can coffee prevent caries?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To determine the anti-carious effect of coffee in humans. Coffee represents one of the most consumed products by the population. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 1000 individuals, of both sexes, who consumed only coffee as a beverage and who visited the Out-Patient Department of KLE Society?s Institute of Dental Sci-ences, with a dental complaint and no history of any major illness, were considered as subjects. The patients? histories with regard to the coffee intake, such as, period of consumption, frequency of consumption, whether taken with milk or wihout milk, with sugar or without sugar, and the brand make, was noted. History of the type of diet, consumption of sweets, periodic-ity of brushing, and whether they had undergone fluoride applications were also noted. A thousand patients who consumed beverages other than coffee were taken as the control. Results: The results showed that coffee most consumed was roasted coffee, and the frequency on an average was about three cups per day, for an average period of 35 years. The Decayed/Missing/Filled Surface (DMFS scores varied from 2.9, in subjects who drank black coffee, to 5.5 in subjects who consumed coffee together with sweeteners and creaming agents. The DMFS score was 3.4 in subjects who consumed coffee together with milk but no sugar. The DMFS score of the control subjects was 4, indicating that coffee if consumed alone had anticaries action, but in the presence of additives the antibacterial and anticaries action was totally minimized. Conclusion: Thus coffee can help in prevention of dental caries if consumed without additives.

Anila Namboodiripad P

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Vitamins, Supplements and Disease Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Vitamins, Supplements and Disease Prevention HealthDay February 25, 2014 ... MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Dietary Supplements Heart Diseases--Prevention Vitamin E Transcript An extensive review of vitamin research ...

322

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

323

Primary prevention of Down's syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown.

Cuckle, Howard S.

2005-01-01

324

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that might tip over. Install safety bars or window guards on upper-story windows, balconies and landings, and use safety netting around ... prevent falls from elevated spots around your home. Window screens are not effective for preventing children from ...

325

PREVENT IP and Data Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The following outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program. Please note that the NCI has a variety of agreement mechanisms by which these terms may be applied and will work with the NCI Technology Transfer Center to determine the appropriate agreement for the studies approved by the PREVENT Program.

326

Major Depression Can Be Prevented  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

2012-01-01

327

Legionnaires` disease: Seeking effective prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the Bicentennial summer of 1976, American Legion Conventioneers in Philadelphia suffered a dramatic epidemic that left 34 dead. Near the end of 1976, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta discovered the bacterium that caused Legionnaires` disease and named it Legionella. Nearly two decades later, a wealth of scientific information exists about the organism, its health effects, epidemiology, microbiology, aquatic ecology, molecular biology, immunology, pathophysiology, etc. Fortunately, for the engineer seeking to prevent Legionnaires` disease, it is unnecessary to master this complexity; the practice of prevention requires understanding a few, straightforward facts. The purpose of this paper is to present four messages about Legionnaires` disease that provide a conceptual framework to guide the crucial role of practical prevention. Those messages are: Legionnaires` disease is important; Legionnaires` disease is an environmental disease; Legionnaires` disease is preventable; and Legionnaires` disease prevention requires the right strategy.

Millar, J.D.; Morris, G.K.; Shelton, B.G. [PathCon Labs., Norcross, GA (United States)

1997-01-01

328

Maintenance operations and pollution prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter focuses on pollution prevention in industrial plant maintenance; continuing publicity surrounding environmental concerns suggests that the problems resulting from the generation of waste are approaching crisis proportions with the general public and have reached the highest levels of government. The initial reaction to these concerns has been the development of pollution prevention programs within most manufacturing plants. The long-term response must ben an emphasis on pollution prevention in all activities associated with manufacturing--from design and engineering through construction and operation. One area in which a pollution prevention orientation is crucial in maintenance, the vital link assuring that operation of the unit is able to achieve a performance level consistent with design and engineering. Many activities associated with maintenance, such as good housekeeping, tank cleaning, inventory control, and waste segregation, are among the first areas addressed in a pollution prevention program.

Berglund, R.L. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

329

[Relapse prevention in drug addicts].  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

Rácz, József

2013-12-01

330

Tay-Sachs disease screening and prevention in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tay-Sachs disease is potentially preventable in Ashkenazi Jewish communities. About 1 out of 25 individuals is a carrier of the gene and can be accurately identified by means of a simple, inexpensive blood test. 'At risk' couples, i.e. couples of whom both partners are carriers, can be enabled, by means of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion, to have only unaffected children. Mass screening programmes have been successfully carried out in the USA, Canada and Israel. A discussion of South African Jewish deomgraphy, attitudes to health, and priorities for public health projects, provide the background to a consideration of Tay-Sachs disease prevention in South Africa. PMID:841439

Jenkins, T; Lane, A B; Kromberg, J G

1977-01-22

331

Pharmacological prevention of relapse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relapse is the "return of a disease after partial recovery", and is a major feature of schizophrenia disorder. It can be defined in terms of need for change in treatment, including rehospitalization or crisis intervention, the re-emergence of florid psychotic features, or gross social decompensation. Relapse is best viewed as continuum of severity rather than as discrete "attacks". Factors influencing relapse include major life events and the family constellation. Antipsychotic drugs protect against the latter but not the former, and relapse may be mediated by non-specific arousal mechanisms. The efficacy of drug treatment in postponing rather than preventing relapse is well established. The interval between relapses is prolonged at least two-fold, but in the long run most patients relapse. Unwanted effects of antipsychotic drugs can be a burden to patients, impairing quality of life. In particular, movement disorders and subjective dysphoria may be marked, as may compliance. Of these EPS, tardive dyskinesia is the most serious on long term use. Non-EPS long term effects include weight gain and endocrine changes. Depot medication has advantages over oral medication in the more ill, less compliant patients. Side effects may, however, be more marked. The greatest pain is in improved compliance but the regular supervision of the patient is also helpful. Pharmacokinetic issues are poorly understood. High and mega-dose strategies have been advocated. High doses may be needed in some patients, but megadoses are rarely justified and may be hazardous. Low dose and intermittent therapy have been evaluated but are not as successful as hoped. Some less ill patients may benefit. These schedules depend on the identification of prodromata of relapse which is not always easy, nor are relapses necessarily preceded by prodromata. Newer drugs are being developed rapidly in the search for a safer clozapine, the only antipsychotic with definitely enhanced efficacy. Other drugs which have been re-evaluated include the benzodiazepines. However, the area of greatest priority in research is that of interactions, particularly potentiation, between drug and non-drug treatments. PMID:9739577

Lader, M

1998-07-01

332

Primary prevention of Down's syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

2005-07-01

333

Gene expression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

1983-01-01

334

Pollution prevention and air quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

1997-01-01

335

Photoaging: prevention and topical treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapidly increasing number of people visit dermatologists for the prevention and treatment of aging skin. Sun avoidance and sunscreen use are widely accepted strategies of primary prevention against photoaging. Convincing evidence shows that topical application of retinoids has an effect on reversing, at least partially, mild to moderate photodamage. Antioxidants and alpha-hydroxy acids can alter the skin structure and function. Enzymes that repair DNA damage or oligonucleotides that enhance the endogenous capacity for DNA damage repair may prove to be future preventive/therapeutic interventions for aging skin. PMID:20141230

Antoniou, Christina; Kosmadaki, Maria G; Stratigos, Alexandros J; Katsambas, Andreas D

