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Sample records for hsp65 gene prevented

  1. Hsp65-producing Lactococcus lactis prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice by inducing CD4+LAP+ regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Rafael M.; Oliveira, Rafael P.; Medeiros, Samara R.; Gomes-Santos, Ana C.; Alves, Andrea C.; Loli, Flávia G.; Guimarães, Mauro A.F.; Amaral, Sylvia S; da Cunha, André P.; Weiner, Howard L.; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Ana M.C. Faria

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) participate in the cellular response to stress and they are hiperexpressed in inflammatory conditions. They are also known to play a major role in immune modulation, controlling, for instance, autoimmune responses. In this study, we showed that oral administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that produces and releases LPS-free Hsp65 prevented the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. This was confirmed by the ...

  2. Species-Specific Identification of Mycobacterium leprae by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of the hsp65 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Nalin; Goh, Khye Seng; Berchel, Mylene

    1999-01-01

    PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene present in all mycobacteria was used in the present investigation to characterize Mycobacterium leprae. Bacilli were extracted and purified from different organs from experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice (Swiss mice of nu/nu origin). A total of 15 samples were assayed in duplicate, and the results were compared with those obtained for a total of 147 cultivable mycobacteria representing 34 species. Irresp...

  3. Rapid differentiation of "Mycobacterium canettii" from other Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms by PCR-restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, K S; Legrand, E; Sola, C; Rastogi, N

    2001-10-01

    A total of 102 isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, including available "M. canettii" isolates, were studied by PCR-restriction analysis of a 441-bp fragment of the hsp65 gene. PRA upon HhaI enzyme digestion (GCGC) allowed easy differentiation of "M. canettii" from other members of the M. tuberculosis complex (three bands of 260, 105, and 60 bp for "M. canetti," compared to four bands of 185, 105, 75, and 60 bp for other members of the M. tuberculosis complex). Sequencing of the 441-bp hsp65 fragment of "M. canettii" isolates showed the disappearance of an HhaI site at position 235 due to a C-to-T transition that corresponded to position 631 of the homologous hsp65 gene of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Considering that "M. canettii" may also exist as a stable rough morphotype, we suggest that the true number of "M. canettii" isolates may be underestimated in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:11574597

  4. Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria das Graças Motta e, Bona; Maria José Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; José Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de [...] pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

  5. Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Motta e Bona

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65 para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias.OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65 to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

  6. Cloning and Sequencing of a Part of the Heat Shock Protein 65 Gene (hsp65) of “Tropheryma whippelii” and Its Use for Detection of “T. whippelii” in Clinical Specimens by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenegg, Silvia; Dutly, Fabrizio; Altwegg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Using broad-spectrum primers, we have amplified, cloned, and sequenced a 620-bp fragment of the “Tropheryma whippelii” heat shock protein 65 gene (hsp65) from the heart valve of a patient with Whipple's endocarditis. The deduced amino acid sequence shows high similarity to those from actinobacteria, confirming that “T. whippelii” is indeed a member of this phylum. Based on the nucleotide sequence, we have developed a “T. whippelii”-specific seminested PCR. Seventeen patients shown to be posit...

  7. Diffuse meningo-encefalitys due to Nocardia farcinica in a young kidney transplant recipient: identification of the strain using sequencing of hsp65 gene

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    Danila Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Genus Nocardia belongs to aerobic Actinomycetes, a wide group of polymorphous Gram+, fixed and acapsusalated, branching, partially acid-fast bacilli. Nocardia organism are ubiquitous, soil-borne actinomycetes that usually infect humans as a result of the inhalation of airborne bacilli or traumatic inoculation. Nocardiosis is a rare opportunistic disease that affects mainly patients with impaired cellmediated immunity, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or transplant recipients, patients with pulmonary disease, haematological malignancies etc. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation in immounosuppressed patients. Nocardial organism have a tendency to disseminate hematogenously from the primary site of infection.The central nervous system (CNS is one of the most frequent sites of dissemination. Herein we describe a rare and fatal case of diffuse meningo-encephalytis due to Nocardia farcinica in a young patient kidney transplant recipient. Nocardia has been isolated from Cerebrospinal fluid in a micobacteriology laboratory with identification of the strain using sequencing of hsp65 gene. The diagnosis can be challenging, as signs and symptoms are not specific and a high degree of clinical suspicion is required. Identification of Nocardia farcinica is important because of its aggressiveness, its tendency to disseminate, and its resistance to antibiotics. Susceptibilities to 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by E-test.The isolate was resistant to Gentamicin, Clarithromycin, Doxycicline, Cefotaxime and susceptible to Amikacin,Amoxicillin clavulanate, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Linezolid and Trimethoprim–Sulfamethoxazole. The susceptibility profile was favourable since, in North Italy, the strains are generally resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole.

  8. High genetic diversity revealed by variable-number tandem repeat genotyping and analysis of hsp65 gene polymorphism in a large collection of "Mycobacterium canettii" strains indicates that the M. tuberculosis complex is a recently emerged clone of "M. canettii".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Michel; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Le Flèche, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Hervé, Vincent; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2004-07-01

    We have analyzed, using complementary molecular methods, the diversity of 43 strains of "Mycobacterium canettii" originating from the Republic of Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, from 1998 to 2003. Genotyping by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis shows that all the strains belong to a single but very distant group when compared to strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Thirty-one strains cluster into one large group with little variability and five strains form another group, whereas the other seven are more diverged. In total, 14 genotypes are observed. The DR locus analysis reveals additional variability, some strains being devoid of a direct repeat locus and others having unique spacers. The hsp65 gene polymorphism was investigated by restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing of PCR amplicons. Four new single nucleotide polymorphisms were discovered. One strain was characterized by three nucleotide changes in 441 bp, creating new restriction enzyme polymorphisms. As no sequence variability was found for hsp65 in the whole MTBC, and as a single point mutation separates M. tuberculosis from the closest "M. canettii" strains, this diversity within "M. canettii" subspecies strongly suggests that it is the most probable source species of the MTBC rather than just another branch of the MTBC. PMID:15243089

  9. Ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway: A new strategy for inducing CD8 cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an indispensable role in inducing MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. In this study, we exploited UPS to induce CD8+ T cells specific for mycobacterial HSP65 (mHSP65), one of the leading vaccine candidates against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A chimeric DNA termed pU-HSP65 encoding a fusion protein between murine ubiquitin and mHSP65 was constructed, and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were immunized with the DNA using gene gun bombardment. Mice immunized with the chimeric DNA acquired potent resistance against challenge with the syngeneic B16F1 melanoma cells transfected with the mHSP65 gene (HSP65/B16F1), compared with those immunized with DNA encoding only mHSP65. Splenocytes from the former group of mice showed a higher grade of cytotoxic activity against HSP65/B16F1 cells and contained a larger number of granzyme B- or IFN-?-producing CD8+ T cells compared with those from the latter group of mice

  10. DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE

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    Joab Trajano Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.

    Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis, up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material.  A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk 

    Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,

  11. Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.M., Fonseca; V.L.D., Bonato; C.L., Silva; A., Sartori.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65) gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65) was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with [...] its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group) were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization), the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2) characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

  12. B cells expressing IL-10 mRNA modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, I C; Trombone, A P F; Almeida, L P; Lorenzi, J C C; Rossetti, R A M; Malardo, T; Padilha, E; Schluchting, W; Silva, R L L; Gembre, A F; Fiuza, J E C; Silva, C L; Panunto-Castelo, A; Coelho-Castelo, A A M

    2015-12-01

    In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon ?, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43-) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells. PMID:26397973

  13. Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina / Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Ignacio de, Padua; Célio Lopes, Silva; Simone Gusmão, Ramos; Lúcia Helena, Faccioli; José Antônio Baddini, Martinez.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT); grupo SB, [...] tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%). A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente) em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente). Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%).O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão). CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; SB [...] , injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure) was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%). The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively) than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively). The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%). The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung) than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

  14. Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ignacio de Padua

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT; grupo SB, tratados com salina (placebo e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%. A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente. Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%.O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão. CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving intratracheal (IT instillation of saline; SB, injected with saline (placebo and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%. The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively. The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%. The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

  15. How M. leprae Hsp65 influences the immune response in genetically selected aged mice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevam José Baldon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins may trigger innate immune responses and are involved in immunosenescence and autoimmunity. We characterized some cellular and humoral alterations after intraperitoneal administration of 2.5µg M. leprae Hsp65 in genetically selected mice for High (HIII or Low (LIII antibody production (9-months-old and in its F1 hybrids. Aged HIII female injected with Hsp65 presented a survival decrease of 42% when compared to untreated group (control; no changes in IgG1 or IgG2a anti-Hsp production were observed in HIII and LIII mice. Regarding the cellular changes, aged HIII female Hsp65-group presented amplified frequency in CD4+CD154+CD28+ cells (p<0.01 and reduced percentage of B and activated CD11c+ cells (p<0.01 in the spleen, and increased percentage of CD11c+ and NKG1A/C/E+ cells (p<0.01 in the blood compared to control. Hsp65 acts like an imbalance trigger: post-injection, the aged F1H female Hsp65-group died 2 months after the first death, as observed in aged HIII females; however there was no statistically significance compared with F1H control group. Furthermore, aged F1H and F1L female showed amplified frequency of naïve T cells and CD11c cells in spleen (p<0.001. In conclusion, our results confirm the sex dichotomy (sex effect of the Hsp65 interference in the immunity of aged mice, becoming evident in females. Next, we will characterize innate immune cells in peritoneal cavity after Hsp65 inoculation; in addition, the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells will be investigated as these cells are increased during ageing process and have been associated with attenuation of experimental autoimmune diseases. Support: CNPq, FAPESP, INCT-TOX.

  16. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis

  17. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  18. Presence of hsp65 in bacterial extracts (OM-89): a possible mediator of orally-induced tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polla, B S; Baladi, S; Fuller, K; Rook, G

    1995-08-16

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) have been implicated in rodent models of autoimmunity, particularly arthritis, and there is suggestive though inconclusive evidence that they may also play a role in human autoimmune disease. The simplest hypothesis is based on molecular mimicry due to the amino-acid sequence homology between mammalian and microbial HSP. Recently OM-89, an extract of several strains of Escherichia coli, has shown some efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) when taken orally. Using species-specific antibodies, we show here that OM-89 contains the 65 kDa HSP (hsp65), while hsp65 was not detected in another bacterial extract containing other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus (OM-85). We suggest that if the human homologue of hsp65 is a relevant target antigen in the human disease, the efficacy of the preparation could be due to induction of oral tolerance or to switching the Th1 response towards Th2. Alternatively, even if the human hsp65 is not a target molecule in RA joints, OM-89 may evoke bystander suppression of joint inflammation via induction of TGF beta-secreting effector cells. These hypotheses should be tested in further studies. PMID:7649235

  19. Enhanced immune response of a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yan, Dong; Jun-Yuan, Gong; Xin, Liu; Jun-Wu, Li.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to construct a bicistronic DNA vaccine expressing fusion antigen Hsp65-Esat-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with cytokine GM-CSF as a molecular adjuvant (pIRES-Hsp65-ESAT-6-GM-CSF, pIRHEG), and the immune response in mice. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the recombinant plasmid to [...] detect the titer of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+, CD8+T cell and IFN ~ ?,IL-2 secretion. The titer of antibody, lymphocyte proliferation, the ratio of CD4+T and CD8+T cells and IFN ~ ?, IL-2 secretion of pIRHEG group was significant higher than other recombinant plasmid groups, which significant differed by statistical mean. The bicistronic DNA vaccine could induce an effective immune response in mice and could be used as vital ingredient of a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate.

  20. Identification of Mycobacterium avium Genotypes with Distinctive Traits by Combination of IS1245-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Restriction Analysis of hsp65

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, R.S.; M. P. Sircili; E. M. de D. Oliveira; Balian, S. C.; Ferreira-Neto, J. S.; Leão, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    One-hundred eight Mycobacterium avium isolates from pigs, humans, birds, and bovines were typed by the IS1245-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) of hsp65. Nine clusters of isolates showing more than 80% similarity in their RFLP profiles were detected. The largest cluster (cluster B) included 32 of 79 pig isolates (40.5%), 3 of 25 human isolates (12%), and 1 of 2 bovine isolates, comprising 33% of all isolates. The second larg...

  1. Glucocerebrosidase gene therapy prevents ?-synucleinopathy of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Emily M; Smith, Gaynor A; Park, Eric; Cao, Hongmei; Brown, Eilish; Hayes, Melissa A; Beagan, Jonathan; McLean, Jesse R; Izen, Sarah C; Perez-Torres, Eduardo; Hallett, Penelope J; Isacson, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Diminished lysosomal function can lead to abnormal cellular accumulation of specific proteins, including ?-synuclein, contributing to disease pathogenesis of vulnerable neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related ?-synucleinopathies. GBA1 encodes for the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase (GCase), and mutations in GBA1 are a prominent genetic risk factor for PD. Previous studies showed that in sporadic PD, and in normal aging, GCase brain activity is reduced and levels of corresponding glycolipid substrates are increased. The present study tested whether increasing GCase through AAV-GBA1 intra-cerebral gene delivery in two PD rodent models would reduce the accumulation of ?-synuclein and protect midbrain dopamine neurons from ?-synuclein-mediated neuronal damage. In the first model, transgenic mice overexpressing wildtype ?-synuclein throughout the brain (ASO mice) were used, and in the second model, a rat model of selective dopamine neuron degeneration was induced by AAV-A53T mutant ?-synuclein. In ASO mice, intra-cerebral AAV-GBA1 injections into several brain regions increased GCase activity and reduced the accumulation of ?-synuclein in the substantia nigra and striatum. In rats, co-injection of AAV-GBA1 with AAV-A53T ?-synuclein into the substantia nigra prevented ?-synuclein-mediated degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons by 6months. These neuroprotective effects were associated with altered protein expression of markers of autophagy. These experiments demonstrate, for the first time, the neuroprotective effects of increasing GCase against dopaminergic neuron degeneration, and support the development of therapeutics targeting GCase or other lysosomal genes to improve neuronal handling of ?-synuclein. PMID:26392287

  2. Intranasal vaccination with messenger RNA as a new approach in gene therapy: Use against tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aristóbolo M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background mRNAs are highly versatile, non-toxic molecules that are easy to produce and store, which can allow transient protein expression in all cell types. The safety aspects of mRNA-based treatments in gene therapy make this molecule one of the most promising active components of therapeutic or prophylactic methods. The use of mRNA as strategy for the stimulation of the immune system has been used mainly in current strategies for the cancer treatment but until now no one tested this molecule as vaccine for infectious disease. Results We produce messenger RNA of Hsp65 protein from Mycobacterium leprae and show that vaccination of mice with a single dose of 10 ?g of naked mRNA-Hsp65 through intranasal route was able to induce protection against subsequent challenge with virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover it was shown that this immunization was associated with specific production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha in spleen. In order to determine if antigen presenting cells (APCs present in the lung are capable of capture the mRNA, labeled mRNA-Hsp65 was administered by intranasal route and lung APCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that after 30 minutes until 8 hours the populations of CD11c+, CD11b+ and CD19+ cells were able to capture the mRNA. We also demonstrated in vitro that mRNA-Hsp65 leads nitric oxide (NO production through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7. Conclusions Taken together, our results showed a novel and efficient strategy to control experimental tuberculosis, besides opening novel perspectives for the use of mRNA in vaccines against infectious diseases and clarifying the mechanisms involved in the disease protection we noticed as well.

  3. (PQA1) Aspirin and Inflammation: Mutations, Genes, Pathways and Prevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  4. From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    During the last 2 decades, progress in deciphering the human gene map as well as the discovery of specific defective genes encoding particular proteins in some serious human diseases have resulted in attempts to treat sick patients with gene therapy. There has been considerable focus on human recombinant proteins which were gene-engineered and produced in vitro (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, erythropoietin). Unfortunately, these substances and methods also became improper tools for unscrupulous athletes. Biomedical research has focused on the possible direct insertion of gene material into the body, in order to replace some defective genes in vivo and/or to promote long-lasting endogenous synthesis of deficient proteins. Theoretically, diabetes, anaemia, muscular dystrophies, immune deficiency, cardiovascular diseases and numerous other illnesses could benefit from such innovative biomedical research, though much work remains to be done. Considering recent findings linking specific genotypes and physical performance, it is tempting to submit the young athletic population to genetic screening or, alternatively, to artificial gene expression modulation. Much research is already being conducted in order to achieve a safe transfer of genetic material to humans. This is of critical importance since uncontrolled production of the specifically coded protein, with serious secondary adverse effects (polycythaemia, acute cardiovascular problems, cancer, etc.), could occur. Other unpredictable reactions (immunogenicity of vectors or DNA-vector complex, autoimmune anaemia, production of wild genetic material) also remain possible at the individual level. Some new substances (myostatin blockers or anti-myostatin antibodies), although not gene material, might represent a useful and well-tolerated treatment to prevent progression of muscular dystrophies. Similarly, other molecules, in the roles of gene or metabolic activators [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics). PMID:23832852

  5. RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

  6. A?42 gene vaccine prevents A?42 deposition in brain of double transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Bao-Xi; Xiang, Qun; Li, Liping; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Hynan, Linda S; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2007-01-01

    A?42 peptide aggregation and deposition is an important component of the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Gene-gun mediated gene vaccination targeting A?42 is a potential method to prevent and treat AD. APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic (Tg) mice were immunized with an A?42 gene construct delivered by the gene gun. The vaccinated mice developed Th2 antibodies (IgG1) against A?42. The A?42 levels in brain were decreased by 41% and increased in plasma 43% in the vaccinated compared with contr...

  7. Prevention, Use of Health Services, and Genes: Implications of Genetics for Policy Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the hypothesis that genetic factors influence the use of health services and prevention behaviors in a national sample of adult twins in the United States. The analysis compares the correlation of these outcomes between identical twins, who share all their genes, to the correlation between nonidentical twins, who share, on average, only one-half of their genes. Because the environmental similarities of twins are assumed to be the same for identical and nonidentical twin pairs, researchers can partition the variance in behavioral outcomes that are due to genetic and environmental factors. Using established methods in this field, we find evidence of significant genetic influences on preferences toward prevention, overall prevention effort, routine checkups, and prescription drug use. Use of curative services does not appear to be influenced by genes. Our findings offer several implications for policymakers and researchers and suggest that genetics could be informative for health services and policy research. PMID:26106669

  8. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions: new insights into the prevention, detection and management of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lanktree, Matthew B.; Hegele, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in identifying loci consistently associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), a large proportion of the genetic components of CAD and its metabolic risk factors, including plasma lipids, type 2 diabetes and body mass index, remain unattributed. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions might produce a meaningful improvement in quantification of the genetic determinants of CAD. Testing for gene-gene and gene-environment ...

  9. Gene-environment interactions in considering physical activity for the prevention of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Alissa Bates

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, ranks as one of the most feared diseases in the world. Similarly, recent studies suggest that AD may be the third leading cause of death in the United States, behind heart disease and cancer. In the absence of a cure or effective treatment, strategies to prevent or delay the onset and progression of the disease are desperately needed. Decades of research have identified key risk and protective factors including genetic polymorphism in the APOE gene, age and lifestyle factors. Physical activity (PA is emerging as an attractive primary prevention strategy. This review will summarise the latest findings supporting the role of physical activity in the prevention of AD, including possible mechanisms and the influence of genetics on disease prevention. Given that AD and other dementias are recognised as a world health priority, public health strategies are needed to incorporate promoting the health benefits of physical activity across the lifespan.

  10. INK4 Family —A promising target for ‘gene-regulating chemoprevention’ and ‘molecular-targeting prevention’ of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaki, Youichirou; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    Inactivation of the p16INK4a gene is one of the most frequent defects that contribute to oncogenesis in human cancer, since it is a tumor-suppressor gene. Therefore, functional restoration of p16INK4a is one of the most effective methods for cancer prevention. We proposed the concept of ‘gene-regulating chemoprevention’ and ‘molecular-targeting prevention’ of cancer, which assumes that transcriptional regulation by drugs on tumor-suppressor genes or functionally similar genes to the tumor-sup...

  11. Gene and Cell Therapies for the Failing Heart to Prevent Sudden Arrhythmic Death

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. Sovari; Samuel C. Dudley

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for treatment and prevention of sudden cardiac death have certain limitations, and a search for new therapeutic approaches is desirable to reduce the burden of sudden arrhythmic death. Gene therapy and stem cell therapy have been investigated as new, valuable tools in treating cardiac diseases such as arrhythmias. In this review, the basics of each modality, important related experimental and clinical studies, and potential advantages and limitations of these treatments will...

  12. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Practice good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. There are number of measures that can be taken to prevent infection with monkeypox virus: Avoid contact with animals that could harbor the ...

  13. Molecular genetic, diagnosis, prevention and gene therapy in prostatic cancer: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Daloii MR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.

  14. Gene-Activation Mechanisms in the Regression of Atherosclerosis, Elimination of Diabetes Type 2, and Prevention of Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Luoma, P.V

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia are major global health problems. Both endogenous and exogenous factors activate genes functioning in biological processes. This review article focuses on gene-activation mechanisms that regress atherosclerosis, eliminate DM type 2 (DM2), and prevent cognitive decline and dementia.

  15. Prevention Effects Moderate the Association of 5-HTTLPR and Youth Risk Behavior Initiation: Gene x Environment Hypotheses Tested via a Randomized Prevention Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Murry, Velma McBride

    2009-01-01

    A randomized prevention design was used to investigate a moderation effect in the association between a polymorphism in the "SCL6A4"("5HTT") gene at 5-HTTLPR and increases in youths' risk behavior initiation. Participation in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program was hypothesized to attenuate the link between 5-HTTLPR status and risk…

  16. Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Nancy B; Flores, Jose J; Martin, Joseph; Ellstrand, Norman C; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Heredia, Sylvia; Welles, Shana R

    2012-06-01

    Maize x Teosinte Hybrid Cobs Do Not Prevent Crop Gene Introgression. Whether introgression from crops to wild relatives can occur is an important component of transgene risk assessment. In the case of maize, which co-occurs with its wild relative teosinte in Mexico, the possibility of introgression has been controversial. Maize is cross-compatible with teosinte, and spontaneous hybridization is known to occur. Some scientists have hypothesized that the maize x teosinte cob infructescence will prevent progeny dispersal, thus preventing introgression. Motivated by a prior study where we found maize x teosinte hybrid fruits naturally dispersed under field conditions, we tested whether hybrid cobs hold their fruits as tightly as maize cobs. We found the force required to detach hybrid fruits was substantially and significantly less than that for maize. Consequently, we expect that introgression of transgenes from maize into teosinte in Mexico should occur largely unimpeded by the hybrid cob.La mazorca o elote híbrido de maíz x teocintle no impide la introgresión de genes transgénicos provenientes del cultivo. La introgresión entre el maíz cultivado y el maíz silvestre, o teocintle, es un componente importante en la evaluación ambiental relacionada con los riesgos de la introducción de genes transgénicos. La posibilidad de introgresión entre el maíz domesticado y el teocintle ha sido un tema controversial, en particular en México, donde maíz y teocintle coexisten. El maíz es compatible con el teocintle y la hibridización espontánea ocurre entre ellos. Algunos científicos han planteado como hipótesis que al cruzar el maíz con teocintle, la estructura interna de la infrutescencia que sujeta los frutos conocida como la mazorca de maíz o el elote, impide la dispersión de la progenie evitando que la introgresión ocurra. Los resultados de un estudio previo evidencian la dispersión de los frutos híbridos del maíz x teocintle en condiciones naturales. Motivados por estos resultados, hemos decidido investigar si la mazorca o el elote de las infrutescencias del híbrido sujetan los frutos con una fuerza comparable o mayor a la del maíz. Nuestras mediciones implican que la fuerza necesaria para liberar los frutos híbridos son substancial y significativamente menores que aquellas necesarias para desprender los frutos del maíz. Como conclusión sugerimos que en México, la mazorca o el elote no representan una barrera que impida la introgresión de los genes transgénicos del maíz al teocintle. PMID:22707759

  17. Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis by gene silencing of Toll-like receptor-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manpreet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis is an early event involved in cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes mellitus. Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling triggers cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. Methods Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic mice were treated with 50 ?g of TLR4 siRNA or scrambled siRNA as control. Myocardial apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Results After 7 days of hyperglycemia, the level of TLR4 mRNA in myocardial tissue was significantly elevated. Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. Apoptosis was evident in cardiac tissues of diabetic mice as detected by a TUNEL assay. In contrast, treatment with TLR4 siRNA minimized apoptosis in myocardial tissues. Mechanistically, caspase-3 activation was significantly inhibited in mice that were treated with TLR4 siRNA, but not in mice treated with control siRNA. Additionally, gene silencing of TLR4 resulted in suppression of apoptotic cascades, such as Fas and caspase-3 gene expression. TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. Conclusions In summary, we present novel evidence that TLR4 plays a critical role in cardiac apoptosis. This is the first demonstration of the prevention of cardiac apoptosis in diabetic mice through silencing of the TLR4 gene.