2010-01-01

336

Resveratrol in epilepsy: preventive or treatment opportunities?  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol has been extensively investigated and has been demonstrated to have antioxidant properties, cancer chemopreventive activity, and the capacity to modulate the hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol, among others well established actions. A noteworthy feature of resveratrol is its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and to exhibit neuroprotective actions, mainly by their capacity to regulate redox pathways as well as the Sirtuin (SIRT) system, which in turn modulates gene transcription, controlling inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Lately, evidence is accumulating with respect to the synergic effect of resveratrol with antiepileptic drugs and also its antiepileptic activity in various models of seizures. We discuss here recent evidence that strongly suggests that resveratrol acts as an anticonvulsant agent and could be a very effective method for reducing damage in neural tissue and even for preventing seizure development in coadjuvant antiepileptic therapy. PMID:24896336

Pallas, Merce; Ortuno-Sahagun, Daniel; Benito-Andres, Pol; Ponce-Regalado, Maria Dolores; Rojas-Mayorquin, Argelia E

2014-01-01

337

Skin cancer: new markers for better prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer in the white population worldwide. Incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM) is still increasing. This trend can be counteracted by means of primary and secondary prevention because the main risk factor for skin cancer - UV-radiation - is known, and, early detected, skin cancer can be cured successfully. For early detection of skin cancer suitable risk (group) markers have to be used to identify persons at risk. In order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of early detection efforts (screening programs) new molecular markers or biomarkers should be used in the future in the field of molecular epidemiology. In this review the skin cancer problem is summarized and the possible use of new biomarkers for skin cancer development, progression, metastasis and prognosis is discussed. The review focuses on results of gene expression profiling using array techniques and the new possibilities for the use of epigenetic biomarkers. PMID:19367127

Greinert, Rüdiger

2009-01-01

338

Vasohibin prevents arterial neointimal formation through angiogenesis inhibition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vasohibin is a VEGF-inducible angiogenesis inhibitor in vascular endothelium. Here we examined the presence of vasohibin in human arterial wall, and found it in endothelium of adventitial microvessels in atherosclerotic lesion. Adventitial angiogenesis is involved in the progression of neointimal formation. Even in the presence of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, pathological angiogenesis persists. However, the supplementation of exogenous angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent pathological angiogenesis. We evaluated the potential role of vasohibin in neointimal formation. Adenovirus-mediated human vasohibin gene transfer in mouse liver resulted in the release of vasohibin in plasma and exhibited anti-angiogenic effects at remote sites. This gene transfer inhibited adventitial angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and neointimal formation after cuff placement on mouse femoral artery. Vasohibin exhibited no direct effect on migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Thus, vasohibin has an activity to prevent neointimal formation by inhibiting adventitial angiogenesis

2006-07-07

339

Antioxidative nanofullerol prevents intervertebral disk degeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compelling evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in disk degeneration. Fullerol nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution have been demonstrated to have outstanding ability to scavenge ROS. In this report, in vitro and in vivo models were used to study the efficacy of fullerol in preventing disk degeneration. For in vitro experiments, a pro-oxidant H2O2 or an inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? was employed to induce degenerated phenotypes in human nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in alginate beads, and fullerol was added in the culture medium. For the animal study, an annulus-puncture model with rabbit was created, and fullerol was injected into disks. It was shown that cytotoxicity and cellular ROS level induced by H2O2 were significantly diminished by fullerol. IL-1?-induced nitric oxide generation in culture medium was suppressed by fullerol as well. Gene-profile and biochemical assays showed that fullerol effectively reversed the matrix degradation caused by either H2O2 or IL-1?. The animal study delineated that intradiskal injection of fullerol prevented disk degeneration, increasing water and proteoglycan content and inhibiting ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that antioxidative fullerol may have a potential therapeutic application for disk degeneration. PMID:24876775

Yang, Xinlin; Jin, Li; Yao, Lu; Shen, Francis H; Shimer, Adam L; Li, Xudong

2014-01-01

340

Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this trial, researchers are testing the ability of an antioxidant supplement called alpha-lipoic acid to prevent peripheral neuropathy caused by the platinum-containing drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin.

 
 
 
 
341

Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... can prevent cancer ( 12 ). To fully understand the effects of vitamin D on cancer and other health outcomes, new randomized ... AV, Feldman D. Molecular mechanisms mediating the antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in prostate cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and ...

342

Giardia Infection Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Giardia Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control On This ... Clean up after ill pets and people. See Giardia and Pets for information on minimizing your exposure ...

343

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... themselves in. Set your water heater at a temperature no higher than 125 degrees F to prevent ... the tub or shower has a non-skid surface. Install an elevated toilet seat. Consider using a ...

344

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... home, you can help prevent many common home injuries from occurring. Read the following list, and check ... Disabled As people age, the types of common injuries change, although the risk of injury does not. ...

345

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... themselves in. Set your water heater at a temperature no higher than 125 degrees F to prevent ... sure the tops and bottoms of stairs are well lit. Install nonslip treads on bare wood steps. ...

346

Pollution prevention and the NIEA  

...the Seas ReportWater Facts BookletWater QualityWater PollutionPollution PreventionEducationOil Care campaignPotential PollutersUK SpillPollution ResponseWater Pollution HotlineContingency Planning...

347

Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects  

Science.gov (United States)

... 6348 Contact CDC-INFO Birth Defects Homepage Facts Diagnosis Preventing Birth Defects Specific Birth Defects Anotia/Microtia Anencephaly Atrial Septal Defect Cleft Lip/Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Encephalocele Gastroschisis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypospadias Omphalocele ...

348

Preventing Large-Battery Explosions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Information Circular presents a brief history of the lead-acid battery and describes ways to prevent serious injury from battery explosions when servicing and charging lead-acid batteries, particularly in the surface mining industry. The Mining Safet...

D. Cummins S. F. Pangerl

1980-01-01

349

Can Liver Cancer Be Prevented?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Topic Can liver cancer be found early? Can liver cancer be prevented? Many liver cancers could be ... gets into drinking water. Treating diseases that increase liver cancer risk Certain inherited diseases can cause cirrhosis ...

350

Preventing Falls in the Hospital  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available English - Preventing Falls in the Hospital Video Audio Handout Terms of Use Close Window This material adapted from text created by: SAFE FROM FALLS Tool Kit by the Minnesota Hospital Association

351

Vitamins, Supplements and Disease Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Heart Diseases--Prevention Vitamin E Transcript An extensive review of vitamin research suggests that beta-carotene and ... caution: supplements can be harmful. For example, the review suggests that beta-carotene supplements may actually boost ...

352

Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

... a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2014 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 4/16/2013 Article Body More American children are competing in sports than ever before. Sports help children and adolescents ...

353

Cervical Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs and Projects Cervical Cancer Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award

354

Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. PMID:24810191

Ten Have, Marieke

2014-04-01

355

Rape Prevention With College Men  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and behavioral indicators, measured across three time points. Positive effects are found for rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, and behavioral intentions to rape. Only rape myth acceptance and victim empathy effects sustain at the 5-week follow-up. High-risk men are generally unaffected by the intervention although low-risk men produced larger effects than the entire sample. Results suggest rape prevention studies must assess risk status moderation effects to maximize prevention for high-risk men. More research is needed to develop effective rape prevention with men who are at high risk to rape.

Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

2014-01-01

356

Prevent the Spread of Norovirus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Submit Button CDC Features Prevent the Spread of Norovirus Language: English Español (Spanish) Norovirus spreads very easily ... cramping, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Anyone Can Get Norovirus Anyone can be infected with noroviruses and get ...

357

Pollution Prevention Guidelines PPG21  

...Department for Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR) – reference 1. Pollution Prevention...such plans for example, the Health and Safety Executive, Maritime and...Agency, Government Decontamination Service, public health officials and insurers/underwriters. Environment...