  18. In Vitro Cultured Rat Islets Express Genes That both Prevent and Promote Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmar L

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endogenous pancreatic islets are supported by a dense sinusoidal capillary system which is disrupted following isolation and culture in vitro. A rapid and accurate revascularization is therefore crucial for the survival and functioning of the transplanted islet. Although a blood flow is established in islet grafts within 1-2 weeks, these islets show poor development of intra-islet capillaries. To improve the revascularization process and the arrangement of the new blood vessels, islet production of the factors governing these processes needs to be further characterized. OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of factors which regulate angiogenesis in cultured rat islets. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat islets were isolated and cultured for one week. After 6 hours of exposure to normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions, mRNA expression was evaluated by the GEArray Angiogenesis 1 and 2 systems. The expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 1 (Tie1 and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF, was further evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: We found the expression of 19 genes that code for factors either promoting or preventing angiogenesis. Only VEGF and Tie1 were upregulated in response to hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia-induced islet vascularization may involve VEGF and Tie-induced signaling events. The results also show that cultured islets express genes which prevent angiogenesis concurrently with genes coding for factors stimulating angiogenesis. The balance between these factors is probably of vital importance for the revascularization process in transplanted islets. Thus, pharmacologic or genetic attenuation of islet-derived angiostatic factors may prove beneficial in promoting islet revascularization in future transplantation trials.

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants...... past few years, including the hygiene theory, the role of bacterial gut flora, and the potential effect of different cytokines in breast milk. Although interesting, these are mainly speculations based on non-interventional and often retrospective/cross-sectional studies including small study......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  20. Chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT): novel combinatorial approach for preventing and treating pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Azab, B M; Das, S K; Quinn, B A; Shen, X; Dash, R; Emdad, L; Thomas, S; Dasgupta, S; Su, Z-Z; Wang, X-Y; Sarkar, D; Fisher, P B

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest of all cancers despite aggressive surgical treatment combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemoresistance and radioresistance are the principal causes of failure of pancreatic cancer patients to respond to therapy. Conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA)-based cancer gene therapy is an innovative strategy for treating cancers displaying inherent resistance to treatment. Limitations of current adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specificity, and effective and targeted delivery. To remedy this situation, CRCAs have been designed that express E1A, necessary for Ad replication, under the control of a cancer-specific progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) with concomitant expression of an immunomodulatory cytokine, such as mda-7/IL-24 or interferon-? (IFN-?), under the control of a ubiquitous and strong cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV-Prom) from the E3 region. These bipartite CRCAs, when armed with a transgene, are called cancer terminator viruses (CTVs), i.e., Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-mda-7 (CTV-M7) and Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-IFN-? (CTV-?), because of their universal effectiveness in cancer treatment irrespective of p53/pRb/p16 or other genetic alterations in tumor cells. In addition to their selective oncolytic effects in tumor cells, the potent 'bystander antitumor' properties of MDA-7/IL-24 and IFN-? embody the CTVs with expanded treatment properties for both primary and distant cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells display a "translational block" of mda-7/IL-24 mRNA, limiting production of MDA-7/IL-24 protein and cancer-specific apoptosis. Specific chemopreventive agents abrogate this "translational block" resulting in pancreatic cancer-specific killing. This novel chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) strategy holds promise for both prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancers where all other strategies have proven ineffective. PMID:23157679

  1. Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho-Lea Tso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC, a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers.

  2. Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazunari; Tso, Jonathan; Ye, Fei; Choe, Jinny; Liu, Yue [Department of Surgery/Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 13-260 Factor building, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liau, Linda M. [Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Tso, Cho-Lea, E-mail: ctso@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Surgery/Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, 13-260 Factor building, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2011-04-18

    Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV) is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC), a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers.

  3. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns

  4. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  5. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  6. Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RolandW.Herzog

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.

  7. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  8. Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M. Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2014-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. PMID:24556215

  9. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28?g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3?g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12?ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns. PMID:22666778

  10. Does R gene resistance allow wheat to prevent plant growth effects associated with Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K G; Harris, M O

    2006-10-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) are an important part of the plant's immune system. Among insects, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), larva is the target of the greatest number of characterized R genes (H1-H32). The biochemical/molecular mechanism of R gene resistance to Hessian fly is not well understood. In the absence of an effective R gene, larvae caused extensive growth deficits (> 30 cm) in wheat seedlings. In the presence of one of three effective R genes, H6, H9, or H13, larvae caused small growth deficits (approximately 3-4 cm) in two leaves (third and fourth) that were actively growing during the first days of larval attack. After larvae died on R gene plants, the fifth leaf and tiller leaves exhibited small increases in growth (2-4 cm). Growth responses of susceptible and resistant plants diverged at a time when Hessian fly larvae were establishing a nutritive gall tissue at feeding sites. The results of this study support the hypothesis that R gene resistance cannot prevent initial larval attack, but, by stopping the formation of the larval gall, it prevents the most serious consequences of larval attack. PMID:17066821

  11. Intermittent or Continuous Acetylsalicylic Acid and Gene Expression in the Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II clinical trial studies the safety and effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) taken continuously or intermittently on gene expression in the nasal tissue of current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Acetylsalicylic acid may be useful in preventing lung cancer.

  12. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  13. (PQB-3) Driver gene-induced inflammation in pancreatic cancer development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  14. Translating gene-calcium interactions to precision medicine for colorectal cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  15. Effect of Chemical Prevention Drugs-based MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes ?on Tumor Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui JIANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive drugs including natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs, it not only can prevent cancer, can also play a role in tumor treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a kind of short chains of non-coding RNA, regulating the expression of many genes through the way of degradation of mRNA or inhibitting mRNA translation. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that chemopreventive drugs through influence the expression of miRNAs and their target genes play a role in the prevention and treatment in a variety of tumors, and chemopreventive drugs on the experimental study of miRNAs and their target genes in tumor have demonstrated a good safety and efficacy. Effect on chemopreventive drugs-based microRNAs and their target genes into cancer cells will be expected as a new starting point for cancer research. The thesis expounds and analyzes between the natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs and miRNAs and their target genes in tumor research progress.

  16. [Effect of Chemical Prevention Drugs-based MicroRNAs and Their Target Genes on Tumor Inhibition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Song, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Chemopreventive drugs including natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs, it not only can prevent cancer, can also play a role in tumor treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is a kind of short chains of non-coding RNA, regulating the expression of many genes through the way of degradation of mRNA or inhibitting mRNA translation. In recent years, more and more studies have shown that chemopreventive drugs through influence the expression of miRNAs and their target genes play a role in the prevention and treatment in a variety of tumors, and chemopreventive drugs on the experimental study of miRNAs and their target genes in tumor have demonstrated a good safety and efficacy. Effect on chemopreventive drugs-based microRNAs and their target genes into cancer cells will be expected as a new starting point for cancer research. The thesis expounds and analyzes between the natural chemopreventive drugs and synthetic chemopreventive drugs and miRNAs and their target genes in tumor research progress. PMID:25936887

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Two Serial Gene Expression Experiments | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart G. Baker, 2014 Introduction This program fits biologically relevant response curves in comparative analysis of the two gene expression experiments involving same genes but under different scenarios and at least 12 responses. The program outputs gene pairs with biologically relevant response curve shapes including flat, linear, sigmoid, hockey stick, impulse and step curves. |

  18. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  19. Administration of Mycobacterium leprae rHsp65 Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Marengo, Eliana B.; Commodaro, Alessandra Gonçalves; Jean Pierre S. Peron; de Moraes, Luciana V.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Belfort, Rubens; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto

    2009-01-01

    The 60kDa heat shock protein family, Hsp60, constitutes an abundant and highly conserved class of molecules that are highly expressed in chronic-inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Experimental autoimmune uveitis [EAU] is a T cell mediated intraocular inflammatory disease that resembles human uveitis. Mycobacterial and homologous Hsp60 peptides induces uveitis in rats, however their participation in aggravating the disease is poorly known. We here evaluate the effects of the Mycobacterium ...

  20. Gene transfection mediated by polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol nanocarrier prevents cisplatin-induced spiral ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-gui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethyleneimine-polyethylene glycol (PEI-PEG, a novel nanocarrier, has been used for transfection and gene therapy in a variety of cells. In our previous study, we successfully carried out PEI-PEG-mediated gene transfer in spiral ganglion cells. It remains unclear whether PEI-PEG could be used for gene therapy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP in the inner ear. In the present study, we performed PEI-PEG-mediated XIAP gene transfection in the cochlea of Sprague-Dawley rats, via scala tympani fenestration, before daily cisplatin injections. Auditory brainstem reflex tests demonstrated the protective effects of XIAP gene therapy on auditory function. Immunohistochemical staining revealed XIAP protein expression in the cytoplasm of cells in the spiral ganglion, the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. Reverse transcription-PCR detected high levels of XIAP mRNA expression in the cochlea. The present findings suggest that PEI-PEG nanocarrier-mediated XIAP gene transfection results in XIAP expression in the cochlea, prevents damage to cochlear spiral ganglion cells, and protects hearing.

  1. Gene therapy for haemophilia: Prospects and challenges to prevent or reverse inhibitor formation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, David W.; Lozier, Jay Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Monogenic hereditary diseases, such as haemophilia A and B, are ideal targets for gene therapeutic approaches. While these diseases can be treated with protein therapeutics, such as factor VIII (F8) or IX (F9), the notion that permanent transfer of the genes encoding these factors can cure haemophilia is very attractive. An underlying problem with a gene therapy approach, however, is the patient’s immune response to the therapeutic protein (as well as to the transmission vector), leading to t...

  2. Simple and Flexible Classification of Gene Expression Microarrays Via Swirls and Ripples | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Stuart G. Baker The program requires Mathematica 7.01.0 The key function is Classify [datalist,options] where datalist={data, genename, dataname} data ={matrix for class 0, matrix for class 1}, matrix is gene expression by specimen genename a list of names of genes, dataname ={name of data set, name of class0, name of class1} |

  3. Cytokine gene expression in the BB rat pancreas: natural course and impact of bacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, H; Wörz-Pagenstert, U; Kleemann, R; Rothe, H; Rowsell, P; Scott, F W

    1996-12-01

    In diabetes prone BB rat pancreas the Th1/ Th2 cytokine balance and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by mRNA analysis before and after the onset of insulitis. Specific mRNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, quantitated with radiolabelled probes by phosphoimaging and calibrated with the amount of co-amplified beta-actin mRNA. At 50 days of age, prior to recognizable insulitis, there was already significantly enhanced expression of both, Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and of iNOS mRNA, when compared to Wistar rat pancreas (p OM-89, an endotoxin free extract containing immunostimulatory glycolipopeptides and heat shock protein (hsp) 65, both downregulated IFN gamma mRNA while only OM-89 in addition suppressed iNOS mRNA and enhanced Th2 cytokine gene expression (p OM-89) from E. coli. PMID:8960825

  4. Gene–environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffee, SR; Price, TS

    2007-01-01

    Family studies have demonstrated genetic influences on environmental exposure: the phenomenon of gene–environment correlation (rGE). A few molecular genetic studies have confirmed the results, but the identification of rGE in studies that measure genes and environments faces several challenges. Using examples from studies in psychology and psychiatry, we integrate the behavioral and molecular genetic literatures on rGE, describe challenges in identifying rGE and discuss the implications of mo...

  5. Local Gene Transfer of OPG Prevents Joint Damage and Disease Progression in Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingguo; Gong, Weiming; Ning, Bin; Nie, Lin; Wooley, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene transfer on a murine collagen-induced arthritis model. A single periarticular injection of AAV-OPG or AAV-LacZ on the arthritic paw successfully incorporated the exogenous gene to the local tissue and resulted in marked transgene expression in the joint homogenate for at least three weeks. Clinical disease scores were significantly improved in OPG treated mice starting at 28-day post-treatment (P < 0.05). Histological assessment demonstrated that OPG gene transfer dramatically protected mice from erosive joint changes compared with LacZ controls (P < 0.05), although treatment appeared less effective on the local inflammatory progress. MicroCT data suggested significant protection against subchondral bone mineral density changes in OPG treated CIA mice. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of IFN-g and MMP3 were noticeably diminished following OPG gene transfer. Overall, gene transfer of OPG effectively inhibited the arthritis-associated periarticular bone erosion and preserved the architecture of arthritic joints, and the study provides evidence that the cartilage protection of the OPG gene therapy may be associated with the down-regulation of MMP3 expression. PMID:24222748

  6. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L; Bouckenooghe, T; Theys, N; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Remacle, C; Nerup, J

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation is...... gene expression in fetal islets affected by the LP diet and how taurine may prevent these changes. Methods  Pregnant Wistar rats were fed an LP diet (8% [wt/wt] protein) supplemented or not with taurine in the drinking water or a control diet (20% [wt/wt] protein). At 21.5 days of gestation, fetal...... cell proliferation and defence. Maternal taurine supplementation normalised the expression of all altered genes. Conclusions/interpretation  Development of the beta cells and particularly their respiration is modulated by the intrauterine environment, which may epigenetically modify expression of the...

  7. Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzana, Makpol; Azalina, Zainuddin; Kien Hui, Chua; Yasmin Anum Mohd, Yusof; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms o [...] f these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

  8. Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

  9. Binding of carbonic anhydrase IX to 45S rDNA genes is prevented by exportin-1 in hypoxic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Emanuele; Vitale, Monica; Monteleone, Francesca; Boffo, Francesca Ludovica; Santoriello, Margherita; Sarnataro, Daniela; Garbi, Corrado; Sabatella, Mariangela; Crifò, Bianca; Paolella, Luca Alfredo; Minopoli, Giuseppina; Winum, Jean-Yves; Zambrano, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a surrogate marker of hypoxia, involved in survival and pH regulation in hypoxic cells. We have recently characterized its interactome, describing a set of proteins interacting with CA IX, mainly in hypoxic cells, including several members of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling apparatuses. Accordingly, we described complex subcellular localization for this enzyme in human cells, as well as the redistribution of a carbonic anhydrase IX pool to nucleoli during hypoxia. Starting from this evidence, we analyzed the possible contribution of carbonic anhydrase IX to transcription of the 45 S rDNA genes, a process occurring in nucleoli. We highlighted the binding of carbonic anhydrase IX to nucleolar chromatin, which is regulated by oxygen levels. In fact, CA IX was found on 45 S rDNA gene promoters in normoxic cells and less represented on these sites, in hypoxic cells and in cells subjected to acetazolamide-induced acidosis. Both conditions were associated with increased representation of carbonic anhydrase IX/exportin-1 complexes in nucleoli. 45 S rRNA transcript levels were accordingly downrepresented. Inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B suggests a model in which exportin-1 acts as a decoy, in hypoxic cells, preventing carbonic anhydrase IX association with 45 S rDNA gene promoters. PMID:25793203

  10. The Polycomb group gene Ezh2 prevents hematopoietic stem cell exhaustion

    OpenAIRE

    Kamminga, Leonie M.; Bystrykh, Leonid V.; de Boer, Aletta; Houwer, Sita; Douma, José; Weersing, Ellen; Dontje, Bert; de Haan, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible for a decline of stem cell functioning after replicative stress remains unknown. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to identify genes involved in the process of cellular aging. In proliferating and senescent MEFs one of the most differentially expressed transcripts was Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a Polycomb group protein (PcG) involved in histone methylation and deacetylation. Retroviral overexpression of ...

  11. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult...

  12. Three-Parent IVF: Gene Replacement for the Prevention of Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Paula; Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a significant cause of a number of serious multi-organ diseases. Tissues with a high metabolic demand such as brain, heart, muscle, CNS are often affected. Mitochondrial disease can be due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial function. There is no curative treatment for patients with mitochondrial disease. Given the lack of treatments and the limitations of prenatal and preimplantation diagnosi...

  13. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.S., Higa; F.C., Bergamo; F., Mazzucatto; M.H., Fonseca-Alaniz; F.S., Evangelista.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained seden [...] tary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P

  14. Implications of Gene–Behavior Interactions: Prevention and Intervention for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Molly S

    2008-01-01

    A vast body of research exists to demonstrate that obesity is a complex disorder with a strong genetic basis and a multifactorial etiology. Yet despite the overwhelming evidence that genes play an important role in the development of obesity, many people argue that the increasing prevalence of obesity is simply due to an abundance of palatable food and a dearth of opportunities for physical exercise. While activity and eating behaviors contribute substantially to the development of obesity, c...

  15. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, T.S.; F.C. Bergamo; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT ...

  16. Gene flow in poplar - experiments, analysis and modeling to prevent transgene outcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bialozyt R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy and forestry products is globally increasing, raising the question if traditional breeding programs are efficient and fast enough to keep up with these demands. A possible solution seems to be the use of genetic engineering techniques, since classical breeding strategies are time-consuming and limited by species barriers. Besides the advantages of genetic engineering technologies, concerns are also raised by scientists regarding these methods. Consequently, risk analysis of genetic modified trees in plantation forestry is a fundamental research topic. This paper presents a sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modified poplars in realistic European landscapes. All steps are evaluated for their potential to forecast the risk of outcrossing of gene constructs into native po­pulations. The application of the results achieved to short rotation plantations are discussed.

  17. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  18. Replicative Stress and the FHIT Gene: Roles in Tumor Suppression, Genome Stability and Prevention of Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fragile FHIT gene, encompassing the chromosomal fragile site FRA3B, is an early target of DNA damage in precancerous cells. While vulnerable to DNA damage itself, FHIT protein expression is essential to protect from DNA damage-induced cancer initiation and progression by modulating genome stability, oxidative stress and levels of accumulating DNA damage. Thus, FHIT, whose expression is lost or reduced in many human cancers, is a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker whose loss initiates genome instability in preneoplastic lesions. Ongoing studies are seeking more detailed understanding of the role of FHIT in the cellular response to oxidative damage. This review discusses the relationship between FHIT, reactive oxygen species production, and DNA damage in the context of cancer initiation and progression

  19. Prevention of PDT-induced esophageal stricture by MnSOD-PL gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is currently being used to treat esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus. PDT is very promising except that it results in a high rate of esophageal stricture. The clinical protocol involves the injection of Photofrin into the patient followed 48 hours later with a laser treatment of 630 nm of light. At this wavelength Photofrin reacts with the light and results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. To determine if MnSOD-PL prevents esophageal stricture we developed a pig model. Pigs (20 kg outbred female) were injected intravenously with Photofrin (2 mg/kg) and an endoscope was placed into the esophagus where MnSOD-PL (10 mg plasmid DNA) was administered at the site of PDT treatment. Control pigs received Photofrin only. Twenty-four hours later an endoscope was placed into the esophagus and the laser inserted through the endoscope to 10 cm above the GE junction where 400 Joules of light were administered to the esophagus. A second PDT treatment of 400 Joules was given 48 hours later. The pigs were followed for development of esophageal stricture as determined by a 10% weight loss, an endoscopic exam demonstrating esophageal stricture, and an x-ray following barium swallow. Upon detection of esophageal stricture, the pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed and pathological examination performed. By 14-21 days all control pigs developed esophageal stricture while pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged survival for at least 6 weeks after injection of MnSOD-PL. At this time, the MnSOD-PL-injected pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed from each animal and examined for the development of esophageal stricture. No esophageal stricture was detected by x-ray following barium swallow, endoscopic exam or pathological examination in esophagus samples from MnSOD-PL treated pigs. Results of these experiments demonstrate that MnSOD-PL may be effective in preventing normal esophageal tissue damage by PDT

  20. In vitro study of Smad 7 gene therapy for preventing radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study whether the expression Smad 7 protein by the recombinant adenovirus with Egr-1 promoter and Smad 7 cDNA in fibroblast cell can block the signal transduction pathway of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) under irradiation thereby inhibiting collagen synthesis in vitro. Methods: The location of endogenous Smad 7 and exogenous Smad 7 protein in recombinant adenovirus infected fibroblast cells (3T6) were determined by immunocytochemical method. The infected 3T6 cells were irradiated and then cultured with TGF-?1 4 hours after irradiation. The activity of preventing radiation-induced fibrosis by expression Smad 7 protein was evaluated by the amount of collagen synthesis and proliferation of 3T6 cells. The amount of collagen synthesis was shown by the coruscant per minute (cmp) through the 3H-Proline incorporation technique. Results: The endogenous Smad 7 and exogenous Smad 7 protein both were located in the cytoplasm. When cultured with TGF-?1 4 hours after irradiation, the amount of collagen synthesis in the 3T6 cells infected with the recombinant adenovirus was significantly less than that in the cells without infecting adenovirus after irradiation (P=0.001), But, there was no difference in the proliferation of 3T6 cells between those with and without adenovirus infection (P=0.312). Conclusions: The Egr-1 promoter in the recombinant adenovirus can regulate the expression of downstream Smad 7 cDNA in 3T6 cells. The expression Smad 7 protein could block the TGF-?1 signal transduction pathway thereby inhibiting the collagen synthesis. The mechanism of inhibiting the collagen synthesis may be accomplished at the transcription level. (authors)

  1. Study of the gyrB gene polymorphism as a tool to differentiate among Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies further underlines the older evolutionary age of 'Mycobacterium canettii'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khye Seng; Fabre, Michel; Huard, Richard C; Schmid, Solveig; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of hsp65 and gyrB targets for differentiation of the species within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) both by including new restriction enzymes and previously unstudied species. The hsp65 restriction analysis using HhaI resulted in a characteristic 'Mycobacterium canettii' pattern. A study of the gyrB gene polymorphism using TaqIalpha and HinfI allowed the initial division of MTC into two major groups, one consisting of M. tuberculosis and 'M. canettii' as opposed to another single group with other species. Three different patterns were observed with RsaI, the first characteristic of Mycobacterium microti, the second with Mycobacterium bovis, M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae was easily separated from M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG by SacII digestion), and the third with M. tuberculosis, 'M. canettii', Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, and the dassie bacillus. Although further discrimination within the last group was not obtained using additional restriction enzymes, the HaeIII and RsaI digestions highlighted an important gyrB polymorphism among 'M. canettii' strains. A study of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the gyrB by sequence analysis not only confirmed the results of the restriction analysis, but showed further differences among 'M. canettii' isolates that were not picked up using the existing battery of restriction enzymes. As many as 11 different SNPs were identified in the collection of eight 'M. canettii' isolates studied. Considering that gyrB variability among MTC member species other than 'M. canettii' is as restricted as hsp65 variability among MTC, our data corroborate a recent proposition that the 'M. canettii' group is evolutionary much older than the other MTC members. In conclusion, gyrB PCR-RFLP is a simple and rapid low-cost method that combined with phenotypic characteristics, may be helpful to differentiate most of the subspecies within the MTC. PMID:16517119

  2. Prevention of gene erosion of old wheat varieties by back-crossing and X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The famous old Tisza riverside wheat varieties have several characteristics which are very valuable in modern plant breeding, the most important being their high protein content. The recently cultivated varieties contain 13-14%, whereas the old ones had 17-18% protein. Their winter hardiness and baking quality are also outstanding. Their preservation in the original form is very difficult. The fact that many thousand collected forms are sown in small plots (1-2m2) in the Agrobotanical Institute, Tapioszele, facilitates biological and man-caused accidental mixing. If the height of the old varieties is decreased and their stalk strength increased, varieties with high practical value are obtained. One way to breed dwarf varieties has been by back-crossing, as was done with Ble Tom, Norins, Oleson, etc. Another way has been by X-ray irradiation (10kR treatment for dry seeds). With this method a new homozygote dwarf (70-90cm) form of Bankuti 1201 was bred. The new mutant has almost all the characteristics of Bankuti 1201, but its stalk is shorter by 50-70cm than that of the original one. At the same time the disease resistance (stem rust and mildew) of the dwarf form is usually better than that of the old tall types. It seems that one of the most modern ways to prevent gene-erosion is through this type of ''transformation''. (author)

  3. Low-level laser therapy effectively prevents secondary brain injury induced by immediate early responsive gene X-1 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Chang; Hamblin, Michael R; Wu, Mei X

    2014-01-01

    A mild insult to the brain can sometimes trigger secondary brain injury, causing severe postconcussion syndrome, but the underlying mechanism is ill understood. We show here that secondary brain injury occurs consistently in mice lacking immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1), after a gentle impact to the head, which closely simulates mild traumatic brain injury in humans. The pathologic lesion was characterized by extensive cell death, widespread leukocyte infiltrates, and severe tissue loss. On the contrary, a similar insult did not induce any secondary injury in wild-type mice. Strikingly, noninvasive exposure of the injured head to a low-level laser at 4 hours after injury almost completely prevented the secondary brain injury in IEX-1 knockout mice. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) suppressed proinflammatory cytokine expression like interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 but upregulated TNF-?. Moreover, although lack of IEX-1 compromised ATP synthesis, LLLT elevated its production in injured brain. The protective effect of LLLT may be ascribed to enhanced ATP production and selective modulation of proinflammatory mediators. This new closed head injury model provides an excellent tool to investigate the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury as well as the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of LLLT. PMID:24849666

  4. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these in most developed countries is through a mixture of management and therapy. The former requires knowledge and considerable local understanding and the latter resources and supplies. Both of these are limited in the developing country situation, particularly in a rural setting. Given this complex of challenges, can gene-based technologies really make a difference to the management of livestock disease for the producer in developing countries? To be effective in the developing country situation, any intervention must be relatively simple, cost effective, sustainable and convincing. Can this be delivered? Perhaps an insight can be gained from an appreciation of the fundamental nature of gene-based technologies. Inherent in the approach is the recognition that the gene is the basic building block of biology. Management and manipulation of the gene therefore enables us to design and direct an endless array of precise solutions, whether this be designer livestock, genetically engineered biological products or genetically altered organisms. Without doubt, the availability of livestock resistant to disease, or at least one or two of the major diseases affecting livestock in a particular region, is a simple and applicable solution to the developing country situation. Attempts to understand the genetic basis of trypanotolerence are still on-going but if successful would enable livestock production in large areas of Africa currently restricted by the presence of trypanosomosis. Another example would be the demonstration of resistance to internal parasites by certain breeds of sheep. Locating the genetic basis of this could be revolutionary in the management of this particular disease risk. As work starts on sequencing both the bovine and the ovine genome, the future opportunities for designing livestock resistant or tolerant to a range of diseases looks highly promising. Looking at the causative agents of livestock disease, the ability to exquisitely alter these to better understand the way they cause disease is providing a fast track to developing ways of control or eradication. For example identifying the gene coding for a protein that allows cell attachment would permit genetic engineering to delete this gene from a particular disease causing organism. This could then form the basis of a vaccine that is safe but highly efficacious. Even more exquisite is the incorporation of this particular gene into another carrier such as harmless virus, bacteria or other similar organism. The expression of the protein can then be used to evoke an immune response in a susceptible host without any risk of disease. Many groups around the world are currently exploring these concepts for a wide range of causative agents and a variety of different expression systems. All the above is already feasible but not without problems. Firstly and perhaps foremost, the acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by consumers is far from complete. Considerable debate has taken place in the plant industry and whilst partially applicable to animals, the issues are dissimilar in many areas. In developed countries a great deal of research is taking place in this area but it is still unclear how well the consumer will accept genetically modified animals as a food source, or products from animals protected by genetically engineered vaccines

  5. Disruption of the ECM33 Gene in Candida albicans Prevents Biofilm Formation, Engineered Human Oral Mucosa Tissue Damage and Gingival Cell Necrosis/Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Witold Chmielewski; Pranab Mukherjee; Jyotsna Chandra; Abdelhabib Semlali; Mahmoud Rouabhia

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that ΔCaecm33 double mutant showed reduced biofilm formation and causes less damage to gingival mucosa tissues. This was confirmed by the reduced level of necrotic cells and Bax/Bcl2 gene expression as apoptotic markers. In contrast, parental and Caecm33 mutant strains decreased basement membrane protein production (laminin 5 and type IV collagen). We thus propose that ECM33 gene/protein represents a novel target for the prevention and treatment of infections cau...

  6. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method. Venous blood t-PA and D-dimer contents were tested before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the operation.Results: The high expression of t-PA could be seen in myocardium with increases in blood t-PA and D-dimer contents and thrombosis was prevented 8 weeks after operation.Conclusion: We successfully fabricated an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent that could prevent dog thrombosis after mechanical heart valve replacement. Our study provides an experimental basis for prevention of human thrombosis-related diseases.Keywords: albumin nanoparticles, ultrasonic microbubbles, valve replacement

  7. Safety and efficacy of ALD403, an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Lipton, Richard B; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud; Wilks, Kerri; Kudrow, David; Kroll, Robin; Kohrman, Bruce; Bargar, Robert; Hirman, Joe; Smith, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is crucial in the pathophysiology of migraine. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ALD403, a genetically engineered humanised anti-CGRP antibody, for migraine prevention. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory, proof-of-concept phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-55 years with five to 14 migraine days per 28-day period were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive web response system to receive...

  8. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. l-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to l-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received l-NAME adm...

  9. Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauman William A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked changes in the expression of genes regulating transcription and intracellular signaling may contribute to the time-dependent effects of nandrolone on gene expression.

  10. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Citrulline Supplementation on Renal Transcriptome Prevention of Nitric Oxide Depletion-Related Programmed Hypertension: The Impact of Gene-Nutrient Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. l-citrulline (CIT can be converted to l-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO. We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received l-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% l-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, l-NAME, and l-NAME + CIT. l-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in l-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification.

  11. Long-term effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on renal transcriptome prevention of nitric oxide depletion-related programmed hypertension: the impact of gene-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. L-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to L-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received L-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% L-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, L-NAME, and L-NAME + CIT. L-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in L-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification. PMID:25517031

  12. Human intestinal microbiota gene risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: perspectives for prevention. Risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. : Diarrhea risk prediction from microbiota genes

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cochetière, Marie France; Montassier, Emmanuel; Hardouin, Jean-Benoît; Carton, Thomas; Le Vacon, Françoise; Durand, Tony; Lalande, Valérie; Petit, Jean-Claude; Potel, Gilles; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is associated with altered intestinal microflora and other symptoms that may lead to possibly death. In critically ill patients, diarrhea increases rates of morbimortality. Assessing diarrhea risks is thus important for clinicians. For this reason, we conducted a hypothesis-generating study focused on AAD to provide insight into methods of prevention. We evaluated the hypothesis of predisposing factors within the resident intestinal microbiota in a cohort ...

  13. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of 100K gene of fowl adenovirus-4 for prevention and control of hydropericardium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M S; Ashraf, A; Khan, M I; Rahman, M; Habib, M; Qureshi, J A

    2016-01-01

    Fowl adenovirus-4 is an infectious agent causing Hydropericardium syndrome in chickens. Adenovirus are non-enveloped virions having linear, double stranded DNA. Viral genome codes for few structural and non structural proteins. 100K is an important non-structural viral protein. Open reading frame for coding sequence of 100K protein was cloned with oligo histidine tag and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein. Nucleotide sequence of the gene revealed that 100K gene of FAdV-4 has high homology (98%) with the respective gene of FAdV-10. Recombinant 100K protein was expressed in E. coli and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. Immunization of chickens with recombinant 100K protein elicited significant serum antibody titers. However challenge protection test revealed that 100K protein conferred little protection (40%) to the immunized chicken against pathogenic viral challenge. So it was concluded that 100K gene has 2397 bp length and recombinant 100K protein has molecular weight of 95 kDa. It was also found that the recombinant protein has little capacity to affect the immune response because in-spite of having an important role in intracellular transport & folding of viral capsid proteins during viral replication, it is not exposed on the surface of the virus at any stage. PMID:26558992

  14. Regulations of Gene Expression in Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells Required for Preventing the Onset of Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Taishin; Shinzawa, Miho; Qin, Junwen; Akiyama, Nobuko

    2013-01-01

    Elimination of potential self-reactive T cells in the thymus is crucial for preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases. Epithelial cell subsets localized in thymic medulla [medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)] contribute to this process by supplying a wide range of self-antigens that are otherwise expressed in a tissue-specific manner (TSAs). Expression of some TSAs in mTECs is controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, of which dysfunctional mutations are the causative fac...

  15. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  16. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen Monica; do Nascimento Claudia; Ribeiro Eliane; Biz Carolina; de Oliveira Cristiane; Pinto Mônica; de Mattos Ana; Tufik Sergio; Oyama Lila

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PS...

  17. Analysis of the Ketosynthase Genes in Streptomyces and Its Implications for Preventing Reinvestigation of Polyketides with Bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Liu; Changjian Liu; Jicheng Yu; Jianfang Yan; Xiaohui Qi

    2012-01-01

    Cucumber wilt by Fusarium oxysporium f sp. cucumarinum is one of the most important soil-borne diseases. Among control strategies for plant soil-borne pathogen, biocontrol systems eliminate neither pathogen nor disease but bring them into natural balance. Polyketides form the largest part of the known natural products, and most of them come from actinomycetes especially streptomyces. Analysis for the ketosynthase genes in streptomyces can implicate new polyketides. In the course of the screen...

  18. Transfected Early Growth Response Gene-1 DNA Enzyme Prevents Stenosis and Occlusion of Autogenous Vein Graft In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Chengwei Liu; Xuesong Zhang; Shi Wang; Mingxun Cheng; Chuanyu Liu; Shuqing Wang; Xinhua Hu; Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the inhibitory action of the early growth response gene-1 DNA enzyme (EDRz) as a carrying agent by liposomes on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. An autogenous vein graft model was established. EDRz was transfected to the graft vein. The vein graft samples were obtained on each time point after surgery. The expression of the EDRz transfected in the vein graft was detected using a fluorescent microscope. Early growth response...

  19. GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pickart

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+ improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity.

  20. Kruppel-like Factor 4 (Klf4) Prevents Embryonic Stem (ES) Cell Differentiation by Regulating Nanog Gene Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peilin; Andrianakos, Rose; Yang, Yang; Liu, Chunming; Lu, Wange

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is essential for somatic cell reprogramming. In addition, Klf4 seems to play a redundant role along with other Klf family proteins in embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal. However, how Klf4 regulates ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is still poorly understood. Here we report that Klf4 is required for both ES cell self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency and that the expression of Klf4 prevents ES cell differentiation in...

  1. AAV8-Mediated Gene Transfer of Interleukin-4 to Endogenous ?-Cells Prevents the Onset of Diabetes in NOD Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Khaja K.; Trucco, Massimo; Wang, Zhong; Xiao, Xiao; Robbins, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intra-peritoneal delivery of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) stably transduces the pancreas, including the ?-cells in the endogenous islets. We also demonstrated the ability to deliver and express genes specifically in ?-cells for at least 6 months using a murine insulin promoter (mIP) in a double-stranded, self-complementary AAV vector (dsAAV8-mIP). Here we evaluated the effects of dsAAV8-mIP mediated delivery of interleukin 4 (mIL-4) to endogenous ?-...

  2. AHR2 knockdown prevents PAH-mediated cardiac toxicity and XRE- and ARE-associated gene induction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants often present in aquatic systems as complex mixtures. Embryonic fish are sensitive to the developmental toxicity of some PAHs, but the exact mechanisms involved in this toxicity are still unknown. This study explored the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the oxidative stress response of zebrafish to the embryotoxicity of select PAHs. Embryos were exposed to two PAHs, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF; a strong AHR agonist) and fluoranthene (FL; a cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inhibitor), alone and in combination. CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and redox-responsive genes glutathione s-transferase pi 2 (GSTp2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc), MnSOD and CuZnSOD mRNA expression was examined. CYP1 activity was measured via an in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethlyase (EROD) activity assay, and the area of the pericardium was measured as an index of cardiotoxicity. BkF or FL alone caused no deformities whereas BkF + FL resulted in extreme pericardial effusion. BkF induced CYP activity above controls and co-exposure with FL inhibited this activity. BkF induced expression of all three CYPs, GSTp2, and GCLc. BkF + FL caused greater than additive induction of the three CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc but had no effect on MnSOD or CuZnSOD. AHR2 knockdown protected against the cardiac deformities caused by BkF + FL and significantly inhibited the induction of the CYPs, GSTp2, GPx1, and GCLc after BkF + FL compared to non-injected controls. These results further show the protective role of AHR2 knockdown against cardiotoxic PAHs and the role of AHR2 as a mediator of redox-responsive gene induction. - Research Highlights: ? Co-exposure of the PAHs BkF and FL causes cardiotoxicity in zebrafish. ? BkF and FL co-exposure upregulates certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes. ? AHR2 knockdown prevents the deformities caused by BkF and FL co-exposure. ? AHR2 knockdown prevents upregulation of certain XRE- and ARE-associated genes.

  3. Wnt/?-catenin pathway regulates MGMT gene expression in cancer and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickström, Malin; Dyberg, Cecilia; Milosevic, Jelena; Einvik, Christer; Calero, Raul; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Sandén, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Kool, Marcel; Kogner, Per; Baryawno, Ninib; Johnsen, John Inge

    2015-01-01

    The DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is commonly overexpressed in cancers and is implicated in the development of chemoresistance. The use of drugs inhibiting MGMT has been hindered by their haematologic toxicity and inefficiency. As a different strategy to inhibit MGMT we investigated cellular regulators of MGMT expression in multiple cancers. Here we show a significant correlation between Wnt signalling and MGMT expression in cancers with different origin and confirm the findings by bioinformatic analysis and immunofluorescence. We demonstrate Wnt-dependent MGMT gene expression and cellular co-localization between active ?-catenin and MGMT. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Wnt activity downregulates MGMT expression and restores chemosensitivity of DNA-alkylating drugs in mouse models. These findings have potential therapeutic implications for chemoresistant cancers, especially of brain tumours where the use of temozolomide is frequently used in treatment. PMID:26603103

  4. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 158 gene disruption prevents the body weight gain and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nozaki, Yuriko; Nishizuka, Makoto; Ikawa, Masahito; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, we previously isolated a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 158, whose expression was induced during the earliest stages of adipogenesis, and its product was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. We found that the knockdown of fad158 expression prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In addition, over-expression of fad158 promoted the differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells, which do not usually differentiate into adipocytes. Although these findings strongly suggest that fad158 has a crucial role in regulating adipocyte differentiation, the physiological role of the gene is still unclear. In this study, we generated mice in which fad158 expression was deleted. The fad158-deficient mice did not show remarkable changes in body weight or the weight of white adipose tissue on a chow diet, but had significantly lower body weights and fat mass than wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, although the disruption of fad158 did not influence insulin sensitivity on the chow diet, it improved insulin resistance induced by the high-fat diet. These results indicate that fad158 is a key factor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet. PMID:21804215

  5. Inactivation of the rhlA gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa prevents rhamnolipid production, disabling the protection against polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise Dahl

    2009-01-01

    Many of the virulence factors produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are quorum-sensing (QS) regulated. Among these are rhamnolipids, which have been shown to cause lysis of several cellular components of the human immune system, e.g. monocyte-derived macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We have previously shown that rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa cause necrotic death of PMNs in vitro. This raises the possibility that rhamnolipids may function as a 'biofilm shield' in vivo, which contributes significantly to the increased tolerance of P. aeruginosa biofilms to PMNs. In the present study, we demonstrate the importance of the production of rhamnolipids in the establishment and persistence of P. aeruginosa infections, using an in vitro biofilm system, an intraperitoneal foreign-body model and a pulmonary model of P. aeruginosa infections in mice. Our experimental data showed that a P. aeruginosa strain, unable to produce any detectable rhamnolipids due to an inactivating mutation in the single QS-controlled rhlA gene, did not induce necrosis of PMNs in vitro and exhibited increased clearance compared with its wild-type counterpart in vivo. Conclusively, the results support our model that rhamnolipids are key protective agents of P. aeruginosa against PMNs.

  6. Hepatic insulin gene therapy prevents deterioration of vascular function and improves adipocytokine profile in STZ-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulé, Peter M; Campbell, Adam G; Kleinhenz, Dean J; Olson, Darin E; Boutwell, Joshua J; Sutliff, Roy L; Hart, C Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic insulin gene therapy (HIGT) ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic rodents, suggesting that similar approaches may eventually provide a means to improve treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, whether the metabolic and hormonal changes produced by HIGT benefit vascular function remains unclear. The impact of HIGT on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, nitrosyl-hemoglobin content (NO-Hb), and insulin sensitivity were studied using aortic ring preparations, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculations, and insulin tolerance testing (ITT). Data were correlated with selected hormone and adipocytokine concentrations. Rats made diabetic with streptozotocin were treated with subcutaneous insulin pellets dosed to sustain body weights and hyperglycemia or with HIGT; nondiabetic rats served as controls. Hyperglycemic rats demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, reduced levels of NO-Hb, and diminished insulin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations compared with controls. In contrast, HIGT treatment significantly reduced blood sugars and sustained both endothelium-mediated vasodilation and NO-Hb at control levels. HOMA-IR calculations and ITT indicated enhanced insulin sensitivity among HIGT-treated rats. HIGT partially restored suppressed leptin levels in hyperglycemic rats and increased adiponectin concentrations to supranormal levels, consistent with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Our findings indicate that the metabolic milieu produced by HIGT is sufficient to preserve vascular function in diabetic rodents. These data suggest that improved glycemia, induction of a beneficial adipocytokine profile, and enhanced insulin sensitivity combine to preserve endothelium-dependent vascular function in HIGT-treated diabetic rats. Consequently, HIGT may represent a novel and efficacious approach to reduce diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction. PMID:16118252

  7. Systemic gene transfer of binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) prevents disease progression in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A M; Klavinskis, L S; Antoniou, M; Wooley, P H; Collins, H L; Panayi, G S; Thompson, S J; Corrigall, V M

    2015-02-01

    Summary Recombinant human binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) has previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in multiple models of inflammatory arthritis. We investigated whether these immunoregulatory properties could be exploited using gene therapy techniques. A single intraperitoneal injection of lentiviral vector containing the murine BiP (Lenti-mBiP) or green fluorescent protein (Lenti-GFP) transgene was administered in low- or high-dose studies during early arthritis. Disease activity was assessed by visual scoring, histology, serum cytokine and antibody production measured by cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ELISA, respectively. Lentiviral vector treatment caused significant induction of interferon (IFN)-γ responses regardless of the transgene; however, further specific effects were directly attributable to the BiP transgene. In both studies Lenti-mBiP suppressed clinical arthritis significantly. Histological examination showed that low-dose Lenti-mBiP suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration, cartilage destruction and significantly reduced pathogenic anti-type II collagen (CII) antibodies. Lenti-mBiP treatment caused significant up-regulation of soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (sCTLA-4) serum levels and down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-17A production in response to CII cell restimulation. In-vitro studies confirmed that Lenti-mBiP spleen cells could significantly suppress the release of IL-17A from CII primed responder cells following CII restimulation in vitro, and this suppression was associated with increased IL-10 production. Neutralization of CTLA-4 in further co-culture experiments demonstrated inverse regulation of IL-17A production. In conclusion, these data demonstrate proof of principle for the therapeutic potential of systemic lentiviral vector delivery of the BiP transgene leading to immunoregulation of arthritis by induction of soluble CTLA-4 and suppression of IL-17A production. PMID:25228326

  8. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries to provide the 'field' genetic resource (endemic disease situation) in order to devise and test vaccines developed through molecular studies. Development of technologies cannot be divorced from an understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases found in developing countries. This is frequently not undertaken due to the many competing demands on the scarce resources available. However, increased livestock trade possibilities may provide the focus and catalyst needed to ensure that animal health science is applied appropriately and usefully for the benefit of developing countries. (author)

  9. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... 2013:chap 58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexual assault and STDs. In: Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, ...

  10. Gene Therapy to Promote Thromboresistance: Local Overexpression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator to Prevent Arterial Thrombosis in an in vivo Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, J. M.; Kattash, M.; Li, J.; Yuksel, E.; Kuo, M. D.; Lussier, M.; Weinfeld, A. B.; Saxena, R.; Rabinovsky, E. D.; Thung, S.; Woo, S. L. C.; Shenaq, S. M.

    1999-02-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) catalyzes the rate-limiting initial step in the fibrinolytic cascade. Systemic infusion of tPA has become the standard of care for acute myocardial infarction. However, even the relatively short-duration protocols currently employed have encountered significant hemorrhagic complications, as well as complications from rebound thrombosis. Gene therapy offers a method of local high-level tPA expression over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhage and local rebound thrombosis. To examine the impact of local tPA overexpression, an adenoviral vector expressing tPA was created. The construct was characterized functionally in vitro, and the function of the vector was confirmed in vivo by delivery to the rabbit common femoral artery. Systemic coagulation parameters were not perturbed at any of the doses examined. The impact of local overexpression of tPA on in vivo thrombus formation was examined subsequently in a stasis/injury model of arterial thrombosis. The construct effectively prevented arterial thrombosis in treated animals, whereas viral and nonviral controls typically developed occluding thrombi. This construct thus offers a viable technique for promoting a locally thromboresistant small-caliber artery.

  11. Cutaneous manifestations of Nocardia brasiliensis infection in Taiwan during 2002-2012-clinical studies and molecular typing of pathogen by gyrB and 16S gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Ting-Chi; Lu, Chin-Fang; Liau, Yea-Ling; Lin, Jeng-Fong; Li, Shu-Ying

    2013-09-01

    To observe the clinicopathologic and resistance profiles of the Nocardia brasiliensis causing cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan, 12 N. brasiliensis isolates were prospectively collected from patients with cutaneous nocardiosis in a hospital during 2002-2012. Clinicopathologic data were obtained, and isolates were identified by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA sequencing. Susceptibilities to 14 antimicrobial compounds were tested. Isolates were further genotyped by sequencing of 16S rRNA, secA1, hsp65, and gyrB genes. The nodulopustular pyoderma associated with sporotrichoid spreading was the most common skin presentations caused by N. brasiliensis. All of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and resistant to kanamycin, erythromycin, and oxacillin, while susceptibilities to imipenem, vancomycin, penicillin-G, tetracycline, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin varied among the 12 isolates. GyrB genotyping delineated the 12 isolates into 2 major groups, which was coincident with different single nucleotide substitutions at position 160 (G versus T) of 16S rRNA, different levels of imipenem minimum inhibition concentration (4-32 versus 0.25-0.75 mg/L), and prevalence of lymphadenitis (66.7 versus 16.7%). We have noted that tiny pustular lesions can be the first sign of cutaneous nocardiosis, which we believe has not been previously emphasized. No resistance to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was found; therefore, sulphonamide drugs remain effective for treatment of cutaneous nocardiosis in Taiwan. PMID:23791388

  12. Common Variants in 40 Genes Assessed for Diabetes Incidence and Response to Metformin and Lifestyle Intervention in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    OpenAIRE

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Franks, Paul W; Pollin, Toni I; Hanson, Robert L.; Fowler, Sarah; Shuldiner, Alan R; Knowler, William C; de Bakker, Paul I Wen; Saxena, Richa; Altshuler, David Matthew; Florez, Jose Carlos

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have begun to elucidate the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through targeted complementary approaches affect diabetes incidence in the at-risk population of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and whether they influence a response to preventive interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected SNPs identified by prior genome-wide association studies for type 2 di...

  13. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1- ...

  14. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be found early? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Most people with thyroid ... that still provides a clear picture. Blood tests can be done to look for the gene mutations ...