358

Clinical and laboratory features of Mycobacterium porcinum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent molecular studies have shown Mycobacterium porcinum, recovered from cases of lymphadenitis in swine, to have complete 16S rDNA sequence identity and >70% DNA-DNA homology with human isolates within the M. fortuitum third biovariant complex. We identified 67 clinical and two environmental isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant sorbitol-negative group, of which 48 (70%) had the same PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profile as the hsp65 gene of M. porcinum (ATCC 33776(T)) and were studied in more detail. Most U.S. patient isolates were from Texas (44%), Florida (19%), or other southern coastal states (15%). Clinical infections included wound infections (62%), central catheter infections and/or bacteremia (16%), and possible pneumonitis (18%). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (1,463 bp) showed 100% identity with M. porcinum ATCC 33776(T). Sequencing of 441 bp of the hsp65 gene showed four sequevars that differed by 2 to 3 bp from the porcine strains. Clinical isolates were positive for arylsulfatase activity at 3 days, nitrate, iron uptake, D-mannitol, i-myo-inositol, and catalase at 68 degrees C. They were negative for L-rhamnose and D-glucitol (sorbitol). Clinical isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid and susceptible or intermediate to cefoxitin, clarithromycin, imipenem, and amikacin. M. porcinum ATCC 33776(T) gave similar results except for being nitrate negative. These studies showed almost complete phenotypic and molecular identity between clinical isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant D-sorbitol-negative group and porcine strains of M. porcinum and confirmed that they belong to the same species. Identification of M. porcinum presently requires hsp65 gene PRA or 16S rRNA or hsp65 gene sequencing. PMID:15583300

Wallace, Richard J; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wilson, Rebecca W; Mann, Linda; Hall, Leslie; Zhang, Yansheng; Jost, Kenneth C; Brown, June M; Kabani, Amin; Schinsky, Mark F; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Crist, Christopher J; Roberts, Glenn D; Blacklock, Zeta; Tsukamura, Michio; Silcox, Vella; Turenne, Christine

2004-12-01

359

Preventing biofilm formation using surfactants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbial adhesion to abiotic surfaces and consequent biofilm formation has been documented in many environments. In many technical processes, the presence of microorganisms is acceptable as long as they remain planktonic. Hence 'disinfection' could be facilitated if attachment of microorganisms to a surface could be prevented. One strategy to prevent the formation of biofilms is to disinfect surfaces regularly, before biofilm formation starts. One of the most important means t...

Pereira, M. O.; Machado, Idalina; Simo?es, M.; Vieira, M. J.

2007-01-01

360

FIPS: FIRST Intrusion Prevention System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intrusion Prevention Systems try to actively disarm attacks on computer systems and networks. In this work, we introduce the network based FIRST Intrusion Prevention System (FIPS) which is capable of detecting novel attacks and contain them effectively. This inline device operates by redirecting anomalous packets to a specially hardened shadow system or logging them to a so-called forensic sink for further examination. Both the offline and real life evaluation of the implementation shows that...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Preventing rheumatic fever: M-protein based vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GAS), the organism which initiates rheumatic fever (RF) continues to be sensitive to penicillin. However, penicillin cannot prevent RF if the preceding sore throat is asymptomatic in more than 70 percent children. Prevention of rheumatic fever (RF) may be possible only with the use of a vaccine. Efforts to design a vaccine based on emm gene identification of GAS, M-protein going on for more than 40 years, is unlikely to succeed. M-protein is strain specific. Infection with one strain does not provide immunity from infection with another strain. Based on the emm gene identification, of 250 or more identified strains of GAS, the distribution is heterogenous and keeps changing. The M-protein gene sequence of the organism tends to mutate. A vaccine prepared from available strains may not be effective against a strain following mutation. Lethal toxic shock syndrome due to GAS infection has been described with organisms without identifiable or functional M-protein. M-protein has been excluded as the antigen responsible for acute glomerulonephritis (GN). Therefore M-protein plays no role in one suppurative (toxic shock syndrome) and one non-suppurative (acute GN) manifestation due to GAS infection. Lastly there is no direct evidence to indicate that M-protein is involved in inducing RF. The role of M-protein and the GAS component resulting in the suppurative manifestations of GAS infections like pyoderma, septic arthritis or necrotizing fasciitis etc is unknown. For a vaccine to be effective, an epitope of the streptococcus which is stable and uniformly present in all strains, needs to be identified and tested for its safety and efficacy. The vaccine if and when available is expected to prevent GAS infection. Preventing GAS infection will prevent all the suppurative as well as non-suppurative manifestations including RF. PMID:24581098

Tandon, Rajendra

2014-01-01

362

Preventing rheumatic fever: M-protein based vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GAS), the organism which initiates rheumatic fever (RF) continues to be sensitive to penicillin. However, penicillin cannot prevent RF if the preceding sore throat is asymptomatic in more than 70 percent children. Prevention of rheumatic fever (RF) may be possible only with the use of a vaccine. Efforts to design a vaccine based on emm gene identification of GAS, M-protein going on for more than 40 years, is unlikely to succeed. M-protein is strain specific. Infection with one strain does not provide immunity from infection with another strain. Based on the emm gene identification, of 250 or more identified strains of GAS, the distribution is heterogenous and keeps changing. The M-protein gene sequence of the organism tends to mutate. A vaccine prepared from available strains may not be effective against a strain following mutation. Lethal toxic shock syndrome due to GAS infection has been described with organisms without identifiable or functional M-protein. M-protein has been excluded as the antigen responsible for acute glomerulonephritis (GN). Therefore M-protein plays no role in one suppurative (toxic shock syndrome) and one non-suppurative (acute GN) manifestation due to GAS infection. Lastly there is no direct evidence to indicate that M-protein is involved in inducing RF. The role of M-protein and the GAS component resulting in the suppurative manifestations of GAS infections like pyoderma, septic arthritis or necrotizing fasciitis etc is unknown. For a vaccine to be effective, an epitope of the streptococcus which is stable and uniformly present in all strains, needs to be identified and tested for its safety and efficacy. The vaccine if and when available is expected to prevent GAS infection. Preventing GAS infection will prevent all the suppurative as well as non-suppurative manifestations including RF.

Tandon, Rajendra

2014-01-01

363

Wildfire prevention : best management practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A proactive approach to wildfire prevention in the oil and gas industry is important to understand the corporate liabilities associated with the ignition of a fire, as well as the threat that a catastrophic fire poses to personnel, infrastructure and production. The basics of wildfire prevention include education and awareness, engineering vegetation to reduce flammability, and enforcement of fire prevention regulations. This document presented best management practices (BPM) to address fire prevention fundamentals across the industry. The purpose of this document was to assist the upstream oil and gas industry in the prevention of industry caused wildfires, and to mitigate the impact of catastrophic fires on industry infrastructure, operations, liability, personnel safety and the environment. The document included a best practices outline in appendix format as well as several case studies of industry-related wildfires. In addition to discussing best management practices for fire prevention, the document also discussed regulatory aspects such as legislation, codes, directives, guidelines and agreements; integrated land management; seasonal and daily fire danger; emergency response planning; and communications. Best management practices to mitigate the impact of wildland fires were also presented. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

NONE

2008-01-15

364

Pollution prevention through productivity improvement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are presented from 50 1996-98 Colorado State University Industrial Assessment Center (CSU IAC) industrial assessments at small and medium-size manufacturing plants. The assessments were conducted by engineering faculty and students associated with the CSU IAC. Each assessment includes a full-day plant visit and follow-up engineering and economic analyses of data pertaining to plant operations. Assessment reports provide recommendations for implementation of practices that can conserve energy, reduce waste, and improve productivity. Results from the 50 assessments demonstrate that recommended productivity improvement practices can also prevent formation of wastes and polluting emissions. A total of 61 productivity improvement recommendations were made, 14 of which provide pollution prevention with concomitant, quantifiable cost savings. Such cost savings are associated with improving management of raw materials, reducing generation of off-specification product, recycling cooling water, improving inspection and testing procedures, reducing batch sizes, and upgrading production equipment. For the 14 productivity improvement recommendations with pollution prevention benefits, the annual cost savings due to pollution prevention are $502,140, whereas the total annual cost savings for the 14 recommendations are $1,484,310. In other words, 34% of the cost savings for these productivity improvement recommendations is attributable to pollution prevention. The results thus demonstrate that improving productivity in manufacturing operations can prevent formation of wastes and polluting emissions.