  15. Dimerization of an Immunoactivating Peptide Derived from Mycobacterial hsp65 Using N-Hydroxysuccinimide Based Bifunctional Reagents Is Critical for Its Antitumor Properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezouška, Karel; Kubínková, Z.; St?íbrný, J.; Volfová, B.; Pompach, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Šírová, Milada; ?íhová, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 23, ?. 10 (2012), s. 2032-2041. ISSN 1043-1802 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505; GA ?R GA303/09/0477; GA ?R GD305/09/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : HUMAN EOSINOPHILS * KILLER-CELLS * CD69 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.580, year: 2012

  16. Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nandini Venkateswaran,1 Gabrielle Yeaney,2 Mina Chung,3,4 Holly B Hindman3,41University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3Flaum Eye Institute, 4Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USAObjective: To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient.Results: A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65 gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests.Conclusion: Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish between nontuberculous species reliably. We recommend the use of PCR in conjunction with sequencing of the hsp65 gene for reliable differentiation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus in atypical mycobacterial ocular infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility tests on cultured strains are the best guide to antibiotic selection, given the rapidly rising resistance to antimicrobials in atypical mycobacterial species.Keywords: atypical mycobacteria, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, hsp65, Mycobacterium chelonae, neurotrophic keratopathy, visual outcome

  17. The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E; Lakka, T A; Herder, C; Koenig, W; Lindström, J; Eriksson, J G; Uusitupa, M; Kolb, H; Laakso, M; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ...

  18. Primary prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Henneberger, Paul K; Redlich, Carrie A; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Interventions for the primary prevention of occupational asthma have been reported in the medical literature, understanding the effectiveness of these efforts could help future interventions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of controlling work exposure on the prevention of occupational asthma. We conducted systematic literature searches through April 2010 to examine if control of workplace exposures is effective for primary prevention of sensitisa...

  19. Rosiglitazone but not losartan prevents Nrf-2 dependent CD36 gene expression up-regulation in an in vivo atherosclerosis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero-Hidalgo A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazolidinediones exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles and attenuate atherosclerosis by mechanisms partially independent of their metabolizing actions. High doses of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R blocker losartan (LST seem to promote fat cell formation by preserving PPAR? activity. Methods C57BL/6J diet-induced atherosclerotic susceptible mice randomly received a normal or a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet and were treated with rosiglitazone (RG, LST or a vehicle for 12 weeks. Results HFHC was associated with increased PPAR? gene expression without an over regulation of PPAR? responsive genes, whereas RG and LST treatments were found to maintain PPAR? activity without resulting in increased PPAR? gene expression. A better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile in mice treated with RG regarding LST was observed in spite of a similar PPAR? preserved activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that animals under HFHC diet treated with RG showed a significant nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2-dependent down-regulation of the expression of the CD36 gene. Conclusion The PPAR? agonist RG exerts antioxidant properties that significantly reduced Nrf-2-dependent CD-36 up-regulation in mice under HFHC diet. Because LST treatment was also associated with a preserved PPAR? activity, our data suggests that these RG antioxidant effects are partially independent of its PPAR? metabolizing properties.

  20. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  1. Cadmium-induced disruption in 24-h expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus. Prevention by melatonin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielPCardinali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH. To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age received CdCl2 (5 ppm and melatonin (3 ?g/mL or vehicle (0.015 % ethanol in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at 6 time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1 or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2 by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GSR and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1 and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression.

  2. Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Esquifino, Ana I.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45?days of age) received CdCl2 (5?ppm) and melatonin (3??g/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1?month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

  3. Prevention of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats by exercise training: effects on gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues determined by high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Michele; Gregersen, Soeren; Kruhoeffer, Mogens; Agger, Andreas; Xiao, Jianzhong; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Orntoft, Torben; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes metabolic improvement in the prediabetic and diabetic states. However, only little information exists on the changes to ET at the transcriptional level in insulin-sensitive tissues. We have investigated the gene expression changes in skeletal muscle, liver, fat, and...... pancreatic islets after ET in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Eighteen ZDF rats (7 weeks old) were divided in a control and ET group. Exercise was performed using a motorized treadmill (20 m/min 1 hour daily for 6 days a week). Blood glucose, weight, and food intake were measured weekly. After 5 weeks......, blood samples, soleus muscle, liver, visceral fat (epididymal fat pads), and islet tissue were collected. Gene expression was quantified with Affymetrix RG-U34A array (16 chips). Exercise training ameliorates the development of hyperglycemia and reduces plasma free fatty acid and the level of glucagon...

  4. Cooked rice prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet by the regulation of the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-07-01

    Rice has many health-beneficial components for ameliorating obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of cooked rice as a useful carbohydrate source has not been investigated yet; so we hypothesized that cooked rice may have hypolipidemic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cooked rice on hyperlipidemia and on the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 2 groups and fed a high-fat (15%, wt/wt)/cholesterol (0.5%, wt/wt) diet supplemented with either corn starch (HFD, 54.5% wt/wt) or cooked rice (HFD-CR, 54.5% wt/wt) as the main carbohydrate source for 8 weeks. In the HFD-CR group, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver were decreased, and the total lipid, total cholesterol, and bile acid levels in the feces were increased, compared with the HFD group. In the cooked-rice group, the messenger RNA and protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase were significantly downregulated; and the messenger RNA and protein levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase were upregulated. Furthermore, the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol response element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were downregulated, whereas the ?-oxidation related genes (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, acyl CoA oxidase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) were upregulated, in the cooked-rice group. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of cooked rice is partially mediated by the regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, which results in the suppression of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis and the enhancement of cholesterol excretion and fatty acid ?-oxidation. PMID:23827132

  5. Self-complementary AAV-mediated gene therapy restores cone function and prevents cone degeneration in two models of Rpe65 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Jijing; Boye, Shannon E; Lei, Bo; Boye, Sanford L.; Everhart, Drew; Ryals, Renee; Umino, Yumiko; Rohrer, Bärbel; Alexander, John; Li, Jie; Dai, Xufeng; Li, QiuHong; Chang, Bo; Barlow, Robert; Hauswirth, William W.

    2010-01-01

    To test whether fast-acting, self complimentary(sc), AAV vector-mediated RPE65 expression prevents cone degeneration and/or restores cone function, two mouse lines were studied: the Rpe65- deficient rd12 mouse and the Rpe65- deficient, rhodpsin null (‘i.e. cone function-only’) Rpe65?/?::Rho?/? mouse. scAAV5 expressing RPE65 was injected subretinally into one eye of rd12 and Rpe65?/?::Rho?/? mice at postnatal day 14 (P14). Contralateral rd12 eyes were injected later, at P35. Rd12 behavioral te...

  6. Impact of protein supplementation and exercise in preventing changes in gene expression profiling in woman muscles after long-term bedrest as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopard, Angele; Lecunff, Martine; Danger, Richard; Teusan, Raluca; Jasmin, Bernard J.; Marini, Jean-Francois; Leger, Jean

    Long duration space flights have a dramatic impact on human physiology and under such a condition, skeletal muscles are known to be one of the most affected systems. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to muscle impairment under microgravity, which causes significant loss of muscle mass as well as structural disorders, is necessary for the development of efficient space flight countermeasures. This study was conducted under the aegis of the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the USA (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the French "Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales" (CNES). It gave us the opportunity to investigate for the first time the effects of prolonged disuse (long-term bedrest, LTBR) on the transcriptome of different muscle types in healthy women (control, n=8), as well as the potential beneficial impact of protein supplementation (nutrition, n=8) and a combined resistance and aerobic exercise training program (exercise, n=8). Pre- (LTBR -8) and post- (LTBR +59) biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles from each subject. Skeletal muscle gene expression profiles were obtained using a custom made microarray containing 6681 muscle-relevant genes. 555 differentiallyexpressed and statistically-significant genes were identified in control group following 60 days of LTBR, including 348 specific for SOL, 83 specific for VL, and 124 common for the two types of muscle (pmuscle types exhibited a consistent decrease in pathways involved in fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation (pmuscle exhibited a higher level of changes with mRNA encoding proteins involved in protein synthesis and activation of protein degradation (mainly ubiquitinproteasome components) (pmuscle function, such as those involved in calcium signaling and muscle structure including modifications of extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal components, were significant in SOL. Among the two recently described markers of atrophy, only MAFbx transcripts exhibited an increase in VL following 60 days of LTBR. While protein supplementation reduced the number of differentially-expressed genes by 40 and 25% for SOL and VL, respectively, the combined exercise regimen resulted in a marked beneficial and compensatory effect by decreasing the number of differentially-expressed mRNAs by more than 90% in both SOL and VL muscles. Together, these findings provide an overview of skeletal muscle impairment following prolonged disuse by identifying specific groups of genes related to muscle function, as well as metabolic and canonical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of regular exercise in the maintenance of both slow and fast muscle phenotypes. Finally, our approach will prove useful in designing and optimizing specific countermeasures aimed at counteracting muscle atrophy in a microgravity environment.

  7. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreak Notices Prevention If You Think You Have Dengue Epidemiology Continental U.S. Entomology/Ecology Mosquito Life-Cycle Mosquito Aquatic Habitats Dengue & Climate Clinical/Laboratory Guidance Clinical Guidance Laboratory Guidance ...

  8. Preventable Hospitalizations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Governor's strategic goal on preventable hospitalizations is to drive down the rate by 10 percent by the end of 2015. 2011 cost data are in 2011 dollars. 2010...

  9. Preventing Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HELPING YOUR LOVED ONE BECOME MORE INDEPENDENT Preventing Falls Falls are common after a stroke. The good news ... are ways to protect your loved one from falls. What Are Risk Factors for Falls? What Are ...

  10. Preventing Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Preventing Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) suggests these ...

  11. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive...

  12. Tuberculosis Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention TB is an airborne disease and ... patients. Many people who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) do not get sick or spread the ...

  13. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only 100% effective way to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The longer you wait to ... less risky sexual behaviors, get tested for other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and limit your number of sex partners. ...

  14. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  15. Contrasts between the phylogeographic patterns of chloroplast and nuclear DNA highlight a role for pollen-mediated gene flow in preventing population divergence in an East Asian temperate tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei-Ning; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Plant phylogeographic studies in East Asia have provided support for the biogeographic hypothesis that the complex landforms and climate of this region have provided substantial opportunities for allopatric speciation. However, most of these studies have been based on maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers and were therefore unable to reveal the role of pollen-mediated gene flow in preventing population divergence. Here, we investigate the phylogeography of the Chinese walnut Juglans cathayensis, a temperate deciduous tree widely distributed across disjunct montane sites in subtropical China. We genotyped 19 populations using seven cpDNA fragments and ten nuclear microsatellite loci and modeled the ecological niche of J. cathayensis. CpDNA analysis identified a total of nine haplotypes, and each of the 19 sampled populations was fixed for a single haplotype, displaying a prominent phylogeographic structure. The results of ecological niche modeling indicated that J. cathayensis populations survived the last glaciation in situ, although they were probably more fragmented than today. In contrast, we detected a much weaker, but nonetheless clear, genetic structure based on nuclear microsatellite data. Our study demonstrates how extensive pollen flow can erase the genetic imprint of long-term refugial isolation in maternal lineages, effectively preventing population differentiation in temperate, particularly wind-pollinated, forest trees in subtropical China. PMID:25196588

  16. Z-360, a novel therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, prevents up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and phosphorylation of NR2B via suppression of interleukin-1 ? production in a cancer-induced pain model in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Yuko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Z-360 is an orally active cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2/gastrin receptor antagonist currently under development as a therapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. It was previously reported that Z-360 treatment in combination with gemcitabine prolonged the survival period in a lethal pancreatic cancer xenograft model in mice. In a phase Ib/IIa clinical study, Z-360 treatment displayed a trend of reduced pain in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine including analgesics such as opioids. Here, we investigated the mechanism of analgesic action of Z-360 in a severe cancer-induced pain model in mice, which is considered to be opioid-resistant, by examining ephrin B1 gene expression, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit phosphorylation, and interleukin-1? (IL-1? production. Results In a mouse model of cancer-induced pain, ephrin B1 gene expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs and the phosphorylation of NR2B in the spinal cord were induced. Z-360 treatment inhibited both ephrin B1 gene expression and the phosphorylation of NR2B. In addition, IL-1? production increased in the cancer-inoculated hind paw of mice, but could be suppressed by treatment with Z-360. Moreover, we observed that the CCK1 receptor antagonist devazepide similarly suppressed up-regulation of ephrin B1 gene expression and IL-1? production, and that the intraperitoneal injection of sulfated CCK-8 induced the production of IL-1? in the cancer-inoculated region. Conclusions We have identified a novel pain cascade, in which IL-1? production in cancer-inoculated regions induces ephrin B1 gene expression in DRGs and then ephrin B1 enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B via Eph B receptor in the spinal cord. Notably, Z-360 relieves cancer-induced pain by preventing this pain cascade through the suppression of IL-1? production, likely via the blockade of CCK1 receptor. The pre-clinical results presented here support the analgesic action of Z-360 in pancreatic cancer patients with severe, opioid-resistant pain. Pre-clinical and clinical results have demonstrated that Z-360 combined with gemcitabine represents a promising pancreatic cancer therapy approach with characteristic analgesic effects in addition to the prolongation of survival.

  17. Plasticity-related gene-1 inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and prevents neointima formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaya, Amira; Poirier, Odette; Mougenot, Nathalie; Hery, Tiphaine; Atassi, Fabrice; Marchand, Alexandre; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Amour, Julien; Vogt, Johannes; Lompré, Anne-Marie; Soubrier, Florent; Nadaud, Sophie

    2012-11-15

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) protects neuronal cells from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) effects. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), LPA was shown to induce phenotypic modulation in vitro and vascular remodeling in vivo. Thus we explored the role of PRG-1 in modulating VSMC response to LPA. PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence experiments showed that PRG-1 is expressed in rat and human vascular media. PRG-1 expression was strongly inhibited in proliferating compared with quiescent VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo (medial vs. neointimal VSMCs), suggesting that PRG-1 expression is dependent on the cell phenotype. In vitro, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PRG-1 specifically inhibited LPA-induced rat VSMC proliferation and migration but not platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation. This effect was abolished by mutation of a conserved histidine in the lipid phosphate phosphatase family that is essential for interaction with lipid phosphates. In vivo, balloon-induced neointimal formation in rat carotid was significantly decreased in vessels infected with PRG-1 adenovirus compared with ?-galactosidase adenovirus (-71%; P < 0.05). PRG-1 overexpression abolished the activation of the p42/p44 signaling pathway in LPA-stimulated rat VSMCs in culture and in balloon-injured rat carotids. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence of a protective role of PRG-1 in the vascular media under pathophysiological conditions. PMID:23015549

  18. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDCâ??s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  19. Plagiarism Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  20. Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Johan G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  1. PREVENT APPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    For preclinical drug development projects describe the proposed development strategy, readiness of the primary assay, and any supporting secondary assays available, including structure-based, virtual, and selectivity assays. Supporting data can be included as an appendix. For new molecular entities, describe the development status of the compound and optimization strategy (for guidance, please refer to the PREVENT Stage Gates). Indicate whether the compound has undergone medicinal chemistry optimization; if not, describe the proposed strategy.

  2. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘...

  3. Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Terameprocol inhibits the NF-?B-dependent transcription of TNF-? and MCP-1/CCL2 genes by preventing RelA from binding its cognate sites on DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholle Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid, also known as terameprocol (TMP, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the resin of the creosote bush. We have shown previously that TMP will suppress production of certain inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids from macrophages following stimulation with LPS or infection with H1N1 influenza virus. In this study our goal was to elucidate the mechanism underlying TMP-mediated suppression of cytokine and chemokine production. We focused our investigations on the response to LPS and the NF-?B protein RelA, a transcription factor whose activity is critical to LPS-responsiveness. Methods Reporter assays were performed with HEK293 cells overexpressing either TLR-3, -4, or -8 and a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of an NF-?B response element. Cells were then treated with LPS, poly(I:C, or resiquimod, and/or TMP, and lysates measured for luciferase activity. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were used in ChIP and EMSA assays. For ChIP assays, chromatin was prepared and complexes precipitated with anti-NF-?B RelA Ab. Cross-links were reversed, DNA purified, and sequence abundance determined by Q-PCR. For EMSA assays, nuclear extracts were incubated with radiolabeled probes, analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE and visualized by autoradiography. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were also used in fluorescence microscopy and western blot experiments. Translocation experiments were performed using a primary Ab to NF-?B RelA and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary Ab. Western blots were performed using Abs to I?B-? and phospho-I?B-?. Bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Results In reporter assays with TLR-3, -4, and -8 over-expressing cells, TMP caused strong inhibition of NF-?B-dependent transcription. ChIP assays showed TMP caused virtually complete inhibition of RelA binding in vivo to promoters for the genes for TNF-?, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 although the LPS-dependent synthesis of I?B-? was not inhibited. EMSA assays did not reveal an effect of TMP on the binding of RelA to naked DNA templates in vitro. TMP did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-?B RelA nor the phosphorylation of I?B-?. Conclusion TMP acts indirectly as an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent transcription by preventing RelA from binding the promoters of certain key cytokine and chemokine genes.

  4. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  5. Molecular Characterization of Environmental Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Using PCR- RFLP Analysis of 441 Bp Heat Shock Protein 65 Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rezaei-Yazdi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non- Tuberculous Mycobacteria are environmental opportunistic pathogens that can be found in various terrestrial and aquatic habitats. There are an epidemiological links between species isolated in tap water and those isolated from patients. hsp65 gene has more variability in its sequences, compared to the some more conserved genes in NTM, for identification of mycobacteria to species level. In this study, the prevalence of NTM in Isfahan City water samples was determined using culture, biochemical tests and PCR-RFLP analyses of hsp65 gene.Methods: Eighty-five water samples were collected and cultured. The mycobacterial isolates were identified by conventional biochemical tests. A 441 bp fragment of hsp65 genes was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes, BstEII and HaeII. Digested products were analyzed using polyacrilamid gel electrophoresis (PAGE.Results: 25.9% of the water samples contained different species of NTM. Dominant isolates were M. fortuitum (26.7%, M. chelonae like organism (13.3% and M. mucogenicum (13.3%. Nineteen isolates of Mycobacteria were differentiated using hsp65 genes PCR-RFLP. Three isolates could not be identified at the species level because their RFLP patterns were different from other known PCR-RFLP profiles. There were different hsp65 gene PCR-RFLP profiles produced by digestion with BstEII and HaeIII. Conclusion: This study showed that PCR-RFLP of hsp65 gene in mycobacteria is more reliable method for identification of NTM at the specie level than conventional phenotypic methods (P<0.05. In comparing of RFLP patterns of this study to other investigation, some minor differences were negligible.

  6. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer prevention is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ...

  7. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Share Compartir Prevention & Control Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to safe ... the basics of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Five Basic Cholera Prevention Messages Infection Control Guide ...

  8. Preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information contained in this paper should be used in conjunction with the maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer of each valve. When there is any question or conflict between the procedure described and the manufacturer's, the author suggests determining the best method for the applications. A good long range preventative maintenance program for valves will eliminate costly repairs or replacement of valves long before their time. A little flush, lube, and what was once called elbow grease will also go a long way in reducing your downtime and maintenance budget. This paper will discuss one of the most misunderstood theories concerning valve maintenance, i.e., that periodic maintenance of valves includes the injection of sealants. Sealants are injected into valves as a secondary seal for most valves. Under normal conditions, valves do not require sealant injection. Solid fillers in sealants tend to plug the system making it virtually impossible to inject either sealant or a lubricant, requiring the injection of flush or cleaners to dislodge the solids. Topics covered in this paper will range from general maintenance requirements to valve flushing, cleaning and lubrication

  9. Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Muraro Wildner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-perform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2% to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

  10. Safety and efficacy of ALD403, an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory phase 2 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is crucial in the pathophysiology of migraine. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ALD403, a genetically engineered humanised anti-CGRP antibody, for migraine prevention. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory, proof-of-concept phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-55 years with five to 14 migraine days per 28-day period were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive web response system to receive an intravenous dose of ALD403 1000 mg or placebo. Site investigators, patients, and the sponsor were masked to treatment allocation during the study. The primary objective was to assess safety at 12 weeks after infusion. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to weeks 5-8 in the frequency of migraine days, as recorded in patient electronic diaries. Patients were followed up until 24 weeks for exploratory safety and efficacy analyses. Safety and efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01772524. FINDINGS: Between Jan 28, 2013, and Dec 23, 2013, of 174 patients randomly assigned at 26 centres in the USA, 163 received either ALD403 (n=81) or placebo (n=82). Adverse events were experienced by 46 (57%) of 81 patients in the ALD403 group and 43 (52%) of 82 in the placebo group. The most frequent adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (placebo 6 [7%] patients vs ALD403 7 [9%] patients), urinary tract infection (4 [5%] vs 1 [1%]), fatigue (3 [4%] vs 3 [4%]), back pain (4 [5%] vs 3 [4%]), arthralgia (4 [5%] vs 1 [1%]), and nausea and vomiting (2 [2%] vs 3 [4%]). Six serious adverse events were reported by three patients and were judged to be unrelated to study drug: in the ALD403 group, one patient had four serious adverse events and one had one serious adverse event, and in the placebo group, one patient had one serious adverse event. There were no differences in vital signs or laboratory safety data between the two treatment groups. The mean change in migraine days between baseline and weeks 5-8 was -5·6 (SD 3·0) for the ALD403 group compared with -4·6 (3·6) for the placebo group (difference -1·0, 95% CI -2·0 to 0·1; one-sided p=0·0306). INTERPRETATION: No safety concerns were noted with an intravenous dose of ALD403 1000 mg. This study also provides preliminary evidence for the efficacy of ALD403 in the preventive treatment of migraine in patients with a high monthly frequency of migraine days. FUNDING: Alder Biopharmaceuticals.

  11. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  12. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle.

  15. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Moraes, Paulo Ricardo; Chimara, Erica; Telles, Maria Alice da Silva; Ueki, Suely Yoko Misuka; Cunha, Eunice Atsuko Totumi; Honer, Michael Robin; Sylvia Cardoso LEÃO

    2008-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI) and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65). With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusiv...

  16. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Ricardo de Souza Moraes; Erica Chimara; Maria Alice da Silva Telles; Suely Yoko Misuka Ueki; Eunice Atsuko Totumi Cunha; Michael Robin Honer; Sylvia Cardoso Leão

    2008-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI) and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA) using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65). With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusiv...

  17. Identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul and analysis of clinical relevance Identificação de micobactérias não-tuberculosas do Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso de Sul e análise de dados clínicos dos pacientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo de Souza Moraes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated at the Central Public Health Laboratory from Mato Grosso do Sul in 2003 and 2004 were identified by conventional phenotypic methods (TI and by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA using the hsp65 gene as target (PRA-hsp65. With 15 of the 32 analysed isolates, results of both methods were concordant, being 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum and 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI of 12 isolates was inconclusive. Novel PRA-hsp65 patterns were observed with 11 isolates. Medical data were evaluated for inference of clinical relevance of these isolates.Micobactérias não-tuberculosas isoladas no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública de Mato Grosso do Sul em 2003 e 2004 foram identificadas usando métodos fenotípicos convencionais (TI e PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PRA tendo o gene hsp65 como alvo (PRA-hsp65. Em 15 dos 32 isolados analisados os resultados obtidos com ambos métodos foram concordantes, sendo 8 Mycobacterium avium, 3 M. fortutium, 1 M. kansasii, 1 M. flavescens, 1 M. peregrinum e 1 Nocardia brasiliensis. TI de 12 isolados não foi conclusiva. Perfis não descritos de PRA-hsp65 foram observados com 11 isolados. Dados dos prontuários médicos foram avaliados para inferir a relevância clínica dos isolados.

  18. Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta; Overvad, Kim; Cold, Søren; Moesgaard, Sven; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Dragsted, Lars

    2008-01-01

    different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen I (Fral), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ah...... genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues....

  19. IBMFS - gene mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A "mutation" is a change in a gene that prevents it from working properly. A "germline" mutation is a change that occurs in the egg or the sperm, or both, and is passed from one parent or both parents to the child.

  20. Molecular identification of clinical Nocardia isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Samanta, Palash; Ray, Pallab; Ghosh, Anup; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of nocardiosis is evolving with increasing number of Nocardia spp. causing human infection. In recent years, molecular techniques have been used to identify Nocardia spp. There are limited data available on the spectrum of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical samples in India. Here, a molecular study was carried on 30 clinical isolates maintained in our National Culture Collection to evaluate the techniques used for identifying the agents. The isolates were identified by sequencing two promising genes: the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65. Both hsp65 and the 16S rRNA gene could reliably identify 90 % of Nocardia isolates, i.e. N. farcinica, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. brasiliensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. amamiensis and N. pneumoniae. The mean percentage dissimilarity of sequence identification was higher using the hsp65 gene (4 %, range 0-7.9 %) compared with the 16S rRNA gene (2.3 %, range 0-8.9 %). Two isolates that showed ambiguous results in both the short segment of the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences could be resolved by sequencing a larger fragment (∼1000 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene. Both of these isolates were identified as N. beijingensis with similarities of 99.8 and 100 % compared with the standard strain. Genotyping of N. cyriacigeorgica strains was performed using hsp65 gene sequences and compared with previously described genotypes. Our N. cyriacigeorgica isolates belonged to genotype 1 (n = 4) and genotype 2 (n = 2). The present study highlights a wide spectrum of Nocardia spp. in India and emphasizes the need for molecular techniques for identification to the species level. PMID:26202321

  1. Trial NCT02123849 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II clinical trial studies the safety and effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) taken continuously or intermittently on gene expression in the nasal tissue of current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk of developing lung cancer. Acetylsalicylic acid may be useful in preventing lung cancer.

  2. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  3. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease High Blood Pressure Salt Million ... CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease High Blood Pressure Salt Million ...

  4. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  5. Can We Prevent Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raquo Can We Prevent Aging? Heath and Aging Can We Prevent Aging? Antioxidants Calorie Restriction, Intermittent Fasting, ... greater risk for health issues, many older adults can be healthy and active well into their advancing ...

  6. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content Skip to our phone number National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Home Get Help Help for Yourself ... Listening Strong Support Network Create Your Own PSA Suicide Prevention Toolkit Nat'l SP Month '15 Learn ...

  7. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  8. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Injury Prevention Tips Preventing sports-related head injuries Buy and use helmets or protective head gear approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for specific sports 100 ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention–Patient Version (PDQ®) What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Prostate Cancer Key Points Prostate cancer is a disease ...

  10. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  11. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention –Patient Version (PDQ®) What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  12. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... virus The vaccines History of polio Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal infectious ... e.g. medications strenuous exercise injury. Treatment and prevention There is no cure for polio, only treatment ...

  13. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments Prescribed by Your Doctor Español: Prevención y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is ... medication; for example, People with HIV/AIDS or cancer Patients who have had transplants, and People on ...

  14. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or...

  15. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths About Acne Peer Pressure Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Skin Stuff > Can I Prevent ... this article? What Causes Acne? Treatments What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  16. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention–Patient Version (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    O Holmbert

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

  18. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables...

  19. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

  20. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury ... The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Preventing Pressure Sores Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  3. Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Lejla Gitte; Krath, Britta Naimi

    2007-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (sd 4.26) years; 36 % reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mug, 200 mug or 300 mug Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise(R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQO1 or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

  4. Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different blood compartments, and expression of selected phase 1 and phase 2 genes in leucocytes (GPX1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), AP-1 transcription factor Fos-related antigen I (Fral), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR)). Healthy elderly Danes (n 105; age 71.3 (SD 4.26) years; 36% reporting use of multivitamin/mineral supplements) participated and were supplemented daily for 5 years with placebo, 100 mu g, 200 mu g or 300 mu g Se as Se-enriched yeast (SelenoPrecise (R)). Blood samples were collected after 5 years of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQOI or AhRR gene expression were found. When all Se-supplemented groups were pooled we found significant down regulation of the expression of some phase 2 genes (GCLC, Fra1). A significant increase in AhRR gene expression with smoking was found but was independent of Se supplementation. Down regulation of phase 2 genes could increase the risk of cancer. However, further studies are needed to establish whether the observed effect in leucocytes reflects a similar expression pattern in target tissues.

  5. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual?s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  6. Putting prevention into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, J W; Erickson, G P

    1997-01-01

    One of the three broad goals of Healthy People 2000 is that preventive services will be available to all Americans. Although there is professional agreement on the merits of prevention, there are challenges related to implementing preventive health care. Six of these challenges are confusion in terminology, issues related to nursing autonomy and initiative, differing conceptual frameworks, complexity of coordination within a delivery system that does not reward preventive services, prevalent cultural beliefs, and lack of uniform recommendations regarding prevention. The Put Prevention into Practice (PPIP) program is a national strategy to address those challenges. The American Nurses Association and the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners contributed to the development of the PPIP program. These organizations are actively disseminating the information through train-the-trainer methodology and other educational programs that will prepare nurses to improve the health of the population through the provision of preventive health services. PMID:9094838

  7. The fission yeast dma1 gene is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, required to prevent septum formation and premature exit from mitosis if spindle function is compromised.

    OpenAIRE

    Murone, M; Simanis, V.

    1996-01-01

    Premature initiation of cytokinesis can lead to loss of chromosomes, and 'cutting' of the nucleus. Therefore, the proper spatial and temporal co-ordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is essential for maintaining the integrity of the genome. The fission yeast cdc16 gene is implicated both in the spindle assembly checkpoint and control of septum formation. To identify other proteins involved in these controls, we have isolated multicopy suppressors of the cdc16-116 mutation, and the characteriz...

  8. PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amri, Ali M.

    2005-01-01

    The best therapy for cancer is prevention. Primary prevention involves health promotion and risk reduction in the general population so that invasive cancers do not develop. These primary preventive measures include the cessation of smoking, lifestyle and diet modification, vitamins and micronutrients supplementation. Identification of genetic risk, understanding of carcinogenesis, development of effective screening tools, avoiding risk factors and effective chemoprevention can lead to decrea...

  9. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  10. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep; Rader, Tamara; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  11. Prevention of Football Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Dvorak; Astrid Junge; Kirkendall, Donald T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury.In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods: MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “c...

  12. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how ...

  13. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep; Rader, Tamara; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis an...

  14. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  15. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  16. Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeNoue, Sean R; Riggs, Paula D

    2016-04-01

    Substance use disorders account for approximately 6% of deaths worldwide and cost about $700 billion in the United States. Approximately 80% of drug users begin using during adolescence, underscoring the public health importance of effective substance prevention programs for youth and families. Prevention science designates 3 intervention categories: (1) universal prevention, targeting all individuals in the population, (2) selective interventions, targeting high-risk groups, and (3) indicated prevention interventions for youth with risk-taking behaviors. School-based and non-school-based interventions are reviewed, as well as the limitations of existing research, gaps in access and availability, and directions for future research and development. PMID:26980131

  17. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  18. The post-replication repair RAD18 and RAD6 genes are involved in the prevention of spontaneous mutations caused by 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    de Padula, Marcelo; Slezak, Guenaelle; Auffret van Der Kemp, Patricia; Boiteux, Serge

    2004-01-01

    7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is an abundant and mutagenic lesion produced in DNA exposed to free radicals and reactive oxygen species. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the OGG1 gene encodes the 8-oxoG DNA N-glycosylase/AP lyase (Ogg1), which is the functional homologue of the bacterial Fpg. Ogg1-deficient strains are spontaneous mutators that accumulate GC to TA transversions due to unrepaired 8-oxoG in DNA. In yeast, DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and translesion synthesis (TLS) by DNA polymeras...

  19. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  20. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  1. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient- or professionally applied), dietary assessment and advice (modification), other measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue and other measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic ch...

  2. DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

  3. Preventative Medicine today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.

  4. Preventative Medicine today

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.

  5. Gene therapeutics and DNA vaccines; quality and regulatory aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Schalk JAC; Hegger I; Jongen PMJM

    2001-01-01

    Transfer of genes to cells and the subsequent expression of these genes can alleviate the symptoms of a disease (gene therapy), or prevent infectious diseases (DNA vaccination). Gene therapy and DNA vaccination are based on relatively new technologies. The first gene therapeutics are expected to enter the market as registered medicinal products within 2-4 years. The vectors used to transfer the gene of interest to target cells are genetically modified viruses or plasmids. Vi...

  6. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  7. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the context of relevant interventions, various techniques are used, such as role playing. At the level of social policy, different measures may contribute to increase the effectiveness of preventive programs (e.g. prohibition of sale of alcohol in young people). Interventions of tertiary prevention aim at the development of motivation for abstinence in alcohol dependent individuals and the prevention of relapse, as well as the acquisition of new behaviors, which support modification of the problem of alcohol dependence. These interventions can take place in the context of psychotherapeutic follow-up provided to alcohol dependent individuals, and may include various short-term interventions, such as motivational interviewing, but also alternative forms of treatment (e.g. acupuncture, meditation). Elements of prevention in combination with elements of promotion of mental health may be incorporated in the same programme for alcohol dependence, endorsing similar or different activities, which may be complementary and may reinforce the effectiveness of the prevention program. Finally, it is necessary to raise the awareness of mental health professionals regarding prevention and provide specialized education to those who work in drug addiction programmes. Mental health professionals may act as therapists and as intervention coordinators, and performing these roles, they may contribute to the effectiveness of preventive programs and more generally to the treatment of disorders connected with alcohol use. PMID:26197102

  8. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  9. Prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B A

    1993-06-01

    Primary care physicians can easily incorporate efforts toward the primary and secondary prevention of family violence into their practices. By designing a preventive effort using the phases of the family life cycle, a developmentally appropriate system of prevention is created. The anticipatory guidance at each (annual) visit acknowledges family transitions and assures the family that abuse is a health issue and that the physician is a resource for issues of violence prevention. Using the FLC, the first phase is Coupling, when there is a risk of partner violence that continues as long as there is a partnership. Pregnancy and childbirth bring concerns of child neglect and battery. Older children are at additional risk for child sexual abuse. As families age, risks develop for elder abuse, too. The regular discussion of these issues raises the awareness that the potential for family violence continues over the life span and allows the physician opportunities to assess the risk of violence in that family and make appropriate preventive referrals. Primary care physicians are optimally positioned to address violence and its prevention in the office: they know and care for family units over time. Physicians are respected and trusted advisors who can become effective in preventing violence. PMID:8356151

  10. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:26924369

  11. Primary Prevention With Statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Falk, Erling

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... prevention of ASCVD with statins was superior to the trial-based and hybrid approaches. Our results indicate that the ACC/AHA guidelines will prevent more ASCVD events than the trial-based and hybrid approaches, while treating fewer people compared with the trial-based approach....

  12. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-?B pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-?B, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  13. Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) extract exerted anti-melanogenic activity by preventing tyrosinase activity in vitro and by suppressing tyrosinase gene expression in B16F1 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myoung-Jin; Hamid, Mariani Abdul; Ngadiran, Sulaiman; Seo, Young-Kwon; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Park, Chang Seo

    2011-04-01

    Ficus deltoidea (Mas cotek) water extract has been widely used for woman health in Malaysia. Our investigation focused to identify anti-melanogenic efficacy of F. deltoidea since it has been known to have strong anti-oxidant activities. Anti-melanogenic effect of F. deltoidea extract was analyzed using cultured B16F1 melanoma cells. Cytotoxicity of the extract was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and determined the highest concentration of the extract that did not affect cell viability as 0.1% (w/v). ?-MSH-induced melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited with dose-dependent manner by treatment of F. deltoidea leave extract, which was comparable to that of kojic acid. The extract directly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and intracellular tyrosinase activity of B16F1 as well. The inhibition of intracellular tyrosinase activity was found to be exerted at the protein expression level when analyzed by immunoblot and tyrosinase zymography. The expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was also reduced by the F. deltoidea extract. In conclusion, F. deltoidea extract has strong anti-melanogenic activity that is exerted by direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and by down-regulation of the expression of genes involved in the melanogenesis pathways. Collectively, data shown in this study strongly suggest that F. deltoidea extract has potential to be used as a novel depigmenting agent for cosmetics. PMID:20981431

  14. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there that statins may have an effect on colorectal cancer? Studies have shown that statins inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells grown in the laboratory. Consistent preventive effects of certain statins against colon cancer were ...

  15. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention–Patient Version (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  17. Prevent Unintentional Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media ...

  18. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and physical therapy. When recovery is complete, your child's technique or training schedule might need to be adjusted to prevent the injury from ... Sports Medicine Center Concussions Fitness for Kids Who Don't Like Sports ...

  19. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  20. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  1. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget; Brown, Rebecca; Briend, André; Frize, Jacqueline; Shoham, Jeremy; Kiess, Lynnda

    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...

  2. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  3. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chewing is common in many countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia, including China and India. Personal history of head ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sores? What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? What are the most important things for ... in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? What ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wheelchair seat cushion? What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “ ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wheelchair seat cushion? What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? What is “ ... provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on ...

  7. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  8. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, and ... non-participating states, the national office. Healthy Families America® (HFA) (312) 663-3520 An innovative initiative designed ...

  9. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting your eyes from injury is ... as possible, even if the injury seems minor. Eye Injury Facts and Myths Men are more likely ...

  10. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention–Patient Version (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Back ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Types of Back Pain There are different kinds of back pain. Back ...

  12. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Scabies Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control When a person is infested with scabies mites the first time, symptoms may not appear ...

  13. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  14. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  15. Prevention of Listeriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and liquid soap, then rinse. Cook meat and poultry thoroughly. Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources, ... and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases ( ...

  16. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Mycobacteria Dominate the Biofilm Communities in a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Smith, C Kimloi; LaPara, Timothy M; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2015-07-21

    The quantity and composition of bacterial biofilms growing on 10 water mains from a full-scale chloraminated water distribution system were analyzed using real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene and next-generation, high-throughput Illumina sequencing. Water mains with corrosion tubercles supported the greatest amount of bacterial biomass (n = 25; geometric mean = 2.5 × 10(7) copies cm(-2)), which was significantly higher (P = 0.04) than cement-lined cast-iron mains (n = 6; geometric mean = 2.0 × 10(6) copies cm(-2)). Despite spatial variation of community composition and bacterial abundance in water main biofilms, the communities on the interior main surfaces were surprisingly similar, containing a core group of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to only 17 different genera. Bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium dominated all communities at the main wall-bulk water interface (25-78% of the community), regardless of main age, estimated water age, main material, and the presence of corrosion products. Further sequencing of the mycobacterial heat shock protein gene (hsp65) provided species-level taxonomic resolution of mycobacteria. The two dominant Mycobacteria present, M. frederiksbergense (arithmetic mean = 85.7% of hsp65 sequences) and M. aurum (arithmetic mean = 6.5% of hsp65 sequences), are generally considered to be nonpathogenic. Two opportunistic pathogens, however, were detected at low numbers: M. hemophilum (arithmetic mean = 1.5% of hsp65 sequences) and M. abscessus (arithmetic mean = 0.006% of hsp65 sequences). Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio, which have been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion, dominated all communities located underneath corrosion tubercules (arithmetic mean = 67.5% of the community). This research provides novel insights into the quantity and composition of biofilms in full-scale drinking water distribution systems, which is critical for assessing the risks to public health and to the water supply infrastructure. PMID:26098899

  17. HPV Prevention series

    OpenAIRE

    De Sanjosé Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history st...

  18. Prevention of relapsing backache

    OpenAIRE

    Raspe, Heiner; Burkhardt-Hammer, Tatjana; Stoll, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course...

  19. Prevention of suicide.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiologic features of suicide in Canada and evaluated suicide prevention programs. Three groups were found to be at increased risk for suicide: men aged 70 years or more, women aged 65 to 69 and men aged 20 to 24. The other groups, in decreasing order of risk, were the mentally ill, people who have attempted suicide, those with a life-threatening illness, native people, people with a family history of suicide and prisoners. Studies that evaluated suicide prevention program...

  20. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Health interventions can be seen as initiatives that seek to prevent the emergence and development of impaired public health. Initiatives made in the area of prophylaxis can be experienced as anything from direct invasions of personal freedom to small traffic bumps on the roads. In this spectrum this chapter devotes its focus primarily on the small bumps on the road by initially discussing how physical structural prevention can be an appropriate strategy not only to bring about behavioural chang...

  1. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering am...

  2. Prevention of Ill Health

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, D. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health ...

  3. Preventive physiotherapy in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M

    1975-12-01

    Discussion of preventive physiotherapy in schools should cover many issues-nearly all specialist fields. These should include anthropometry and ergonomics in relation to furniture design (Oxford, 1971), and in relation to the prevention of postural defects. Consideration of postural defects should also cover screening of ten to eleven year old girls for early detection of scoliosis. Asthma and other chest conditions, as well as general orthopaedic conditions, should also be included. PMID:25025799

  4. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  5. Prevention of Football Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Dvorak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury.In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods: MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results: A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion: The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective.

  6. Teaching prevention in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T L; Greenberg, L; Loeser, H; Keller, D

    2000-07-01

    Pediatrics has attempted to inculcate the "culture of prevention" into practice, both through anticipatory guidance in well-child care and through behavioral interventions in sick care. The effectivenesses of many components of well-child care have not been conclusively demonstrated, particularly in health education, counseling, and anticipatory guidance, nor has teaching prevention in pediatrics been thoroughly evaluated. This article reviews methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Teaching programs use the wide range of approaches now common in medical education, in a variety of inpatient and outpatient sites. Programs across the country are trying new approaches to teaching traditional topics or are introducing new topics into their curricula. Examples of specific programs are given, organized by the themes of the programs. The field needs to develop in three major directions. First, there is a need to develop competencies and curricula in prevention issues of contemporary importance, including the new morbidities, cross-cultural issues, cost-effectiveness, quality of care, and practice in managed care and other community settings. Second, further work is needed to evaluate programs and measure educational outcomes. This feedback must in turn be used to redefine competencies, curricula, and programs, Third, there needs to be an accessible clearinghouse, and educational tools need to be disseminated. To be effective, a curriculum for prevention in pediatrics cannot stand alone, but must be part of a vertically and horizontally integrated curriculum. Further, creating horizontally and vertically integrated curricula in prevention teaching across disciplines should be the standard. PMID:10926043

  7. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating and ... to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime of ...

  8. How Can COPD Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can COPD Be Prevented? You can take steps to prevent COPD before it starts. If you already have COPD, you can take steps to prevent complications and slow the ...

  9. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and regular medical ... or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high blood pressure from ...

  10. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  11. Stroke prevention: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousser, Marie-Germaine

    2012-03-01

    Stroke is a personal, familial, and social disaster. It is the third cause of death worldwide, the first cause of acquired disability, the second cause of dementia, and its cost is astronomic. The burden of stroke is likely to increase given the aging of the population and the growing incidence of many vascular risk factors. Prevention of stroke includes--as for all other diseases--a "mass approach" aiming at decreasing the risk at the society level and an individual approach, aiming at reducing the risk in a given subject. The mass approach is primarily based on the identification and treatment of vascular risk factors and, if possible, in the implementation of protective factors. These measures are the basis of primary prevention but most of them have now been shown to be also effective in secondary prevention. The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various treatments addressing the specific subtypes of stroke, such as antiplatelet drugs for the prevention of cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants for the prevention of cardiac emboli. There is a growing awareness of the huge evidence-to-practice gap that exists in stroke prevention largely due to socio-economic factors. Recent approaches include low cost intervention packages to reduce blood pressure and cheap "polypills" combining in a single tablet aspirin and several drugs to lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Polypill intake should however not lead to abandon the healthy life-style measures which remain the mainstay of stroke prevention. PMID:22460445

  12. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  13. Giardia Infection Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Illness & Symptoms Diagnosis & Detection Treatment Sources of Infection & Risk Factors Pathogen & Environment Prevention & Control Prevention & Control: General Public Giardia & Pets Information ...

  14. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is increased when certain gene changes linked to familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC or ... in the colon and rectum of people with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). It is not clear if this results ...

  15. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

  16. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, Hannu I. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie 2, FIN-70210 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: Hannu.manninen@kuh.fi; Yang, Xiaoming [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy.

  17. Inclusion of Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions Unlikely to Dramatically Improve Risk Prediction for Complex Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Aschard, Hugues; Chen, Jinbo; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Chibnik, Lori B.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kraft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of common genetic variants associated with the risk of multifactorial diseases. However, their impact on discrimination and risk prediction is limited. It has been suggested that the identification of gene-gene (G-G) and gene-environment (G-E) interactions would improve disease prediction and facilitate prevention. We conducted a simulation study to explore the potential improvement in discrimination if G-G and G-E interactions exist an...

  18. Nicotinamide prevents apoptosis in human cortical neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Suraj G; Brazeau, Daniel A; Sonee, Manisha; Mukherjee, Suman K

    2006-01-01

    In previous studies, the free radical generating toxin tertiary butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) was found to induce significant cell death in human cortical neuronal cells (HCN2 cells). Pretreatment with the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor nicotinamide was able to prevent HCN2 cell death. In this study it is observed that apoptosis is induced following the addition of t-BuOOH at 6 h as indicated by TUNEL-positive cells. When nicotinamide is added prior to t-BuOOH, it is able to prevent neuronal cell death and inhibit apoptosis. DNA microarray studies demonstrate that t-BuOOH administration causes an upregulation of proapoptotic genes like ICH-2 and BimL. On the other hand, nicotinamide-pretreated neurons have higher expression levels of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) genes. Therefore, it appears that one mechanism by which nicotinamide acts as neuroprotective agents is by elevating the gene expression levels of IAPs. Moreover, there is an upregulation of the glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in nicotinamide-pretreated HCN2 cells. Nicotinamide-pretreated cells also had higher expression levels of putative "death domain" genes like p75TNFR, TRAIL2, TNFR1, and HVEM-L. Thus, nicotinamide can regulate multiple apoptotic genes with seemingly opposite roles and through its action on these various genes prevent apoptosis of neuronal cells. PMID:20021043

  19. Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes

  20. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  1. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  2. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  4. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  5. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  6. Health promotion and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of promotive and preventive health care include: The use of proactive skills in the consultation; and the co-ordinated use of posters and pamphlets with media campaigns. An efficient medical record and patient recall system; and a doctor initiated health check programme with selected patients. A cost effective method of informing practitioners includes: Ensuring access to continuing medical education by supporting FMP and post-graduate medical institutes. The provision of educational material for both the patient and doctor combined with media publicity campaigns. Supporting RACGP CHECKUP and library services for isolated practitioners. Suggested changes to undergraduate medical education are: Promotive and preventive health care delivery needs to be an inbuilt part of the curriculum. Promotive and preventive health care needs to be taught by both academic and private general practitioners who have received tutor training. It should be presented in tutorial form and during student attachment at surgeries. It needs to be followed up by continuing education by postgraduate institutes, the RACGP and FMP. Government input required includes: The provision of increased academic resources and continued funding of FMP. Remuneration for general practitioners who are involved in undergraduate teaching. Alteration of the fee structure to reward quality of care. Allowing Medicare rebate for promotive and preventive health care delivery. PMID:2730438

  7. [Prevention of preeclampsia - review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, R; Mat?cha, J; Drochýtek, V

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious condition that affects about five percent of pregnant women. The disorder itself or related complications are responsible for a significant percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity, even in developed countries. Although our understanding of etiology is still limited, the possibility of detecting and evaluating certain angiogenic factors by the end of the first trimester gives food for thought about prospects for preeclampsia prevention. Secondary prevention is currently based mostly on the effort to pharmacologically affect the spiral artery transformation and development of the abnormal placental microcirculation which lead to clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. The preventive treatment options are narrow. Greatest effect was noted with acetylsalicylic acid medication in the at-risk population. The dose of 75-150 mg per day is considered optimal. The treatment should start before the 16th gestational week; later initiation of therapy is associated with considerably smaller effect. The incidence of the early-onset preeclampsia (<34th gestational week) can be reduced up to 50% while preventive treatment affects the late-onset preeclampsia only minimally. Calcium supplementation is effective only in women with low calcium intake. Question for the future as well as subject of several studies is a clinical significance of low molecular weight heparin and sildenafil. PMID:26087220

  8. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  9. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  10. Preventive Maintenance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaruffoli, Veronica; Bramley, Craig; Matteson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    The Preventive Maintenance (PM) program at Stennis Space Center (SSC) evolved from an ineffective and poorly organized state to a highly organized state in which it became capable of tracking equipment, planning jobs with man hour estimates, and supporting outsourcing. This viewgraph presentation traces the steps the program took to improve itself.