Edwards, H.W.; Kostrzewa, M.F.; Ketzenberger, C.K.

1999-07-01

365

Gene Modifications  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation shows how a gene is constructed to eventually produce a protein in a Bt corn plant. This is the fifth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Regions. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Gun.)

366

Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

Sultan, Sherif

2012-10-01

367

Primary Prevention: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

An annotated bibliography on primary prevention of mental disorders, mental retardation, and drug abuse is presented for use by individuals who plan or operate prevention programs. The purpose of the bibliography is to increase and improve primary prevent...

1976-01-01

368

45 CFR 96.125 - Primary prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Primary prevention. 96.125...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION...Grant § 96.125 Primary prevention. ...entities. The comprehensive primary prevention program...Classroom and/or small group sessions...

2010-10-01

369

Development of a Real-Time qPCR Method for Detection and Enumeration of Mycobacterium spp. in Surface Water ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A real-time quantitative PCR method was developed for the detection and enumeration of Mycobacterium spp. from environmental samples and was compared to two other methods already described. The results showed that our method, targeting 16S rRNA, was more specific than the two previously published real-time quantitative PCR methods targeting another 16S rRNA locus and the hsp65 gene (100% versus 44% and 91%, respectively).

2010-01-01

370

An Outbreak of Keratitis Caused by Mycobacterium immunogenum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 8 October to 12 November 2003, 36 patients underwent surgical correction of myopia in a São Paulo, Brazil, clinic. Five patients had clinical signs of infectious keratitis, and a Mycobacterium species with previously unreported patterns determined by PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) was isolated from corneal scrapings from four of these patients. Subsequent evaluation by phenotypic...

2006-01-01

371

Engineering Support / Corrosion Prevention and Control Evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

AIRCRAFT CORROSION: Corrosion Prevention and Control Evaluation * 3D Mapping * Pressure Washing. ENGINEERING SUPPORT: Maintenance Engineering Calls * Maintenance Engineering Order * Corrosion Prevention Techniques * ACE/Corrosion website.

D. R. Duran

2009-01-01

372

Falls prevention for the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical integrity. Discussion and

Dagmar Lühmann

2012-04-01

373

Gene therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases. PMID:24372817

Baum, B J

2014-03-01

374

The Money Laundering Prevention System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

Sonja Cindori

2007-03-01

375

Human tRNA genes function as chromatin insulators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The eukaryotic genome is organized into different chromatin domains. In this study, human tDNA genes are shown to function as insulators capable of blocking enhancer activity and preventing the spread of silenced chromatin.

Raab, Jesse R.; Chiu, Jonathan; Zhu, Jingchun; Katzman, Sol; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Wade, Paul A.; Haussler, David; Kamakaka, Rohinton T.

2012-01-01

376

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

With headquarters in New York, the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) was established in 1987 in order to create a coherent and combined effort to fund research that would assist in the prevention of suicide. During the past 17 years, the organization has created an extensive network of research grant programs, workshops for those seeking to form survivor support groups, and a suicide data bank. The AFSP website contains information on some of its outreach programs, such as the National Survivors of Suicide Day and also its service announcements. There is a great deal of pragmatic information here as well, including a FAQ section which provides answers to pressing questions such as "What is the biggest cause of suicide among college students?". The site is rounded out by a topically organized list of important online resources, such as statistics about suicide, clinical information, and prevention and screening materials.

2007-03-08

377

Split stack blowout prevention system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A blowout prevention system for an offshore structure positioned on the underwater bottom in a body of water which contains moving ice masses that could force the structure off location wherein a surface blowout preventer stack for conventional well control is connected to the upper end of a riser with the lower end of the riser being disconnectably connected to a subsurface blowout preventer stack which provides the necessary well control should the structure be forced off location. The subsurface stack is positioned on a wellhead located in a chamber in the subsea bottom and is disconnectably connected to the riser so that the riser may be quickly removed from the subsea bottom should the structure be forced off location.

Crager, B.L.; Ray, D.R.; Steddum, R.E.

1980-03-18

378

Preventing pollution from plutonium processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

1994-04-10

379

Needlestick and Sharps Injury Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every day while caring for patients, nurses are at risk to exposure to bloodborne pathogens potentially resulting in infections such as HIV or hepatitis B and C. These exposures, while preventable, are often accepted as being a part of the job. In the United States, needlestick injuries have begun to decrease from an estimated one million exposures per year in 1996 to 385,000 per year in 2000. This decline has resulted from the protections afforded by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Reasons for the success in decreasing needlestick and sharps injuries may be attributed to the elimination of needle recapping and the use of safer needle devices, sharps collection boxes, gloves and personal protective gear, and universal precautions. The prevention of needlestick injuries has made slow progress over the past 20 years since the HIV epidemic drew attention to the deadly nature of health care work and to protection of health care worker health and safety. In Africa, where the AIDS virus originated and where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among hospitalized patients is highest in the world, attention has been directed only recently at protecting health care workers. Nurses, especially those infected from a preventable exposure, have been at the forefront of advocacy for prevention. This article includes a review about the hazard of exposure to bloodborne pathogens and epidemiology of occupational infection. The author discusses how to apply standard methods of occupational health and industry hygiene using the hierarchy of controls framework to prevent exposure to blood, and discusses evidence-based prevention and efficacy of particular control measures. Legislative progress and implementation of enforceable policy to protect health care workers is outlined.

Wilburn, S

2004-09-01

380

Crime Prevention Through Social Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following document outlines the emergence of Crime Prevention through Social Development (CPTSD) as one pro-active method of crime prevention addressing root causes of crime. A review of the literature reveals that CPTSD programmes have a positive impact on promoting of pro-social behaviours in at-risk populations - with at risk being defined as: those more likely to be involved in the criminal justice process either by committing a crime or as a victim of a crime. Normalization is seen a...

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

[Dengue prevention: focus on information].  

Science.gov (United States)

The first three months of 2002 witnessed a dengue epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro. At that time, health authorities encouraged community participation in the elimination of vector breeding sites. For this campaign, a great quantity of information about the disease was extensively publicized in order to guide the population's preventive action. This paper analyzed the three pamphlets most widely distributed at that time in Rio de Janeiro city considering that this information contributed to the construction of disease representation and its prevention. It was observed that even though this information was provided repeatedly it must be revised. PMID:15334270

Lenzi, Márcia de Freitas; Coura, Lea Camillo

2004-01-01

382

Antiplatelets in secondary stroke prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic ischemic stroke. Antiplatelets are the major therapy for the secondary stroke prevention. The most commonly used antiplatelets agents are aspirin, clopidogrel, and extended-release dipyridamole. A lot of progress had been made in last years regarding aspirin resistance and genotyping of clopidogrel metabolism. According to the results of the accomplished studies it is difficult to broadly recommend one antithrombotic agent in favor of the other. Instead, a review of the currently published data suggests the importance of focusing on the individualizing approach in antiplatelet therapy. PMID:21772826

Shulga, Olga; Bornstein, Natan

2011-01-01

383

Antiplatelets in Secondary Stroke Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this review is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic ischemic stroke. Antiplatelets are the major therapy for the secondary stroke prevention. The most commonly used antiplatelets agents are aspirin, clopidogrel, and extended-release dipyridamole. A lot of progress had been made in last years regarding aspirin resistance and genotyping of clopidogrel metabolism. According to the results of the accomplished studies it is difficult to broadly recommend one antithrombotic agent in favor of the other. Instead, a review of the currently published data suggests the importance of focusing on the individualizing approach in antiplatelet therapy.

Shulga, Olga; Bornstein, Natan

2011-01-01

384

Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent

King, Keith

2006-01-01

385

Fostering Hope: A Prevention Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet is designed to assist people in implementing strategies to prevent negative outcomes for children. The process starts with the individual, acknowledging an inside-out approach to change. The next component in the model is a set of research-based facts that promote resilience by focusing on strengths instead of deficits. What follows…

Antonucci, Frank; Baker, Mona; Burke, Karen; Duffey, Tim; Gatchell, Judy; Graves, Laurel; Lahti, Michel; Macklin, Ethel; Forbush, Ed; Foster, Joni; Parks, Susan; Primmerman, Bill; Johnson, Ruth; Rumery, Karen; Richards, Roger; Wilbur, Katherine; Medwid, Jo Ann

386

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . ... phased out by the Environmental Protection Agency.) Buy medicines, vitamins and household products with child-resistant caps. ...

387

HOSPITAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has instituted a broad pollution prevention research program through the Office of Research and Development to support continued environmental improvements throughout the nation. he Agency is also responding to the national concern in rega...

388

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of muscle spasm can be treated with physical therapy and medication. Long lasting back pain can occur after accidents that have resulted in ... their lives. Action can be taken to prevent back pain or postpone the ... for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become ...

389

Pollution prevention program implementation plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

1996-01-01

390

Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... bicarbonate, the chemical name for baking soda baking powder, which contains sodium bicarbonate and other chemicals disodium ... prevents kidney stones, but the acid in animal protein reduces the citrate in ... A cup of low-fat milk contains 300 mg of calcium. Other dairy products ...

391

Vitamins, Supplements and Disease Prevention  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Dietary Supplements Heart Diseases--Prevention Vitamin E Transcript An extensive review of ... and vitamin E supplements, do not protect against heart disease or cancer. The conclusion published in the Annals ...

392

Damage prevention in power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference provided orientational information for engineers as planners, manufacturers, designers and operators of power stations working in planning, quality assurance, assembly/installation and safety. The topics were: Risk analysis; failure detection and evaluation; failure examples; reliability from planning to acceptance; reliability during operation; risk reduction by insurances; successful damage prevention. (orig./GL)

1988-02-24

393

Prevent Injury After a Disaster  

Science.gov (United States)

... boots. Ensure that clothing and boots have adequate insulation. Take frequent breaks out of the water. Change into dry clothing when possible. Prevent heat–related illness: Stay in air-conditioned buildings. Take breaks in shaded areas or in cool ...

394

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... install one-piece doorstops. Pay attention to all equipment recalls, including those for “hand-me-downs.” Store ... and garden plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/ ...

395

Preventing accidents at intake towers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

1994-03-01

396

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... contain many hidden hazards that could be harmful to anyone. By taking a few simple steps to safeguard your home, you can help prevent many ... number is visible from the street. Be sure to have at least one telephone in your house ...

397

Preventing Blooming In CCD Images  

Science.gov (United States)

Clocking scheme for charge-coupled-device (CCD) imaging photodetector prevents smearing of bright spots and eliminates residual images. Also imposes charge-collecting electric field of optimum-full-well configuration, minimizes nonuniformities among picture elements, and keeps dark current low. Works under almost any lighting conditions.

Janesick, James

1992-01-01

398

The first case of cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wenkai Zong,* Xiaodong Zhang,* Hongsheng Wang, Xiu Lian Xu, Qiuling Wang, Weiwei Tian, Ya LI Jin, Qinxue Wu, Meiyu Tang Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The authors present the first, to the best of their knowledge, reported case of cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. A 42-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic reddish papules, nodules, plaques, and patches on the right side of her face and on her forehead that had persisted for 5 years, with the lesions gradually increasing in size over that time. No previous intervening medical treatment had been applied. No history or evidence of immunosuppression was found. A skin biopsy was performed for routine histological examination. Samples of lesioned skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl–Neelsen staining was used to confirm the presence of the organism. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the microtiter plate method. Mycobacterium was identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungus, were also conducted. Routine histopathology revealed granulomatous changes without caseation. Ziehl–Neelsen staining showed that the organisms in both the lesions and the cultures were acid-fast bacilli. The cultured colonies were grown in Löwenstein–Jensen medium and incubated at two different temperatures (32°C and 37°C for 2–3 weeks, developing pigmentation both in the dark and in the light. In vitro drug susceptibility tests showed that the organism was sensitive to clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed that the isolated organisms were M. parascrofulaceum. Fungal and other standard bacterial cultures were negative. In conclusion, identification and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria should be performed promptly to obtain better prognoses. Empirical treatments may be feasible, and drug susceptibility tests are important.Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacteria, skin infection, PCR-RFLP, laboratory diagnosis, therapy

Zong WK

2012-08-01

399

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

Merchant Anwar T

2005-09-01

400

Realizing the promise of cancer predisposition genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes in which germline mutations confer highly or moderately increased risks of cancer are called cancer predisposition genes. More than 100 of these genes have been identified, providing important scientific insights in many areas, particularly the mechanisms of cancer causation. Moreover, clinical utilization of cancer predisposition genes has had a substantial impact on diagnosis, optimized management and prevention of cancer. The recent transformative advances in DNA sequencing hold the promise of many more cancer predisposition gene discoveries, and greater and broader clinical applications. However, there is also considerable potential for incorrect inferences and inappropriate clinical applications. Realizing the promise of cancer predisposition genes for science and medicine will thus require careful navigation. PMID:24429628

Rahman, Nazneen

2014-01-16

 
 
 
 
401

Antioxidative nanofullerol prevents intervertebral disk degeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xinlin Yang,1 Li Jin,1 Lu Yao,2,3 Francis H Shen,1 Adam L Shimer,1 Xudong Li11Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Beijing Tongrentang Co., Ltd, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Compelling evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in disk degeneration. Fullerol nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution have been demonstrated to have outstanding ability to scavenge ROS. In this report, in vitro and in vivo models were used to study the efficacy of fullerol in preventing disk degeneration. For in vitro experiments, a pro-oxidant H2O2 or an inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-1? was employed to induce degenerated phenotypes in human nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in alginate beads, and fullerol was added in the culture medium. For the animal study, an annulus-puncture model with rabbit was created, and fullerol was injected into disks. It was shown that cytotoxicity and cellular ROS level induced by H2O2 were significantly diminished by fullerol. IL-1? -induced nitric oxide generation in culture medium was suppressed by fullerol as well. Gene-profile and biochemical assays showed that fullerol effectively reversed the matrix degradation caused by either H2O2 or IL-1?. The animal study delineated that intradiskal injection of fullerol prevented disk degeneration, increasing water and proteoglycan content and inhibiting ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that antioxidative fullerol may have a potential therapeutic application for disk degeneration.Keywords: free radical, extracellular matrix, intervertebral disk, antioxidant, fullerol

Yang X

2014-05-01

402

BREAST CANCER RISK FACTORS: PREVENTABLE AND NON-PREVENTABLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 22.9% of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers in women. The incidence of breast cancer is rising in every country of the world especially in developing countries such as India. In 1940, the lifetime risk of a woman developing breast cancer was 5%, or one in 20. The American Cancer Society estimates that risk being 13% in 2012, or more than one in 8. Studies have shown that certain factors, called risk factors, increase the likelihood that a woman will develop breast cancer. Many of these risk factors are not reversible, but some can be modified. A “risk factor” is anything that increases the risk of developing breast cancer. Many of the most important risk factors for breast cancer are beyond control (non-preventable, such as age, family history, and medical history. However, there are some risk factors that are preventable, such as weight, physical activity, and alcohol consumption.