  11. Reducing Bullying Through Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Rea; Croxall, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Schoolyard bullies are seven times more likely to become delinquents or criminals than their nonbully peers. The unacceptable anti-social behavior of bullies can have an impact on both bullies and their victims across the lifespan. Most family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals realize that early violence prevention protects the social and…

  12. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  13. PREVENTABLE ERRORS: NEVER EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narra Gopal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Operation or any invasive procedure is a stressful event involving risks and complications. We should be able to offer a guarantee that the right procedure will be done on right person in the right place on their body. “Never events” are definable. These are the avoidable and preventable events. The people affected from consequences of surgical mistakes ranged from temporary injury in 60%, permanent injury in 33% and death in 7%”.World Health Organization (WHO [1] has earlier said that over seven million people across the globe suffer from preventable surgical injuries every year, a million of them even dying during or immediately after the surgery? The UN body quantified the number of surgeries taking place every year globally 234 million. It said surgeries had become common, with one in every 25 people undergoing it at any given time. 50% never events are preventable. Evidence suggests up to one in ten hospital admissions results in an adverse incident. This incident rate is not acceptable in other industries. In order to move towards a more acceptable level of safety, we need to understand how and why things go wrong and have to build a reliable system of working. With this system even though complete prevention may not be possible but we can reduce the error percentage2. To change present concept towards patient, first we have to change and replace the word patient with medical customer. Then our outlook also changes, we will be more careful towards our customers.

  14. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  15. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24-hours a day, 7 days a week online at www.cybertipline.com National Runaway Safeline Children’s Bureau/ACYF A listing of State toll-free numbers for specific agencies to receive and investigate reports of suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America ( ...

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how is it treated? What's the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal ...

  17. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have...

  18. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role. PMID:23103593

  19. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the methodological requirements of DAHTA. Proceedings of the electronic literature searches are documented in the appendix. In addition references of review articles were searched. Methodological quality of publications (systematic reviews, HTA reports was assessed using the checklists developed by the German Scientific Working Group for Technology Assessment in Health Care (GSWGTAHC or with the Jadad-Score (controlled trials respectively. Due to the large number of relevant publications the assessment is mainly based on data reported by systematic reviews and supplemented by the results of newer trials. A separate economic assessment was not performed because of the low amount of available data. An assessment of ethical, legal and social impact was omitted due to resource constraints.ResultsFor preventive interventions based on exercise programs most of the analysed trials demonstrate some effectiveness. Due to the heterogeneity of the programs it is not possible to conclude whether positive effects are associated with a special type, duration or intensity of exercise. For purely educational measures or information strategies applied in a workplace setting the available trials were not able to demonstrate effectiveness. Back school programs, which in addition to theoretical instructions offer intensive exercising may in the short term, be successful in reducing the incidence of new episodes of back pain. Some trials in high risk groups demonstrate effectiveness of multidimensional interventions on time lost from work. These programs include education and exercise as well as cognitive behavioural interventions to change pain perception. The assessment of the benefits of back belts for the prevention of back pain is based on results of high quality efficacy as well as effectiveness trials. Their results imply for the otherwise healthy working population no protective effect of back belts on time lost from work due to back pain, on the incidence of painful episodes or on days with impairment by back pain. So far there are no data from controlled trials that demonstrate the eff

  20. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  1. Gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Biosca, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases.

  2. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  3. Preventing chronic postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, D

    2016-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is common. Nerve injury and inflammation promote chronic pain, the risk of which is influenced by patient factors, including psychological characteristics. Interventional trials to prevent chronic postoperative pain have been underpowered with inadequate patient follow-up. Ketamine may reduce chronic postoperative pain, although the optimum treatment duration and dose for different operations have yet to be identified. The evidence for gabapentin and pregabalin is encouraging but weak; further work is needed before these drugs can be recommended for the prevention of chronic pain. Regional techniques reduce the rates of chronic pain after thoracotomy and breast cancer surgery. Nerve-sparing surgical techniques may be of benefit, although nerve injury is not necessary or sufficient for chronic pain to develop. PMID:26620149

  4. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget; Brown, Rebecca; Briend, André; Frize, Jacqueline; Shoham, Jeremy; Kiess, Lynnda

    undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...... of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific...

  5. Prevention of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)

  6. Is dementia preventable?

    OpenAIRE

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2009-01-01

    Dementía is an important public health problem of increasing magnitude. At present, available therapies provide only minor and temporary relief, and attempts to find a cure have so far failed. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for dementía, particularly Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In principle, these findíngs provide an opportunity to intervene and prevent the dementía epidemic. Attention to nongenetic risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smokin...

  7. Prevention of food blisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet. PMID:24952049

  8. Prevention of occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, E; Moscato, G

    2002-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is a type of bronchial asthma due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment. It is the most prevalent occupational lung disease in industrialized countries, accounting for approximately 5% of asthma in adults. Since OA has important medical, social and economic consequences, its prevention is mandatory, and the most important measure is primary prevention at the workplace. Control of environmental exposure can be realized by completely eliminating the causative substances, or, failing that, by reducing exposure to the lowest practicable levels. This goal may be achieved in a variety of ways, e.g. by automation of a process, improvement of ventilation, modification of the process or agents, and use of personal protection devices. However, the control of environmental exposure presents several difficulties. First of all, exposure levels that favour respiratory sensitization to high molecular weight (HMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) agents are not completely defined. There is a critical need for the development of methods able to quantify the airbone levels of sensitizing agents at the workplace and to establish limits of exposure for respiratory sensitization. Development of assays (e.g. immunochemical assays) able to quantify airbone allergen levels should facilitate determination both of exposure-response relationships and of exposure limits for preventing respiratory sensitization and development of OA. Quantification of risk at the workplace is also often rough and based on indirect markers of exposure. At present, the target for an optimal approach to the primary prevention of OA is the development of methods able to evaluate both the sensitizing and the asthmogenic properties of the substances before their introduction in the work environment. PMID:12619387

  9. Optimal preventive bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  10. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (PI) is a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and prolonged convalescence after major surgical procedures. The pathophysiology of PI is multifactorial, including activation of the stress response to surgery, with inhibitory sympathetic visceral reflexes and inflammatory mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surge...

  11. Prevention of Physicians’ Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Suicide rate in physicians has been reported to be higher than general population or other academics. Previous studies found that 85-90% of people who commit suicide had been suffering from some type of psychiatric disorder. Suicide prevention is the key element in lowering the numbers of physicians who destroy themselves and end their lives each year. It is needed to provide some educational programs to increase physicians’ awareness of warning signs of suicidal ideation such as observable s...

  12. Adhesion prevention in myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Adhesions are abnormal fibrous connections, joining tissue surfaces in abnormal locations. Adhesions form after any trauma involving the peritoneum and the injured tissue surface or directly between the injured tissue surfaces. The ideal anti-adhesion agent should be safe, efficacious, easy to use in all types of surgery, and economical. It should prevent adhesions at the site of surgery as well as throughout the peritoneal cavity. Needless to say, the ideal agent is still elusive. PMID:22442530

  13. Prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, A.; PATTERSON, D; Rayner, M.; Hyland, K.

    1992-01-01

    1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to resul...

  14. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

  15. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities .

  16. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  17. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  18. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  19. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  20. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infested person. Fumigation or dusting with chemical insecticides sometimes is necessary to control and prevent the ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  1. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  2. Can Penile Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can penile cancer be found early? Can penile cancer be prevented? The large variations in ... the world strongly suggest that many penile cancers can be prevented. The best way to reduce the ...

  3. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past three decades, the National Cancer Institute has provided state-of-the-art training in cancer prevention and control to a cadre of scientists and health professionals through the Cancer Prevention Fellowship.

  4. Acne Scars: Tips for Preventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments A - D Acne scars Tips for preventing Acne scars: Tips for preventing Gentle skin care can ... acne clears. Dermatologists recommend the following: Treat the acne The fewer breakouts you have, the less likely ...

  5. Gene Silencing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kertbundit, Sunee; Ju?í?ek, Miloslav; Hall, T.C.

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2010 - (Jain, S.; Brar, D.), s. 631-652 ISBN 978-90-481-2966-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Gene Silencing * RISC complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  7. Gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    KAY, MARK A.; Liu, Dexi; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of technological breakthroughs that have allowed for clinical trials in gene therapy to be initiated. In combination with the genome initiative, the potential for new therapeutics is limitless. Although an enormous amount of information has been obtained in a relatively short period of time, gene therapy is not yet ready for wide-scale practice. Some of the successes and obstacles that remain are summarized in this report.

  8. Can We Really Prevent Suicide?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, a...

  9. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  10. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  11. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  12. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH)

  13. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriele, Dennert; Marcel, Zwahlen; Maree, Brinkman; Marco, Vinceti; Maurice P. A., Zeegers; Markus, Horneber.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship b [...] etween selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to answer research question (b). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91) and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83) with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05) than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77). These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No reliable conclusions can be drawn regarding a causal relationship between low selenium exposure and an increased risk of cancer. Despite evidence for an inverse association between selenium exposure and the risk of some types of cancer, these results should be interpreted with care due to the potential limiting factors of heterogeneity and influences of unknown biases, confounding and effect modification. The effect of selenium supplementation from RCTs yielded inconsistent results. To date, there is no convincing evidence that selenium supplements can prevent cancer in men, women or children.

  14. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte; Tendal, Britta; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL...... preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. We did not find evidence to conclude that topical antibiotic therapy prevents endophthalmitis....

  15. Fracture prevention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Mosekilde, Leif; Langdahl, Bente

    2011-01-01

    effects of bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of pharmacological treatments other than bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of non-pharmacological treatments to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? We...... Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)....

  16. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  17. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  18. Toward suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V A

    1999-10-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustration, unemployement and poor parenting are major causes for youth suicide.There is biological evidence of suicidal behaviour. Fall in the level of serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CSF and in hind brain is found in subjects dying from suicide. Researchers have found decreased melatonin level in depression and suicide attempters. Long term therapy with antidepressants (Tricyclics), mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and new SSRIs prevent relapses and lessen suicide. It was concluded that general hospital doctors are in position of reducing suicide rates. Education of physician in detection of depression and suicide prevention will result in decline in number of suicides. The important measures include limiting the ability of methods of self-harm, antidepressants, paracetamol and insecticides. PMID:21430799

  19. Prevention of foodborne listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebagliati Victoria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including elderly and immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, newborns and infants. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicemia or meningitis. Contaminated meats (such as hot dogs, delicatessen meats and pat?, dairy products and seafood have all been implicated in outbreaks of listeriosis. The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly because listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness, ranking second after salmonellosis. L. monocytogenes emerged as an important foodborne pathogen in the latter part of the 20th century. Extensive work has been performed in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. An important reduction occurred in listeriosis incidence in some of these countries during the 90s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and incidence decrease of human listeriosis.

  20. Preventing pediatric cardiomyopathy: a 2015 outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Paul F; Kleinman, Jake A; Ryan, Thomas D; Wilmot, Ivan; Zuckerman, Warren A; Addonizio, Linda J; Everitt, Melanie D; Jefferies, John L; Lee, Teresa M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Wilkinson, James D; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2016-03-01

    Cardiomyopathies in children encompass a broad range of diseases, both genetic and acquired, which manifest as a primary cardiac disorder or as a cardiomyopathy secondary to systemic disease. The burden of this group of disorders is substantial, and growing on a global scale. The availability of disease altering treatments is limited, and therefore a focused review on the prevention of cardiomyopathies is justified. In this review, we address the prevention of cardiomyopathy in children by dealing with the root causes of disease at a molecular, clinical and population level. Recent years have yielded promising returns in basic research related to gene-targeted therapy, specific anti-viral therapies and modification of the effects of cardiotoxic drugs. Much work remains to be done in the fields of vaccine development, public health and adoption of available treatments. Effective research in this field will require that diagnostic methods are both refined, and made available more broadly, from imaging to gene testing. Much of our knowledge today is derived from the use of registries, which have successfully catalogued the detailed phenotype of affected patients, and provided long-term longitudinal follow up of affected individuals. PMID:26645487

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF BLAST RESISTANCE GENE PI-TA IN THE USDA RICE CORE COLLECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) prevents the infection by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea (causal organism of rice blast) isolates containing the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita in a gene-for-gene manner. Pi-ta has been effectively used for blast control over decades in the U...

  2. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment. PMID:25518090

  3. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, F D Richard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important cause of premature death and disability globally. Much is known of the main aetiological risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and smoking, with a raft of additional risks of increasing prevalence, such as obesity and diabetes. Furthermore, some of the most secure evidence-based management strategies in healthcare relate to interventions that modify risk. Yet major gaps remain in the implementation of such evidence, summarized in international guideline recommendations. Some of this gap relates to knowledge deficits amongst clinicians, but also to continued uncertainties over interpretation of the evidence base and areas where data are less available. This article collection in BMC Medicine seeks to offer reflections in each of these areas of uncertainty, spanning issues of better diagnosis, areas of controversy and glimpses of potentially potent future interventions in the prevention of CVD. PMID:26456942

  4. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  5. Prevention of skateboard injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W J; Galloway, D J; Patel, A R

    1980-01-01

    Skateboarding has become extremely popular in the United Kingdom, and it is estimated that over two million skateboards have been sold. Previous surveys have shown the dangers of the sport, fractures of the limbs being a particularly common form of injury. Consequently the provision of skateboard parks and the wearing of adequate protective clothing were considered necessary to reduce to severity of the injuries sustained. Our survey does not support this view, and suggests that fractures are more likely to occur in people with full protective clothing and skating in a park. The reasons for this are discussed. It is also suggested that expert instruction in the use of the skateboard has been neglected as a means of accident prevention. PMID:7209497

  6. Legionellosis prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann, P; Hautemaniere, A

    2011-06-01

    Since 1997, both the prevention of legionellosis and the control of Legionella in water networks and cooling towers have greatly improved in France. The epidemiological surveillance of Legionnaires' disease showed an increase, which was followed by a decrease in the incidence after a maximum was reached in 2005 (incidence rate of 2.5 per 10(5)). A steady decrease in the incidence rate has been observed since 2006, mainly due to the efficacy of control measures both for cooling towers and hospital water networks. In hospitals, a proactive approach was proposed in 1998 and quantitative limit values with systematic survey were put into force in 2002. The percentage of nosocomial cases has decreased dramatically and is now around 6-7% of all cases recorded in France. No nosocomial outbreak has been reported in recent years. However, this is not the case for community cases linked to diverse exposure sources, including cooling towers. PMID:21626377

  7. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The issue of informal development was discussed in details at the joint FIG Com 3 and UNECE/WPLA workshop in Sounio, Greece, March 2007. Emphasis was given to the scale of the problem in Southern and Eastern Europe and to means of legalising such informal urban development. This paper, instead......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making...... information. Comprehensive planning: This should combine the overall land use policies and the more detailed land-use regulations into one planning document covering the total jurisdiction. Presentation of political aims and objectives as well as problems and preconditions, should then justify the detailed...

  8. Gene Expression in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep; Katoch, Vipin C.; Dhar, Prasenjit; Katoch, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done...... by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle....

  10. Prevention of the hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Loukopoulos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The inherited hemoglobin disorders not only cause suffering and unhappiness to the patients but they also absorb a large part of resources and human effort in several countries which harbor the deleterious genes. Numbers are frightening! Africa, with several millions patients with sickle cell anemia; India with millions of patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia, South East Asia with more millions of patients with hemoglobin E and a- or b-thalassemia. The offered treatment is suboptimal or nil and, and, in several places, patients are dying at infancy not only because of their hemoglobinopathy but mainly because of infections and malaria; in this way, nature took care of her own faults and eliminated them before they enter productive life...

  11. Cocaine hydrolase gene therapy for cocaine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Rapid progress in the past decade with re-engineering of human plasma butyrylcholinesterase has led to enzymes that destroy cocaine so efficiently that they prevent or interrupt drug actions in the CNS even though confined to the blood stream. Over the same time window, improved gene-transfer technology has made it possible to deliver such enzymes by endogenous gene transduction at high levels for periods of a year or longer after a single treatment. This article reviews recent advances in th...

  12. Stress, Meditation, and Alzheimer's Disease Prevention: Where The Evidence Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Dharma Singh

    2015-08-28

    Although meditation is believed to be over five thousand years old, scientific research on it is in its infancy. Mitigating the extensive negative biochemical effects of stress is a superficially discussed target of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention, yet may be critically important. This paper reviews lifestyle and stress as possible factors contributing to AD and meditation's effects on cognition and well-being for reduction of neurodegeneration and prevention of AD. This review highlights Kirtan Kriya (KK), an easy, cost effective meditation technique requiring only 12 minutes a day, which has been successfully employed to improve memory in studies of people with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and highly stressed caregivers, all of whom are at increased risk for subsequent development of AD. KK has also been shown to improve sleep, decrease depression, reduce anxiety, down regulate inflammatory genes, upregulate immune system genes, improve insulin and glucose regulatory genes, and increase telomerase by 43%; the largest ever recorded. KK also improves psycho-spiritual well-being or spiritual fitness, important for maintenance of cognitive function and prevention of AD. KK is easy to learn and practice by aging individuals. It is the premise of this review that meditation in general, and KK specifically, along with other modalities such as dietary modification, physical exercise, mental stimulation, and socialization, may be beneficial as part of an AD prevention program. PMID:26445019

  13. Studying Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body's functions. Genes are passed from one generation to the next. What is a genome? A genome is all ... Highlight Header Highlight Body Related Links Up to top This page last reviewed on August ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health: NIH...Turning Discovery Into ...

  14. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  15. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lorek, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  16. Scheduling preventive railway maintenance activities

    OpenAIRE

    Budai-Balke, Gabriella; Huisman, Dennis; Dekker, Rommert

    2004-01-01

    A railway system needs a substantial amount of maintenance. To prevent unexpected breakdowns as much as possible, preventive maintenance is required. In this paper we discuss the Preventive Maintenance Scheduling Problem (PMSP), where (short) routine activities and (long) unique projects have to be scheduled in a certain period. To reduce costs and inconvenience for the travellers and operators, these activities have to be scheduled as much as possible together. We present a mathematical form...

  17. Terrorism prevention and electoral accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Polborn, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    How does electoral accountability affect the effectiveness of terrorism prevention in a democ- racy? We analyze the connection between electoral accountability and policy effectiveness in the context of terrorism prevention. We develop a formal model of an interaction between a government, a minority community, and a representative voter. All actors share the objective of terrorism prevention and have symmetric information. We show that electoral pressures to be successful in terrorism preven...

  18. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  19. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  20. Trying to prevent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J

    1997-06-01

    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially. PMID:9678094

  1. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  2. LOGY, PREVENTION & CONTROL OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rabies is a zoonotic disease and its magnitude of problem is underestimated due to lack of surveillance. In spite of hundred percent fa tality, the optimistic view is that it is totally and absolutely preventable with the aid of effective post-exposure prophylaxis. It is prevalent mainly in the developing countries like Africa and A sia. Wild carnivorous animals act as reservoir and domestic/peridomestic warm blooded ani mals transmit the virus to the human population. It is popularly known as “Hydrophobia” in h uman and children are at particularly risk. More than 3.3 billion people live in regions w here rabies is enzootic. Dog bite is the principal mode of infection in India and lower limb i s the most common site of injury. Ineffective surveillance, shortage of TCV and Immunoglobulin ma nufacturer and its high cost, peoples ignorance of first aid measures after bite and the importance of compliance of PEP, uncontrolled street dog population etc. are the key issues which should be addressed to tackle this problem.

  3. Preventive self-governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturloni Giancarlo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”

  4. Hydrogen explosion prevention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If an emergency core cleaning system is not operated upon loss of coolant accident, temperature of fuels is increased due to after-heat, by which zirconium alloy as the fuel can material and water as coolants react to generate hydrogen. If the inside of the container is replaced with a nitrogen gas, etc., hydrogen is not burnt. Then, as the pressure and the temperature are increased to break the container and the hydrogen gas leaks into nuclear buildings, since the inside of the nuclear buildings is not replaced with the nitrogen gas, there may be a risk of hydrogen gas explosion. In view of the above, water is sprayed to the inside of the nuclear buildings upon occurrence of accidents. Although the hydrogen gas is exploded or burnt with aid of oxygen in air, if moisture is present in the air, explosion or combustion of the hydrogen gas is suppressed. The sprayed water droplets are easily evaporated to increase the moisture content in air thereby enabling to prevent explosion and combustion of the hydrogen gas. (N.H.)

  5. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  6. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director.

  7. Crack Cocaine: A Challenge for Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L., Ed.

    This monograph presents the history and epidemiology of crack cocaine and demonstrates aspects of the drug and its use that are unique in the field of prevention. Problems specific to crack cocaine that require specifically focused prevention strategies are examined and recommendations for a crack cocaine research agenda are provided. Chapter 1…

  8. Translating Models of Antisocial Behavioral Development Into Efficacious Intervention Policy to Prevent Adolescent Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; McCourt, Sandra N.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cas...

  9. Zinc in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ananda S; Beck, Frances W J; Snell, Diane C; Kucuk, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Essentiality of zinc for humans was discovered 45 yr ago. Deficiency of zinc is prevalent world wide in developing countries and may affect nearly 2 billion subjects. The major manifestations of zinc deficiency include growth retardation, hypogonadism in males, cell-mediated immune dysfunctions, and cognitive impairment. Zinc not only improves cell mediated immune functions but also functions as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been implicated in development of many cancers. In patients with head and neck cancer, we have shown that nearly 65% of these patients were zinc deficient based on their cellular zinc concentrations. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and IL-2 generation were also affected adversely. Th2 cytokines were not affected. In our patients, zinc status was a better indicator of tumor burden and stage of disease in comparison to the overall nutritional status. Zinc status also correlated with number of hospital admissions and incidences of infections. NF-kappa B is constitutively activated in many cancer cells, and this results in activation of antiapoptotic genes, VEGF, cyclin DI, EGFR, MMP-9 and inflammatory cytokines. Zinc inhibits NF-kappa B via induction of A-20. Thus, zinc supplementation should have beneficial effects on cancer by decreasing angiogenesis and induction of inflammatory cytokines while increasing apoptosis in cancer cells. Based on the above, we recommend further studies and propose that zinc should be utilized in the management and chemoprevention of cancer. PMID:20155630

  10. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  11. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  12. Get Real about Diabetes Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/15/2007.

  13. Prevention of embrittlement of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrittlement of a metal such as W, Mo, Ta, or alloy steel in an inert atmosphere (He) at high temperature, may be prevented by adding to the atmosphere small amounts of an oxidizing gas (250 ppM O2) and also of hydrogen to prevent oxidation. (U.S.)

  14. Preventive Maintenance Handbook. Audiovisual Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Products Information Exchange Inst., Stony Brook, NY.

    The preventive maintenance system for audiovisual equipment presented in this handbook is designed by specialists so that it can be used by nonspecialists in school sites. The report offers specific advice on saftey factors and also lists major problems that should not be handled by nonspecialists. Other aspects of a preventive maintenance system…

  15. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. HONEYWELL PLANNING GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    THIS HONEYWELL PAMPHLET DISCUSSES SOME ASPECTS OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROLS, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING, AND COMPARES IN-PLANT WITH CONTRACT SERVICE, CONCLUDING THAT CONTRACT SERVICE IS PREFERABLE AND DESCRIBING A NUMBER OF MAINTENANCE PLANS WHICH THEY FURNISH. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROVIDES--(1) MORE EFFICIENT…

  16. Modern Method for Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Howard D.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a system at Michigan State University that comprises 16 separate programs and schedules 25,000 manhours of preventive maintenance. With information about preventive maintenance for over 100,000 units stored in its computer, the university saves personnel, time, and energy. (Author/MLF)

  17. Educating Students in Preventive Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive set of competencies for counselors doing primary prevention. Describes 10 expanded clusters of skills (primary prevention perspective, personal attributes and behaviors, ethics, marketing, multiculturalism, group facilitation, organization and setting dynamics, trends and political dynamics, and research and evaluation)…

  18. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  19. Preventing fractures in elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Anthony D; Åkesson, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    Preventing fractures in elderly people is a priority, especially as it has been predicted that in 20 years almost a quarter of people in Europe will be aged over 65. This article describes the factors contributing to fracture, interventions to prevent fracture, and the various treatments.

  20. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cuckle, Howard S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown.

  1. Two stages of cancer prevention with green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H

    1999-11-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a new and important medical science in its own right. On the occasion of my presentation entitled "Natural agents and cancer chemoprevention" at the 90th AACR Meeting in 1999, I summarized our recent results on cancer prevention with green tea. In this article, the present status of clinical trials supported by the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute in the United States is first described by way of introduction. Although various natural products are now under investigation in phase I clinical trials, green tea has, perhaps, the greatest potential for further development. In order to expand our understanding of the effects of tea polyphenols and green tea, I review their ability to inhibit growth and cause apoptosis of cancer cells, their distribution into target organs and their other cancer-preventing properties. In addition, the paper focuses on the significance of reducing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) gene expression in cells and TNFalpha release from cells as essential activities for cancer prevention. As for the amounts of green tea effective in cancer prevention, I present two results from our Research Institute: a prospective cohort study with over 8000 individuals in Saitama Prefecture revealed that the daily consumption of at least ten Japanese-size cups of green tea resulted in delayed cancer onset, and a follow-up study of breast cancer patients conducted at our Hospital found that stages I and II breast cancer patients consuming over five cups per day experienced a lower recurrence rate and longer disease-free period than those consuming fewer than four cups per day. Thus, I propose here, for the first time, the two-stage approach to analyzing cancer prevention with green tea: cancer prevention before cancer onset and cancer prevention following cancer treatment. As an additional example of cancer prevention with natural agents, kava, a daily beverage in Fiji, is mentioned. All the evidence reminds us of the significance of alternative medicine in practical cancer prevention. PMID:10541965

  2. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  3. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  4. Vasohibin prevents arterial neointimal formation through angiogenesis inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasohibin is a VEGF-inducible angiogenesis inhibitor in vascular endothelium. Here we examined the presence of vasohibin in human arterial wall, and found it in endothelium of adventitial microvessels in atherosclerotic lesion. Adventitial angiogenesis is involved in the progression of neointimal formation. Even in the presence of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, pathological angiogenesis persists. However, the supplementation of exogenous angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent pathological angiogenesis. We evaluated the potential role of vasohibin in neointimal formation. Adenovirus-mediated human vasohibin gene transfer in mouse liver resulted in the release of vasohibin in plasma and exhibited anti-angiogenic effects at remote sites. This gene transfer inhibited adventitial angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and neointimal formation after cuff placement on mouse femoral artery. Vasohibin exhibited no direct effect on migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Thus, vasohibin has an activity to prevent neointimal formation by inhibiting adventitial angiogenesis

  5. Gene technology and social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galjaard, H

    1997-03-01

    About 10% of the human genome has now been mapped and for more than 1000 diseases closely linked DNA polymorphisms or the responsible genes have been identified. These developments have extended the scope of (prenatal) diagnosis and carrier detection which already was possible by biochemical analysis of protein defects in some 400 Mendelian disorders. Together with the study of chromosomal aberrations these activities form the basis for genetic counselling and carrier screening programmes. A brief overview of the activities in clinical genetics will be presented and their importance for the prevention of congenital disorders and for informed decisions of couples at risk will be emphasized. Reproductive decisions are, however very closely related to culture, religion, education and the socioeconomic status of individuals and populations. Up to now genetic services have mainly been developed in wealthy postindustrial countries with a low infant mortality. But even among these countries there are major differences in the implementation of gene technology as will be shown by comparisons of the United States, Europe and Japan. In the developing countries where about 95% of the world's future children will be born there are major hindrances in the development of clinical genetics such as poverty, illiteracy of women, low contraceptive use and a high infant mortality. There are, however, examples of developing countries that give high priority to the application of gene technology such as Cuba and China. While the developing countries are struggling to improve their basic health care, research on gene technology in the western countries proceeds fast. The early identification of a particular gene constitution will show whether a young adult is at higher risk of important diseases such as various forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes or psychiatric disorders. The therapeutical, preventive, psychological and some ethical aspects of this new era of predictive medicine will be discussed. PMID:9296071

  6. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

  7. Melatonin prevents neonatal dexamethasone induced programmed hypertension: histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsin; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Lin, I-Chun; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by corticosteroid exposure in early life. Oxidative stress, epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the developmental programming of hypertension. We examined whether melatonin prevented neonatal dexamethasone (DEX)-induced programmed hypertension and how melatonin prevented these processes. We also examined whether HDAC inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) had similar effects. Male offspring were assigned to 5 groups (n=6/group): control, DEX, melatonin, DEX+melatonin, and DEX+TSA. Male rat pups were injected i.p. with DEX on day 1 (0.5mg/kg BW), day 2 (0.3mg/kg BW), and day 3 (0.1mg/kg BW) after birth. Melatonin was administered in drinking water at the dose of 0.01% during the lactation period. The DEX+TSA group received DEX and 0.5mg/kg TSA subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week. All rats were killed at 16 weeks of age. Neonatal DEX exposure induced hypertension in male offspring at 16 weeks of age, which melatonin prevented. Neonatal DEX exposure decreased gene expression related to apoptosis, nephrogenesis, RAS, and sodium transporters. Yet DEX treatment increased protein levels of HDAC-1, -2, and -3 in the kidney. Melatonin therapy preserved the decreases of gene expression and decreased HDACs. Similarly, HDAC inhibition prevented DEX-induced programmed hypertension. In conclusion, melatonin therapy exerts a long-term protection against neonatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. Its beneficial effects include alterations of RAS components and inhibition of class I HDACs. Given that the similar protective effects of melatonin and TSA, melatonin might inhibit HDACs to epigenetic regulation of hypertension-related genes to prevent programmed hypertension. PMID:25090636

  8. Prevention of adolescent chemical dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, R L

    1987-04-01

    Chemical dependency is part of a significant pattern of serious health problems resulting from the breakdown of social control over impulsive, pleasure-driven adolescent behavior. The drug epidemic in North America, after two decades of relentless increases, shows encouraging signs that stopping it may be possible. Chemical dependency prevention became a serious concern in the 1970s in response to the rising drug epidemic. Initial efforts focused on drug-specific education in the mass media and in the schools. After discouraging and even counterproductive results, nonspecific or generic prevention efforts were tried in both areas. These efforts, too, did not prevent drug use or drug problems. More recently, using cigarette smoking prevention initiatives in schools as a model, hopeful results have been achieved. These efforts combine education about immediate negative effects of drug use with training in skills to resist peer pressure to use drugs. These efforts also build youth peer rejection of drug use. Promising a wider community effort to prevent chemical dependency are several macro prevention programs. These include efforts to decrease tolerance for drug use and to identify drug users in four specific areas: families, schools, highways, and the workplace. Chemical dependency can be prevented by a variety of interventions, including one-to-one encounters, school-based skills training, and society-wide initiatives to reject drug use. The teenage years are a time of unique vulnerability to initiation of drug and alcohol use. The clear goal of prevention is to help young people to survive these years without using drugs, including the gateway drugs: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine. The pediatrician can play a vital role in successful prevention activities with patients, with their families, in communities, and in the nation as a whole. PMID:3562105

  9. Regulatory and Ethical Issues for Phase I In Utero Gene Transfer Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Carson

    2011-01-01

    Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical i...

  10. Antioxidative nanofullerol prevents intervertebral disk degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinlin; Jin, Li; Yao, Lu; Shen, Francis H; Shimer, Adam L; Li, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in disk degeneration. Fullerol nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution have been demonstrated to have outstanding ability to scavenge ROS. In this report, in vitro and in vivo models were used to study the efficacy of fullerol in preventing disk degeneration. For in vitro experiments, a pro-oxidant H2O2 or an inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? was employed to induce degenerated phenotypes in human nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in alginate beads, and fullerol was added in the culture medium. For the animal study, an annulus-puncture model with rabbit was created, and fullerol was injected into disks. It was shown that cytotoxicity and cellular ROS level induced by H2O2 were significantly diminished by fullerol. IL-1?-induced nitric oxide generation in culture medium was suppressed by fullerol as well. Gene-profile and biochemical assays showed that fullerol effectively reversed the matrix degradation caused by either H2O2 or IL-1?. The animal study delineated that intradiskal injection of fullerol prevented disk degeneration, increasing water and proteoglycan content and inhibiting ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that antioxidative fullerol may have a potential therapeutic application for disk degeneration. PMID:24876775

  11. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  12. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis that are channeled through our genes. Where variation in the target genes of physical activity exists, gene-physical activity interactions may occur, such that individual genetic profiles inflict differing physiological responses to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabet...

  13. Gene expression and gene therapy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

  14. Ex vivo gene transfer into hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Mani, Prashant; Sarkar, Debi P; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2009-01-01

    Ex vivo gene transfer into hepatocytes could serve several purposes in the context of gene therapy or cell transplantation: (1) isolated hepatocytes can be transduced in culture with therapeutic genes and then transplanted into the recipient; (2) marker genes can be introduced for subsequent identification of transplanted cells and their progeny; (3) gene transfer can be used for conditional immortalization of hepatocytes for expansion in culture; (4) immunomodulatory genes can be transferred into hepatocytes to prevent allograft rejection. Gene transfer into cultured hepatocytes can be achieved using DNA that is not incorporated into recombinant viruses. In such systems, transgene integration into the host cell genome can be enhanced using transposon systems, such as "sleeping beauty." In addition to using the conventional reagents, such as cationic liposomes, DNA transfer into hepatocytes can be achieved by Nucleofection or special hepatocyte-targeted carriers such as proteoliposomes containing galactose-terminated glycoproteins (e.g. the F protein of the Sendai virus). Alternatively, genes can be transferred using recombinant viruses, such as adenoviral vectors that are episomal or retroviral vectors (including lentiviruses) that permit integration of the transgene into the host genome. Gene transfer using lentiviral vectors has been achieved in both attached and suspended hepatocytes. Transduction efficiency of lentiviral vectors can be enhanced using magnetic nanoparticles (Magnetofection). PMID:19096805

  15. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  16. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  17. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Preventing ticks on your pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! Kill Ticks on Dogs A pesticide product that kills ticks ...

  18. Reconceptualizing drug use prevention processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Zili

    2014-01-01

    The field of drug use prevention has been advanced through a convergence of theories of human behavior, a more enhanced understanding of the factors that have been found to be associated with the onset of drug use, and more sophisticated research methodologies impacting not only study design and measurement but also data analysis. For these reasons, there is a need for a reconceptualization of the intent and function of prevention in order to refine intervention development and implementation. This review will focus primarily on drug use prevention but the implications are clear for other prevention outcome behaviors. The concepts included in this paper are stimulated by recent advances in understanding neurobiological development and revised understanding of the interaction between individual vulnerability and environmental influences. It also draws on the concept of socialization and the role of socialization and socializing agents in any society. PMID:24652393

  19. Pollution Prevention (P2) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The P2 (Pollution Prevention) Widget allows the user to retrieve information on reductions in waste generation, safer waste management alternatives, and effective...

  20. Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can vaginal cancer be found early? Can vaginal cancer be prevented? The best way to ... with an infected area of the body. HPV can be spread during sex – including vaginal intercourse, anal ...

  1. Prevention: What You Can Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Prevention: What You Can Do Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Live ... healthy diet. Choosing healthful meal and snack options can help you avoid heart disease and its complications. ...

  2. Can Anal Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic How is anal cancer found? Can anal cancer be prevented? Since some people with ... this disease completely. But there are things you can do that might lower your risk of anal ...

  3. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can Kaposi sarcoma be found early? Can Kaposi sarcoma be prevented? Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is ... cases of KS in this country. Since HIV can be spread through sex, avoiding unprotected sex with ...

  4. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning ... gov] Top of page How can knowing about genetics help treat disease? Every year, more than two ...

  5. Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented? Following a healthy lifestyle and taking steps to lower your risk for ... as prescribed. For more information about following a healthy lifestyle, visit the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's ...

  6. How Can Angina Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes and treating related conditions. Making Lifestyle Changes Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent or delay angina and heart disease. To adopt a healthy lifestyle, you can: Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke ...

  7. Head Lice: Tips for Preventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases and treatments E - H Head lice Tips Head lice: Tips for preventing Head lice: Most children ... approved treatments for head lice. Learn more about head lice: Head lice Head lice: Signs and symptoms ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skateboarding/in-line skating prevention tips • Inspect your skateboard or skates for any damaged parts and replace ... fastened securely to your head, every time you skateboard or skate. • Check the area for rocks, debris, ...

  9. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more even serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ... 661-671. Hile ES, Studenski SA. Instability and falls. In: Duthie EH Jr, Katz, PR, Malone ML, ...

  10. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  11. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  12. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  13. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  14. Heartworm Prevention in Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Heartworm Prevention in Your Pet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... products to choose from to help keep their pets heartworm-free. back to top Heartworm Disease A ...

  15. Preventing the radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the IAEA plan of action to protect against nuclear terrorism, the nature of the threat of a radiological dispersal device, international instruments for the prevention of nuclear terrorism, recent progress and perspectives for future action. (author)

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment plan. Treatment goals Prevent blood clots from forming to reduce stroke risk Control your heart rate ... treat arrhythmia can also cause arrhythmia. Your healthcare team will monitor you carefully if you're taking ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Melanoma Communities Play a Vital Role Language: English Español ( ... and use of indoor tanning by minors. Problem Melanoma is increasing. Melanoma skin cancer is common and ...

  18. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed...... formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope...

  19. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Co...

  20. Preventive Medicine and the Family

    OpenAIRE

    Christie-Seely, Janet

    1981-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated the links between the family system and illness, emphasizing the importance of prevention on a family level for physical as well as psychological illness. Brief preventive counselling on routine visits is possible if the physician knows the family well and understands the principles of the family as a system. Periods of high risk when illness and family dysfunction increase in incidence are the normal “crises” of the family life cycle, medical crises of illness, hosp...

  1. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    NEWNHAM, John P; Dickinson, Jan E; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; jud...

  2. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  3. Preventing Relapse Following Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Susan E; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kirouac, Megan; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Long-term smoking cessation can drastically reduce people’s risk for developing smoking-related disease. The research literature points to a need for clearer operationalization and differentiation between smoking cessation and relapse prevention interventions and outcomes. That said, extensive meta-analyses and research studies have indicated that there are various efficacious smoking interventions that can both support s...

  4. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  5. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted inte...

  6. Fish Oil in Cardiovascular Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alaswad, Khaldoon; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V; O'Keefe, James H.

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits of fish oil have been touted for several decades. The authors review evidence from epidemiologic, retrospective, and controlled prospective clinical trials demonstrating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for the prevention of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke in primary and especially secondary prevention settings. Fish oil's efficacy in reducing total mortality and sudden cardiac death appears particularly promising, pro...

  7. Malaria prevention in travelling children

    OpenAIRE

    Mathijs, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Preventing malaria in children is often neglected. Prevention is very important, as malaria is still a significant cause of childhood mortality. Parents must be aware that the same measures must be taken by children to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. Chemoprophylaxis with mefloquine, atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or chloroquine is advised. The correct dose must be given, at the correct dosing interval. The choice of drug depends on several factors, such as cost, side-effects, and ot...

  8. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  9. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable.

  10. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have ... day. search Features Can We Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? Mind Your Mouth Wise Choices Links To Prevent Gum ...

  11. Prevent Heartworms in Pets Year-Round

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Prevent Heartworms in Pets Year-Round Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... approved heartworm preventative. back to top FDA-Approved Heartworm Preventatives for Dogs and Cats A variety of ...

  12. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer . The recommendation in this statement is for children, ...

  13. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to navigation Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion health.gov healthfinder.gov healthypeople.gov health .gov ... People healthfinder The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Our Work The Office of Disease Prevention and ...

  14. Preventing atopy and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study. PMID:24504215

  15. Identificação de micobactérias não tuberculosas isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes em um hospital universitário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves Senna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2001 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Durante o período do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de sítios estéreis de 14 pacientes, a maioria HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificação fenotípica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, análise por enzimas de restrição por PCR do gene hsp65. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores proporções. CONCLUSÕES: A combinação de PRA, um método relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas características fenotípicas pode fornecer a identificação correta de MNT na rotina de laboratórios clínicos.OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites of 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA. RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

  16. Identificação de micobactérias não tuberculosas isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes em um hospital universitário na cidade do Rio de Janeiro / Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical sterile sites in patients at a university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Gonçalves, Senna; Ana Grazia, Marsico; Gisele Betzler de Oliveira, Vieira; Luciana Fonseca, Sobral; Philip Noel, Suffys; Leila de Souza, Fonseca.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) isoladas de sítios estéreis em pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) entre 2001 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Durante o período do estudo, 34 isolados de MNT de sítios estéreis de 14 pacientes, a maior [...] ia HIV positivos, foram submetidos a identificação fenotípica e hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA, análise por enzimas de restrição por PCR do gene hsp65). RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados foi identificada como Mycobacterium avium, seguida por M. monacense, M. kansasii e M. abscessus em menores proporções. CONCLUSÕES: A combinação de PRA, um método relativamente simples e de baixo custo, com algumas características fenotípicas pode fornecer a identificação correta de MNT na rotina de laboratórios clínicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from sterile sites in patients hospitalized between 2001 and 2006 at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: During the study period, 34 NTM isolates from sterile sites o [...] f 14 patients, most of whom were HIV-positive, were submitted to phenotypic identification and hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). RESULTS: Most isolates were identified as Mycobacterium avium, followed by M. monacense, M. kansasii, and M. abscessus. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of PRA, a relatively simple and inexpensive method, with the evaluation of a few phenotypic characteristics can allow NTM to be accurately identified in the routine of clinical laboratories.

  17. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  18. Suicide candidate genes associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: An exploratory gene expression profiling analysis of post-mortem prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Baykiz Ali; Choi Kwang-Ho; Kim Sanghyeon; Gershenfeld Howard K

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Suicide is an important and potentially preventable consequence of serious mental disorders of unknown etiology. Gene expression profiling technology provides an unbiased approach to identifying candidate genes for mental disorders. Microarray studies with post-mortem prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46/10) tissue require larger sample sizes. This study poses the question: to what extent are differentially expressed genes for suicide a diagnostic specific set of genes (b...

  19. Infection Prevention in the Cancer Center

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Kerri A.; Kleinberg, Michael; Roghmann, Mary-Claire

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we focus on infection prevention measures, including surveillance, prophylaxis, and prevention, that are specific to patients, healthcare personnel, and visitors in the cancer center setting.

  20. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources.

  1. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  2. Prevention of diseases after menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J

    2014-10-01

    Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium. PMID:24969415

  3. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  4. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  5. Modified proteins in allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Around 2.5% of neonates experience hypersensitivity reactions to cow's milk protein during the first year of life, which is highly associated with early exposure to cow's milk. To prevent early allergy development, cow's milk proteins in infant formulas were modified by hydrolyzation processes for use in children at high atopic risk who need milk supplementation in the first months of life. Dependent on the degree of modification, hydrolyzed cow's milk formulas are differentiated into extensively and partially hydrolyzed whey or casein hydrolysates (pHF, eHF). However, their allergy-preventive potential seems not only to dependent on the degree but also on the process of hydrolysis. pHF and eHF can be used for primary prevention of allergy in infants at high atopic risk, while only eHFs are indicated for secondary prevention in patients with manifest cow's milk allergy. In clinical trials a consistent trend to a reduction in atopy, mainly atopic eczema and food allergy, by certain pHFs and eHFs could be demonstrated in children with a familial risk of atopy until the age of 6 years. Because more than 50% of allergic children do not have a family history of atopy, it would be worthwhile to consider primary allergy prevention with hydrolysates for all children who need supplementation to breastfeeding. PMID:19710526

  6. Gene gymnastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayachandran, Lakshmi S; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Edelweiss, Evelina; Gupta, Kapil; Maier, Josef; Gordeliy, Valentin; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Berger, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Most essential activities in eukaryotic cells are catalyzed by large multiprotein assemblies containing up to ten or more interlocking subunits. The vast majority of these protein complexes are not easily accessible for high resolution studies aimed at unlocking their mechanisms, due to their low cellular abundance and high heterogeneity. Recombinant overproduction can resolve this bottleneck and baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS) have emerged as particularly powerful tools for the provision of eukaryotic multiprotein complexes in high quality and quantity. Recently, synthetic biology approaches have begun to make their mark in improving existing BEVS reagents by de novo design of streamlined transfer plasmids and by engineering the baculovirus genome. Here we present OmniBac, comprising new custom designed reagents that further facilitate the integration of heterologous genes into the baculovirus genome for multiprotein expression. Based on comparative genome analysis and data mining, we herein present a blueprint to custom design and engineer the entire baculovirus genome for optimized production properties using a bottom-up synthetic biology approach. PMID:23328086

  7. Obesity: occurrence, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M S; Armstrong, P J; Allen, T A

    1989-05-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritionally related disease of dogs and cats. Several of the important health problems that are inherent with obesity are resolved when the patient's body weight is returned to normal. Proper dietary management is central to successful treatment and prevention. Low-fat, high-fiber diets provide fewer available calories but induce a greater degree of satiety than simple restriction of the obese patient's regular food. Care must be taken to assure that overweight cats are not fasted, because preliminary reports indicate an alarming association between severe caloric restriction and hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Obesity prevention should ideally be proactive, owing to the predictability of obesity in certain groups of pets. The large number of reduced-energy maintenance type diets that are available for obesity prevention facilitate this goal. PMID:2658285

  8. Fracture prevention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Mosekilde, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime risk of fracture in white women is 20% for the spine, 15% for the wrist, and 18% for the hip, with an exponential increase in risk beyond the age of 50 years. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of pharmacological treatments other than bisphosphonates to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? What are the effects of non-pharmacological treatments to prevent fractures in postmenopausal women? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

  9. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  10. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehran Swart

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ?non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ?offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ?injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ?fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ?discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ?multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ?and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ?successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ?initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.?

  11. Promising candidates for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, James E

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in understanding environmental risk factors for allergic diseases in children have led to renewed efforts aimed at prevention. Factors that modify the probability of developing allergies include prenatal exposures, mode of delivery, diet, patterns of medication use, and exposure to pets and farm animals. Recent advances in microbial detection techniques demonstrate that exposure to diverse microbial communities in early life is associated with a reduction in allergic disease. In fact, microbes and their metabolic products might be essential for normal immune development. Identification of these risk factors has provided new targets for prevention of allergic diseases, and possibilities of altering microbial exposure and colonization to reduce the incidence of allergies is a promising approach. This review examines the rationale, feasibility, and potential effect for the prevention of childhood allergic diseases and explores possible strategies for enhancing exposure to beneficial microbes. PMID:26145984

  12. Prevention of HIV among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, M J; O'Keefe, Z; Kracker, R; Foo, H H

    2000-03-01

    Adolescents are at risk for HIV primarily through their sexual behavior. A comprehensive prevention strategy includes a national HIV campaign based on social marketing principles; targeted social marketing, intensive skill building, and sexually transmitted disease control programs for youth at high risk; programs targeting institutions (e.g., school health clinics), providers, and parents; and interventions to identify and reduce risk acts among seropositive youth. The U.S. focus for HIV prevention has been single-session educational classes (an ineffective strategy) or intensive multi-session, small-group interventions for youth at high risk (demonstrated to increase condom use by about 30%). There is a need to expand the range, modalities, and dissemination of HIV prevention programs nationally, to recognize (especially by policymakers) limitations of abstinence programs, and to increase early detection of HIV among youth. PMID:11507791

  13. Evaluation of Preventive Studies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müyesser Sayki Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45

  14. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  15. Genes and Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode Genes and Psoriasis Genes hold the key to understanding how the ... Are some genes linked to specific kinds of psoriasis? At the University of Utah, Drs. Gerald Krueger ...