R. Lakshmi

2012-10-01

403

Cancer prevention strategies: use of cancer prevention research registries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a model to plan a rational strategy for cancer prevention that has two main functions--assessment and intervention. The assessment function includes three main components: to identify populations at high cancer risk, which may be due to their ethnic group, occupational and environmental exposures, family history, cigarette smoking, or other risk factors; to assess exposure to known carcinogens through the general and occupational environments, lifestyle factors, and the home as wel...

Anton-culver, H.

1995-01-01

404

Gene therapy in status epilepticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene therapy in human disease has expanded rapidly in recent years with the development of safer and more effective viral vectors, and presents a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy. Studies in animals models have demonstrated that overexpression of inhibitory peptides can modify seizure threshold, prevent the development of epilepsy, and modify established epilepsy. More recently there has been a flurry of studies using optogenetics in which light-activated channels expressed in neurons can transiently change neuronal excitability on exposure to light, thereby enabling the development of closed loop systems to detect and stop seizure activity. The treatment of status epilepticus presents its own challenges. Because of both the delay in gene expression following transfection and also the necessity of using focal transfection, there are a limited number of situations in which gene therapy can be used in status epilepticus. One such condition is epilepsia partialis continua (EPC). We have used gene therapy in a model of EPC and have shown that we can "cure" the condition. Recent evidence suggesting that gene therapy targeting subcortical regions can modify generalized or more diffuse epilepsies, indicates that the range of situations in status epilepticus in which gene therapy could be used will expand. PMID:24001071

Walker, Matthew C; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Wykes, Robert C; Heeroma, Joost H; Mantoan, Laura

2013-09-01

405

Gene expression profile of Xenopus A6 cells cultured under random positioning machine shows downregulation of ion transporter genes and inhibition of dome formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Random positioning machine (RPM) devices that generate a simulated microgravity environment of approximately 0 g prevent the formation of dome structures in Xenopus kidney-derived A6 cells. In the present study, the gene expression profile of A6 cells cultured under RPM was determined using the Xenopus 22K scale microarray, and those genes up- or downregulated twofold or more were investigated. We identified 29 genes (up, 25 genes; down, 4 genes) on day 5, 68 genes (up, 25 genes; down, 43 genes) on day 8, 111 genes (up, 69 genes; down, 42 genes) on day 10, and 283 genes (up, 153 genes; down, 130 genes) on day 15 of culture under RPM. These genes were classified according to categories described in the KOG database, such as "extracellular structure", "cytoskeleton", and "transcription". Almost all the genes involved in "inorganic ion transport and metabolism" were downregulated under RPM. Our study further investigated some of these including the epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) and Na +/K +-ATPase transporter genes. A specific inhibitor of Na +/K +-ATPases, ouabain, inhibited dome formation in the A6 cells, even under control culturing conditions of 1 g (the static condition). Together these data suggested that downregulation of sodium ion transporter gene expression plays a significant role in the RPM-dependent prevention of the dome formation in kidney epithelial cells.

Ikuzawa, Masayuki; Akiduki, Saori; Asashima, Makoto

406

[Memorandum - research funding of prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

The memorandum of the research funding of prevention has been devised within the framework of the Prevention Research Funding Programme of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It consists not only of the obtained findings of the research-practice co-operation but also of recommendations for the implementation of prospective, innovational, effective, practice-oriented and sustainable research. The respective knowledge has been acquired from quantitative surveys on the experiences of scientists and practice partners within the prevention research funding project as well as from extensive qualitative methods of structured group evaluation. A participatory co-operation between research and practice based on mutual respect, trust and recognition is seen as mandatory for the further development of both prevention and health promotion research. Research and practice partners are required to engage in an ab initio collaboration starting from the conception phase, whereby it is advisable to encourage and fortify the communication between research, practice and funding partners by systematic surveillance in form of a meta-project. In addition, the inclusion of the target population from the outset and on a collaborative basis is considered as beneficial in order to ensure the practical application of the research findings. Furthermore, innovatory research designs which are able to provide a framework for internal flexibility, continuous re-assessment and adjustment are fundamental for the implementation of practice-oriented research. Moreover, a dynamic co-operation between different groups of interest not only depends on sharing responsibility but also on sufficient funding for both research and practice, which is particularly important for the transfer and communication of the attained findings. With regard to the evaluation of both effectiveness and sustainability of interventions, a research funding project is required which makes long-term results possible through the utilization of regulated monitoring and guarantees quality and continuous effectiveness. Furthermore, in order to stimulate progress within the basic theories of prevention and health promotion, it is also essential for a funding project to focus on elementary concepts. Additionally, for the efficient and sustainable development of health within a population it is advisable to apply both self-contained research and the involvement of primary prevention and health promotion to research projects concerning health, social affairs, education, work and environment. PMID:22941740

Walter, U; Gold, C; Hoffmann, W; Jahn, I; Töppich, J; Wildner, M; Dubben, S; Franze, M; John, J; Kliche, T; Lehmann, H; Naegele, G; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Pott, E; Robra, B-P

2012-08-01

407

Genetically modified Streptococcus mutans for the prevention of dental caries.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many examples of positive and negative interactions between different species of bacteria inhabiting the same ecosystem. This observation provides the basis for a novel approach to preventing microbial diseases called replacement therapy. In this approach, a harmless effector strain is permanently implanted in the host's microflora. Once established, the presence of the effector strain prevents the colonization or outgrowth of a particular pathogen. In the case of dental caries, replacement therapy has involved construction of an effector strain called BCS3-L1, which was derived from a clinical Streptococcus mutans isolate. Recombinant DNA technology was used to delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase in BCS3-L1 making it entirely deficient in lactic acid production. This effector strain was also designed to produce elevated amounts of a novel peptide antibiotic called mutacin 1140 that gives it a strong selective advantage over most other strains of S. mutans. In laboratory and rodent model studies, BCS3-L1 was found to be genetically stable and to produce no apparent deleterious side effects during prolonged colonization. BCS3-L1 was significantly less cariogenic than wild-type S. mutans in gnotobiotic rats, and it did not contribute at all to the cariogenic potential of the indigenous flora of conventional Sprague-Dawley rats. And, its strong colonization properties indicated that a single application of the BCS3-L1 effector strain to human subjects should result in its permanent implantation and displacement over time of indigenous, disease-causing S. mutans strains. Thus, BCS3-L1 replacement therapy for the prevention of dental caries is an example of biofilm engineering that offers the potential for a highly efficient, cost effective augmentation of conventional prevention strategies. It is hoped that the eventual success of replacement therapy for the prevention of dental caries will stimulate the use of this approach in the prevention of other bacterial diseases. PMID:12369203

Hillman, Jeffrey D

2002-08-01

408

Well pressure compensation for blowout preventers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus of compensating for the closing force on a blowout preventer caused by well pressure for reducing the wear on the blowout preventer sealing element when moving a drill string through a closed blowout preventer is claimed. A hydraulic opening force is applied to the blowout preventer which is actuated by and is proportional to the well pressure. A compensating line is connected between the blowout preventer fluid supply line and the blowout preventer opening line. A control valve is provided in the compensating lines for applying an opening force on the blowout preventer and a pilot control pressure regulator is provided in the compensating line for limiting the compensating pressure. The pilot control line is connected between the regulator and the well pressure in the blowout preventer whereby the output pressure is proportional to the well pressure for compensating for the closing force on the blowout preventer caused by the well pressure.

LeMoine, J.L.

1984-04-03

409

Pollution prevention program plan 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE`s commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE`s routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations.

NONE

1996-06-01

410

Pollution prevention program plan 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

1996-01-01

411

Structural approaches to HIV prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognition that social, economic, political, and environmental factors directly affect HIV risk and vulnerability has stimulated interest in structural approaches to HIV prevention. Progress in the use of structural approaches has been limited for several reasons: absence of a clear definition; lack of operational guidance; and limited data on the effectiveness of structural approaches to the reduction of HIV incidence. In this paper we build on evidence and experience to address these gaps. We begin by defining structural factors and approaches. We describe the available evidence on their effectiveness and discuss methodological challenges to the assessment of these often complex efforts to reduce HIV risk and vulnerability. We identify core principles for implementing this kind of work. We also provide recommendations for ensuring the integration of structural approaches as part of combined prevention strategies. PMID:18687460

Gupta, Geeta Rao; Parkhurst, Justin O; Ogden, Jessica A; Aggleton, Peter; Mahal, Ajay

2008-08-30

412

Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of preventive programs according to risk assessment."nBecause children vary widely in their ability to develop cavities, a well-organized program holds great promise for promoting dental heath for pre-school children of varying caries risk. This article considered a series of principals that dentist can use in case planning, management and prevention programs according to risk assessment.

Pourhashemi SJ

2000-05-01

413

Tertiary prevention of cervical cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human pappilomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world and over 100 different HPV types have been identified. Persistent HPV infection has been closely linked to the development of invasive cervical cancer. Although surgical and ablative therapies have been the mainstay of treatment, vaccination against the main oncogenic type of HPV is a reasonable preventive strategy for HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:24633405

Divine, Laura M; Huh, Warner K

2014-06-01

414

What's new in cardiovascular prevention?  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is essentially a summary of the 2007 version of the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice recently published by the 4th JointTask Force. New data from the guidelines in the fields of the general objectives in lifestyle modifications and drug therapies are emphasised. Recent studies on antioxydant vitamins, homocysteine-lowering vitamins and HDL-Cholesterol raising drugs are also being discussed. PMID:18229465

Brohet, C R

2007-01-01

415

Prevention of Hematomas and Seromas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hematoma and seroma formation in surgical wounds has negative effects on wound healing and subsequent morbidity to patients. This is of particular pertinence in cosmetic procedures in which the patient has chosen to undergo surgery electively. Over the past several decades there has been considerable interest in the use of ancillary techniques to assist in closing wounds and achieving hemostasis to prevent hematoma and seroma formation. These techniques include application of tissue sealants ...

2006-01-01

416

Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of ...

Hendershot Christian S; Witkiewitz Katie; George William H; Alan, Marlatt G.

2011-01-01

417

Polyspermy prevention: facts and artifacts?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this review is to open a debate as to whether or not oocytes actively repel supernumerary sperm or in nature final sperm : oocyte ratios are so low that polyspermy preventing mechanisms are not necessary. Before encountering the oocyte, spermatozoa need to be primed, either by environmental factors as in animals exhibiting external fertilization, or by factors from the female reproductive tract, as in mammals. The spermatozoon must then recognize and interact with the outer lay...

2011-01-01

418

Skiing and snowboarding injury prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skiing and snowboarding are popular recreational and competitive sport activities for children and youth. Injuries associated with both activities are frequent and can be serious. There is new evidence documenting the benefit of wearing helmets while skiing and snowboarding, as well as data refuting suggestions that helmet use may increase the risk of neck injury. There is also evidence to support using wrist guards while snowboarding. There is poor uptake of effective preventive measures suc...

Warda, Lynne J.; Yanchar, Natalie L.

2012-01-01

419

Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

Bullock, Ka; Clarke, R.; Tilley, N.

2010-01-01

420

Lobbyin to prevent commercial piracy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we develop a common agency model to analyze the problem of pirates entering the market, in which the incumbent and the consumers form pressure groups to lobby the government on policies to prevent piracy while the pirates try to avoid being stopped. We show that a monopoly is not an equilibrium when both the incumbent and consumers lobby the government, and that the

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Posion Prevention in the Home  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Poison Control Centre at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children received over 25,000 telephone inquiries in 1981. Those at greatest risk of accidental poisoning are children under age five. Education on poison prevention should begin at the first postnatal visit. This article lists the most common household poisons, including plants, resources that parents and physicians can use, and the telephone numbers of Canadian poison control centres.

1983-01-01

422

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies ha...

Wehby George L; Goco Norman; Moretti-Ferreira Danilo; Felix Temis; Richieri-Costa Antonio; Padovani Carla; Queiros Fernanda; Guimaraes Camilla Vila; Pereira Rui; Litavecz Steve; Hartwell Tyler; Chakraborty Hrishikesh; Javois Lorette; Murray Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

423

[Injury prevention in young children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological studies in Germany show that infants and toddlers are at most risk of injury and in need of protection. Of all children under the age of 15 years, they have the highest rates of fatal and severe injuries. Therefore, this article aims to show which injury prevention measures have been proven successful for this age group. International specialist recommendations are described and evidence-based knowledge of interventions is presented from the Cochrane Reviews. For the four most frequent child injury mechanisms (drowning, poisoning, burning, and falling), the World Health Organization recommends a set of measures covering legislation, regulations, changes of environment, education, and emergency medical care. Meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions related to safety at home conclude that informing parents personally (face-to-face) and in combination with free safety equipment (e.g., safety gates, smoke alarms) increased parents' safety practices significantly. This included advice on not using baby walkers. Multifaceted education programs for parents (e.g., visiting programs at home or in pediatric clinics) proved to have the highest effect in reducing home accidents to children. The prevention of injuries in young children should be driven by a multifaceted and data-based approach. Postnatal interventions (Frühe Hilfen) at the community level are especially useful to integrate accident prevention at home, because they are connected with family visiting programs. PMID:24863710

Ellsäßer, G; Trost-Brinkhues, G; Albrecht, M

2014-06-01

424

New technology for accident prevention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2006-07-01

425

Cancer prevention with natural compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Botanical and nutritional compounds have been used for the treatment of cancer throughout history. These compounds also may be useful in the prevention of cancer. Population studies suggest that a reduced risk of cancer is associated with high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest. There are numerous reports of cancer chemopreventive activity of dietary botanicals, including cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, Allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, Citrus fruits, soybeans, tomatoes, berries, and ginger, as well as medicinal plants. Several lead compounds, such as genistein (from soybeans), lycopene (from tomatoes), brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables), sulforaphane (from asparagus), indole-3-carbinol (from broccoli), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts) are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals have great potential in cancer prevention because of their safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability. In this review, we discuss potential natural cancer preventive compounds and their mechanisms of action. PMID:20709209

Gullett, Norleena P; Ruhul Amin, A R M; Bayraktar, Soley; Pezzuto, John M; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Surh, Young-Joon; Kucuk, Omer

2010-06-01

426

Approaches for prevention of restenosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery disease is characterized by a narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries that supply blood to the tissue of the heart. Continued restriction of blood flow manifests itself as angina and ultimately myocardial infarction (heart attack) for the patient. Heart bypass was once the only treatment for this condition, but over the years percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become an increasingly attractive alternative to medical therapy and surgical revascularization for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A vascular stent is a medical device designed to serve as a temporary or permanent internal scaffold, to maintain or increase the lumen of a blood vessel. Metallic coronary stents were first introduced to prevent arterial dissections and to eliminate vessel recoil and intimal hyperplasia associated with PCI. Further advancement in the treatment of coronary artery disease is the development of drug-eluting stents that dramatically reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis to less than 5%. Local drug delivery offers the advantages of allowing a relatively high local concentration of drug at the treatment site while minimizing systemic toxic effect. This review describes approaches for prevention of restenosis. It focuses on drugs for prevention of restenosis, bare metal stents, and drug-eluting stents. It also describes recent advances in bioresorbable stents. One of the chapters is dedicated to our novel composite bioresorbable drug-eluting fibers, designed to be used as basic elements in drug-eluting stents. PMID:18098192

Kraitzer, Amir; Kloog, Yoel; Zilberman, Meital

2008-05-01

427

Metformin and Berberine Prevent Olanzapine-Induced Weight Gain in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Olanzapine is a first line medication for the treatment of schizophrenia, but it is also one of the atypical antipsychotics carrying the highest risk of weight gain. Metformin was reported to produce significant attenuation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain in patients, while the study of preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain in an animal model is absent. Berberine, an herbal alkaloid, was shown in our previous studies to prevent fat accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Utilizing a well-replicated rat model of olanzapine-induced weight gain, here we demonstrated that two weeks of metformin or berberine treatment significantly prevented the olanzapine-induced weight gain and white fat accumulation. Neither metformin nor berberine treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of olanzapine-increased food intake. But interestingly, a significant loss of brown adipose tissue caused by olanzapine treatment was prevented by the addition of metformin or berberine. Our gene expression analysis also demonstrated that the weight gain prevention efficacy of metformin or berberine treatment was associated with changes in the expression of multiple key genes controlling energy expenditure. This study not only demonstrates a significant preventive efficacy of metformin and berberine treatment on olanzapine-induced weight gain in rats, but also suggests a potential mechanism of action for preventing olanzapine-reduced energy expenditure.

Hu, Yueshan; Young, Alan J.; Ehli, Erik A.; Nowotny, Dustin; Davies, Paige S.; Droke, Elizabeth A.; Soundy, Timothy J.; Davies, Gareth E.

2014-01-01

428

Plant polyphenols in prevention of heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols (PPH) are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit . The largest and best studied polyphenols are the flavonoids, which include several thousand compounds. PPH are the most abundant antioxidants in human diets. Their sheer mass in the diet exceeds that of the consumed vitamins. The Mediterranean diet is rich in PPH because it contains abundant vegetables, fruits, unrefined cereals, legumes, nuts, garlic, olive oil and red wine. Locations where the Mediterranean diet prevails are known for a reduced premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, this geographic distinction is not entirely unique. Low CVD mortality is also present in countries with high consumption if plant food and fish, as Scandinavia, Switzerland and Austria. Putative mechanisms of the metabolic effect of PPH are related to multiple biologic functions that may have beneficial effect in the prevention of some inflammation-mediated disorders, including CVD. Naturally occurring dietary PPH can directly scavenge free oxygen radicals, adhesion molecules, and growth factor receptor genes. Thus, these polyphenolic compounds have potential therapeutic value as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents in CVD. PPH reduce the generation of oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL), induce nitric oxide (NO) production, inhibit platelet aggregation and downregulate expression of proinflammatory mediators (Fig. 6, Tab. 1, Ref. 33). PMID:22897371

Ginter, E; Simko, V

2012-01-01

429

The Autoimmune Regulator Prevents Premature Reproductive Senescence in Female Mice1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Loss-of-function mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene are responsible for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), which commonly manifests as infertility in women. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator that promotes expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymus, including antigens specific to the ovary. Thymic expression of ovarian genes under AIRE's control may be critical for preventing ovarian autoimmune disease. Because mice lacking Aire are an important APS-...

Jasti, Susmita; Warren, Bryce D.; Mcginnis, Lynda K.; Kinsey, William H.; Petroff, Brian K.; Petroff, Margaret G.

2012-01-01

430

Preventing Heart Disease - At Any Age  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Preventing Heart Disease - At Any Age Updated:Mar 25, ... too old — to take care of your heart. Preventing heart disease (and all cardiovascular diseases ) means making ...

431

Household Safety: Preventing Cuts (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... First Aid & Safety > Home Sweet Home > Household Safety: Preventing Cuts Print A A A Text Size What's ... Dealing With Cuts Emergency Contact Sheet Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents First-Aid Kit Cuts Instruction Sheet ...

432

Preventing Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventing Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients: Recommendations From the American College of Physicians Summaries for Patients are ... to develop recommendations on the best strategies for preventing VTE in hospitalized patients. How did the ACP ...

433

Preventing FASD: Healthy Women, Healthy Babies  

Science.gov (United States)

... needs regarding reproductive health, sexuality, relationships, and victimization PREVENTING FASD: HEALTHY WOMEN, HEALTHY BABIES WHAT YOU NEED ... key legal services, and aftercare 3 role in preventing FASD. They should: Research shows that residential substance ...

434

How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?  

Science.gov (United States)

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

435

Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging The full report is titled “Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging. A Randomized Trial.” ... the skin are known to be in?uenced by sun exposure and the effects of growing older. Although sunscreen ...

436

WMCL Waste prevention Frameworkjg.indd  

Framework for Waste Prevention in Northern Ireland Environment & Heritage Service September 2005 Framework for Waste Prevention in N I September 2005 3 www.ehsni.gov.uk Contents Foreword 1 Acknowledgements 2 1 ...

437

WMCL Waste prevention Frameworkjg.indd  

Framework for Waste Prevention in Northern Ireland Environment & Heritage Service September 2005 Waste Prevention Framework September 2005 (2) 3 www.ehsni.gov.uk Contents Foreword 1 Acknowledgements 2 1 Introduction 3...

438

Preventing enamel decalcification after orthodontic treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

As enamel decalcification can occur in conjunction with orthodontic treatment, suggestions are offered for ways to prevent this condition from manifesting. A review of the literature shows the problem is widespread. Preventive programs must be emphasized. PMID:3305654

Saloum, F S; Sondhi, A

1987-08-01

439

Model Standards for Community Preventive Health Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a book of standards which presents a framework for incremental improvement in community health status through preventive health service programming. The model standards cover a finite group of twenty-eight program areas. In addition to preventive ...

1979-01-01

440

Alcoholism Treatment as a Means of Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcoholism treatment programs have enlarged their scope from primary patient care alone to treatment plus prevention. Prevention efforts need to be tested in a controlled fashion before large-scale programs are initiated. Treatment centers offer the oppor...

M. A. Schuckit

1974-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Start at the Store: Prevent Foodborne Illness  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Articulos en Espanol Start at the Store: Prevent Foodborne Illness (video) Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... consumers can play a major role in preventing foodborne illness. In this Consumer Update video, FDA Consumer Safety ...

442

Pollution Prevention and Control Permitted Processes  

...HomeAbout UsLinksContact UsSpeech EnabledSite MapConsultationsPollution ControlPollutionWater PollutionPollution Prevention & ControlPollution Prevention and Control (Industrial Emissions)Pollution...

443