  16. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  17. Beyond BRCA: new hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, P; Dimitriadis, G; Psyrri, A

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases might be inheritable, up to 30% of which are due to BRCA1/2 mutations. During the past few years and thanks to technology evolution, we have been witnesses of an intensive search of additional genes with similar characteristics, under the premise that successful gene discovery will provide substantial opportunities for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. Consequently, new genes have emerged as breast cancer susceptibility genes, including rare germline mutations in high penetrant genes, such as TP53 and PTEN, and more frequent mutations in moderate penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM and PALB2. This review will summarize current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes. PMID:25467110

  18. Antioxidative nanofullerol prevents intervertebral disk degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinlin Yang,1 Li Jin,1 Lu Yao,2,3 Francis H Shen,1 Adam L Shimer,1 Xudong Li11Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 3Research Institute of Beijing Tongrentang Co., Ltd, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Compelling evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in disk degeneration. Fullerol nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution have been demonstrated to have outstanding ability to scavenge ROS. In this report, in vitro and in vivo models were used to study the efficacy of fullerol in preventing disk degeneration. For in vitro experiments, a pro-oxidant H2O2 or an inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-1? was employed to induce degenerated phenotypes in human nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in alginate beads, and fullerol was added in the culture medium. For the animal study, an annulus-puncture model with rabbit was created, and fullerol was injected into disks. It was shown that cytotoxicity and cellular ROS level induced by H2O2 were significantly diminished by fullerol. IL-1? -induced nitric oxide generation in culture medium was suppressed by fullerol as well. Gene-profile and biochemical assays showed that fullerol effectively reversed the matrix degradation caused by either H2O2 or IL-1?. The animal study delineated that intradiskal injection of fullerol prevented disk degeneration, increasing water and proteoglycan content and inhibiting ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that antioxidative fullerol may have a potential therapeutic application for disk degeneration.Keywords: free radical, extracellular matrix, intervertebral disk, antioxidant, fullerol

  19. Stochastic gene expression modeling with Hill function for switch-like gene responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haseong; Gelenbe, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression models play a key role to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation whose aspects are grade and switch-like responses. Though many stochastic approaches attempt to explain the gene expression mechanisms, the Gillespie algorithm which is commonly used to simulate the stochastic models requires additional gene cascade to explain the switch-like behaviors of gene responses. In this study, we propose a stochastic gene expression model describing the switch-like behaviors of a gene by employing Hill functions to the conventional Gillespie algorithm. We assume eight processes of gene expression and their biologically appropriate reaction rates are estimated based on published literatures. We observed that the state of the system of the toggled switch model is rarely changed since the Hill function prevents the activation of involved proteins when their concentrations stay below a criterion. In ScbA-ScbR system, which can control the antibiotic metabolite production of microorganisms, our modified Gillespie algorithm successfully describes the switch-like behaviors of gene responses and oscillatory expressions which are consistent with the published experimental study. PMID:22144531

  20. Imaging gene expression in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

  1. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  2. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  3. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating...

  4. Identifying Gene Interaction Enrichment for Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jigang; Li, Jian; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Gene set analysis allows the inclusion of knowledge from established gene sets, such as gene pathways, and potentially improves the power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, conventional methods of gene set analysis focus on gene marginal effects in a gene set, and ignore gene interactions which may contribute to complex human diseases. In this study, we propose a method of gene interaction enrichment analysis, which incorporates knowledge of predefined gene sets (e.g. gene ...

  5. Prevention of occupational Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Sultan T

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual's capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain. PMID:25983601

  6. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual?s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  7. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  8. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma

    2004-01-01

    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  9. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical integrity. Discussion and conclusions: The assessment of clinical effectiveness of interventions for fall prevention is complicated by inherent methodological problems (esp. absence of blinding and meaningful clinical heterogeneity of available studies. Therefore meta-analyses are not appropriate, and single study results are difficult to interpret. Both problems also impair the informative value of economic analyses. With this background it has to be stated that current recommendations regarding fall prevention in the elderly are not fully supported by scientific evidence. In particular, for the generation of new recommendations the dependency of probable effects on specific characteristics of the target populations or care settings should be taken into consideration. This also applies to the variable factors influencing the willingness of the target population to take up and pursue preventive measures. In the planning of future studies equal weight should be placed on methodological rigour (freedom from biases and transferability of results into routine care. Economic analyses require input of German data, either in form of a “piggy back study“ or in form of a modelling study that reflects the structures of the German health care system and is based on German epidemiological and cost data.

  10. Violence Prevention through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lorenn

    2006-01-01

    The author combines principles of cooperative learning where older students at risk of dropping out are recruited to teach violence prevention to younger learners. The secondary students learn problem solving and conflict resolution skills while providing a positive model through cross age peer tutoring.

  11. [Neonatal sepsis: new preventive strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronati, M; Bollani, L; Maragliano, R; Ruffinazzi, G; Manzoni, P; Borghesi, A

    2013-02-01

    More than one million neonatal deaths every year in the world are attributable to infection. In nurseries, infections occur with a reported incidence of 0.3-3%; in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) the reported incidence is 7-24.5%, and up to 40% in newborns with birth weight less than 1000 g or gestational age at birth <28 weeks. Sepsis is the most severe and frequent infection, accounting for 45-55% of all infections. Several practices have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of infection in NICUs, including hand hygiene practices, correct management of central venous catheters (CVC), accurate diagnostic strategies and correct use of antimicrobial drugs. Despite the reduction in the incidence of infection after implementation of these practices, nosocomial infections are still a relevant problem, with high mortality and morbidity rates in hospitalized newborns, especially preterm newborns. Searching for new strategies to further reduce the incidence of nosocomial sepsis in NICUs is a priority of clinical research. New and promising strategies for the prevention of nosocomial infection in NICU include: lactoferrin administration, early identification of infants at risk of infection by means of specific markers (e.g. mannose binding lectin), heparin use for the prevention of CVC-related infections, judicious use of antibiotics, and prevention of fungal sepsis with antifungal agents. On the contrary, recent studies demonstrated that the use of specific immunoglobulins directed against different staphylococcal antigens is not effective in preventing neonatal sepsis. PMID:23422580

  12. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  13. Automated System Programs Preventive Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    A preventive maintenance system provides for the monitoring and inspection of school building elements in a programmed way through an automatic checklist. Utility cost savings are expected along with reduction of travel and wait time, and measurable standards of performance for all maintenance and repair work. (MLF)

  14. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  16. Can backreaction prevent eternal inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Robert; Costa, Renato; Franzmann, Guilherme

    2015-08-01

    We study the effects exerted by the backreaction of long-wavelength fluctuations on stochastic inflation. In the cases of power-law and Starobinsky inflation, these effects are too weak to terminate the stochastic growth of the inflaton field. However, in the case of the cyclic ekpyrotic scenario, the backreaction effects prevent the unlimited growth of the scalar field.

  17. [Nutritional factors in preventing osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martín Jiménez, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products. PMID:26267775

  18. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  19. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cook at home more often. Whenever possible, select foods that are low in sodium or have no salt added. Limit sauces, mixes, and "instant" products, including flavored rice and ready-made pasta. ...

  20. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

  1. Equity in prevention and health care

    OpenAIRE

    Lorant, V.; Boland, B.; Humblet, Claire Perrine; Deliège, Denise

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is an increasing body of evidence about socioeconomic inequality in preventive use, mostly for cancer screening. But as far as needs of prevention are unequally distributed, even equal use may not be fair. Moreover, prevention might be unequally used in the same way as health care in general. The objective of the paper is to assess inequity in prevention and to compare socioeconomic inequity in preventive medicine with that in health care. DESIGN: A cross sectional Heal...

  2. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    biological mechanisms of how type 2 diabetes develops, which could open up new avenues for the development of novel treatments. It has also been postulated that knowledge of interactions could improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes by enabling targeted interventions. The present chapter will...... an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the...... introduce the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2...

  3. Gene-physical activity interactions and their impact on diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity exerts beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis that are channeled through our genes. Where variation in the target genes of physical activity exists, gene-physical activity interactions may occur, such that individual genetic profiles inflict differing physiological responses to an equal bout of physical activity. Individuals with specific genetic profiles are also expected to be more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Identification of such gene-physical activity interactions could give new insights into the biological mechanisms of how type 2 diabetes develops, which could open up new avenues for the development of novel treatments. It has also been postulated that knowledge of interactions could improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes by enabling targeted interventions. The present chapter will introduce the reader to the recent advances in the genetics of type 2 diabetes, summarize the current evidence on gene-physical activity interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes, and outline how information on gene-physical activity interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Finally, we will discuss the existing and emerging strategies that might enhance our ability to identify and exploit gene-physical activity interactions in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prevention of choking among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Choking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children, especially those aged 3 years or younger. Food, coins, and toys are the primary causes of choking-related injury and death. Certain characteristics, including shape, size, and consistency, of certain toys and foods increase their potential to cause choking among children. Childhood choking hazards should be addressed through comprehensive and coordinated prevention activities. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) should increase efforts to ensure that toys that are sold in retail store bins, vending machines, or on the Internet have appropriate choking-hazard warnings; work with manufacturers to improve the effectiveness of recalls of products that pose a choking risk to children; and increase efforts to prevent the resale of these recalled products via online auction sites. Current gaps in choking-prevention standards for children's toys should be reevaluated and addressed, as appropriate, via revisions to the standards established under the Child Safety Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, or regulation by the CPSC. Prevention of food-related choking among children in the United States has been inadequately addressed at the federal level. The US Food and Drug Administration should establish a systematic, institutionalized process for examining and addressing the hazards of food-related choking. This process should include the establishment of the necessary surveillance, hazard evaluation, enforcement, and public education activities to prevent food-related choking among children. While maintaining its highly cooperative arrangements with the CPSC and the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration should have the authority to address choking-related risks of all food products, including meat products that fall under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Agriculture. The existing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program of the CPSC should be modified to conduct more-detailed surveillance of choking on food among children. Food manufacturers should design new foods and redesign existing foods to avoid shapes, sizes, textures, and other characteristics that increase choking risk to children, to the extent possible. Pediatricians, dentists, and other infant and child health care providers should provide choking-prevention counseling to parents as an integral part of anticipatory guidance activities. PMID:20176668

  5. Transcriptional Targeting in Cancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy Robson; Hirst, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy has been one of the most exciting areas of therapeutic research in the past decade. In this review, we discuss strategies to restrict transcription of transgenes to tumour cells. A range of promoters which are tissue-specific, tumour-specific, or inducible by exogenous agents are presented. Transcriptional targeting should prevent normal tissue toxicities associated with other cancer treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy. In addition, the specificity of these stra...

  6. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K.K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S.C.; Bron, S.; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J.; Christiansen, L.C.; Danchin, A.; Debarbouille, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S.K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S.J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C.R.; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M.F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauel, C.; Meima, R.; Mellado, R.P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H.M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J.P.; Rivas, L.A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M.; Sato, T.; Saxild, Hans Henrik; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W.; Seegers, J.F.M.L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Seror, S.J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H.B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J.M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...

  7. Autism and Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  8. Overweight prevention in adolescents and children (behavioural and environmental prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between adiposity and socioeconomic deprivation. The lack of interventions (especially preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and studies focusing on this population group is noticeable. Discussion: There are only a few primary studies of high quality on adiposity prevention in children and adolescents. Especially studies which compare different measures are lacking. This holds also true for the economic analysis, which seems logical insofar, as the basis for economic analyses are usually primary studies (preferably randomized controlled trials (RCT due to their evidence level. Studies on interventions geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and towards specific population groups (i. e. the socially disadvantaged are hardly available. Conclusions: There are hardly any primary studies of high quality on adiposity prevention in children and adolescents, especially studies which compare different measures are lacking. Interventions geared towards specific population groups (particularly for the socioeconomically disadvantaged are specifically underrepresented. Establishing such studies is an essential requirement of adiposity prevention. Recommended are a combination of measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions and towards specific population groups. Furthermore, it is recommended to systematically register future programs (preferably online in order to be able to draft criteria of success.

  9. The Power of Prevention: Invest in It. Crime Prevention Month Action Kit, October 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Judy; Asato, Cathy

    This kit from the Crime Prevention Coalition of America provides information about crime prevention, the history of crime prevention month, and materials for use in creating and hosting crime prevention programs and events. Contents include (1) "The Results of Investing in Crime Prevention"; (2) "Sample Press Release"; (3) "A Proclamation for…

  10. Unresolved orthology and peculiar coding sequence properties of lamprey genes: the KCNA gene family as test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuraku Shigehiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In understanding the evolutionary process of vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lamprey occupy crucial positions. Resolving molecular phylogenetic relationships of cyclostome genes with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates genes is indispensable in deciphering both the species tree and gene trees. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses, especially those including lamprey genes, have produced highly discordant results between gene families. To efficiently scrutinize this problem using partial genome assemblies of early vertebrates, we focused on the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related (KCNA family, whose members are mostly single-exon. Results Seven sea lamprey KCNA genes as well as six elephant shark genes were identified, and their orthologies to bony vertebrate subgroups were assessed. In contrast to robustly supported orthology of the elephant shark genes to gnathostome subgroups, clear orthology of any sea lamprey gene could not be established. Notably, sea lamprey KCNA sequences displayed unique codon usage pattern and amino acid composition, probably associated with exceptionally high GC-content in their coding regions. This lamprey-specific property of coding sequences was also observed generally for genes outside this gene family. Conclusions Our results suggest that secondary modifications of sequence properties unique to the lamprey lineage may be one of the factors preventing robust orthology assessments of lamprey genes, which deserves further genome-wide validation. The lamprey lineage-specific alteration of protein-coding sequence properties needs to be taken into consideration in tackling the key questions about early vertebrate evolution.

  11. [Prevention of sudden cardiac death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H U

    2006-10-01

    The problem of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is complex and many questions concerning the pathophysiologic mechanism are still unanswered. At present the only reliable way of recognizing high risk patients is by means of left ventricular dysfunction, measured as LV-EFeffective weapon against SCD. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in many prospective trials and the use of the ICD is fully enclosed within the current guidelines for the prevention of SCD. Guidelines do not, however, replace the physician's judgement and experience to correctly evaluate the patient's status. ICD therapy in the primary and secondary prevention of heart failure, which is often accompanied by a high risk of SCD is, however, not justified without guideline-adjusted therapy. PMID:16988803

  12. Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Taylor H; Dinerstein, Eric; Boucher, Tim; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hoffmann, Michael; Lamoreux, John F; Morrison, John; Parr, Mike; Pilgrim, John D; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Sechrest, Wes; Wallace, George E; Berlin, Ken; Bielby, Jon; Burgess, Neil D; Church, Don R; Cox, Neil; Knox, David; Loucks, Colby; Luck, Gary W; Master, Lawrence L; Moore, Robin; Naidoo, Robin; Ridgely, Robert; Schatz, George E; Shire, Gavin; Strand, Holly; Wettengel, Wes; Wikramanayake, Eric

    2005-12-20

    Slowing rates of global biodiversity loss requires preventing species extinctions. Here we pinpoint centers of imminent extinction, where highly threatened species are confined to single sites. Within five globally assessed taxa (i.e., mammals, birds, selected reptiles, amphibians, and conifers), we find 794 such species, three times the number recorded as having gone extinct since 1500. These species occur in 595 sites, concentrated in tropical forests, on islands, and in mountainous areas. Their taxonomic and geographical distribution differs significantly from that of historical extinctions, indicating an expansion of the current extinction episode beyond sensitive species and places toward the planet's most biodiverse mainland regions. Only one-third of the sites are legally protected, and most are surrounded by intense human development. These sites represent clear opportunities for urgent conservation action to prevent species loss. PMID:16344485

  13. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  14. Preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2007-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and HPV infection is responsible for the development of this cancer. Effective vaccination against HPV represents an opportunity for the control of cervical cancer. The newly licensed preventive HPV vaccine in the US, Gardasil, has both a good safety profile and clinical efficacy against the HPV genotypes from which it was derived. However, this vaccine can only protect against up to 70 to 80% of cervical cancer and also lacks therapeutic efficacy against established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Thus, the future of HPV vaccination needs to focus on the development of a new generation of preventive and therapeutic vaccines that are capable of protecting against most cervical cancers. PMID:18058574

  15. Rape prevention through health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, W L

    1982-01-01

    Rape is one of the fastest rising, yet most under-reported crimes in the United States. The effects of rape can result in various physical, logical and legal complications in the life of the victim. This paper presents an overview of rape, including the definition and etiology of rape, rape myths, physical and psychological problems related to rape, treatment procedures, and most importantly, measures in health education that can help reduce the probability of rape occurrence. Reducing the likelihood that an individual will become a rape victim is an objective of preventive health education. This article can help people learn what rape encompasses, how it is likely to occur, and how to prevent or cope with such an experience. PMID:10260832

  16. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact on...... acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine), no...

  17. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    preventive measures in affective disorder are also touched upon. At the indicated prevention level, studies of fatal and non-fatal suicide acts after suicide attempt are mentioned. The evidence of preventive measures to reduce repetition rates is presented. Finally, the state of the art is discussed with......Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population......; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus on...

  18. Osteoporosis: Prevention and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Susan; Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in post-menopausal women. Strategies to prevent or delay bone loss in normal post-menopausal women and to reduce the risk of fractures in women with osteoporosis are within the scope of family practice. Certain factors, such as inadequate calcium intake, estrogen deficiency, cigarette smoking and lack of physical activity can be modified in peri- and post-menopausal women. For patients with osteoporosis, there is potential for lowering the risk of fr...

  19. Preventing large-battery explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, D.; Pangeri, S. F.

    1980-08-01

    This information circular presents a brief history of the lead-acid battery and describes ways to prevent serious injury from battery explosions when servicing and charging lead-acid batteries, particularly in the surface mining industry. The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, battery maufacturers, and the mining industry have all contributed information as well as recommendations for injury-free handling for this report.

  20. Vitamin Supplementation in Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    RATKOVIĆ-GUSIĆ, IVA; BAŠIĆ-KES, VANJA; Kes, Petar

    2002-01-01

    Vitamins are chemically unrelated organic compounds or families of organic compounds that are essential for normal metabolism in humans. As vitamins cannot be synthesized by a human body, they have to be taken in small amounts in the diet to prevent metabolic disorders. Vitamins should be distinguished from other .food supplements, minerals and herbs, which are also taken in small amounts as alternatives or supplements to drugs. Mild deficiencies in several vitamins, at levels below those cau...

  1. Prevention of Hematomas and Seromas

    OpenAIRE

    Bullocks, Jamal; Basu, C Bob; Hsu, Patrick; Singer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Hematoma and seroma formation in surgical wounds has negative effects on wound healing and subsequent morbidity to patients. This is of particular pertinence in cosmetic procedures in which the patient has chosen to undergo surgery electively. Over the past several decades there has been considerable interest in the use of ancillary techniques to assist in closing wounds and achieving hemostasis to prevent hematoma and seroma formation. These techniques include application of tissue sealants ...

  2. From Preventive to Permissive Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2007-01-01

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negativcorrelation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth century. This paper uses the cointegrated VAR model and recursive estimation techniques to document the changing relationshi between nuptiality and the price of wheat from 1541-1965. The relationship is ind...

  3. From preventive to permissive checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis; Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negative correlation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth century. This paper uses the cointegrated VAR model and recursive estimation techniques to document the changing relationship between nuptiality and the price of wheat from 1541 to 1965. The relationship ...

  4. Preventing Teen Pregnancy PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-07

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  5. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    George William H; Witkiewitz Katie; Hendershot Christian S; Marlatt G Alan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformul...

  6. Prevention of Hepatitis A Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Saberifiroozi

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis A is an acute, usually self-limiting disease of the liver caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), a genus of picorna virus family. It is a small, 27-nm cubically symmetrical RNA virus. No chronicity was reported with this infection. Most cases present with self limiting acute hepatitis picture; however, occasional cases with cholestatic and relapsing form and rarely fulminant hepatitis have been reported. With development of safe and effective vaccine, this infection can be prevented.

  7. Lobbyin to prevent commercial piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sánchez, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a common agency model to analyze the problem of pirates entering the market, in which the incumbent and the consumers form pressure groups to lobby the government on policies to prevent piracy while the pirates try to avoid being stopped. We show that a monopoly is not an equilibrium when both the incumbent and consumers lobby the government, and that the cost of monitoring commercial piracy is very important in determining (truthful) equilibria, as is the case wh...

  8. Mesh reconstruction preventing sacral herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, K; Krones, C J; Rosch, R; Fackeldey, V; Schumpelick, V

    2003-12-01

    Sacral hernias are uncommon defects developing through the pelvic floor after partial or total sacrectomy. We report on a 29-year-old woman, who has been under our care with a cystic formation after perineosacral resection of a rhabdomyosarcoma and partial sacrectomy. The cystic tumor was resected and a mesh repair performed to prevent sacral herniation. The current literature is summarized; etiology and management recommendations of this rare complication are discussed. PMID:12884083

  9. Photoprotection and prevention of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the current position on primary prevention of melanoma, including what is the evidence relating sunlight exposure to the development of melanoma, what forms of photoprotection there are and what are their relative values. There have been increasing incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma in most countries where they are being recorded. The initial approach in many countries has been to develop some form of early detection program in an attempt to diagnose and treat at a curable stage the melanomas that are occurring now. Primary prevention of melanoma is the more long term approach to the problem which many countries are now considering and a number are actively pursuing. Recent concern about stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to the desire for the primary prevention approach. There are epidemiological data associating the risk of melanoma with increased exposure to sunlight in people with fair skin. They show that it is sunlight exposure in childhood and in doses sufficient to cause sunburn remembered many years later, that is particularly associated with risk of melanoma in adulthood. The exact spectrum of radiation in sunlight which is responsible for these tumours is not known, although the ultraviolet range is believed to be most important, particularly UVB but probably also UVA. The approach to photoprotection is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight, not just a single component of it. The natural protection of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens have assumed a major component of primary prevention programs based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion by those people who have a commercial interest in them. These products protect predominantly in the UVB range for which there is a sun protection factor (SPF) grading, as well as having some activity in the UVA range (for which there is not yet a satisfactory grading method). PMID:10417449

  10. Candida Infections and Their Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M Anaul; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increased dramatically worldwide due to the increase in immunocompromised patients. For the prevention and cure of candidiasis, several strategies have been adopted at clinical level. Candida infected patients are commonly treated with a variety of antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine. Moreover, early detection and speciation of the fungal agents will play a crucial role for administering appropriate dru...

  11. Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Tilley, N

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

  12. Preventing atomicity violations with contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Diogo Miguel Gaspar de

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent programming is a difficult and error-prone task because the programmer must reason about multiple threads of execution and their possible interleavings. A concurrent program must synchronize the concurrent accesses to shared memory regions, but this is not enough to prevent all anomalies that can arise in a concurrent setting. The programmer can misidentify the scope of the regions of code that need to be atomic, resulting in atomicity violations and failing to ensure the cor...

  13. Strategies for colon cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is common and is associated with a considerable mortality. Morbidity and thereby mortality can be reduced by using different prevention strategies such as lifestyle interventions and chemoprevention. Endoscopic surveillance of high-risk individuals and population-based endoscopic screening of average-risk individuals enables detection and removal of premalignant lesions (adenomas) as well as presymptomatic detection of cancer. Implementation of cancer detection tests s...

  14. Gait, Balance, and Fall Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Vaught, Susan L.

    2001-01-01

    Falls are an increasing problem as people age. The healthcare costs of falls (hospitalization, surgery, rehabilitation, equipment, homehealth services, and institutionalization) can be as high as $500 million a year. The emotional, physical, and personal costs to the individual are even higher. Most falls could be prevented by a vigilant physician anticipating, assessing, and correcting fall risks, which may be medical, mechanical, or environmental. The impact of chronic disease and medicatio...

  15. Polyspermy prevention: facts and artifacts?

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Brian; DeFelice, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to open a debate as to whether or not oocytes actively repel supernumerary sperm or in nature final sperm : oocyte ratios are so low that polyspermy preventing mechanisms are not necessary. Before encountering the oocyte, spermatozoa need to be primed, either by environmental factors as in animals exhibiting external fertilization, or by factors from the female reproductive tract, as in mammals. The spermatozoon must then recognize and interact with the outer lay...

  16. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez; Aude Gesquière-Dando; Sofia Rivera

    2011-01-01

    Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduc...

  17. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    ROTHERAM-BORUS, Mary Jane; SWENDEMAN, Dallas; Flannery, Diane

    2009-01-01

    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple he...

  18. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  19. Influence of isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Bunting, Kristopher M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcr...

  20. Influence of Isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Bunting, Kristopher M; Nalloor, Rebecca I.; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcr...