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The genomic heterogeneity among Mycobacterium terrae complex displayed by sequencing of 16S rRNA and hsp 65 genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The species identification within Mycobacterium terrae complex has been known to be very difficult. In this study, the genomic diversity of M. terrae complex with eighteen clinical isolates, which were initially identified as M. terrae complex by phenotypic method, was investigated, including that of three type strains (M. terrae, M. nonchromogenicum, and M. triviale ). 16S rRNA and 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp 65) gene sequences of mycobacteria were determined and aligned with eleven other references for the comparison using similarity search against the GenBank and Ribosomal Database Project II (RDP) databases. 16S rRNA and hsp 65 genes of M. terrae complex showed genomic heterogeneity. Amongst the eighteen clinical isolates, nine were identified as M. nonchromogenicum, eight as M. terrae, one as M. mucogenicum with the molecular characteristic of rapid growth. M. nonchromogenicum could be subdivided into three subgroups, while M. terrae could be subdivided into two subgroups using a 5 bp criterion (>1% difference). Seven isolates in two subgroups of M. nonchromogenicum were Mycobacterium sp. strain MCRO 6, which was closely related to M. nonchromogenicum. The hsp 65 gene could not differentiate one M. nonchromogenicum from M. avium or one M. terrae from M. intracellulare. The nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp 65 genes was shown to be useful in identifying the M. terrae complex, but hsp 65 was less discriminating than 16S rRNA. PMID:14978332

Lee, Chang Kyu; Gi, Hyun Mi; Cho, Yunjung; Kim, Young Kee; Lee, Kap No; Song, Ki-Joon; Song, Jin-Won; Park, Kwang Sook; Park, Eun Mi; Lee, Hyeyoung; Bai, Gill-Han

2004-01-01

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First Report of Disseminated Mycobacterium Skin Infections in Two Liver Transplant Recipients and Rapid Diagnosis by hsp65 Gene Sequencing ?  

OpenAIRE

We present here the first report of disseminated skin Mycobacterium infections in two liver transplant recipients, in which hsp65 gene sequencing was used for rapid species identification. Both patients had hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus and presented with progressive generalized, nodular skin lesions. In one patient, a 50-year-old woman who had frequent contact with marine fish, an acid-fast bacillus was isolated from skin biopsy tissue after 2 months of culture. W...

Lau, Susanna K. P.; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Yeung, Chi-keung; Yuen, Kwok-yung; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

2011-01-01

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Assessment of partial sequencing of the 65-kilodalton heat shock protein gene (hsp65) for routine identification of Mycobacterium species isolated from clinical sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the ability of an in-house database, consisting of 111 hsp65 sequences from putative and valid Mycobacterium species or described groups, to identify 689 mycobacterial clinical isolates from 35 species or groups. A preliminary assessment indicated that hsp65 sequencing confirmed the identification of 79.4% of the isolates from the 32 species examined, including all Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, all isolates from 13 other species, and 95.6% of all M. avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates. Identification discrepancies were most frequently encountered with isolates submitted as M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. scrofulaceum, and M. terrae. Reexamination of isolates with discrepant identifications confirmed that hsp65 identifications were correct in a further 40 isolates. This brought the overall agreement between hsp65 sequencing and the other identification methods to 85.2%. The remaining 102 isolates had sequence matches below our acceptance criterion, had nondifferential sequence matches between two or more species, were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as a putative taxonomic group not contained in our database, or were identified by hsp65 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a species not in our biochemical test database or had conflicting identifications. Therefore, to incorporate the unconfirmed isolates it was necessary to create 29 additional entries in our hsp65 identification database: 18 associated with valid species, 7 indicating unique sequences not associated with valid or putative species or groups, and 4 associated with unique, but currently described taxonomic groups. Confidence in the hsp65 sequence identification of a clinical isolate is best when sequence matches of 100% occur, but our data indicate that correct identifications can be confidently made when unambiguous matches exceeding 97% occur, but are dependent on the completeness of the database. Our study indicates that for hsp65 sequencing to be an effective means for identifying mycobacteria a comprehensive database must be constructed. hsp65 sequencing has the advantage of being more rapid and less expensive than biochemical test panels, uses a single set of reagents to identify both rapid- and slow-growing mycobacteria, and can provide a more definitive identification. PMID:15243051

McNabb, Alan; Eisler, Diane; Adie, Kathy; Amos, Marie; Rodrigues, Mabel; Stephens, Gwen; Black, William A; Isaac-Renton, Judith

2004-07-01

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hsp65 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) for identification of mycobacteria in the clinical laboratory / PCR e análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 (PRA) para identificação de micobactérias no laboratório clínico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Mais de 70 espécies de micobactérias já foram definidas e algumas delas podem causar enfermidade em humanos, especialmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. A identificação de espécie, na maioria dos laboratórios clínicos, se baseia em características fenotípicas e testes bioquímicos e resultados def [...] initivos só são obtidos após duas a quatro semanas. Métodos rápidos de identificação reduzem o tempo necessário para o diagnóstico e podem antecipar a instituição do tratamento específico, aumentando as chances de sucesso. A análise de padrões de restrição do gene hsp65 amplificado por PCR (PRA) foi utilizada como método rápido de identificação em 103 isolamentos clínicos. Os padrões de bandas foram interpretados por comparação com tabelas publicadas e padrões disponíveis em um site de Internet (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005). Resultados concordantes de PRA e identificação bioquímica foram obtidos em 76 de 83 isolamentos (91,5%). Os resultados de 20 isolamentos não puderam ser comparados porque a identificação fenotípica ou por PRA foi inconclusiva. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram que PRA pode ser útil para identificação de rotina de micobactérias por ser um método acurado, rápido e mais econômico do que a identificação convencional. Abstract in english More than 70 species of mycobacteria have been defined, and some can cause disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised patients. Species identification in most clinical laboratories is based on phenotypic characteristics and biochemical tests and final results are obtained only after two to f [...] our weeks. Quick identification methods, by reducing time for diagnosis, could expedite institution of specific treatment, increasing chances of success. PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was used as a rapid method for identification of 103 clinical isolates. Band patterns were interpreted by comparison with published tables and patterns available at an Internet site (http://www.hospvd.ch:8005). Concordant results of PRA and biochemical identification were obtained in 76 out of 83 isolates (91.5%). Results from 20 isolates could not be compared due to inconclusive PRA or biochemical identification. The results of this work showed that PRA could improve identification of mycobacteria in a routine setting because it is accurate, fast, and cheaper than conventional phenotypic identification.

Carolina Feher da, SILVA; Suely Yoko Mizuka, UEKI; Débora de Cássia Pires, GEIGER; Sylvia Cardoso, LEÃO.

2001-02-01

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Nontuberculous mycobacterial cutaneous infection confirmed by biochemical tests, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of hsp65 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a woman in whom a slow-growing scotochromogenic strain of Mycobacterium was cultured from skin lesions. According to its phenotypic and biochemical characteristics we could predict only that it might be M. szulgai, M. scrofulaceum or M. gordonae. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the hsp65 gene and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on the isolated strain showed that its restriction pattern differed from both M. scrofulaceum and other scotochromogenic species. Ninety-nine per cent similarity was detected between the isolated strain and M. gordonae by sequencing of the hsp65 gene. This result suggests that the isolated strain may be either a slow-growing scotochromogenic Mycobacterium most resembling M. gordonae or a novel mycobacterial species. PMID:14511003

Li, X J; Wu, Q X; Zeng, X S

2003-09-01

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The hsp65 gene patterns of less common Mycobacterium and Nocardia spp. by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with capillary electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To rapidly identify Mycobacterium and Nocardia spp. without costly probes, we had implemented capillary electrophoresis (CE) in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to analyze their 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp65) gene. The PCR-RFLP analysis with CE (PRACE) involved only one restriction enzyme, HaeIII, and a single electrophoretic separation less than 10 min. Full-range (10-200 bp) RFLP patterns of 12 less common Mycobacterium and 7 Nocardia spp. were investigated. A good agreement was observed between the sizes of restriction fragments resolved by CE and the real sizes deduced from sequence analysis. Including hsp65 gene patterns of 12 Mycobacterium spp. published earlier, differentiation was distinct among 24 Mycobacterium and 7 Nocardia spp. Some closely related species exhibiting similar biochemical characteristics could be well discriminated by an extra HaeIII digestion site. Thus, PRACE offers a nonprobe alternative for rapid identification of various cultured Mycobacterium and Nocardia to the species level. PMID:17382507

Chang, Po-Ling; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Tuohy, Marion J; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Ho, Hsin-Tsung

2007-07-01

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Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí / Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de [...] pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65) para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and refe [...] rred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65) to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

Maria das Graças Motta e, Bona; Maria José Soares, Leal; Liline Maria Soares, Martins; Raimundo Nonato da, Silva; José Adail Fonseca de, Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do, Monte.

2011-10-01

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Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR e análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 (PRA-hsp65 para a identificação das cepas de micobactérias isoladas em cultura. RESULTADOS: Foram analisadas 206 amostras de escarro. A idade dos pacientes variou de 15 a 87 anos, sendo 67% do gênero masculino. Tosse ocorreu em 100% dos casos. O padrão radiográfico predominante foi de lesão moderada, observada em 70%. A positividade no esfregaço foi de 76%, e isolamento em cultura ocorreu em 91% das culturas executadas. Testes tradicionais identificaram micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT em 9% dos isolados. O método PRA-hsp65 confirmou esses dados, mostrando sete padrões de bandas capazes de identificar as espécies de MNT isoladas: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5 e M. gordonae 7. Todos os pacientes com MNT tinham mais de 60 anos, e observaram-se bronquiectasias em 88% das radiografias. Houve dois casos de reinfecção, identificados inicialmente como infecção por M. abscessus e M. kansasii. CONCLUSÕES: As MNT causam infecção pulmonar em pacientes imunocompetentes, e a identificação das MNT é importante para estabelecer o diagnóstico correto e a decisão terapêutica mais adequada. O método PRA-hsp65 é útil para identificar espécies de MNT e pode ser implantado em laboratórios de biologia molecular não especializados em micobactérias.OBJECTIVE: To identify mycobacterial species in the sputum of patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine the impact that the acquisition of this knowledge has on the therapeutic approach. METHODS: We evaluated 106 patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and referred to the pulmonology department of a public hospital in the city of Teresina, Brazil. Morning sputum specimens were evaluated for the presence of mycobacteria by sputum smear microscopy and culture. We used PCR and restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA-hsp65 to identify the strains of mycobacteria isolated in culture. RESULTS: A total of 206 sputum samples were analyzed. Patient ages ranged from 15 to 87 years, and 67% were male. There was cough in 100% of the cases. The predominant radiographic pattern was moderate disease, observed in 70%. Smear positivity was 76%, and isolation in culture occurred in 91% of the cultures. Traditional tests identified nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in 9% of the isolates. The PRA-hsp65 method confirmed these data, showing seven band patterns that were able to identify the isolated species of NTM: Mycobacterium kansasii; M. abscessus 1; M. abscessus 2; M. smegmatis; M. flavescens 1; M. gordonae 5; and M. gordonae 7. All of the patients with NTM were over 60 years of age, and bronchiectasis was seen in 88% of the X-rays. There were two cases of reinfection, initially attributed to M. abscessus and M. kansasii. CONCLUSIONS: In immunocompetent patients, NTM can infect the lungs. It is important to identify the specific NTM in order to establish the correct diagnosis and choose the most appropriate therapeutic regimen. The PRA-hsp65 method is useful in identifying NTM species and can be implemented in molecular biology laboratories that do not specialize in the identification of mycobacteria.

Maria das Graças Motta e Bona

2011-10-01

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Assessment of Partial Sequencing of the 65-Kilodalton Heat Shock Protein Gene (hsp65) for Routine Identification of Mycobacterium Species Isolated from Clinical Sources  

OpenAIRE

We assessed the ability of an in-house database, consisting of 111 hsp65 sequences from putative and valid Mycobacterium species or described groups, to identify 689 mycobacterial clinical isolates from 35 species or groups. A preliminary assessment indicated that hsp65 sequencing confirmed the identification of 79.4% of the isolates from the 32 species examined, including all Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, all isolates from 13 other species, and 95.6% of all M. avium-M. intrace...

Mcnabb, Alan; Eisler, Diane; Adie, Kathy; Amos, Marie; Rodrigues, Mabel; Stephens, Gwen; Black, William A.; Isaac-renton, Judith

2004-01-01

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DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE  

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Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.

Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis, up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material.  A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk 

Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,

Joab Trajano Silva

2008-12-01

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Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis  

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Full Text Available We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65 gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65 was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization, the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2 characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

D.M. Fonseca

2007-11-01

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Th1 polarized response induced by intramuscular DNA-HSP65 immunization is preserved in experimental atherosclerosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We previously reported that a DNA vaccine constructed with the heat shock protein (HSP65) gene from Mycobacterium leprae (DNA-HSP65) was protective and also therapeutic in experimental tuberculosis. By the intramuscular route, this vaccine elicited a predominant Th1 response that was consistent with [...] its protective efficacy against tuberculosis. It has been suggested that the immune response to Hsp60/65 may be the link between exposure to microorganisms and increased cardiovascular risk. Additionally, the high cholesterol levels found in atherosclerosis could modulate host immunity. In this context, we evaluated if an atherogenic diet could modulate the immune response induced by the DNA-HSP65 vaccine. C57BL/6 mice (4-6 animals per group) were initially submitted to a protocol of atherosclerosis induction and then immunized by the intramuscular or intradermal route with 4 doses of 100 µg DNA-HSP65. On day 150 (15 days after the last immunization), the animals were sacrificed and antibodies and cytokines were determined. Vaccination by the intramuscular route induced high levels of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a antibodies, but not anti-Hsp65 IgG1 antibodies and a significant production of IL-6, IFN-g and IL-10, but not IL-5, indicating a Th1 profile. Immunization by the intradermal route triggered a mixed pattern (Th1/Th2) characterized by synthesis of anti-Hsp65 IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies and production of high levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-g. These results indicate that experimentally induced atherosclerosis did not affect the ability of DNA-HSP65 to induce a predominant Th1 response that is potentially protective against tuberculosis.

D.M., Fonseca; V.L.D., Bonato; C.L., Silva; A., Sartori.

1495-15-01

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Ub Combination Enhanced Cellular Immune Response Elicited by HSP65 DNA Vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

 This study observed the immune response induced by a HSP65 DNA vaccine fused with UbGR against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were inoculated with HSP65 DNA vaccine, UbGR-fused HSP65 DNA vaccine (Ub-GR-HSP65) and blank vector respectively. HSP65 DNA vaccine elicited a Thl-polarized immune response. The Thl-type cytokine (IFN-?) and proliferative T cell responses from spleen were improved significantly in Ub...

Qingmin Wang; Chengxiang Lei; Qiuhong Liu

2013-01-01

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Influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina / Influence of a DNA-hsp65 vaccine on bleomycin-induced lung injury  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do biofármaco DNA-hsp65 em um modelo de distúrbio fibrosante pulmonar experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 120 camundongos machos C57BL/6, divididos em quatro grupos: grupo SS, animais tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com salina intratraqueal (IT); grupo SB, [...] tratados com salina (placebo) e injetados com bleomicina IT; grupo PB, tratados com plasmídeo, sem gene bacteriano, e injetados com bleomicina IT; e grupo BB, tratados com DNA-hsp65 e injetados com bleomicina IT. A bleomicina foi injetada 15 dias após a última imunização, e os animais sacrificados seis semanas após o uso da droga IT. O pulmão esquerdo retirado foi utilizado para análise morfológica, e o pulmão direito para dosagens de hidroxiprolina. RESULTADOS: A proporção de camundongos que apresentaram morte não-programada depois de 48 h da injeção IT foi maior no grupo SB em comparação ao grupo SS (57,7% vs. 11,1%). A área percentual média de interstício septal foi maior nos grupos SB e PB (53,1 ± 8,6% e 53,6 ± 9,3%, respectivamente) em comparação aos grupos SS e BB (32,9 ± 2,7% e 34,3 ± 6,1%, respectivamente). Os grupos SB, PB e BB mostraram aumentos nos valores médios da área de interstício septal corada por picrosirius em comparação ao grupo SS (SS: 2,0 ± 1,4%; SB: 8,2 ± 4,9%; PB: 7,2 ± 4,2%; e BB:6,6±4,1%).O conteúdo pulmonar de hidroxiprolina no grupo SS foi inferior ao dos demais grupos (SS: 104,9 ± 20,9 pg/pulmão; SB: 160,4 ±47,8 pg/pulmão; PB:170,0 ± 72,0 pg/pulmão; e BB: 162,5 ± 39,7 pg/pulmão). CONCLUSÕES: A imunização com o biofármaco DNA-hsp65 interferiu na deposição de matriz não-colágena em um modelo de lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of immunization with a DNA-hsp65 vaccine in an experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into four groups: SS, injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; SB [...] , injected with saline (placebo) and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; PB, treated with plasmid only, without bacterial genome, and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin; and BB, treated with the vaccine and then receiving IT instillation of bleomycin. Bleomycin was instilled 15 days after the last immunization, and the animals were killed six weeks thereafter. The left and right lungs were removed, the former for morphological analysis and the latter for hydroxyproline measurements. RESULTS: The proportion of deaths within the first 48 h after the IT instillation (deaths attributed to the surgical procedure) was higher in the SB group than in the SS group (57.7% vs. 11.1%). The mean area of pulmonary interstitial septa was greater in the SB and PB groups (53.1 ± 8.6% and 53.6±9.3%, respectively) than in the SS and BB groups (32.9 ± 2.7% and 34.3 ± 6.1%, respectively). The mean area of interstitial septa stained by picrosirius was greater in the SB, PB and BB groups than in the SS group (8.2 ± 4.9%, 7.2 ± 4.2% and 6.6 ± 4.1%, respectively, vs. 2.0±1.4%). The total hydroxyproline content in the lung was significantly lower in the SS group (104.9 ± 20.9 pg/lung) than in the other groups (SB: 160.4 ± 47.8 pg/lung; PB: 170.0 ± 72.0 pg/lung; and BB: 162.5 ± 39.7 pg/lung). CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with the DNA-hsp65 vaccine reduced the deposition of noncollagen matrix in a model of bleomycin-induced lung lesion.

Adriana Ignacio de, Padua; Célio Lopes, Silva; Simone Gusmão, Ramos; Lúcia Helena, Faccioli; José Antônio Baddini, Martinez.

2008-11-01

15

Novel Allelic Variants of Mycobacteria Isolated in Brazil as Determined by PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis of hsp65  

OpenAIRE

Human isolates of Mycobacterium collected in 16 different states of Brazil were submitted to PCR-restriction analysis (PRA) of a 439-bp fragment of the hsp65 gene with HaeIII and BstEII. Fourteen allelic variants not described in clinical isolates so far were observed among 36 (10%) of 356 Brazilian strains, including a new pattern for Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare, and M. flavescens, two new patterns for M. fortuitum, three new patterns each for M. gordonae and M. terrae, and...

Da Silva Rocha, A.; Werneck Barreto, A. M.; Dias Campos, C. E.; Villas-bo?as Da Silva, M.; Fonseca, L.; Saad, M. H.; Degrave, W. M.; Suffys, P. N.

2002-01-01

16

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Chaperonin 60.1 Is a More Potent Cytokine Stimulator than Chaperonin 60.2 (Hsp 65) and Contains a CD14-Binding Domain  

OpenAIRE

Much attention has focused on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular chaperone chaperonin (Cpn) 60.2 (Hsp 65) in the pathology of tuberculosis because of its immunogenicity and ability to directly activate human monocytes and vascular endothelial cells. However, M. tuberculosis is one of a small group of bacteria that contain multiple genes encoding Cpn 60 proteins. We have now cloned and expressed both M. tuberculosis proteins and report that the novel chaperonin 60, Cpn 60.1, is a more po...

Lewthwaite, Jo C.; Coates, Anthony R. M.; Tormay, Peter; Singh, Mahavir; Mascagni, Paolo; Poole, Stephen; Roberts, Michael; Sharp, Lindsay; Henderson, Brian

2001-01-01

17

Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with [...] messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-? but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

C.D., Rocha; A.P.F., Trombone; J.C.C., Lorenzi; L.P., Almeida; A.F., Gembre; E., Padilha; S.G., Ramos; C.L., Silva; A.A.M., Coelho-Castelo.

1183-11-01

18

Novel allelic variants of Mycobacteria isolated in Brazil as determined by PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human isolates of Mycobacterium collected in 16 different states of Brazil were submitted to PCR-restriction analysis (PRA) of a 439-bp fragment of the hsp65 gene with HaeIII and BstEII. Fourteen allelic variants not described in clinical isolates so far were observed among 36 (10%) of 356 Brazilian strains, including a new pattern for Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, M. intracellulare, and M. flavescens, two new patterns for M. fortuitum, three new patterns each for M. gordonae and M. terrae, and one new pattern for M. avium complex-like strains. Two unidentified strains each also presented a new pattern, strongly suggesting that Mycobacterium genotypes are distributed biogeographically. The PRA procedure was also performed with 43 reference isolates belonging to 34 species, adding a further six new patterns to the identification algorithm. A database containing the normalized restriction patterns of both enzymes was constructed. Patterns available on the Internet can be introduced into this database, which will make possible the comparison of genotypes from isolates from different parts of the world. PMID:12409396

da Silva Rocha, A; Werneck Barreto, A M; Dias Campos, C E; Villas-Bôas da Silva, M; Fonseca, L; Saad, M H; Degrave, W M; Suffys, P N

2002-11-01

19

Comparative evaluation of polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis: two amplified targets, hsp65 and rpoB, for identification of cultured mycobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing incidence of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections due to AIDS epidemic resulted in the need of rapid and accurate identification of isolated mycobacteria. The correct identification result leads to the selection of an appropriate therapeutic regimen. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA) has been developed since 1992 and used as the rapid method for identifying mycobacteria. Several genes or sequences have been used as an amplified target for PCR-REA. The present study aims to evaluate the potential use of PCR-REA of gene-encoding heat shock protein 65 kDa (hsp65) and beta-subunit RNA polymerase (rpoB) for the identification of mycobacteria compared with conventional biochemical identification. Two hundreds clinical isolates, consisting of 50 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 150 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), were submitted for identification using PCR-REA and biochemical method. The results demonstrated that PCR-REA identified 188 isolates of both M. tuberculosis and NTM concordantly with biochemical identification. Discordant identification results obtained from 12 isolates, comprised of 8 M. scrofulaceum, 1 M. avium complex, 1 M. malmoense, 1 M. terrae complex, and 1 M. chelonae/abscessus. Overall, the concordant percentage of results obtained from PCR-REA compared with biochemical method was 100%, 98.8%, and 83.3% for M. tuberculosis complex, rapidly growing, and slowly growing mycobacteria, respectively, and the results of hsp65 PCR-REA was in agreement with those obtained from rpoB PCR-REA. From this study, PCR-REA appears to be a simple, rapid, and reliable method for identifying mycobacteria in a routine microbiology laboratory. PMID:15766601

Cheunoy, Wattana; Prammananan, Therdsak; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Foongladda, Suporn

2005-03-01

20

Distribution of hsp65 PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis Patterns among Mycobacterium avium Complex Isolates in Thailand?  

OpenAIRE

A total of 227 clinical Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from Thailand were differentiated into species and types by using PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of hsp65. The distribution of types showed the predominance of M. avium I (77%) in blood specimens, whereas M. intracellulare I was more commonly found in pulmonary specimens (44.2%). In addition, infections with M. avium were more likely to be found in younger adults (20 to 39 years old), while infections with M. intracellulare were mo...

Prammananan, Therdsak; Phunpruch, Saranya; Tingtoy, Nipa; Srimuang, Somboon; Chaiprasert, Angkana

2006-01-01

21

The 'tubulin-like' S1 protein of Spirochaeta is a member of the hsp65 stress protein family  

Science.gov (United States)

A 65-kDa protein (called S1) from Spirochaeta bajacaliforniensis was identified as 'tubulin-like' because it cross-reacted with at least four different antisera raised against tubulin and was isolated, with a co-polymerizing 45-kDa protein, by warm-cold cycling procedures used to purify tubulin from mammalian brain. Furthermore, at least three genera of non-cultivable symbiotic spirochetes (Pillotina, Diplocalyx, and Hollandina) that contain conspicuous 24-nm cytoplasmic tubules displayed a strong fluorescence in situ when treated with polyclonal antisera raised against tubulin. Here we summarize results that lead to the conclusion that this 65-kDa protein has no homology to tubulin. S1 is an hsp65 stress protein homologue. Hsp65 is a highly immunogenic family of hsp60 proteins which includes the 65-kDa antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (an active component of Freund's complete adjuvant), Borrelia, Treponema, Chlamydia, Legionella, and Salmonella. The hsp60s, also known as chaperonins, include E. coli GroEL, mitochondrial and chloroplast chaperonins, the pea aphid 'symbionin' and many other proteins involved in protein folding and the stress response.

Munson, D.; Obar, R.; Tzertzinis, G.; Margulis, L.

1993-01-01

22

Identification of Mycobacterium avium Genotypes with Distinctive Traits by Combination of IS1245-Based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Restriction Analysis of hsp65  

OpenAIRE

One-hundred eight Mycobacterium avium isolates from pigs, humans, birds, and bovines were typed by the IS1245-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) of hsp65. Nine clusters of isolates showing more than 80% similarity in their RFLP profiles were detected. The largest cluster (cluster B) included 32 of 79 pig isolates (40.5%), 3 of 25 human isolates (12%), and 1 of 2 bovine isolates, comprising 33% of all isolates. The second larg...

Oliveira, R. S.; Sircili, M. P.; Oliveira, E. M. D.; Balian, S. C.; Ferreira-neto, J. S.; Lea?o, S. C.

2003-01-01

23

Identification of Mycobacterium avium genotypes with distinctive traits by combination of IS1245-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and restriction analysis of hsp65.  

Science.gov (United States)

One-hundred eight Mycobacterium avium isolates from pigs, humans, birds, and bovines were typed by the IS1245-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) of hsp65. Nine clusters of isolates showing more than 80% similarity in their RFLP profiles were detected. The largest cluster (cluster B) included 32 of 79 pig isolates (40.5%), 3 of 25 human isolates (12%), and 1 of 2 bovine isolates, comprising 33% of all isolates. The second largest cluster (cluster A) included 18 pig isolates (22.8%) and 6 human isolates (24%). Six smaller clusters included six pig isolates (clusters C and D), four and two human isolates (clusters E and F, respectively), two pig isolates (cluster I), and two pig isolates plus one bovine isolate and the avian purified protein derivative strain (cluster H). Cluster G represented the "bird-type" profile and included the bird isolate in this series, one pig isolate, plus reference strain R13. PRA revealed four allelic variants. Seventy-seven isolates were identified as M. avium PRA variant I, 24 were identified as M. avium PRA variant II, 6 were identified as M. avium PRA variant III, and 1 was identified as M. avium PRA variant IV. Except for three isolates from cluster B, each of the RFLP clusters was associated with a single PRA pattern. Isolates with unique (nonclustered) RFLP profiles were distributed between PRA variants I and II, and there was one unique isolate of PRA variant IV. These observations are consistent with divergent evolution within M. avium, resulting in the emergence of distinct lineages with particular competence to infect animals and humans. PMID:12517823

Oliveira, R S; Sircili, M P; Oliveira, E M D; Balian, S C; Ferreira-Neto, J S; Leão, S C

2003-01-01

24

Gene-therapy for malaria prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The limited number of tools for malaria prevention and the inability to eradicate the disease have required large investments in vaccine development, as vaccines have been the only foreseeable type of immunoprophylaxis against malaria. An alternative strategy named vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) now would allow genetically transduced host cells to assemble and secrete antibodies that neutralize the infectivity of the malaria parasite and prevent disease. PMID:25444237

Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

2014-11-01

25

Análise de restrição enzimática do gene hsp65 de isolados clínicos de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar em Teresina, Piauí Restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene in clinical isolates from patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresina, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

OBJETIVO: Identificar as espécies de micobactérias encontradas no escarro de pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar e analisar o impacto dessas identificações na abordagem terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 106 pacientes com suspeita de tuberculose pulmonar encaminhados para o serviço de pneumologia de um hospital público em Teresina, Piauí. Espécimes de escarro matinal foram avaliados quanto à presença de micobactérias por baciloscopia e cultura. Foram utilizadas PCR ...

Bona, Maria Das Grac?as Motta E.; Maria José Soares Leal; Liline Maria Soares Martins; Raimundo Nonato da Silva; José Adail Fonseca De Castro; Semiramis Jamil Hadad do Monte

2011-01-01

26

Myostatin gene inactivation prevents skeletal muscle wasting in cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cachexia is a muscle-wasting syndrome that contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of many patients with advanced cancers. However, little is understood about how the severe loss of skeletal muscle characterizing this condition occurs. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle protein myostatin is involved in mediating the pathogenesis of cachexia-induced muscle wasting in tumor-bearing mice. Myostatin gene inactivation prevented the severe loss of skeletal muscle mass induced in mice engrafted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells or in Apc(Min) (/+) mice, an established model of colorectal cancer and cachexia. Mechanistically, myostatin loss attenuated the activation of muscle fiber proteolytic pathways by inhibiting the expression of atrophy-related genes, MuRF1 and MAFbx/Atrogin-1, along with autophagy-related genes. Notably, myostatin loss also impeded the growth of LLC tumors, the number and the size of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) (/+) mice, thus strongly increasing survival in both models. Gene expression analysis in the LLC model showed this phenotype to be associated with reduced expression of genes involved in tumor metabolism, activin signaling, and apoptosis. Taken together, our results reveal an essential role for myostatin in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia and link this condition to tumor growth, with implications for furthering understanding of cancer as a systemic disease. Cancer Res; 74(24); 7344-56. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25336187

Gallot, Yann S; Durieux, Anne-Cécile; Castells, Josiane; Desgeorges, Marine M; Vernus, Barbara; Plantureux, Léa; Rémond, Didier; Jahnke, Vanessa E; Lefai, Etienne; Dardevet, Dominique; Nemoz, Georges; Schaeffer, Laurent; Bonnieu, Anne; Freyssenet, Damien G

2014-12-15

27

DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA) DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE  

OpenAIRE

Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC), grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite...

Joab Trajano Silva; Leila Souza Fonseca; Marlei Gomes da Silva; Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza Figueiredo; Vânia Margaret Flosi Paschoalin

2008-01-01

28

From gene engineering to gene modulation and manipulation: can we prevent or detect gene doping in sports?  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 2 decades, progress in deciphering the human gene map as well as the discovery of specific defective genes encoding particular proteins in some serious human diseases have resulted in attempts to treat sick patients with gene therapy. There has been considerable focus on human recombinant proteins which were gene-engineered and produced in vitro (insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, erythropoietin). Unfortunately, these substances and methods also became improper tools for unscrupulous athletes. Biomedical research has focused on the possible direct insertion of gene material into the body, in order to replace some defective genes in vivo and/or to promote long-lasting endogenous synthesis of deficient proteins. Theoretically, diabetes, anaemia, muscular dystrophies, immune deficiency, cardiovascular diseases and numerous other illnesses could benefit from such innovative biomedical research, though much work remains to be done. Considering recent findings linking specific genotypes and physical performance, it is tempting to submit the young athletic population to genetic screening or, alternatively, to artificial gene expression modulation. Much research is already being conducted in order to achieve a safe transfer of genetic material to humans. This is of critical importance since uncontrolled production of the specifically coded protein, with serious secondary adverse effects (polycythaemia, acute cardiovascular problems, cancer, etc.), could occur. Other unpredictable reactions (immunogenicity of vectors or DNA-vector complex, autoimmune anaemia, production of wild genetic material) also remain possible at the individual level. Some new substances (myostatin blockers or anti-myostatin antibodies), although not gene material, might represent a useful and well-tolerated treatment to prevent progression of muscular dystrophies. Similarly, other molecules, in the roles of gene or metabolic activators [5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), GW1516], might concomitantly improve endurance exercise capacity in ischaemic conditions but also in normal conditions. Undoubtedly, some athletes will attempt to take advantage of these new molecules to increase strength or endurance. Antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods. These are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics or metabolomics). PMID:23832852

Fischetto, Giuseppe; Bermon, Stéphane

2013-10-01

29

[Gene doping--current possibilities, risks and means of prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advances in gene therapy fears of an abuse in sports arise. The WADA's definition of the term strictly differentiates between gene doping and gene therapy. There are in vivo and ex vivo practices to manipulate the different phases of gene expression in the organism, with viral vectors being looked upon as the most efficient ones. IGF-1, PPAR?, MSTN and EPO play the most important roles in today's scientific research. Their potential was proven in various animal studies, showing a significant improvement of performances. Potential risks for human users include severe immune reactions, mutagenesis, and raised risk for cancer. Big efforts are being put into the development of ways of detection, however until now there are neither practicable methods of control nor any reported cases of manipulated humans. Still, a usage of gene doping that has already taken place cannot be ruled out and is highly likely. PMID:21400389

Pleger, N; Vitzthum, K; Schöffel, N; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

2011-03-01

30

Prevention of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice is determined by multiple genetic factors, among the strongest of which is the inheritance of diabetes-permissive MHC class II alleles associated with susceptibility to disease. Here we examined whether expression of MHC class II alleles associated with resistance to disease could be used to prevent the occurrence of diabetes. Expression of diabetes-resistant MHC class II I-Abeta chain molecules in NOD mice following retroviral transduction of autologous bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells prevented the development of autoreactive T cells by intrathymic deletion and protected the mice from the development of insulitis and diabetes. These data suggest that type 1 diabetes could be prevented in individuals expressing MHC alleles associated with susceptibility to disease by restoration of protective MHC class II expression through genetic engineering of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:15467836

Tian, Chaorui; Bagley, Jessamyn; Cretin, Nathalie; Seth, Nilufer; Wucherpfennig, Kai W; Iacomini, John

2004-10-01

31

Prevention of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy  

OpenAIRE

The autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in humans and NOD mice is determined by multiple genetic factors, among the strongest of which is the inheritance of diabetes-permissive MHC class II alleles associated with susceptibility to disease. Here we examined whether expression of MHC class II alleles associated with resistance to disease could be used to prevent the occurrence of diabetes. Expression of diabetes-resistant MHC class II I-A? chain molecules in NOD mice following retroviral trans...

Tian, Chaorui; Bagley, Jessamyn; Cretin, Nathalie; Seth, Nilufer; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Iacomini, John

2004-01-01

32

Cardiovascular Risk Genes in Prevention and Treatment Response  

OpenAIRE

GENERAL AIM: To investigate how common single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with cardiovascular disease (CVD) could be used in prevention and treatment of CVD. SUBJECTS: Subjects from the population-based Malmö-Diet-and-Cancer-(MDC)-Study (n=30447) and hypertensives from the Nordic-Diltiazem-(NORDIL)-Study (n=10881). METHODS AND RESULTS: A nine-SNP-lipid-genetic-risk-score was related to fluvastatin treatment-response in 395 MDC subjects with as...

Hamrefors, Viktor

2014-01-01

33

RNA interference prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preprotachykinin gene expression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We showed previously that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces noncholinergic airway hyperreactivity to capsaicin via an upregulation of tachykinin synthesis. This study was designed to test whether double-stranded preprotachykinin (ds PPT) RNA, RNA interference (RNAi), prevents the LPS-induced alterations. First, cultured primary nodose ganglial cells of newborn Brown-Norway rats were divided into four groups: control; LPS; LPS+RNAi; and LPS+RNAi+liposome. Second, young Brown-Norway rats for the in vivo study were divided into three groups (control; LPS; and LPS+RNAi), and ds PPT RNA was microinjected bilaterally into the nodose ganglia in the LPS+RNAi group. Then, ganglial cells were collected from the culture whereas the nodose ganglia and lungs were sampled from the animals, and PPT mRNA and substance P (SP) levels were analyzed. Also, airway reactivity to capsaicin was performed in vivo. LPS induced significant increases in PPT mRNA and SP levels in vitro and in vivo and an increase in airway reactivity to capsaicin in vivo. However, ds PPT RNA, but not scrambled RNA, prevented all LPS-induced alterations. The effect of ds PPT RNA was not enhanced by liposome in vitro. Therefore, we demonstrated that the local application of RNAi prevents effectively the activation of the noncholinergic system modulating the lungs/airways

34

p53 prevents neurodegeneration by regulating synaptic genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA damage has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, but the consequences of genotoxic stress to postmitotic neurons are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that p53, a key mediator of the DNA damage response, plays a neuroprotective role in a Drosophila model of tauopathy. Further, through a whole-genome ChIP-chip analysis, we identify genes controlled by p53 in postmitotic neurons. We genetically validate a specific pathway, synaptic function, in p53-mediated neuroprotection. We then demonstrate that the control of synaptic genes by p53 is conserved in mammals. Collectively, our results implicate synaptic function as a central target in p53-dependent protection from neurodegeneration. PMID:25453105

Merlo, Paola; Frost, Bess; Peng, Shouyong; Yang, Yawei J; Park, Peter J; Feany, Mel

2014-12-16

35

Interaction between two cholesterol metabolism genes influences memory: findings from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strongest genetic factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is APOE; nine additional susceptibility genes have recently been identified. The effect of these genes is often assumed to be additive and polygenic scores are formed as a summary measure of risk. However, interactions between these genes are likely to be important. We sought to examine the role of interactions between the nine recently identified AD susceptibility genes and APOE in cognitive function and decline in 1,153 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults enriched for a parental history of AD. Participants underwent extensive cognitive testing at baseline and up to two additional visits approximately 4 and 6 years later. The influence of the interaction between APOE and each of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nine recently identified genes on three cognitive factor scores (Verbal Learning and Memory, Working Memory, and Immediate Memory) was examined using linear mixed models adjusting for age, gender, and ancestry. Interactions between the APOE ?4 allele and both of the genotyped ABCA7 SNPs, rs3764650 and rs3752246, were associated with all three cognitive factor scores (p-values ? 0.01). Both of these genes are in the cholesterol metabolism pathway leading to AD. This research supports the importance of considering non-additive effects of AD susceptibility genes. PMID:23669301

Engelman, Corinne D; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Hermann, Bruce P; La Rue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A

2013-01-01

36

Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the third most important food crop in the world. Potato tubers must be stored at cold temperatures to prevent sprouting, minimize disease losses, and supply consumers and the processing industry with high-quality tubers throughout the year. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars in tubers. High-temperature processing of these tubers results in dark-colored, bitter-tasting products. Such products also have elevated amounts of acrylamide, a neurotoxin and potential carcinogen. We demonstrate that silencing the potato vacuolar acid invertase gene VInv prevents reducing sugar accumulation in cold-stored tubers. Potato chips processed from VInv silencing lines showed a 15-fold acrylamide reduction and were light in color even when tubers were stored at 4°C. Comparable, low levels of VInv gene expression were observed in cold-stored tubers from wild potato germplasm stocks that are resistant to cold-induced sweetening. Thus, both processing quality and acrylamide problems in potato can be controlled effectively by suppression of the VInv gene through biotechnology or targeted breeding. PMID:20736383

Bhaskar, Pudota B; Wu, Lei; Busse, James S; Whitty, Brett R; Hamernik, Andy J; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin; Bethke, Paul C; Jiang, Jiming

2010-10-01

37

DNA nanoparticle-mediated thymulin gene therapy prevents airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thymulin has been shown to present anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties in experimental lung diseases. We hypothesized that a biologically active thymulin analog gene, methionine serum thymus factor, delivered by highly compacted DNA nanoparticles may prevent lung inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The DNA nanoparticles are composed of a single molecule of plasmid DNA compacted with block copolymers of poly-L-lysine and polyethylene glycol (CK30PEG), which have been found safe in a human phase I/II clinical trial. Thymulin plasmids were detected in the lungs of ovalbumin-challenged asthmatic mice up to 27days after administration of DNA nanoparticles carrying thymulin plasmids. A single dose of DNA nanoparticles carrying thymulin plasmids prevented lung inflammation, collagen deposition and smooth muscle hypertrophy in the lungs of a murine model of ovalbumin-challenged allergic asthma, leading to improved lung mechanics. In the present model of chronic allergic asthma, highly compacted DNA nanoparticles using thymulin analog gene modulated the inflammatory and remodeling processes improving lung mechanics. PMID:24556417

da Silva, Adriana L; Martini, Sabrina V; Abreu, Soraia C; Samary, Cynthia dos S; Diaz, Bruno L; Fernezlian, Sandra; de Sá, Vanessa Karen; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Boylan, Nicholas J; Goya, Rodolfo Gustavo; Suk, Jung Soo; Rocco, Patricia R M; Hanes, Justin; Morales, Marcelo M

2014-04-28

38

In Vitro Cultured Rat Islets Express Genes That both Prevent and Promote Angiogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endogenous pancreatic islets are supported by a dense sinusoidal capillary system which is disrupted following isolation and culture in vitro. A rapid and accurate revascularization is therefore crucial for the survival and functioning of the transplanted islet. Although a blood flow is established in islet grafts within 1-2 weeks, these islets show poor development of intra-islet capillaries. To improve the revascularization process and the arrangement of the new blood vessels, islet production of the factors governing these processes needs to be further characterized. OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of factors which regulate angiogenesis in cultured rat islets. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rat islets were isolated and cultured for one week. After 6 hours of exposure to normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions, mRNA expression was evaluated by the GEArray Angiogenesis 1 and 2 systems. The expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, the tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains 1 (Tie1 and acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF, was further evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: We found the expression of 19 genes that code for factors either promoting or preventing angiogenesis. Only VEGF and Tie1 were upregulated in response to hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia-induced islet vascularization may involve VEGF and Tie-induced signaling events. The results also show that cultured islets express genes which prevent angiogenesis concurrently with genes coding for factors stimulating angiogenesis. The balance between these factors is probably of vital importance for the revascularization process in transplanted islets. Thus, pharmacologic or genetic attenuation of islet-derived angiostatic factors may prove beneficial in promoting islet revascularization in future transplantation trials.

Tillmar L

2004-03-01

39

Neonatal thymulin gene therapy prevents ovarian dysgenesis and attenuates reproductive derangements in nude female mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70-71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:22700775

Reggiani, Paula C; Barbeito, Claudio G; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O; Cónsole, Gloria M; Flamini, Alicia M; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

2012-08-01

40

Chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT): novel combinatorial approach for preventing and treating pancreatic cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest of all cancers despite aggressive surgical treatment combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemoresistance and radioresistance are the principal causes of failure of pancreatic cancer patients to respond to therapy. Conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA)-based cancer gene therapy is an innovative strategy for treating cancers displaying inherent resistance to treatment. Limitations of current adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specificity, and effective and targeted delivery. To remedy this situation, CRCAs have been designed that express E1A, necessary for Ad replication, under the control of a cancer-specific progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) with concomitant expression of an immunomodulatory cytokine, such as mda-7/IL-24 or interferon-? (IFN-?), under the control of a ubiquitous and strong cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV-Prom) from the E3 region. These bipartite CRCAs, when armed with a transgene, are called cancer terminator viruses (CTVs), i.e., Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-mda-7 (CTV-M7) and Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-IFN-? (CTV-?), because of their universal effectiveness in cancer treatment irrespective of p53/pRb/p16 or other genetic alterations in tumor cells. In addition to their selective oncolytic effects in tumor cells, the potent 'bystander antitumor' properties of MDA-7/IL-24 and IFN-? embody the CTVs with expanded treatment properties for both primary and distant cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells display a "translational block" of mda-7/IL-24 mRNA, limiting production of MDA-7/IL-24 protein and cancer-specific apoptosis. Specific chemopreventive agents abrogate this "translational block" resulting in pancreatic cancer-specific killing. This novel chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) strategy holds promise for both prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancers where all other strategies have proven ineffective. PMID:23157679

Sarkar, S; Azab, B M; Das, S K; Quinn, B A; Shen, X; Dash, R; Emdad, L; Thomas, S; Dasgupta, S; Su, Z-Z; Wang, X-Y; Sarkar, D; Fisher, P B

2013-08-01

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Reducing aggression and impulsivity through school-based prevention programs: a gene by intervention interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of school-based, universal preventive interventions have been developed to address behavioral and mental health problems. Unfortunately, few have been evaluated within the context of randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. Even fewer still have examined the potential genetic factors that may drive differential impact of the intervention. In the present analysis, we examine the extent to which the longitudinal effects of two elementary school-based interventions were moderated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which has been linked with aggression and impulsive behaviors. The sample included 678 urban, primarily African American children who were randomly assigned along with their teachers to one of three first grade classroom conditions: classroom-centered (CC) intervention, Family School Partnership (FSP), or a control condition. The teacher ratings of the youth's aggressive and impulsive behavior were obtained at baseline and in grades 6-12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the BDNF gene were extracted from the genome-wide data. Longitudinal latent trait-state-error models indicated a significant interaction between a particular profile of the BDNF SNP cluster (46 % of sample) and CC intervention on impulsivity (??=?-.27, p?factors, such as BDNF. However, replication of these results is necessary before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24178584

Musci, Rashelle J; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Maher, Brion; Uhl, George R; Kellam, Sheppard G; Ialongo, Nicholas S

2014-12-01

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Essential Gene Pathways for Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Clinical Implications for Prevention of Tumor Recurrence  

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Full Text Available Glioblastoma (World Health Organization/WHO grade IV is the most common and most aggressive adult glial tumor. Patients with glioblastoma, despite being treated with gross total resection and post-operative radiation/chemotherapy, will almost always develop tumor recurrence. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC, a minor subpopulation within the tumor mass, have been recently characterized as tumor-initiating cells and hypothesized to be responsible for post-treatment recurrence because of their enhanced radio-/chemo-resistant phenotype and ability to reconstitute tumors in mouse brains. Genome-wide expression profile analysis uncovered molecular properties of GSC distinct from their differentiated, proliferative progeny that comprise the majority of the tumor mass. In contrast to the hyperproliferative and hyperangiogenic phenotype of glioblastoma tumors, GSC possess neuroectodermal properties and express genes associated with neural stem cells, radial glial cells, and neural crest cells, as well as portray a migratory, quiescent, and undifferentiated phenotype. Thus, cell cycle-targeted radio-chemotherapy, which aims to kill fast-growing tumor cells, may not completely eliminate glioblastoma tumors. To prevent tumor recurrence, a strategy targeting essential gene pathways of GSC must be identified and incorporated into the standard treatment regimen. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues by which GSC maintain stemness properties and sustain both tumorigenesis and anti-apoptotic features may provide new insights into potentially curative strategies for treating brain cancers.

Cho-Lea Tso

2011-04-01

43

Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B  

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Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.

RolandW.Herzog

2011-12-01

44

Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression  

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Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

T.S. Higa

2012-10-01

45

Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes  

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Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

Ramesh C. Gupta

2008-03-01

46

PKA phosphorylates histone deacetylase 5 and prevents its nuclear export, leading to the inhibition of gene transcription and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a fundamental mechanism regulating gene transcription. Recent studies have identified several protein kinases that phosphorylate HDAC5, leading to its exportation from the nucleus. However, the negative regulatory mechanisms for HDAC5 nuclear exclusion remain largely unknown. Here we show that cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) specifically phosphorylates HDAC5 and prevents its export from the nucleus, leading...

Ha, Chang Hoon; Kim, Ji Young; Zhao, Jinjing; Wang, Weiye; Jhun, Bong Sook; Wong, Chelsea; Jin, Zheng Gen

2010-01-01

47

Genes and Gene Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

48

DNA methylation prevents the amplification of TROP1, a tumor-associated cell surface antigen gene.  

OpenAIRE

We tested the hypothesis that different genes can have different abilities to be amplified after transfection under comparable selection conditions. DNA from human lymphoid or choriocarcinoma cell lines was transfected into L cells. Transfectants for CD5, CD8A, TROP1, and TROP2, genes expressed on lymphocytes or trophoblast and carcinomas, were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. To select for amplification of the transfected gene we cloned twice by fluorescence-activated cell so...

Alberti, S.; Nutini, M.; Herzenberg, L. A.

1994-01-01

49

Tolerance of Deregulated G1/S Transcription Depends on Critical G1/S Regulon Genes to Prevent Catastrophic Genome Instability  

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Full Text Available Expression of a G1/S regulon of genes that are required for DNA replication is a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling cell proliferation; moreover, the pathological deregulated expression of E2F-regulated G1/S genes is found in every type of cancer. Cellular tolerance of deregulated G1/S transcription is surprising because this regulon includes many dosage-sensitive proteins. Here, we used the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to investigate this issue. We report that deregulating the MBF G1/S regulon by eliminating the Nrm1 corepressor increases replication errors. Homology-directed repair proteins, including MBF-regulated Ctp1CtIP, are essential to prevent catastrophic genome instability. Surprisingly, the normally inconsequential MBF-regulated S-phase cyclin Cig2 also becomes essential in the absence of Nrm1. This requirement was traced to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition of the MBF-regulated Cdc18Cdc6 replication origin-licensing factor. Collectively, these results establish that, although deregulation of G1/S transcription is well tolerated by cells, nonessential G1/S target genes become crucial for preventing catastrophic genome instability.

Catia Caetano

2014-12-01

50

Application of Minimal Sequence Quality Values Prevents Misidentification of the blaSHV Type in Single Bacterial Isolates Carrying Different SHV Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase Genes  

OpenAIRE

Nucleotide sequencing is the standard molecular method for determination of the ?-lactamase gene present in an isolate. Using minimal sequence quality values prevents misidentification of blaSHV genes, as illustrated by three strains of three different species that each contained two different blaSHV alleles, SHV-2 and SHV-12.

Al Naiemi, Nashwan; Schipper, Kim; Duim, Birgitta; Bart, Aldert

2006-01-01

51

Prevention of coronary in-stent restenosis and vein graft failure: does vascular gene therapy have a role?  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including stent insertion, are established therapies in both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and symptomatic chronic coronary artery disease refractory to pharmacological therapy. These continually advancing treatments remain limited by failure of conduit grafts in CABG and by restenosis or thrombosis of stented vessel segments in PCI caused by neointimal hyperplasia, impaired endothelialisation and accelerated atherosclerosis. While pharmacological and technological advancements have improved patient outcomes following both procedures, when grafts or stents fail these result in significant health burdens. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology of vein graft disease and in-stent restenosis, gene therapy vector development and design, and translation from pre-clinical animal models through human clinical trials. We identify the key issues that are currently preventing vascular gene therapy from interfacing with clinical use and introduce the areas of research attempting to overcome these. PMID:22796519

Robertson, Keith E; McDonald, Robert A; Oldroyd, Keith G; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

2012-10-01

52

Elongin BC complex prevents degradation of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene products  

OpenAIRE

Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene causes the familial cancer syndrome, VHL disease, characterized by a predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other tumor types. Loss of VHL gene function also is found in a majority of sporadic renal carcinomas. A preponderance of the tumor-disposing inherited missense mutations detected in VHL disease are within the elongin-binding domain of VHL. This region mediates the formation of a multiprotein VHL complex containing el...

Schoenfeld, Alan R.; Davidowitz, Eliot J.; Burk, Robert D.

2000-01-01

53

Gene–environment correlations: a review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness  

OpenAIRE

Family studies have demonstrated genetic influences on environmental exposure: the phenomenon of gene–environment correlation (rGE). A few molecular genetic studies have confirmed the results, but the identification of rGE in studies that measure genes and environments faces several challenges. Using examples from studies in psychology and psychiatry, we integrate the behavioral and molecular genetic literatures on rGE, describe challenges in identifying rGE and discuss the implications of ...

Jaffee, Sr; Price, Ts

2007-01-01

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Analysis of the Ketosynthase Genes in Streptomyces and Its Implications for Preventing Reinvestigation of Polyketides with Bioactivities  

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Full Text Available Cucumber wilt by Fusarium oxysporium f sp. cucumarinum is one of the most important soil-borne diseases. Among control strategies for plant soil-borne pathogen, biocontrol systems eliminate neither pathogen nor disease but bring them into natural balance. Polyketides form the largest part of the known natural products, and most of them come from actinomycetes especially streptomyces. Analysis for the ketosynthase genes in streptomyces can implicate new polyketides. In the course of the screening for producers of polyketides with antifungal activities, 117 strains were isolated. The screening program was performed by means of PCR amplification using degenerated primers corresponding to type II ketosynthase (KS genes. Among 117 isolates, 33 isolates showed antifungal activities and 17 isolates showed positive amplification signal. Antagonism of the 17 isolates against Fusarium oxysporium f sp. cucumarinum, Bacillus subtilis and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in vitro were analyzed. The diversities of KS-II gene from the 17 isolates were abundant based on phylogenetic tree analysis. The 17 isolates were divided into 6 clades based on KS-II gene sequence. The results showed that different isolates which belong to the same species present different antagonism activities and also the different streptomyces species showed different bioactivities. Among 17 isolates, isolates DQ1, DQ23, GAN1, HVG60 and HVG71 have the potential ability to produce new type polyketides. This method may not only prevent reinvestigation to find bioactive molecules described previously, but also alleviate some of the biases introduced by using conventional cultivation techniques.

Qiu Liu

2012-05-01

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Suppression of the vacuolar invertase gene prevents cold-induced sweetening in potato  

Science.gov (United States)

Storing potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers at cold temperatures prevents sprouting and minimizes losses due to disease. Unfortunately, cold storage triggers an accumulation of reducing sugars, a phenomenon referred to as cold-induced sweetening (CIS). High-temperature processing of potato tubers wit...

56

WWOX gene restoration prevents lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo  

OpenAIRE

The WWOX (WW domain containing oxidoreductase) gene at the common fragile site, FRA16D, is altered in many types of cancer, including lung cancer. We have examined the tumor suppressor function of WWOX in preclinical lung cancer models. The WWOX gene was expressed in lung cancer cell lines through recombinant adenovirus (Ad) infection (Ad-WWOX), and through a drug [ponasterone A, (ponA)]-inducible system. After WWOX restoration in vitro, endogenous Wwox protein-negative cell lines (A549, H460...

Fabbri, Muller; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Trapasso, Francesco; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Cimmino, Amelia; Zanesi, Nicola; Yendamuri, Sai; Han, Shuang-yin; Amadori, Dino; Huebner, Kay; Croce, Carlo M.

2005-01-01

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Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by Ciclopirox and Deferiprone, drugs that prevent hypusination of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been implicated in HIV-1 replication. This protein contains the apparently unique amino acid hypusine that is formed by the post-translational modification of a lysine residue catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH. DOHH activity is inhibited by two clinically used drugs, the topical fungicide ciclopirox and the systemic medicinal iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone has been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Results Ciclopirox and deferiprone blocked HIV-1 replication in PBMCs. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the action of the drugs on eIF5A modification and HIV-1 gene expression in model systems. At early times after drug exposure, both drugs inhibited substrate binding to DOHH and prevented the formation of mature eIF5A. Viral gene expression from HIV-1 molecular clones was suppressed at the RNA level independently of all viral genes. The inhibition was specific for the viral promoter and occurred at the level of HIV-1 transcription initiation. Partial knockdown of eIF5A-1 by siRNA led to inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression that was non-additive with drug action. These data support the importance of eIF5A and hypusine formation in HIV-1 gene expression. Conclusion At clinically relevant concentrations, two widely used drugs blocked HIV-1 replication ex vivo. They specifically inhibited expression from the HIV-1 promoter at the level of transcription initiation. Both drugs interfered with the hydroxylation step in the hypusine modification of eIF5A. These results have profound implications for the potential therapeutic use of these drugs as antiretrovirals and for the development of optimized analogs.

Saxena Deepti

2009-10-01

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Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms o [...] f these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the expression of senescence-associated genes. METHODS: Primary cultures of young, pre-senescent, and senescent fibroblast cells were incubated with ?-tocotrienol for 24 h. The expression levels of ELN, COL1A1, MMP1, CCND1, RB1, and IL6 genes were determined using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle profiles were determined using a FACSCalibur Flow Cytometer. RESULTS: The cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase, and the percentage of cells in S phase decreased with senescence. CCND1, RB1, MMP1, and IL6 were upregulated in senescent fibroblasts. A similar upregulation was not observed in young cells. Incubation with ?-tocotrienol decreased CCND1 and RB1 expression in senescent fibroblasts, decreased cell populations in the G0/G1 phase and increased cell populations in the G2/M phase. ?-Tocotrienol treatment also upregulated ELN and COL1A1 and downregulated MMP1 and IL6 expression in young and senescent fibroblasts. CONCLUSION: ?-Tocotrienol prevented cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts, which was indicated by the modulation of the cell cycle profile and senescence-associated gene expression.

Suzana, Makpol; Azalina, Zainuddin; Kien Hui, Chua; Yasmin Anum Mohd, Yusof; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

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Liraglutide Prevents Hypoadiponectinemia-Induced Insulin Resistance and Alterations of Gene Expression Involved in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Liraglutide is a glucagonlike peptide (GLP)-1 analog that reduces blood glucose levels, increases insulin secretion and improves insulin sensitivity through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the metabolic impact and underlying mechanisms of liraglutide in a hypoadiponectinemia and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance (IR) model. Adiponectin gene targeting was achieved using adenovirus-transduced RNAi and was used to lower plasma adiponectin levels. Liraglutide (1 mg/kg) was given twice daily for 8 wks to HFD-fed apolipoprotein (Apo)E?/? mice. Insulin sensitivity was examined by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Gene mRNA and protein expressions were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Administration of liraglutide prevented hypoadiponectinemia-induced increases in plasma insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Liraglutide also attenuated hypoadiponectinemia-induced deterioration in peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and alterations in key regulatory factors implicated in glucose and lipid metabolism. These findings demonstrated for the first time that liraglutide could be used to rescue IR induced by hypoadiponectinemia and HFD via regulating gene and protein expression involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:21785811

Li, Ling; Miao, Zongyu; Liu, Rui; Yang, Mengliu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Gangyi

2011-01-01

60

Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression  

OpenAIRE

Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE) and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (H...

Chun-Ki Kim; Dong Hui Cho; Kyu-Sun Lee; Dong-Keon Lee; Chan-Woong Park; Wan Gi Kim; Sang Jun Lee; Kwon-Soo Ha; Oh Goo Taeg; Young-Guen Kwon; Young-Myeong Kim

2012-01-01

61

Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained seden [...] tary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P

T.S., Higa; F.C., Bergamo; F., Mazzucatto; M.H., Fonseca-Alaniz; F.S., Evangelista.

2012-10-01

62

Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

Venojärvi Mika

2011-01-01

63

Genetic mapping of a mouse modifier gene that can prevent ALS onset.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in the cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene on human chromosome 21q22.1 cause 10-20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. The expression of the ALS phenotype in mice carrying the murine G86R SOD1 mutation is highly dependent upon the mouse genetic background. This is similar to the phenotypic variation observed in ALS patients containing identical SOD1 mutations. In the FVB/N background, mice expressing mG86R SOD1 develop an ALS phenotype at approximately 100 days. However, when these mice were bred into a mixed background of C57Bl6/129Sv, the onset of the ALS phenotype was delayed (143 days to >2 years). Using 129 polymorphic autosomal markers in a whole genome scan, we have identified a major genetic modifier locus with a maximum lod score of 5.07 on mouse chromosome 13 between D13mit36 and D13mit76. This 5- to 8-cM interval contains the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-associated gene Smn (survival motor neuron) and seven copies of Naip (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein), suggesting a potential link between SMA and ALS. PMID:11112346

Kunst, C B; Messer, L; Gordon, J; Haines, J; Patterson, D

2000-12-01

64

Gene flow in poplar - experiments, analysis and modeling to prevent transgene outcrossing  

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Full Text Available The demand for energy and forestry products is globally increasing, raising the question if traditional breeding programs are efficient and fast enough to keep up with these demands. A possible solution seems to be the use of genetic engineering techniques, since classical breeding strategies are time-consuming and limited by species barriers. Besides the advantages of genetic engineering technologies, concerns are also raised by scientists regarding these methods. Consequently, risk analysis of genetic modified trees in plantation forestry is a fundamental research topic. This paper presents a sequence of steps in risk analysis dealing with genetic modified poplar clones in the natural environment, ranging from investigations of flowering phenology, to molecular identification of gene flow patterns and their statistical interpretation, to modeling approaches to simulate different scenarios of plantations using genetic modified poplars in realistic European landscapes. All steps are evaluated for their potential to forecast the risk of outcrossing of gene constructs into native po­pulations. The application of the results achieved to short rotation plantations are discussed.

Bialozyt R

2012-06-01

65

Decitabine maintains hematopoietic precursor self-renewal by preventing repression of stem cell genes by a differentiation inducing stimulus  

Science.gov (United States)

The cytosine analogue decitabine alters hematopoietic differentiation. For example, decitabine treatment increases self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells. The mechanisms underlying decitabine induced shifts in differentiation are poorly understood, but likely relate to the ability of decitabine to deplete the chromatin-modifying enzyme DNA methyl-transferase 1 (DNMT1) that plays a central role in transcription repression. HOXB4 is a transcription factor that promotes hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. In hematopoietic precursors induced to differentiate by the lineage-specifying transcription factor Pu.1, or by the cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), there is rapid repression of HOXB4 and other stem cell genes. Depletion of DNMT1 using shRNA or decitabine prevents HOXB4 repression by Pu.1 or G-CSF, and maintains hematopoietic precursor self-renewal. In contrast, depletion of DNMT1 by decitabine six hours after the differentiation stimulus, that is, after repression of HOXB4 has occurred, augments differentiation. Therefore, DNMT1 is required for the early repression of stem cell genes that occurs in response to a differentiation stimulus, providing a mechanistic explanation for the observation that decitabine can maintain or increase hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal in the presence of a differentiation stimulus. Using decitabine to deplete DNMT1 after this early repression phase does not impair progressive differentiation. PMID:20501800

Hu, Zhenbo; Negrotto, Soledad; Gu, Xiaorong; Mahfouz, Reda; Ng, Kwok Peng; Ebrahem, Quteba; Copelan, Edward; Singh, Harinder; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Saunthararajah, Yogen

2010-01-01

66

Therapeutic adenoviral gene transfer of a glycosyltransferase for prevention of peritoneal dissemination and metastasis of gastric cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased expression of sialyl Lewis(x/a) carbohydrates, ligands for E-selectin, correlates with clinically advanced stages and metastasis of gastric and colon cancers. In contrast, Sd(a) carbohydrate is abundantly detected in the normal gastrointestinal mucosa but dramatically reduced or lost in cancer tissues. A glycosyltransferase, ?1,4N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4GALNT2) that catalyzes Sd(a) carbohydrate synthesis, is silenced in cancer. In the present study, we aimed at reducing the expression of sialyl Lewis(x/a) of cancer cells in vivo by forced expression of B4GALNT2 and Sd(a), thereby preventing dissemination/metastasis, especially metastasis triggered by surgical maneuvers. We used a fiber-modified adenovirus (Ad) vector that contained a chimeric construct with a serotype 5 shaft and a serotype 3 knob. Using this Ad5/3 vector, we successfully introduced the B4GALNT2 gene into a human gastric cancer cell line KATO III in vitro and confirmed replacement of sialyl Lewis(x) to Sd(a) with a decrease in E-selectin-dependent adhesion. Administration of Ad5/3-B4GALNT2 vectors into the peritoneal cavity of mice after inoculation of KATO III cells with laparotomy significantly reduced the incidence of metastasis. Our results indicate that the transfer of a single gene encoding B4GALNT2 modified carbohydrate chains of cancer cells in vivo and decreased tumor dissemination and metastasis. PMID:25213663

Kawamura, Y I; Adachi, Y; Curiel, D T; Kawashima, R; Kannagi, R; Nishimoto, N; Dohi, T

2014-10-01

67

Prevention of PDT-induced esophageal stricture by MnSOD-PL gene therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is currently being used to treat esophageal cancer and Barrett's esophagus. PDT is very promising except that it results in a high rate of esophageal stricture. The clinical protocol involves the injection of Photofrin into the patient followed 48 hours later with a laser treatment of 630 nm of light. At this wavelength Photofrin reacts with the light and results in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria. To determine if MnSOD-PL prevents esophageal stricture we developed a pig model. Pigs (20 kg outbred female) were injected intravenously with Photofrin (2 mg/kg) and an endoscope was placed into the esophagus where MnSOD-PL (10 mg plasmid DNA) was administered at the site of PDT treatment. Control pigs received Photofrin only. Twenty-four hours later an endoscope was placed into the esophagus and the laser inserted through the endoscope to 10 cm above the GE junction where 400 Joules of light were administered to the esophagus. A second PDT treatment of 400 Joules was given 48 hours later. The pigs were followed for development of esophageal stricture as determined by a 10% weight loss, an endoscopic exam demonstrating esophageal stricture, and an x-ray following barium swallow. Upon detection of esophageal stricture, the pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed and pathological examination performed. By 14-21 days all control pigs developed esophageal stricture while pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged s pigs receiving MnSOD-PL had a prolonged survival for at least 6 weeks after injection of MnSOD-PL. At this time, the MnSOD-PL-injected pigs were sacrificed. The esophagus was removed from each animal and examined for the development of esophageal stricture. No esophageal stricture was detected by x-ray following barium swallow, endoscopic exam or pathological examination in esophagus samples from MnSOD-PL treated pigs. Results of these experiments demonstrate that MnSOD-PL may be effective in preventing normal esophageal tissue damage by PDT

68

Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

2013-01-01

69

Identification of genes preventing transgenerational transmission of stress-induced epigenetic states.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examples of transgenerational transmission of environmentally induced epigenetic traits remain rare and disputed. Abiotic stress can release the transcription of epigenetically suppressed transposons and, noticeably, this activation is only transient. Therefore, it is likely that mechanisms countering the mitotic and meiotic inheritance of stress-triggered chromatin changes must exist but are undefined. To reveal these mechanisms, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants impaired in the resetting of stress-induced loss of epigenetic silencing and found that two chromatin regulators, Decrease in DNA methylation1 (DDM1) and Morpheus' Molecule1 (MOM1), act redundantly to restore prestress state and thus erase "epigenetic stress memory". In ddm1 mutants, stress hyperactivates heterochromatic transcription and transcription persists longer than in the wild type. However, this newly acquired state is not transmitted to the progeny. Strikingly, although stress-induced transcription in mom1 mutants is as rapidly silenced as in wild type, in ddm1 mom1 double mutants, transcriptional signatures of stress are able to persist and are found in the progeny of plants stressed as small seedlings. Our results reveal an important, previously unidentified function of DDM1 and MOM1 in rapid resetting of stress induced epigenetic states, and therefore also in preventing their mitotic propagation and transgenerational inheritance. PMID:24912148

Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2014-06-10

70

The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9 (-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70 % of the Lhx9 (-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9 (-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; MØller, Morten

2014-01-01

71

Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection by adoptive allogeneic immunotherapy using suicide gene-modified lymphocytes: an in vitro proof-of-concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced, end-stage liver disease is a major indication for liver transplantation, but systematic graft reinfection accelerates liver disease recurrence. Transplantation recipients may be ineligible for direct-acting antivirals, owing to toxicity, resistance or advanced liver disease. Adoptive immunotherapy with liver graft-derived, ex vivo-activated lymphocytes was previously shown to prevent HCV-induced graft reinfections. Alternatively, the applicability and therapeutic efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy may be enhanced by 'ready for use' suicide gene-modified lymphocytes from healthy blood donors; moreover, conditional, prodrug-induced cell suicide may prevent potential side effects. Here, we demonstrate that allogeneic suicide gene-modified lymphocytes (SGMLs) could potently, dose- and time-dependently, inhibit viral replication. The effect occurs at effector:target cell ratios that exhibits no concomitant cytotoxicity toward virus-infected target cells. The effect, mediated mostly by CD56+ lymphocytes, is interleukin-2-dependent, IFN-?-mediated and, importantly, resistant to calcineurin inhibitors. Thus, post-transplant immunosuppression may not interfere with this adoptive cell immunotherapy approach. Furthermore, these cells are indeed amenable to conditional cell suicide; in particular, the inducible caspase 9 suicide gene is superior to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene. Our data provide in vitro proof-of-concept that allogeneic, third-party, SGMLs may prevent HCV-induced liver graft reinfection.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 13 November 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2014.99. PMID:25394253

Leboeuf, C; Roser-Schilder, J; Lambotin, M; Durand, S; Wu, T; Fauvelle, C; Su, B; Bôle-Richard, E; Deschamps, M; Ferrand, C; Tiberghien, P; Pessaux, P; Baumert, T F; Robinet, E

2014-11-13

72

Intratracheal manganese superoxide dismutase gene therapy for prevention of irradiation-induced lung damage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose/Objective: Normal lung tissue often limits the irradiation dose that can be given safely to cancers. Increasing the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in normal lung tissue via intratracheal liposomes or adenovirus in the thorax, was evaluated for protective effect against irradiation-induced damage. Materials and Methods: To demonstrate that radiosensitivity is affected by MnSOD expression, irradiation survival curves were performed on cloned fibroblast lines derived from mice homozygous for MnSOD expression (SOD +/+), heterozygous for MnSOD (SOD +/-), or MnSOD knockouts (SOD -/-). In addition, irradiation survival curves were performed on IB3-1 human bronchoalveolar control cells or cells overexpressing an MnSOD transgene. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were anesthetized and intratracheally injected with liposomes containing 500 ?g of plasmid DNA containing either MnSOD transgene, or LacZ transgene. Twenty-four hours later, the mice received 2000 cGy irradiation to the thoracic cavity. At 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after irradiation, serum TGF-?1 levels were determined by ELISA; other mice were held for survival and percent alveolitis measured. Adult female nude mice [Balb/c nu/nu] received adenovirus (109 plaque-forming units) containing the transgenes for either human MnSOD, human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ, by intratracheal injections. Four days later, the mice received 850 cGy irradiation to the hemibody. The mice were sacrificed at 130 dayody. The mice were sacrificed at 130 days after irradiation. The lungs were removed, frozen in OCT, sectioned, stained with H and E, and analyzed for percent alveolitis. In a subset, mice were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. Serum was tested for TGF-?1 levels by ELISA. The lungs were excised, and RNA extracted and analyzed by slot-blot for expression for messenger RNA for MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, IL-1, or TGF-?. Results: Irradiation survival curves demonstrated that cells having higher levels of MnSOD were more radioresistant, SOD -/- fibroblasts (D0=1.270 Gy) were more sensitive to irradiation than SOD +/- or SOD +/+ cells (D0=1.563 and 1.732 Gy, respectively) [p=0.030 and p=0.010]. Overexpression of MnSOD in IB3-1 cells resulted in an increased n-bar of 7.27±0.100, compared to 2.33±0.685 (p=.001) for IB3-1 cell line with no significant change in the D0. Irradiated C57BL/6J mice injected with MnSOD plasmid/liposome complexes showed a significant increase in survival, compared to control irradiated mice (p=0.0156), or LacZ plasmid-liposome injected mice (p=0.0097). No difference was observed between control mice and the LacZ plasmid-liposome-injected mice. For the MnSOD-treated mice, 50% survival was observed at day 202, while the 50% survival for the control and LacZ-treated mice was observed at days 152 (p=0.0156) and 143 (p=0.0097), respectively. Following irradiation, serum TGF-?1 levels were increased for the control (p=0.055) and LacZ-injected (p=0.057) mice, but not in MnSOD plasmid/liposome complex-injected mice. Nude mice injected with adenovirus containing the transgenes for MnSOD had less alveolitis at 130 days after irradiation than did control (p=0.030) irradiated mice or LacZ adenovirus transgene-injected (p=0.031) mice as determined by microscopic examination of H and E stained lung sections. No difference was observed between the irradiated control group and mice receiving the Cu/ZnSOD adenovirus. Mice injected with adenovirus containing the LacZ gene had significantly more alveolitis than the other groups. Serum TGF-?1 levels were increased four days following 850 cGy in the control (p=0.057) and adenovirus-LacZ-treated groups (p=0.065), but not in the MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD groups. Lungs from both the control and LacZ adenovirus groups showed increased expression of both IL-1 and TGF-?1, compared to the MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD groups. Conclusion: The use of liposomes or adenovirus vectors containing MnSOD may provide a way to transiently protect the lung during radiation therapy

73

Prevention of gene erosion of old wheat varieties by back-crossing and X-ray irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The famous old Tisza riverside wheat varieties have several characteristics which are very valuable in modern plant breeding, the most important being their high protein content. The recently cultivated varieties contain 13-14%, whereas the old ones had 17-18% protein. Their winter hardiness and baking quality are also outstanding. Their preservation in the original form is very difficult. The fact that many thousand collected forms are sown in small plots (1-2m2) in the Agrobotanical Institute, Tapioszele, facilitates biological and man-caused accidental mixing. If the height of the old varieties is decreased and their stalk strength increased, varieties with high practical value are obtained. One way to breed dwarf varieties has been by back-crossing, as was done with Ble Tom, Norins, Oleson, etc. Another way has been by X-ray irradiation (10kR treatment for dry seeds). With this method a new homozygote dwarf (70-90cm) form of Bankuti 1201 was bred. The new mutant has almost all the characteristics of Bankuti 1201, but its stalk is shorter by 50-70cm than that of the original one. At the same time the disease resistance (stem rust and mildew) of the dwarf form is usually better than that of the old tall types. It seems that one of the most modern ways to prevent gene-erosion is through this type of ''transformation''. (author)

74

Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The livestock revolution so robustly and frequently described in the past five years, is argued to provide a real opportunity for the rural livestock keeper in developing countries to escape the poverty trap, move away from subsistence farming and enter the more rewarding areas of farm enterprise and income generation. To do so though, will require more than merely acknowledging this marketing opportunity. It will be essential to address the many constraints and critical risks that constantly face rural farming in developing countries. Of these, livestock disease rates as one of the most challenging. However, for effective participation in the livestock revolution it will be essential that livestock disease is either controlled or prevented. For the livestock producer in developing countries, many of the life threatening diseases that have been eradicated from the developed world area are ever present and the extent and range of production-limiting diseases are considerable. The situation is further compounded since in many cases veterinary services and other animal health delivery systems are either nonexistent or ineffective. For some time donor organisations have been driving countries in transition to privatise services such as animal health delivery. The current situation is the virtual elimination of functioning State veterinary services without replacement by a private system and certainly not in rural areas. The elimination of the major killer diseases of liveation of the major killer diseases of livestock in the developed world was achieved, for the most part, through considerable State investment, extensive veterinary input and a large share of public money. Such resources are certainly not available today in most developing countries. No wonder therefore that diseases such as Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, African Swine Fever ad Foot and Mouth Disease continue to exist endemically in most poorer regions of Africa and elsewhere. In terms of the production limiting diseases, control of these in most developed countries is through a mixture of management and therapy. The former requires knowledge and considerable local understanding and the latter resources and supplies. Both of these are limited in the developing country situation, particularly in a rural setting. Given this complex of challenges, can gene-based technologies really make a difference to the management of livestock disease for the producer in developing countries? To be effective in the developing country situation, any intervention must be relatively simple, cost effective, sustainable and convincing. Can this be delivered? Perhaps an insight can be gained from an appreciation of the fundamental nature of gene-based technologies. Inherent in the approach is the recognition that the gene is the basic building block of biology. Management and manipulation of the gene therefore enables us to design and direct an endless array of precise solutions, whether this be designer livestock, genetically engineered biological products or genetically altered organisms. Without doubt, the availability of livestock resistant to disease, or at least one or two of the major diseases affecting livestock in a particular region, is a simple and applicable solution to the developing country situation. Attempts to understand the genetic basis of trypanotolerence are still on-going but if successful would enable livestock production in large areas of Africa currently restricted by the presence of trypanosomosis. Another example would be the demonstration of resistance to internal parasites by certain breeds of sheep. Locating the genetic basis of this could be revolutionary in the management of this particular disease risk. As work starts on sequencing both the bovine and the ovine genome, the future opportunities for designing livestock resistant or tolerant to a range of diseases looks highly promising. Looking at the causative agents of livestock disease, the ability to exquisitely alter these to better understand the way they cause disease is providing a fast tr

75

In vivo prevention of thyroid and pancreatic autoimmunity in the BB rat by antibody to class II major histocompatibility complex gene products.  

OpenAIRE

Evidence is accumulating that the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus involves autoimmune phenomena, both in the human and in the BB rat model. A strong association is observed in both cases with alleles of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Results of the present study show that autoimmune phenomena, as assessed by the presence of clinical diabetes or histological thyroiditis, are prevented by the injection of monoclonal antibodies to class II gene products i...

Boitard, C.; Michie, S.; Serrurier, P.; Butcher, G. W.; Larkins, A. P.; Mcdevitt, H. O.

1985-01-01

76

Interaction between two cholesterol metabolism genes influences memory: findings from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention  

OpenAIRE

The strongest genetic factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is APOE; nine additional susceptibility genes have recently been identified. The effect of these genes is often assumed to be additive and polygenic scores are formed as a summary measure of risk. However, interactions between these genes are likely to be important. We sought to examine the role of interactions between the nine recently identified AD susceptibility genes and APOE in cognitive function and decline in 1,153 ...

Engelman, Corinne D.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Hermann, Bruce P.; La Rue, Asenath; Sager, Mark A.

2013-01-01

77

Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in gene expression of growth factors in two developmental stages of the female rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxytocin production and secretion is important for early development of the brain. Long-term consequences of manipulation of oxytocin system might include changes in markers of brain plasticity - cytoskeletal proteins and neurotrophins. The aim of the present study was (1) to determine whether neonatal oxytocin administration affects gene expression of nestin, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain of two developmental stages of rat and (2) to evaluate whether neonatal oxytocin administration protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Neonatal oxytocin did not prevent a decrease of body weight in the LPS treated animals. Oxytocin significantly increased gene expression of BDNF in the right hippocampus in 21-day and 2-month old rats of both sexes. Gene expression of NGF and MAP-2 significantly increased in males treated with oxytocin. Both, growth factors and intermediate filament-nestin mRNA levels, were reduced in females exposed to LPS. Oxytocin treatment prevented a decrease in the gene expression of only growth factors. In conclusion, neonatal manipulation of oxytocin has developmental and sex-dependent effect on markers of brain plasticity. These results also indicate, that oxytocin may be protective against inflammation particularly in females. PMID:25047873

Bakos, Jan; Lestanova, Zuzana; Strbak, Vladimir; Havranek, Tomas; Bacova, Zuzana

2014-10-01

78

Allelic exclusion at DNA rearrangement level is required to prevent coexpression of two distinct T cell receptor beta genes  

OpenAIRE

In mice double transgenic for functionally rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) V beta 2 and V beta 8.2 genes we found that most T lymphocytes express both TCR beta chains simultaneously. These T cells show no abnormality in thymic selection in vivo and their TCRs are capable of transducing activation signals in vitro. These results indicate that multispecific T cells may appear in the periphery if allelic exclusion of TCR beta genes is not established at the level of gene rearrangement.

1991-01-01

79

Long-distance gene flow outweighs a century of local selection and prevents local adaptation in the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainably managing plant resistance to epidemic pathogens implies controlling the genetic and demographic changes in pathogen populations faced with resistant hosts. Resistance management thus depends upon the dynamics of local adaptation, mainly driven by the balance between selection and gene flow. This dynamics is best investigated with populations from locally dominant hosts in islands with long histories of local selection. We used the unique case of the potato late blight pathosystem on Jersey, where a monoculture of potato cultivar 'Jersey Royal' has been in place for over a century. We also sampled populations from the coasts of Brittany and Normandy, as likely sources for gene flow. The isolation by distance pattern and the absence of genetic differentiation between Jersey and the closest French sites revealed gene flow at that spatial scale. Microsatellite allele frequencies revealed no evidence of recombination in the populations, but admixture of two genotypic clusters. No local adaptation in Jersey was detected from pathogenicity tests on Jersey Royal and on French cultivars. These data suggest that long-distance gene flow (? 50/100 km) prevents local adaptation in Jersey despite a century of local selection by a single host cultivar and emphasize the need for regional rather than local management of resistance gene deployment. PMID:24822079

Glais, Isabelle; Montarry, Josselin; Corbière, Roselyne; Pasco, Claudine; Marquer, Bruno; Magalon, Hélène; Andrivon, Didier

2014-04-01

80

Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days or 29 days later (35 days attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used to identify genes that are regulated by nandrolone and slow denervation atrophy, as well as genes that might explain the time-dependence of nandrolone effects on such atrophy. Affymetrix microarrays were used to profile gene expression changes due to nandrolone at 7 and 35 days and to identify major gene expression changes in denervated muscle between 7 and 35 days. Results Nandrolone selectively altered expression of 124 genes at 7 days and 122 genes at 35 days, with only 20 genes being regulated at both time points. Marked differences in biological function of genes regulated by nandrolone at 7 and 35 days were observed. At 35, but not 7 days, nandrolone reduced mRNA and protein levels for FOXO1, the mTOR inhibitor REDD2, and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN2 and increased those for ApoD. At 35 days, correlations between mRNA levels and the size of denervated muscle were negative for RCAN2, and positive for ApoD. Nandrolone also regulated genes for Wnt signaling molecules. Comparison of gene expression at 7 and 35 days after denervation revealed marked alterations in the expression of 9 transcriptional coregulators, including Ankrd1 and 2, and many transcription factors and kinases. Conclusions Genes regulated in denervated muscle after 7 days administration of nandrolone are almost entirely different at 7 versus 35 days. Alterations in levels of FOXO1, and of genes involved in signaling through calcineurin, mTOR and Wnt may be linked to the favorable action of nandrolone on denervated muscle. Marked changes in the expression of genes regulating transcription and intracellular signaling may contribute to the time-dependent effects of nandrolone on gene expression.

Bauman William A

2010-10-01

81

Differential expression of the TMV resistance gene N prevents a hypersensitive response in seeds and during germination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dominant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance gene N confers a hypersensitive response (HR) at the site of TMV infection and protects tobacco against systemic spread of the virus. To study N gene activity in seeds and early seedling development, the avirulence gene of N, the helicase domain (p50) of the TMV replicase, was constitutively expressed in a tobacco genotype without N (nn). Transgenic F1 expressing N and p50 were generated by crossing with an NN genotype. Surprisingly, Nn F1 seeds expressing p50 are viable and germinate. Only about 5 days after sowing, seedlings started to show an HR. This paralleled the upregulation of several pathogenesis-related and HR genes. The timing of the HR is consistent with the upregulation of N gene transcript 4-6 days after sowing. The expression of p50 has a stimulating effect on the N gene transcript level during germination. These results show that tobacco seeds and very young seedlings do not express a functional N gene product. PMID:23291787

Niemeyer, Julia; Ruhe, Jonas; Machens, Fabian; Hehl, Reinhard

2013-03-01

82

The Vaccinia Virus K1L Gene Product Inhibits Host NF-?B Activation by Preventing I?B? Degradation  

OpenAIRE

Vaccinia virus wild-type strains such as Ankara and WR synthesize proteins capable of inhibiting the activation of host NF-?B, a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of inflammatory genes. In contrast, an infection by the attenuated MVA strain, whose genome lacks many immunoregulatory genes present in the DNA of its Ankara parent, induces NF-?B activation. Insertion of NF-?B inhibitory genes into the MVA DNA, then, would alter the MVA phenotype. By this method, a 5....

Shisler, Joanna L.; Jin, Xiao-lu

2004-01-01

83

Allelic exclusion at DNA rearrangement level is required to prevent coexpression of two distinct T cell receptor beta genes  

Science.gov (United States)

In mice double transgenic for functionally rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) V beta 2 and V beta 8.2 genes we found that most T lymphocytes express both TCR beta chains simultaneously. These T cells show no abnormality in thymic selection in vivo and their TCRs are capable of transducing activation signals in vitro. These results indicate that multispecific T cells may appear in the periphery if allelic exclusion of TCR beta genes is not established at the level of gene rearrangement. PMID:1655946

1991-01-01

84

Analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected nutrient-sensitive genes in weight-regain prevention: the DIOGENES study.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Differences in the interindividual response to dietary intervention could be modified by genetic variation in nutrient-sensitive genes. OBJECTIVE: This study examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in presumed nutrient-sensitive candidate genes for obesity and obesity-related diseases for main and dietary interaction effects on weight, waist circumference, and fat mass regain over 6 mo. DESIGN: In total, 742 participants who had lost ? 8% of their initial body weight wer...

Larsen, Lh; Angquist, L.; Vimaleswaran, Ks; Hager, J.; Viguerie, N.; Loos, Rj; Handjieva-darlenska, T.; Jebb, Sa; Kunesova, M.; Larsen, Tm; Martinez, Ja; Papadaki, A.; Pfeiffer, Af; Baak, Ma; Sørensen, T.

2012-01-01

85

Liposome-mediated transfer of IL-1 receptor antagonist gene to dispersed islet cells does not prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted NOD mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

IL-1beta is cytotoxic to pancreatic beta-cells in vitro but its role in the vicinity of beta-cells in vivo is unknown. We explored whether liposome-mediated transfer of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene to islet cells might prevent recurrence of disease in syngeneically transplanted non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. NOD mouse islet cells were transfected using liposome-mediated gene transfer with a human IL-1ra cDNA construct and transplanted two days later to prediabetic NOD mice. Graft infiltration and destruction were monitored three, five and eight days posttransplantation by histology and determination of insulin and cytokine content. IL-1ra gene transfer resulted in transient expression of IL-1ra protein in islet cells in vitro as assessed by ELISA and of IL-1ra mRNA in transplanted islets as revealed by RT-PCR. However, both control and IL-1ra transfected NOD grafts exhibited massive infiltration and loss of insulin-positive cells, paralleled by a decreased insulin content. Increased IL-1ra expression did not clearly affect other cytokine profiles (IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-2), except for an increase of IL-10 on day eight. In conclusion, liposome-mediated IL-1ra gene transfer to mouse islet cells results in transient expression of IL-1ra which is, however, insufficient to confer resistance to destruction of grafted insulin-producing cells in the NOD mouse.

Saldeen, J; Sandler, S

2000-01-01

86

Gene Therapy of c-myc Suppressor FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor by Sendai Virus Delivery Prevents Tracheal Stenosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquired tracheal stenosis remains a challenging problem for otolaryngologists. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Sendai virus (SeV)-mediated c-myc suppressor, a far upstream element (FUSE)-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor (FIR), modulates wound healing of the airway mucosa, and whether it prevents tracheal stenosis in an animal model of induced mucosal injury. A fusion gene-deleted, non-transmissible SeV vector encoding FIR (FIR-SeV/?F) was prepared. Rats with scraped airway mucosae were administered FIR-SeV/?F through the tracheostoma. The pathological changes in the airway mucosa and in the tracheal lumen were assessed five days after scraping. Untreated animals showed hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and a thickened submucosal layer with extensive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and collagen deposition causing lumen stenosis. By contrast, the administration of FIR-SeV/?F decreased the degree of tracheal stenosis (P < 0.05) and improved the survival rate (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that c-Myc expression was downregulated in the tracheal basal cells of the FIR-SeV/?F-treated animals, suggesting that c-myc was suppressed by FIR-SeV/?F in the regenerating airway epithelium of the injured tracheal mucosa. The airway-targeted gene therapy of the c-myc suppressor FIR, using a recombinant SeV vector, prevented tracheal stenosis in a rat model of airway mucosal injury. PMID:25569246

Mizokami, Daisuke; Araki, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Yamashita, Taku; Ueda, Yasuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Shiotani, Akihiro

2015-01-01

87

Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-?-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. Ursolic acid (3?-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-?B signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-?-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis.

Takao Kataoka

2011-11-01

88

Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-? of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-?. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-? gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

Andersen Monica

2008-11-01

89

Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Human diploid fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular aging. The beneficial effects of vitamin E in aging have been established, but studies to determine the mechanisms of these effects are ongoing. This study determined the molecular mechanism of ?-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, in the prevention of cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts using the exp...

Suzana Makpol; Azalina Zainuddin; Kien Hui Chua; Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof; Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah

2012-01-01

90

The rs1800629 polymorphism in the TNF gene interacts with physical activity on the changes in C-reactive protein levels in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical activity exerts anti-inflammatory effects, but genetic variation may modify its influence. In particular, the rs1800629 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) gene and the rs1800795 SNP in the interleukin-6 ( IL6) gene have been found to modify the effect of exercise training on circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6, respectively. We assessed whether rs1800629 and rs1800795 modified the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Genotype and 1-year data on changes in physical activity, serum CRP and IL-6 were available for 390 overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The rs1800629 SNP in TNF interacted with the 1-year change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on changes in CRP among those who had high (?3 mg/L) baseline CRP levels ( P = 0.034 for interaction). Carriers of the GG genotype showed a greater decrease in CRP with increasing physical activity than the individuals with the A allele. No interaction between the rs1800795 SNP in IL6 and changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on the 1-year change in serum IL-6 was found. In conclusion, the rs1800629 SNP in the TNF gene may modify the effect of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on serum levels of CRP.

Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Laaksonen, D E

2010-01-01

91

Local Gene Silencing of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Prevents Vulnerable Plaque Disruption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice  

OpenAIRE

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a CC chemokine (CCL2), has been demonstrated to play important roles in atherosclerosis and becoming an important therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that local RNAi of MCP-1 by site-specific delivery of adenovirus-mediated small hairpin RNA (shRNA) may enhance plaque stability and prevent plaque disruption in ApoE?/? mice. We designed an adenovirus-mediated shRNA against mouse MCP-1 (r...

Liu, Xiao Ling; Zhang, Peng Fei; Ding, Shi Fang; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yu Xia; Ni, Mei; Zhang, Yun

2012-01-01

92

Genes  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Access Excellence

2005-03-12

93

Differential alterations in gene expression profiles contribute to time-dependent effects of nandrolone to prevent denervation atrophy  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Anabolic steroids, such as nandrolone, slow muscle atrophy, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are largely unknown. Their effects on muscle size and gene expression depend upon time, and the cause of muscle atrophy. Administration of nandrolone for 7 days beginning either concomitantly with sciatic nerve transection (7 days) or 29 days later (35 days) attenuated denervation atrophy at 35 but not 7 days. We reasoned that this model could be used...

Bauman William A; Pan Jiangping; Qin Weiping; Cardozo Christopher P

2010-01-01

94

Regulation of epigenetic traits of the glutathione S-transferase P1 gene: From detoxification towards cancer prevention and diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II drug detoxifying enzymes that play an essential role in maintenance of cell integrity and protection against DNA damage by catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to a wide variety of exo- and endogenous electrophilic substrates. GSTP1, the gene encoding the pi­class GST is frequently inactivated by acquired somatic CpG island promoter hypermethylation in multiple cancer subtypes including prostate, breast, liver and blood cancers. Epigene...

MarcDiederich; MichaelSchnekenburger

2014-01-01

95

Heterogeneity of RNA polymerase gene (rpoB) sequences of Mycobacterium gordonae clinical isolates identified with a DNA probe kit and by conventional methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, we have evaluated genetic identification by using the rpoB gene, which was recently introduced by Kim et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:2102-2109, 2001; J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:1714-1720, 1999). In this process, we examined the rpoB gene heterogeneity of clinical isolates identified as Mycobacterium gordonae with the conventional biological and biochemical tests and/or a commercially available DNA probe kit. Sequencing of the rpoB gene of 34 clinical isolates revealed that M. gordonae clinical isolates were classified into four major clusters (A, B, C, and D). Interestingly, organisms belonging to cluster D (15 isolates) did not hybridize with M. gordonae ATCC 14470 and specifically possessed urease activity. Therefore, it could be considered to be a novel mycobacterium. The identification of M. gordonae is known to have ambiguous results sometimes. On the other hand, identification of clinical isolates seems to be inconvenient and unsuitable because of a more than 99% 16S rRNA gene similarity value between clusters. These findings suggest that the existence of M. gordonae-like mycobacteria that share similar biochemical and biological characteristics with the 16S rRNA gene of an M. gordonae type strain but less similarity at the genomic DNA level may have complicated the identification of M. gordonae in many laboratories. Furthermore, compared with hsp65 PCR restriction analysis (PRA), rpoB PRA would have the advantage of producing no ambiguous results because of the intracluster homogeneity of the rpoB gene. In this case, rpoB would provide clearer results than hsp65, even if PRA analysis was used. We demonstrated that these M. gordonae-like mycobacteria were easily distinguished by PRA of the rpoB sequence. Additionally, the significance of this M. gordonae-like cluster may help to establish the comparison between the M. gordonae isolates from a clinical specimen and an infectious process in a given patient and to determine the true incidence of infection with this microorganism. PMID:12682157

Itoh, Saotomo; Kazumi, Yuko; Abe, Chiyoji; Takahashi, Mitsuyoshi

2003-04-01

96

Gene Silencing of Complement C5a Receptor Using siRNA for Preventing Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

OpenAIRE

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in organ transplantation significantly contributes to graft failure and is untreatable using current approaches. I/R injury is associated with activation of the complement system, leading to the release of anaphylatoxins, such as C5a, and the formation of the membrane attack complex. Here, we report a novel therapy for kidney I/R injury through silencing of the C5a receptor (C5aR) gene using siRNA. Mice were injected with 50 ?g of C5aR siRNA 2 days before in...

Zheng, Xiufen; Zhang, Xusheng; Feng, Biao; Sun, Hongtao; Suzuki, Motohiko; Ichim, Thomas; Kubo, Norihiko; Wong, Arthur; Min, Lisa R.; Budohn, Marianne E.; Garcia, Bertha; Jevnikar, Anthony M.; Min, Wei-ping

2008-01-01

97

Dietary supplementation with soy isoflavones or replacement with soy proteins prevents hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and alters expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of hepatic lipid droplet (HLD) is the hallmark pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study examined the effects of soy isoflavones (ISF) and different amounts of soy proteins on the accumulation of HLD, lipid metabolism and related gene expression in rats. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 20 % casein protein without (D1) or with (D2) supplemental ISF (50 mg/kg diet) or substitution of casein with increasing amounts of alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI, 5, 10, and 20 %; D3, D4, D5) for 90 days. Dietary casein (20 %) induced accumulation of HLD in female, but not in male rats. Both soy proteins and ISF remarkably prevented the formation of HLD. Soy proteins lowered hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, soy proteins but not ISF significantly increased free fatty acids in the liver of the female rats compared to D1. Proteomic analysis showed that at least 3 enzymes involved in lipogenesis were down-regulated and 7 proteins related to fatty acid ?-oxidation or lipolysis were up-regulated by soy protein over D1. Additionally, 9 differentially expressed proteins identified were related to amino acid metabolism, 5 to glycolysis and 2 to cholesterol metabolism. Dietary ISF and SPI markedly reduced hepatic-peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ?2 (PPAR?2) and fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) in female rats. Overall, this study has shown that partial or full replacement of dietary casein by soy protein or supplementation with soy ISF can effectively prevent the accumulation of HLD. The potential molecular mechanism(s) involved might be due to suppression of lipogenesis and stimulation of lipolysis and down-regulation of PPAR?2 and FSP27. This suggests that consumption of soy foods or supplements might be a useful strategy for the prevention or treatment of fatty liver diseases. PMID:24292949

Xiao, Chao Wu; Wood, Carla M; Weber, Dorcas; Aziz, Syed A; Mehta, Rekha; Griffin, Philip; Cockell, Kevin A

2014-01-01

98

HPV Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cancers Prevention Share Compartir How can people prevent HPV? There are several ways that people can lower ... Â Top of Page How can people prevent HPV-related diseases? There are ways to prevent the ...

99

Preventing Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Preventing Suicide Share Compartir Suicide can be prevented. Each year, more than 39, ... for self-inflicted injuries. September 10th is World Suicide Prevention Day. Help prevent suicide in your community ...

100

Variation in the UCP2 and UCP3 genes associates with abdominal obesity and serum lipids: The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background We explored the associations of three variants in the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene, one variant in the UCP2-UCP3 intergenic region and five variants in the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene with obesity and diabetes related traits in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance participating in Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Altogether 507 overweight individuals (body mass index: 31.2 ± 4.5 kg/m2, age: 55 ± 7 year...

Ilanne-Parikka Pirjo; Aunola Sirkka; Valle Timo T; Eriksson Johan G; Tolppanen Anna-Maija; Kolehmainen Marjukka; Lindström Jaana; Pulkkinen Leena; Salopuro Titta; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Sirkka; Tuomilehto Jaakko; Laakso Markku; Uusitupa Matti

2009-01-01

101

Molecular targets of the antiinflammatory Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw): inhibition of TNF? and COX-2 gene expression by preventing activation of AP-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp) is often used in the supportive treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the skeletal system. Although the clinical efficacy in osteoarthritis has been demonstrated in clinical trials, the molecular target(s) of Hp are unclear. This study quantified the effects of the ethanol Hp extract (60% v/v ethanol, sole active ingredient of Pascoe®-Agil), on the expression and release of the major pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated human monocytes and the intracellular signalling pathways involved in inflammation. The Hp extract dose-dependently inhibited the release of TNF? as well as that of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1? and prostaglandin E? (PGE?). The Hp prevented TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression in human monocytes and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the Hp extract inhibited LPS-stimulated AP-1-mediated gene transcription activity and binding to the AP-1 response elements. The extract had no effect on the LPS-induced binding of nuclear factor-?B in RAW 264.7 cells, on LPS-induced degradation of I?B? or on LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), p38MAPK and JNK in human monocytes. The data indicate that a standardized ethanol Hp extract inhibits induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression, possibly by blocking the AP-1 pathway. This is novel evidence of a possible mechanism of action of this antiinflammatory drug. PMID:22072539

Fiebich, Bernd L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Rose, Thorsten; Weiss, Gabriele; McGregor, Gerard P

2012-06-01

102

Rapid identification of strains belonging to the Mycobacterium abscessus group through erm(41) gene pyrosequencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense lung infections have different clarithromycin susceptibilities, making proper identification important; however, standard multi-gene sequencing in clinical laboratories is laborious and time consuming. We developed a pyrosequencing-based method for rapid identification of strains belonging to the M. abscessus group by targeting erm(41). We examined 55 isolates from new pulmonary M. abscessus infections and identified 28 M. abscessus, 25 M. massiliense, and 2 Mycobacterium bolletii isolates. Multi-gene sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB, and the 16S-23S ITS region was concordant with the results of erm(41) pyrosequencing; thus, the M. abscessus group can be identified by single-nucleotide polymorphisms in erm(41). The method also enables rapid identification of polymorphic, inducible clarithromycin-resistant sequevars (T28 or C28). Pyrosequencing of erm(41) is a rapid, reliable, high-throughput alternative method for identifying and characterizing M. abscessus species. Further testing of a diverse collection of isolates is necessary to demonstrate the discriminatory power of erm(41) sequencing to differentiating species with this highly divergent group. PMID:24809859

Yoshida, Shiomi; Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Tomita, Motohisa; Okada, Masaji; Shimada, Ryoko; Hayashi, Seiji

2014-07-01

103

Variation in the UCP2 and UCP3 genes associates with abdominal obesity and serum lipids: The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We explored the associations of three variants in the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 gene, one variant in the UCP2-UCP3 intergenic region and five variants in the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 gene with obesity and diabetes related traits in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance participating in Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Altogether 507 overweight individuals (body mass index: 31.2 ± 4.5 kg/m2, age: 55 ± 7 years for whom DNA was available were randomized to either an intensified diet and physical activity group or to a conventional care control group. Methods We analysed the data from the baseline and annual follow-up visits from years 1, 2 and 3. Measurements of anthropometry, plasma glucose and serum insulin in oral glucose tolerance test, serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were included. The median follow-up time for type 2 diabetes incidence was 7 years. Genetic variants were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism or Illumina method. Results UCP3 gene variant rs3781907 was associated with increased serum total and LDL-cholesterol levels, at baseline and during the follow-up period. The same variant was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Variants rs1726745, rs11235972 and rs1800849 in the UCP3 gene associated with serum total and LDL-cholesterol at baseline. Haploblock including variants rs659366, rs653529, rs15763, and rs1726745 was associated with measures of abdominal obesity at baseline and in the longitudinal analysis. The haplotype comprising alleles rs659366-G, rs653529-A, rs15763-G and rs1726745-A was associated with higher waist-to-hip ratio, and haplotype comprising alleles rs3781907-G, rs11235972-A, and rs1800849-T was associated with increased serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion Genetic variation in the UCP2-UCP3 gene cluster may act as a modifier increasing serum lipid levels and indices of abdominal obesity, and may thereby also contribute to the metabolic aberrations observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Ilanne-Parikka Pirjo

2009-09-01

104

Hydrogen gas attenuates embryonic gene expression and prevents left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in cardiomyopathic hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of sleep apnea is very high in patients with heart failure (HF). The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the failing heart and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of hydrogen gas. Normal male Syrian hamsters (n = 22) and cardiomyopathic (CM) hamsters (n = 33) were exposed to IH (repeated cycles of 1.5 min of 5% oxygen and 5 min of 21% oxygen for 8 h during the daytime) or normoxia for 14 days. Hydrogen gas (3.05 vol/100 vol) was inhaled by some CM hamsters during hypoxia. IH increased the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to mitral annulus velocity (E/e', 21.8 vs. 16.9) but did not affect the LV ejection fraction (EF) in normal Syrian hamsters. However, IH increased E/e' (29.4 vs. 21.5) and significantly decreased the EF (37.2 vs. 47.2%) in CM hamsters. IH also increased the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (672 vs. 443 ?m(2)) and interstitial fibrosis (29.9 vs. 9.6%), along with elevation of oxidative stress and superoxide production in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Furthermore, IH significantly increased the expression of brain natriuretic peptide, ?-myosin heavy chain, c-fos, and c-jun mRNA in CM hamsters. Hydrogen gas inhalation significantly decreased both oxidative stress and embryonic gene expression, thus preserving cardiac function in CM hamsters. In conclusion, IH accelerated LV remodeling in CM hamsters, at least partly by increasing oxidative stress in the failing heart. These findings might explain the poor prognosis of patients with HF and sleep apnea. PMID:25281567

Kato, Ryuji; Nomura, Atsuo; Sakamoto, Aiji; Yasuda, Yuki; Amatani, Koyuha; Nagai, Sayuri; Sen, Yoko; Ijiri, Yoshio; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya

2014-12-01

105

Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed.lanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries to provide the 'field' genetic resource (endemic disease situation) in order to devise and test vaccines developed through molecular studies. Development of technologies cannot be divorced from an understanding of the epidemiology of the diseases found in developing countries. This is frequently not undertaken due to the many competing demands on the scarce resources available. However, increased livestock trade possibilities may provide the focus and catalyst needed to ensure that animal health science is applied appropriately and usefully for the benefit of developing countries. (author)

106

Preventing Falls  

Science.gov (United States)

... resources from all RESCUE fact sheets. Fall Prevention Center of Excellence Web: www.stopfalls.org * Phone: 1-213-740-1364 The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence has tips on ways to prevent falls both ...

107

Gene Therapy to Promote Thromboresistance: Local Overexpression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator to Prevent Arterial Thrombosis in an in vivo Rabbit Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) catalyzes the rate-limiting initial step in the fibrinolytic cascade. Systemic infusion of tPA has become the standard of care for acute myocardial infarction. However, even the relatively short-duration protocols currently employed have encountered significant hemorrhagic complications, as well as complications from rebound thrombosis. Gene therapy offers a method of local high-level tPA expression over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhage and local rebound thrombosis. To examine the impact of local tPA overexpression, an adenoviral vector expressing tPA was created. The construct was characterized functionally in vitro, and the function of the vector was confirmed in vivo by delivery to the rabbit common femoral artery. Systemic coagulation parameters were not perturbed at any of the doses examined. The impact of local overexpression of tPA on in vivo thrombus formation was examined subsequently in a stasis/injury model of arterial thrombosis. The construct effectively prevented arterial thrombosis in treated animals, whereas viral and nonviral controls typically developed occluding thrombi. This construct thus offers a viable technique for promoting a locally thromboresistant small-caliber artery.

Waugh, J. M.; Kattash, M.; Li, J.; Yuksel, E.; Kuo, M. D.; Lussier, M.; Weinfeld, A. B.; Saxena, R.; Rabinovsky, E. D.; Thung, S.; Woo, S. L. C.; Shenaq, S. M.

1999-02-01

108

Energy restriction prevents the development of type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats : coordinated patterns of gene expression for energy metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues and pancreatic islets determined by oligonucleotide microarray analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Energy restriction (ER) causes metabolic improvement in the prediabetic and diabetic state. Little information exists on the mechanism of action of ER, for example, on the changes at the transcriptional gene level in insulin-sensitive tissues. To gain further insight, we have investigated changes in gene expressions in skeletal muscle, liver, fat, and pancreatic islets after ER in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Eighteen Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided at the age of 7 weeks into a control group (ad libitum diet) and an ER group (30% ER compared with the control group). Blood glucose, weight, and food intake were measured weekly. After 5 weeks, blood samples, and skeletal muscle, liver, visceral fat (epididymal fat pads), and islets tissue were collected. Gene expression was quantified with high-density oligonucleotide, microarray GeneChip technology. ER ameliorated the development of hyperglycemia, increased the levels of plasma insulin, and reduced plasma total cholesterol and the glucagon-insulin ratio (P <.05). In skeletal muscle, the expression of 55 genes increased and 245 decreased involving genes related to glucose metabolism (eg, phosphorylase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4), lipid metabolism (eg, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, fatty acid transporter), and signaling pathways (eg, mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C). In the liver, the expression of 123 genes increased and 103 decreased involving genes related primarily to lipid metabolism. In pancreatic islets, the expression of 110 genes increased and that of 127 decreased, whereas in visceral fat, the expression of 279 genes increased and that of 528 decreased. ER counteracts the development of diabetes and causes changes in the expression of multiple genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreatic islets, which may play an important role for the prevention of diabetes.

Colombo, Michele; Kruhoeffer, Mogens

2006-01-01

109

Tuberculosis Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript. Tuberculosis (TB) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Prevention TB is an airborne disease and transmission essentially can be prevented through adequate ventilation and limited contact with patients. Many people who are infected with ...

110

Preventive otorhinolaryngology  

OpenAIRE

Curative medicine and curative surgery are no doubt of interest to every body. However, a host of diseases in the area of ear, nose & throat are curable, on the other hand, a number of them are only controllable, not curable. Several amongst them are preventable as such or their complications and sequelae can be prevented or minimised. It is high time that more awareness is created towards better understanding of the preventive aspect of Otorhinolaryngology practice. The time & energy spent o...

Prasad, Sheo Kumar

1999-01-01

111

HIV Prevention  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâ??s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

2012-02-01

112

Catalase overexpression prevents nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 stimulation of renal angiotensinogen gene expression, hypertension, and kidney injury in diabetic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact of catalase (Cat) overexpression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stimulation of angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression and the development of hypertension and renal injury in diabetic Akita transgenic mice. Additionally, adult male mice were treated with the Nrf2 activator oltipraz with or without the inhibitor trigonelline. Rat RPTCs, stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Agt or Nrf2 gene promoter, were also studied. Cat overexpression normalized systolic BP, attenuated renal injury, and inhibited RPTC Nrf2, Agt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in Akita Cat transgenic mice compared with Akita mice. In vitro, high glucose level, hydrogen peroxide, and oltipraz stimulated Nrf2 and Agt gene expression; these changes were blocked by trigonelline, small interfering RNAs of Nrf2, antioxidants, or pharmacological inhibitors of nuclear factor-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The deletion of Nrf2-responsive elements in the rat Agt gene promoter abolished the stimulatory effect of oltipraz. Oltipraz administration also augmented Agt, HO-1, and Nrf2 gene expression in mouse RPTCs and was reversed by trigonelline. These data identify a novel mechanism, Nrf2-mediated stimulation of intrarenal Agt gene expression and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, by which hyperglycemia induces hypertension and renal injury in diabetic mice. PMID:24812425

Abdo, Shaaban; Shi, Yixuan; Otoukesh, Abouzar; Ghosh, Anindya; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao Ling; Chan, John S D

2014-10-01

113

Heterologous overexpression of the birch FRUITFULL-like MADS-box gene BpMADS4 prevents normal senescence and winter dormancy in Populus tremula L.  

Science.gov (United States)

MADS-box genes have been shown to be important to flower and vegetative tissue development, senescence and winter dormancy in many plant species. Heterologous overexpression of known MADS-box genes has also been used for unravelling gene regulation mechanisms in forest tree species. The constitutive expression of the BpMADS4 gene from birch in poplar, known to induce early flowering in birch and apple, induced broad changes in senescence and winter dormancy but no early flowering. Other analyses revealed that 35S::BpMADS4 poplars maintained photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll and proteins in leaves under winter conditions. BpMADS4 may be influencing transcription factors regulating the senescence and dormancy process due to homology with poplar proteins related to both traits. Little is known of the regulatory genes that co-ordinate senescence, dormancy, chlorophyll/protein degradation, and photosynthesis at the molecular level. Dissecting the molecular characteristics of senescence regulation will probably involve the understanding of multiple and novel regulatory pathways. The results presented here open new horizons for the identification of regulatory mechanisms related to dormancy and senescence in poplar and other temperate tree species. They confirm recent reports of common signalling intermediates between flowering time and growth cessation in trees (Böhlenius et al. in Science 312:1040-1043, 2006) and additionally indicate similar connections between flowering time signals and senescence. PMID:18185941

Hoenicka, Hans; Nowitzki, Olaf; Hanelt, Dieter; Fladung, Matthias

2008-04-01

114

IgG immune complexes inhibit IFN-gamma-induced transcription of the Fc gamma RI gene in human monocytes by preventing the tyrosine phosphorylation of the p91 (Stat1) transcription factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immune complexes (IC) modulate Ag-driven immune responses in part by their ability to inhibit IFN-gamma-dependent MHC class II expression. Because many genes, including MHC class II Ags, transcriptionally activated by IFN-gamma require the tyrosine phosphorylation of the transcription factor p91 (Stat1), we examined whether IC could suppress IFN-gamma-induced expression of the Fc gamma receptor I gene (Fc gamma RI) in human monocytes and whether this occurred through inhibition of p91 phosphorylation. Preincubation of monocytes on gamma-globulin-coated dishes resulted in a 80% reduction in steady state levels of RNA for the Fc gamma RI gene. Nuclear run-on analysis confirmed that the inhibition was at the level of transcription. Treatment with IC resulted in no change in the IFN-gamma receptor number. In monocytes pretreated with IC, there was a 79% reduction in the formation of FcRF gamma, a p91-containing DNA binding protein complex that is rapidly activated by IFN-gamma, and which recognizes the gamma response region enhancer within the promoter of the Fc gamma RI gene. Furthermore, there was a marked reduction in the tyrosine phosphorylation of p91. Pretreatment with IC resulted in the inhibition of the tyrosine phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases, Jak1 and Jak2, both of which are involved in IFN-gamma signal transduction. Therefore, culture of monocytes on IC inhibits IFN-gamma-induced expression of the Fc gamma RI gene by preventing tyrosine phosphorylation of p91, probably by the associated inhibition of the tyrosine kinases Jak1 and Jak2. PMID:7995951

Feldman, G M; Chuang, E J; Finbloom, D S

1995-01-01

115

Mycobacterium abscessus Glycopeptidolipid Prevents Respiratory Epithelial TLR2 Signaling as Measured by H?D2 Gene Expression and IL-8 Release  

OpenAIRE

Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important cause of lung infection, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis. Innate immune responses must be highly effective at preventing infection with M. abscessus because it is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte and normal hosts are not commonly infected. M. abscessus exists as either a glycopeptidolipid (GPL) expressing variant (smooth phenotype) in which GPL masks underlying bioactive cell wall lipids, or as a variant lacking GPL which i...

Davidson, Lisa B.; Nessar, Rachid; Kempaiah, Prakasha; Perkins, Douglas J.; Byrd, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

116

All-trans retinoic acid stimulates gene expression of the cardioprotective natriuretic peptide system and prevents fibrosis and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of obese ob/ob mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 ?g of ATRA dissolved in 100 ?L of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (?2 ?g·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice. PMID:25017112

Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta

2014-10-01

117

Rosiglitazone but not losartan prevents Nrf-2 dependent CD36 gene expression up-regulation in an in vivo atherosclerosis model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazolidinediones exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles and attenuate atherosclerosis by mechanisms partially independent of their metabolizing actions. High doses of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R blocker losartan (LST seem to promote fat cell formation by preserving PPAR? activity. Methods C57BL/6J diet-induced atherosclerotic susceptible mice randomly received a normal or a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet and were treated with rosiglitazone (RG, LST or a vehicle for 12 weeks. Results HFHC was associated with increased PPAR? gene expression without an over regulation of PPAR? responsive genes, whereas RG and LST treatments were found to maintain PPAR? activity without resulting in increased PPAR? gene expression. A better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile in mice treated with RG regarding LST was observed in spite of a similar PPAR? preserved activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that animals under HFHC diet treated with RG showed a significant nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2-dependent down-regulation of the expression of the CD36 gene. Conclusion The PPAR? agonist RG exerts antioxidant properties that significantly reduced Nrf-2-dependent CD-36 up-regulation in mice under HFHC diet. Because LST treatment was also associated with a preserved PPAR? activity, our data suggests that these RG antioxidant effects are partially independent of its PPAR? metabolizing properties.

Caballero-Hidalgo A

2008-02-01

118

Long Term Effect of Curcumin in Regulation of Glycolytic Pathway and Angiogenesis via Modulation of Stress Activated Genes in Prevention of Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress, an important factor in modulation of glycolytic pathway and induction of stress activated genes, is further augmented due to reduced antioxidant defense system, which promotes cancer progression via inducing angiogenesis. Curcumin, a naturally occurring chemopreventive phytochemical, is reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in various experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanism involved in anticarcinogenic action of curcumin due to its long term effect is still to be reported because of its rapid metabolism, although metabolites are accumulated in tissues and remain for a longer time. Therefore, the long term effect of curcumin needs thorough investigation. The present study aimed to analyze the anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in liver, even after withdrawal of treatment in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. Oxidative stress observed during lymphoma progression reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, and induced angiogenesis as well as activation of early stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway. Curcumin treatment resulted in activation of antioxidant enzyme super oxide dismutase and down regulation of ROS level as well as activity of ROS producing enzyme NADPH:oxidase, expression of stress activated genes HIF-1?, cMyc and LDH activity towards normal level. Further, it lead to significant inhibition of angiogenesis, observed via MMPs activity, PKC? and VEGF level, as well as by matrigel plug assay. Thus findings of this study conclude that the long term effect of curcumin shows anticarcinogenic potential via induction of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of angiogenesis via down regulation of stress activated genes and glycolytic pathway in liver of lymphoma bearing mice. PMID:24932681

Das, Laxmidhar; Vinayak, Manjula

2014-01-01

119

Recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis: a diagnostic conundrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nandini Venkateswaran,1 Gabrielle Yeaney,2 Mina Chung,3,4 Holly B Hindman3,41University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3Flaum Eye Institute, 4Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USAObjective: To report a case of recurrent nontuberculous mycobacterial endophthalmitis in the context of neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus that had an atypical presentation and complex course, and highlights the challenges of causative organism identification and therapeutic interventions in this condition.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine the visual outcomes of the patient.Results: A 68-year-old pseudophakic male with long-standing neurotrophic keratopathy and perforated descemetocele managed with cyanoacrylate glue and a contact bandage lens in the left eye, began experiencing recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis after undergoing a penetrating keratoplasty. Several therapeutic procedures including an anterior chamber washout, two pars plana vitrectomies, explantation of the posterior chamber intraocular lens and capsular bag, and multiple intravitreal antimicrobial injections, were performed to which he has ultimately responded favorably, with no signs of infection to date and stable visual acuity. The causative organism of his recurrent infections was initially identified as Mycobacterium abscessus through biochemical testing and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing; however, repeat polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the 65 kDa heat shock protein (hsp65 gene for experimental purposes confirmed the accurate identification of the organism to be Mycobacterium chelonae. Given the greater reliability of PCR and sequencing of the hsp65 gene over traditional biochemical tests and culture techniques, M. chelonae was likely the infectious agent all along, and the organism was originally misidentified on the basis of less accurate tests.Conclusion: Recurrent atypical mycobacterial endophthalmitis requires expedient identification and management to prevent poor visual outcomes. Standard biochemical testing can identify the causative organism but is limited by the inability to distinguish between nontuberculous species reliably. We recommend the use of PCR in conjunction with sequencing of the hsp65 gene for reliable differentiation of M. chelonae and M. abscessus in atypical mycobacterial ocular infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration antibiotic susceptibility tests on cultured strains are the best guide to antibiotic selection, given the rapidly rising resistance to antimicrobials in atypical mycobacterial species.Keywords: atypical mycobacteria, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, hsp65, Mycobacterium chelonae, neurotrophic keratopathy, visual outcome

Venkateswaran N

2014-05-01

120

Cadmium-induced disruption in 24-h expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus. Prevention by melatonin.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH. To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45 days of age received CdCl2 (5 ppm and melatonin (3 ?g/mL or vehicle (0.015 % ethanol in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1 month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at 6 time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1 or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2 by CdCl2 while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl2 disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl2 increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GSR and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1 and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl2 on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression.

DanielPCardinali

2011-03-01

121

Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45?days of age) received CdCl(2) (5?ppm) and melatonin (3??g/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1?month, MBH mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR analysis at six time intervals in a 24-h cycle. In control MBH Bmal1 expression peaked at early scotophase, Per1 expression at late afternoon, and Per2 and Cry2 expression at mid-scotophase, whereas neither Clock nor Cry1 expression showed significant 24-h variations. This pattern was significantly disrupted (Clock, Bmal1) or changed in phase (Per1, Per2, Cry2) by CdCl(2) while melatonin counteracted the changes brought about by Cd on Per1 expression only. In animals receiving melatonin alone the 24-h pattern of MBH Per2 and Cry2 expression was disrupted. CdCl(2) disrupted the 24-h rhythmicity of Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1, NOS-2, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and HO-2 gene expression, most of the effects being counteracted by melatonin. In particular, the co-administration of melatonin and CdCl(2) increased Cu/Zn-SOD gene expression and decreased that of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GSR), and HO-2. In animals receiving melatonin alone, significant increases in mean Cu/Zn and Mn-SOD gene expression, and decreases in that of GPx, GSR, NOS-1, NOS-2, HO-1, and HO-2, were found. The results indicate that the interfering effect of melatonin on the activity of a low dose of CdCl(2) on MBH clock and redox enzyme genes is mainly exerted at the level of redox enzyme gene expression. PMID:21442002

Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

2011-01-01

122

Self-complementary AAV-mediated gene therapy restores cone function and prevents cone degeneration in two models of Rpe65 deficiency  

OpenAIRE

To test whether fast-acting, self complimentary(sc), AAV vector-mediated RPE65 expression prevents cone degeneration and/or restores cone function, two mouse lines were studied: the Rpe65- deficient rd12 mouse and the Rpe65- deficient, rhodpsin null (‘i.e. cone function-only’) Rpe65?/?::Rho?/? mouse. scAAV5 expressing RPE65 was injected subretinally into one eye of rd12 and Rpe65?/?::Rho?/? mice at postnatal day 14 (P14). Contralateral rd12 eyes were injected later, at P35...

Pang, Jijing; Boye, Shannon E.; Lei, Bo; Boye, Sanford L.; Everhart, Drew; Ryals, Renee; Umino, Yumiko; Rohrer, Ba?rbel; Alexander, John; Li, Jie; Dai, Xufeng; Li, Qiuhong; Chang, Bo; Barlow, Robert; Hauswirth, William W.

2010-01-01

123

Gene therapy to promote thromboresistance: Local overexpression of tissue plasminogen activator to prevent arterial thrombosis in an in vivo rabbit model  

OpenAIRE

Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) catalyzes the rate-limiting initial step in the fibrinolytic cascade. Systemic infusion of tPA has become the standard of care for acute myocardial infarction. However, even the relatively short-duration protocols currently employed have encountered significant hemorrhagic complications, as well as complications from rebound thrombosis. Gene therapy offers a method of local high-level tPA expression over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic he...

Waugh, J. M.; Kattash, M.; Li, J.; Yuksel, E.; Kuo, M. D.; Lussier, M.; Weinfeld, A. B.; Saxena, R.; Rabinovsky, E. D.; Thung, S.; Woo, S. L. C.; Shenaq, S. M.

1999-01-01

124

Cadmium-Induced Disruption in 24-h Expression of Clock and Redox Enzyme Genes in Rat Medial Basal Hypothalamus: Prevention by Melatonin  

OpenAIRE

In a previous study we reported that a low daily p.o. dose of cadmium (Cd) disrupted the circadian expression of clock and redox enzyme genes in rat medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). To assess whether melatonin could counteract Cd activity, male Wistar rats (45?days of age) received CdCl2 (5?ppm) and melatonin (3??g/mL) or vehicle (0.015% ethanol) in drinking water. Groups of animals receiving melatonin or vehicle alone were also included. After 1?month, MBH mRNA levels were measured ...

DanielPCardinali; VanesaJiménez Ortega

2011-01-01

125

ANG II receptor subtype 1a gene knockdown in the subfornical organ prevents increased drinking behavior in bile duct-ligated rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes, resulting in dilutional hyponatremia due to increased water intake and vasopressin release. This project tested the hypothesis that angiotensin signaling at the subfornical organ (SFO) augments drinking behavior in BDL rats. A genetically modified adeno-associated virus containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for ANG II receptor subtype 1a (AT1aR) gene was microinjected into the SFO of rats to knock down expression. Two weeks later, BDL or sham surgery was performed. Rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. The rats were euthanized 28 days after BDL surgery for analysis. A group of rats was perfused for immunohistochemistry, and a second group was used for laser-capture microdissection for analysis of SFO AT1aR gene expression. BDL rats showed increased water intake that was attenuated in rats that received SFO microinjection of AT1aR shRNA. Among BDL rats treated with scrambled (control) and AT1aR shRNA, we observed an increased number of vasopressin-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus that colocalized with ?FosB staining, suggesting increased vasopressin release in both groups. These results indicate that angiotensin signaling through the SFO contributes to increased water intake, but not dilutional hyponatremia, during congestive liver failure. PMID:25009217

Walch, Joseph D; Nedungadi, T Prashant; Cunningham, J Thomas

2014-09-15

126

Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

Eriksson Johan G

2011-09-01

127

Preventing pressure ulcers  

Science.gov (United States)

Decubitus ulcer prevention; Bedsore prevention; Pressure sores prevention ... care protocol: Skin safety protocol: Risk assessment and prevention of pressure ulcers . Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. 2nd ed. 2007 ...

128

Cholera Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Share Compartir Prevention & Control Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to ... disease prevention. Five Basic Cholera Prevention Messages Infection Control Guide for Family Members of Patients with Suspect ...

129

Preventive maintenance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information contained in this paper should be used in conjunction with the maintenance instructions provided by the manufacturer of each valve. When there is any question or conflict between the procedure described and the manufacturer's, the author suggests determining the best method for the applications. A good long range preventative maintenance program for valves will eliminate costly repairs or replacement of valves long before their time. A little flush, lube, and what was once called elbow grease will also go a long way in reducing your downtime and maintenance budget. This paper will discuss one of the most misunderstood theories concerning valve maintenance, i.e., that periodic maintenance of valves includes the injection of sealants. Sealants are injected into valves as a secondary seal for most valves. Under normal conditions, valves do not require sealant injection. Solid fillers in sealants tend to plug the system making it virtually impossible to inject either sealant or a lubricant, requiring the injection of flush or cleaners to dislodge the solids. Topics covered in this paper will range from general maintenance requirements to valve flushing, cleaning and lubrication

130

Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Terameprocol inhibits the NF-?B-dependent transcription of TNF-? and MCP-1/CCL2 genes by preventing RelA from binding its cognate sites on DNA  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid, also known as terameprocol (TMP, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the resin of the creosote bush. We have shown previously that TMP will suppress production of certain inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids from macrophages following stimulation with LPS or infection with H1N1 influenza virus. In this study our goal was to elucidate the mechanism underlying TMP-mediated suppression of cytokine and chemokine production. We focused our investigations on the response to LPS and the NF-?B protein RelA, a transcription factor whose activity is critical to LPS-responsiveness. Methods Reporter assays were performed with HEK293 cells overexpressing either TLR-3, -4, or -8 and a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of an NF-?B response element. Cells were then treated with LPS, poly(I:C, or resiquimod, and/or TMP, and lysates measured for luciferase activity. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were used in ChIP and EMSA assays. For ChIP assays, chromatin was prepared and complexes precipitated with anti-NF-?B RelA Ab. Cross-links were reversed, DNA purified, and sequence abundance determined by Q-PCR. For EMSA assays, nuclear extracts were incubated with radiolabeled probes, analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE and visualized by autoradiography. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were also used in fluorescence microscopy and western blot experiments. Translocation experiments were performed using a primary Ab to NF-?B RelA and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary Ab. Western blots were performed using Abs to I?B-? and phospho-I?B-?. Bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Results In reporter assays with TLR-3, -4, and -8 over-expressing cells, TMP caused strong inhibition of NF-?B-dependent transcription. ChIP assays showed TMP caused virtually complete inhibition of RelA binding in vivo to promoters for the genes for TNF-?, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 although the LPS-dependent synthesis of I?B-? was not inhibited. EMSA assays did not reveal an effect of TMP on the binding of RelA to naked DNA templates in vitro. TMP did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-?B RelA nor the phosphorylation of I?B-?. Conclusion TMP acts indirectly as an inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent transcription by preventing RelA from binding the promoters of certain key cytokine and chemokine genes.

Scholle Frank

2010-12-01

131

Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.  

Science.gov (United States)

With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. PMID:23082866

Gould, David

2013-08-01

132

Pollution Prevention Toolbox  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pollution Prevention Toolbox is a series of four-page fact sheets containing lesson plans and hands-on activities about various pollution prevention concepts for schools. Topics include pollution prevention, energy conservation, pesticides reduction, and household hazardous waste reduction. The Toolbox also contains sample academic standards and frameworks which the Toolbox meets, and other pollution prevention education resources.

133

Reflections on preventive medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. PMID:25045837

Miettinen, Olli S

2014-10-01

134

Preventing HIV with Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

135

Prevent Cervical Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... professional printing [PDF-2.7MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

136

Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control People who are healthy should follow the guidelines ... Get email updates Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333 ...

137

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... List of Topics and Titles : Diabetes Prevention Program Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) On this page: DPP Study ...

138

Suicide Prevention for Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... Problems > Suicide Prevention For Children Health Issues Listen Suicide Prevention For Children Article Body Occasionally, during times ... the six-to-twelve age range rarely commit suicide, but there is an increasing trend for them ...

139

Accident prevention in radiotherapy  

OpenAIRE

In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer.

Holmbert, O.

2007-01-01

140

CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED  

OpenAIRE

Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables...

Akula Annapurna

2013-01-01

141

Prevention IS Care  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

2009-03-26

142

Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

2011-10-24

143

PREVENT Governance Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

With the governance structure and unified PREVENT program mission, NCI will make data-driven decisions to maximize potential for success at each consecutive stage. As such, the PREVENT Program is envisioned to streamline the development and testing of promising new cancer preventative agents and expedite their delivery to bedside.

144

Wildfire Prevention Strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7) "Prevention Activities"; (8) "Sample Prevention Strategies"; and (9)…

National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

145

CNS Genes Implicated in Relapse  

OpenAIRE

Drug abuse is a condition that impacts not only the individual drug user, but society as a whole. Although prevention of initial drug use is the most effective way to prevent addiction, avoiding relapse is a crucial component of drug addiction recovery. Recent studies suggest that there is a set of genes whose expression is robustly and stably altered following drug use and ensuing abstinence. Such stable changes in gene expression correlate with ultrastructural changes in brain as well as al...

Freeman, Willard M.; Kuntz-melcavage, Kara L.; Vrana, Kent E.

2008-01-01

146

Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle.

Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep

2012-01-01

147

Prevention Of Stroke  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual?s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

Nagaraja D

2005-01-01

148

CNS Genes Implicated in Relapse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug abuse is a condition that impacts not only the individual drug user, but society as a whole. Although prevention of initial drug use is the most effective way to prevent addiction, avoiding relapse is a crucial component of drug addiction recovery. Recent studies suggest that there is a set of genes whose expression is robustly and stably altered following drug use and ensuing abstinence. Such stable changes in gene expression correlate with ultrastructural changes in brain as well as alterations in behavior. As persistent molecular changes, these genes may provide targets for the development of therapeutics. Developing a list of well-characterized candidate genes and examining the effect of manipulating these genes will contribute to the ultimate goal of developing effective treatments to prevent relapse to drug use.

Willard M. Freeman

2008-01-01

149

Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

Eremin O.V.

2011-03-01

150

The Suicide Prevention Continuum  

OpenAIRE

The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how ...

Caldwell, Dawn

2008-01-01

151

Work hazard prevention plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

152

Prevention of occupational dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational dermatitis is among the most frequent occupational diseases. Dermal exposure risk affects many professional categories such as healthcare workers, hairdressers, bakers, cleaning and kitchen employees. The economical burden of occupational dermatitis (OD) is huge (greater than 5 billion Euro per year in Europe), comprising direct costs (treatment, compensation), as well as indirect costs due to sick leave and lack of productivity. A scientifically based preventive program consisting of skin protection during work, cleaning and skin care after work has generally been recommended to prevent occupational contact dermatitis. However the rate of reported occupational skin diseases seems unchanged in the recent years. In cases of impaired skin condition the secondary prevention (i.e. therapeutic treatment by dermatologists and health-educational intervention seminars) is fundamental. For cases of occupational dermatoses in which these outpatient prevention measures are not successful, interdisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation measures have been developed (tertiary individual prevention). In the past years, various pilot-concepts to improve occupational dermatitis prevention have been successfully put into practice focussing on interdisciplinary (dermatological and educational) skin protection training programmes for high-risk professions. Currently a multi-step intervention approach is implemented which is aiming at offering quick preventive help at all levels of severity of occupational contact dermatitis. Recent data reveals that there are reliable evidence-based options for multidisciplinary prevention and patient management of occupational dermatitis using a combined approach by a network of clinics, practices and statutory social insurance bodies. At this stage, it seemed reasonable to form a European joint initiative for skin prevention. Recently a European network of preventive dermatology (European Initiative for the Prevention of Occupational Skin Diseases-EPOS) has been organized based on the German experience in the specific field. PMID:21329572

Sartorelli, P; Kezic, S; Larese Filon, F; John, S M

2011-01-01

153

Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention S...

Eriksson Johan G; Schwab Ursula; Kolehmainen Marjukka; Lindström Jaana; Pulkkinen Leena; Siitonen Niina; Ilanne-Parikka Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi Sirkka; Tuomilehto Jaakko; Uusitupa Matti

2011-01-01

154

Skin Cancer Prevention Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous skin growths that are usually caused by sun exposure. This study seeks to determine if the drug celecoxib prevents new AKs from developing, causes existing AKs to go away, and prevents AKs from progressing to squamous cell cancer.

155

Prevention of Preeclampsia  

OpenAIRE

Preeclampsia (PE) affects around 2–5% of pregnant women. It is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to prevent preeclampsia, many strategies based on antenatal care, change in lifestyle, nutritional supplementation, and drugs have been studied. The aim of this paper is to review recent evidence about primary and secondary prevention of preeclampsia.

Holanda Moura, Sammya Bezerra Maia E.; Laudelino Marques Lopes; Padma Murthi; Fabricio da Silva Costa

2012-01-01

156

Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)  

Science.gov (United States)

... PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry for cancer prevention trials that are now accepting patients. See the NCI Web site for more information about cancer prevention. Interventions That Are Not Known to Lower Cancer Risk Vitamin and dietary supplements have not been shown to ...

157

Influenza prevention and treatment  

OpenAIRE

This year’s influenza guideline was published in the South African Medical Journal. It adds important new data with regard to influenza prevention and treatment. This article highlights the role of the nurse in influenza prevention and management strategies in South Africa.

Green, Robin J.

2008-01-01

158

Prevent Cervical Cancer!  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friendsâ??one a doctorâ??talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

2015-01-08

159

DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major clinical trial, or research study, aimed at discovering whether either diet and exercise or the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose toleranc...

160

Prevention of preterm birth.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

Flood, Karen

2012-02-01

161

National Crime Prevention Council  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing out of the National Citizens' Crime Prevention Campaign in the late 1970s, the organization gained great publicity through its use of the popular spokesperson McGruff the Crime Dog, and later became the National Crime Prevention Council. Today the Council is perhaps the best known nonprofit educational organization dedicated to crime prevention, and its website is an important place for the web-surfing public citizens to gather materials about working towards the prevention of crime in their own communities. Many of these resources are brought together in the section called Topics in Crime Prevention, accessible through the top right-hand side of the homepage. Here visitors can browse for materials by subject (such as bullying, civil rights organizations, and cybercrime), or by an extensive list of subjects, including funding opportunities, crime prevention, and violence prevention. Of course, visitors would be remiss not to examine the section that tells about the genesis of McGruff the Crime Dog, who has been one of the most enduring public service announcement characters of the past few decades.

162

Prevention of Alzheimer disease  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding prevention of Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to highlight the role of family medicine. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Most of the evidence relating to prevention of AD is derived from observational (cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal) studies. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available only for blood pressure control and for hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women. MAIN MESSAGE Many preventive approaches to AD have been identified, but no RCTs support their efficacy. Evidence from RCTs supports the effectiveness of blood pressure control in reducing incidence of AD, but demonstrates that postmenopausal women’s use of estrogen is ineffective in reducing it. Observational studies suggest that some preventive approaches, such as healthy lifestyle, ongoing education, regular physical activity, and cholesterol control, play a role in prevention of AD. These approaches can and should be used for every patient because they carry no significant risk. Currently, no effective pharmacologic interventions have been researched enough to support their use in prevention of AD. CONCLUSION Health professionals should educate patients, especially patients at higher risk of AD, about preventive strategies and potentially modifiable risk factors. PMID:16529393

Scalco, Monica Zavaloni; van Reekum, Robert

2006-01-01

163

Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-?B pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-?B, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

164

Prevention of medication errors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medication error is the most frequent source of medical error that is associated with adverse events, and, in many cases, is preventable. Medication errors can occur at any step in the medication process. Medication error prevention and reduction begins with a systematic approach to their detection. An important approach to mitigating errors involves the reduction of variation in task performance using tested techniques and technologies from other industries. The most important component of error prevention and reduction is the proactive promotion of a safety culture by organizational leadership, with sustained education and support for users. PMID:15777824

Lehmann, Christoph U; Kim, George R

2005-03-01

165

Preventing Diaper Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Preventing Diaper Rash Dermatologist shares tips for protecting your baby's ... Care Rashes WEDNESDAY, Dec. 31, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Diaper rash is a common problem for babies, but ...

166

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores ... Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with ...

167

Preventive migraine treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacologic treatment of migraine may be acute (abortive) or preventive (prophylactic), and patients with frequent severe headaches often require both approaches. Preventive therapy is used to try to reduce the frequency, duration, or severity of attacks. The preventive medications with the best-documented efficacy are amitriptyline, divalproex, topiramate, and the beta-blockers. Choice is made based on a drug's proven efficacy, the physician's informed belief about medications not yet evaluated in controlled trials, the drug's adverse events, the patient's preferences and headache profile, and the presence or absence of coexisting disorders. Because comorbid medical and psychologic illnesses are prevalent in patients who have migraine, one must consider comorbidity when choosing preventive drugs. Drug therapy may be beneficial for both disorders; however, it is also a potential confounder of optimal treatment of either. PMID:19289224

Silberstein, Stephen D

2009-05-01

168

Prostate Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... keep cancer from starting. General Information About Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about prostate cancer: Prostate Cancer Screening Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention ...

169

Leishmaniasis: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... to prevent infection is to protect themselves from sand fly bites. To decrease the risk of being bitten, ... outdoor activities, especially from dusk to dawn, when sand flies generally are the most active. When outdoors (or ...

170

Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Measles - Recommendations for Prevention On this Page Children Teens ... safest protection you can give your child against measles. Children should be given the first dose of ...

171

Preventing Eye Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Preventing Eye Injuries Tweet Protecting ... Get eye MD-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address ...

172

Child Maltreatment Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Prevention About Us Timeline Public Health Approach The Social-Ecological Model Strategic Directions Child Maltreatment Definition Data Sources ... NISVS Infographic NISVS FAQ National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) State Profiles Frequently Asked Questions Training and ...

173

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table of Contents Introduction What is a Stroke? What ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

174

Preventing Pressure Sores  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from Hospital to Home ... Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury What ...

175

Preventing Weight Gain  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2011 (archived document) Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Home A-Z Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social ...

176

Prevention of suicide.  

OpenAIRE

We reviewed the epidemiologic features of suicide in Canada and evaluated suicide prevention programs. Three groups were found to be at increased risk for suicide: men aged 70 years or more, women aged 65 to 69 and men aged 20 to 24. The other groups, in decreasing order of risk, were the mentally ill, people who have attempted suicide, those with a life-threatening illness, native people, people with a family history of suicide and prisoners. Studies that evaluated suicide prevention program...

1994-01-01

177

Prevention of water hammer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapid shutoff of a fast-flowing liquid causes water hammer upstream and downstream of the valve. To prevent or minimize this cavitation, which may be quite pronounced downstream of the valve in dependence of velocity, the difference of levels friction etc., Czech engineers have developed an inlet valve to be installed downstream of the barrage. Air enters the pipeline through this inlet valve so that the cavitation phenomenon is prevented. The recoil is taken up by an air pad.

Slechta, A.M.

1981-05-01

178

Prevention of Cardiovascular disease  

OpenAIRE

Cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent diseases in developed countries. They cause sudden death and a large percentage of disability retirement. Their frequency is increased by strained social and economic conditions, living conditions and lifestyle. We also refer to them as diseases of civilization. The prevention of these diseases has gained more social and medical significance. In Slovenia, there is a prevention program by the World Health Organization called CINDI. In this diplo...

Alic?, Andreja

2013-01-01

179

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Whereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relatively expensive. These interventions, however, could be cost-effective when targeting individuals at high risk for an event. Based on easily assessable risk factors, high-risk persons for cardiovasc...

Nijhuis, R. L.

2004-01-01

180

HPV Prevention series  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural ...

De Sanjosé Silvia

2012-01-01

181

Prevention of relapsing backache  

OpenAIRE

Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model!) and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course...

Raspe, Heiner; Burkhardt-hammer, Tatjana; Stoll, Susanne; Lu?hmann, Dagmar

2006-01-01

182

VACCINE PREVENTABLE CHILDHOOD DISEASES  

OpenAIRE

Children have the right to develop undisturbed and the two of the most important conditions for that are their physical and mental health. Way of life in the environment where the child is growing and maturing is of great significance. While diseases are and have always been a part of the preschool children growing up. But certain diseases can be prevented. Diploma paper titled Vaccine Preventable Childhood Diseases described infectious diseases, which are included in the National vaccine pro...

Klemen, Martina

2010-01-01

183

Trauma: A Preventable Disease  

OpenAIRE

While driver restraints have reduced fatalities in those provinces which have enacted seatbelt legislation, motor vehicle accidents still account for 80% of all deaths in those aged 15-24. Prevention is paramount, but better prehospital care could prevent much morbidity and mortality. This article describes seven years' experience in British Columbia with emergency health services, including the organization of an ambulance service, construction of emergency vehicles, training of emergency me...

Ransford, Peter M.

1982-01-01

184

Staying Healthy: Medicare's Preventive Services  

Science.gov (United States)

CENTERSFORMEDICARE&MEDICAIDSERVICES Staying Healthy Medicare’s Preventive Services A n easy and important way to stay healthy is to get disease prevention and early detection services. Disease prevention and early ...

185

Prevention des Rickettsioses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ;rhe di~cove!y of antibiotics having an highly effective and specific action on th~ rickettsial diseases has greatly' deprived of importance the formerly outstanding prevention of these diseases. However, the prevention of Typhus: fever, the single rickettsiosis to be purely human and the <;>nly. one to: be epidemic, remains an important problem. The methods of. prevention.m the mveterate foci 'can be determined in the light of the last attainments, WhICh are: non-transmission of the infection by the bite of the louse, ~pread by the dusty faeces of the ectoparasite, long-lived conservation of the VIruS ~ that dust, possibility of lasting latency in man and of resurgences from the earner

M. Baltazard

1962-01-01

186

Gene Cloning  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson covers the utilization of gene cloning to isolate and copy a specific gene of interest. The transformation of bacteria with plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes to make gene libraries and the selection of bacteria colonies that contain the specific gene of interest are described.

187

HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

Ionela – Corina Chersan

2009-09-01

188

Gene therapy and its implications in Periodontics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gene therapy is a field of Biomedicine. With the advent of gene therapy in dentistry, significant progress has been made in the control of periodontal diseases and reconstruction of dento-alveolar apparatus. Implementation in periodontics include: -As a mode of tissue engineering with three approaches: cell, protein-based and gene delivery approach. -Genetic approach to Biofilm Antibiotic Resistance. Future strategies of gene therapy in preventing periodontal diseases: -Enhances host defense mechanism against infection by transfecting host cells with an antimicrobial peptide protein-encoding gene. -Periodontal vaccination. Gene therapy is one of the recent entrants and its applications in the field of periodontics are reviewed in general here.

Mahale Swapna

2009-01-01

189

Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no doubt modern genetics have greatly influenced our professional and personal lives during the last decade. Uncovering genetic causes of many medical and dental pathologies is helping to narrow the diagnosis and select a treatment plan that would provide the best outcome. Importantly, having an understanding of multifactorial etiology helps direct our attention toward prevention. We now understand much better our own health problems. In some cases, we can modify our lifestyle and diet in order to prevent "environmental factors" from triggering the mutated genes inherited from our parents. Good examples are diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. If we realize we might have inherited genes for cardiovascular problems from several ancestors who had heart attacks, we already know that these genes will make us only "susceptible" for disease. Those who exercise, watch one's weight, diet, and carefully monitor one's lifestyle will very likely--though possessing "susceptibility genes"--stay healthier and, maybe, will never experience any cardiovascular problems. In principle, the same applies for craniofacial anomalies, especially for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. One needs to understand genetic and environmental causes of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in order to prevent them. With all this in mind, the Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program have been established at the Department of Orthodontics, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. A partnership with Rotaplast International, Inc., has made it possible for the faculty, orthodontic residents, and students to participate in 27 multidisciplinary cleft medical missions in underdeveloped and developing countries by donating professional and educational services, and, last but not least, by collecting valuable data and specimens to further research. A significant number of research studies, including 15 master of science theses, have been accomplished in UOP's Craniofacial Genetics Laboratory, with contributions by faculty, undergraduate and graduate students. It has been leading to a better understanding of etiology of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts. It has been learned that genetic factors and environmental factors are ethnicity-specific and, in many places throughout the world, location-specific. Thus, a specific protocol for cleft prevention has to be worked out based on genetic and nutritional studies of each specific population group in order to be effective. This is our ultimate goal. PMID:17087397

Tolarová, Marie M; Poulton, Donald; Aubert, Maryse M; Oh, HeeSoo; Ellerhorst, Thomas; Mosby, Terezie; Tolar, Miroslav; Boyd, Robert L

2006-10-01

190

Injury Prevention and Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Prevention Topics as Part of Required Instruction, by School Level Topic Elementary Middle High Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 15.2 37.1 ... 42.8 38.0 * In at least 1 elementary school class or in at least 1 required health education course in middle schools or high schools. NA = not asked at ...

191

The Prevention Researcher, 1999.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3) "Adolescent Gambling in Minnesota"…

Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

1999-01-01

192

Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates  

Science.gov (United States)

Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

Colthurst, Tom

2004-01-01

193

Household Safety: Preventing Choking  

Science.gov (United States)

... Parents > First Aid & Safety > Home Sweet Home > Household Safety: Preventing Choking Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? Food Toys, Balloons, and Other Small Objects Be Prepared Maintaining a Safe, Kid-Friendly Environment Putting things in their mouths is one of ...

194

Injury Prevention Research  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

2009-09-01

195

PREVENTING DISEASES AND INFECTIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

DESK Standard: Determine how communicable diseases are spread. . DATES: You can begin this activity on January 8. You should complete it by January 12. OBJECTIVE: Everyone wants to feel healthy because being sick is a drag! We have been discussing ways to prevent the spread of infections and diseases during class. There are many ...

Mr. Hughes

2006-02-19

196

Why Prevention? Why Now?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

Tabachnick, Joan

2013-01-01

197

Scabies: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Related Links For Health Care Providers and Institutional Staff Institutional Settings Print page Get email updates Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636) TTY: 1-888-232- ...

198

The Inhibition of Stat5 by a Peptide Aptamer Ligand Specific for the DNA Binding Domain Prevents Target Gene Transactivation and the Growth of Breast and Prostate Tumor Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The signal transducer and activator of transcription Stat5 is transiently activated by growth factor and cytokine signals in normal cells, but its persistent activation has been observed in a wide range of human tumors. Aberrant Stat5 activity was initially observed in leukemias, but subsequently also found in carcinomas. We investigated the importance of Stat5 in human tumor cell lines. shRNA mediated downregulation of Stat5 revealed the dependence of prostate and breast cancer cells on the expression of this transcription factor. We extended these inhibition studies and derived a peptide aptamer (PA ligand, which directly interacts with the DNA-binding domain of Stat5 in a yeast-two-hybrid screen. The Stat5 specific PA sequence is embedded in a thioredoxin (hTRX scaffold protein. The resulting recombinant protein S5-DBD-PA was expressed in bacteria, purified and introduced into tumor cells by protein transduction. Alternatively, S5-DBD-PA was expressed in the tumor cells after infection with a S5-DBD-PA encoding gene transfer vector. Both strategies impaired the DNA-binding ability of Stat5, suppressed Stat5 dependent transactivation and caused its intracellular degradation. Our experiments describe a peptide based inhibitor of Stat5 protein activity which can serve as a lead for the development of a clinically useful compound for cancer treatment.

Vida Vafaizadeh

2013-08-01

199

Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also s...

Rise?rus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

2008-01-01

200

Gene-level pharmacogenetic analysis on survival outcomes using gene-trait similarity regression  

OpenAIRE

Gene/pathway-based methods are drawing significant attention due to their usefulness in detecting rare and common variants that affect disease susceptibility. The biological mechanism of drug responses indicates that a gene-based analysis has even greater potential in pharmacogenetics. Motivated by a study from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, we develop a gene-trait similarity regression for survival analysis to assess the effect of a gene or pat...

Tzeng, Jung-ying; Lu, Wenbin; Hsu, Fang-chi

2014-01-01

201

Obesity - A Preventable Disease  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...

Ofei, F.

2005-01-01

202

Prevention of criticality accidents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author)

203

Preventive health services: Immunization.  

OpenAIRE

The seven major childhood infectious diseases-measles, mumps, rubella, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus-can cause permanent disability and, in some cases, death. They all can be prevented by immunization, but prior to the National Childhood Immunization Initiative of 1977 more than a third of all children under age 15 were not properly protected. And even though vaccines are now available to reduce the risk of influenza, hepatitis B, and pneumococcal pneumonia, many high risk patient...

1983-01-01

204

Prevention of cardiovascular disease.  

OpenAIRE

1. Major risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are smoking, blood pressure and blood cholesterol and they interact in a multiplicative fashion. Family history of premature coronary heart disease and lack of exercise also contribute. Obesity increases risk probably mainly by its effect on blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for stroke. 2. Prevention may be opportunistic or in specially organized clinics, the latter being less likely to resul...

Elst, M. E.

1992-01-01

205

Stroke: management and prevention  

OpenAIRE

Cerebrovascular disease can be devastating for patients and their families. However, there is much that can be done to attenuate cerebral damage and reduce the extent of any disability. Active intervention is best seen in three phases: acute therapy, rehabilitation and secondary prevention. Thrombolysis within 4.5 hours of symptom onset substantially reduces morbidity from ischaemic stroke. Administration requires the use of clear protocols to triage, transport and investigate patients withou...

Pendlebury, St; Rothwell, Pm

2008-01-01

206

Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractionstradiation extractions

207

Prevention of food allergy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets beyond this age is empirically based. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the risks of stigmatisation and malnutrition, it is important to avoid unnecessary restrictive and prolonged diets. A diet period of 4-6 months appears to be sufficient in the majority of infants. At present, eHF are recommended as a substitute for cow's milk. A few high risk infants may benefit from a maternal diet during lactation, but there is no documented beneficial effect of maternal dieting during pregnancy.

Halken, S

1997-01-01

208

Early prevention of obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

Claudio Maffeis

2014-06-01

209

The New Mexico Clinical Prevention Initiative: A Statewide Prevention Partnership  

OpenAIRE

The New Mexico Department of Health and the New Mexico Medical Society invited organizations to participate in an initiative to promote clinical preventive services. The Clinical Preventive Initiative (CPI) focuses on the following interventions based on burden of illness, preventability of the condition, cost, current level of services, availability of leadership, and programmatic support: adult pneumococcal vaccination, tobacco use prevention and cessation, mammography screening, colorectal...

Espey, David K.; Baum, Susan L.; Jung, Ann Moore; Kozoll, Richard L.

2007-01-01

210

Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

2012-01-01

211

Suramin prevents duck hepatitis B virus infection in vivo.  

OpenAIRE

The effect of suramin on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection was investigated in vivo. Suramin pretreatment of Pekin ducklings completely prevented DHBV infection. In contrast, suramin given at the time of or after inoculation with DHBV did not inhibit viral infection, replication, or gene expression. These data indicate that suramin effectively blocks the early stages of DHBV infection in vivo.

Offensperger, W. B.; Offensperger, S.; Walter, E.; Blum, H. E.; Gerok, W.

1993-01-01

212

Body Lice Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lice - Body Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Body lice are spread most commonly by direct ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

213

Head Lice: Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Parasites Home Lice Head Lice Share Compartir Prevention & Control Head lice are spread most commonly by direct ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

214

INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS  

Science.gov (United States)

A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

215

Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Prevention: Information for Travelers Language: English Español ...

216

Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Thyroid Cancer » Detailed Guide » Can thyroid cancer be prevented? ... Topic Can thyroid cancer be found early? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ...

217

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the most common causes of back pain, and measures you can take to prevent back pain. Anatomy ... the degeneration of the spine and disks. Preventive measures include strengthening of the back and adopting good ...

218

Gene Therapy Techniques for Peripheral Arterial Disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Somatic gene therapy is the introduction of new genetic material into selective somatic cells with resulting therapeutic benefits. Vascular wall and, subsequently, cardiovascular diseases have become an interesting target for gene therapy studies.Arteries are an attractive target for gene therapy since vascular interventions, both open surgical and endovascular, are well suited for minimally invasive, easily monitored gene delivery. Promising therapeutic effects have been obtained in animal models in preventing post-angioplasty restenosis and vein graft thickening, as well as increasing blood flow and collateral development in ischemic limbs.First clinical trials suggest a beneficial effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in achieving therapeutic angiogenesis in chronic limb ischemia and the efficacy of decoy oligonucleotides to prevent infrainguinal vein graft stenosis. However, further studies are mandatory to clarify the safety issues, to develop better gene delivery vectors and delivery catheters, to improve transgene expression, as well as to find the most effective and safe treatment genes

219

The political economy of prevention  

OpenAIRE

Prevention in public policy is much discussed but rarely theorized. This article begins with a theoretical framework for reflecting on the political economy of prevention in advanced capitalist economies that integrates the analysis of preventive policies across the social, environmental and economic domains. The next two sections survey prevention initiatives in social policy and climate change policy, respectively. These mainly focus on the last three decades and are based mainly on UK evid...

Gough, Ian

2013-01-01

220

Selenium for preventing cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship b [...] etween selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to answer research question (b). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91) and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83) with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05) than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77). These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT) and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No reliable conclusions can be drawn regarding a causal relationship between low selenium exposure and an increased risk of cancer. Despite evidence for an inverse association between selenium exposure and the risk of some types of cancer, these results should be interpreted with care due to the potential limiting factors of heterogeneity and influences of unknown biases, confounding and effect modification. The effect of selenium supplementation from RCTs yielded inconsistent results. To date, there is no convincing evidence that selenium supplements can prevent cancer in men, women or children.

Gabriele, Dennert; Marcel, Zwahlen; Maree, Brinkman; Marco, Vinceti; Maurice P. A., Zeegers; Markus, Horneber.

221

Accident prevention programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

222

Preventive measures for emergencies?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH)

223

Gene Therapy In Oral Cancer : An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The treatment and prevention of oral cancer is one of the major hurdles in the field ofcancer. Gene therapy is one of the recent advances in this field to tackle this hurdle with promisingprospects. This overview introduces the reader into the basic idea of gene therapy, types of genetherapy and the various modes of introduction of therapeutic gene into the cancer affected cell.

Kanaram Choudhary

2010-07-01

224

Klotho Prevents Renal Calcium Loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbed calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, which is implicit to the aging phenotype of klotho-deficient mice, has been attributed to altered vitamin D metabolism, but alternative possibilities exist. We hypothesized that failed tubular Ca2+ absorption is primary, which causes increased urinary Ca2+ excretion, leading to elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and its sequelae. Here, we assessed intestinal Ca2+ absorption, bone densitometry, renal Ca2+ excretion, and renal morphology via energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis in wild-type and klotho?/? mice. We observed elevated serum Ca2+ and fractional excretion of Ca2+ (FECa) in klotho?/? mice. Klotho?/? mice also showed intestinal Ca2+ hyperabsorption, osteopenia, and renal precipitation of calcium-phosphate. Duodenal mRNA levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) and calbindin-D9K increased. In the kidney, klotho?/? mice exhibited increased expression of TRPV5 and decreased expression of the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX1) and calbindin-D28K, implying a failure to absorb Ca2+ through the distal convoluted tubule/connecting tubule (DCT/CNT) via TRPV5. Gene and protein expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-?-hydroxylase (1?OHase), and calbindin-D9K excluded renal vitamin D resistance. By modulating the diet, we showed that the renal Ca2+ wasting was not secondary to hypercalcemia and/or hypervitaminosis D. In summary, these findings illustrate a primary defect in tubular Ca2+ handling that contributes to the precipitation of calcium-phosphate in DCT/CNT. This highlights the importance of klotho to the prevention of renal Ca2+ loss, secondary hypervitaminosis D, osteopenia, and nephrocalcinosis. PMID:19713312

Alexander, R. Todd; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Buurman, Jan; Dijkman, Henry; van der Eerden, Bram C. J.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.T.M.; Bindels, René J.

2009-01-01

225

Gene Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation shows the three gene coding regions. This is the fourth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Cloning. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Modification.)

226

Protective and preventative measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

227

Computers in preventive dentistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the course of the past 20 years, an astonishingly rapid development of modern programmable computers has taken place. Electronic data processing (EDP) has therefore become very cheap. EDP may be used in all types of research; however, this paper deals specifically with applications in preventive cariology and periodontology. The use of punch cards and magnetic tape for storing of dental data is discussed. The principle of error testing of dental caries data is exemplified. A simple program which performs DMF counts is presented and explained. Some principles for longitudinal caries studies are elucidated. The use of large computing centres for processing extramural clinical studies is discussed. Some examples of progress due to utilization of EDP systems are given. The advantages of small computers on one hand and of large computers on the other hand are illustrated using the problem of DMF statistics. Some other applications of EDP are mentioned. PMID:6934162

Marthaler, T M; Bandi, A; Steiner, M

1980-09-01

228

Prevention of postoperative ileus.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Postoperative ileus (PI) is a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and prolonged convalescence after major surgical procedures. The pathophysiology of PI is multifactorial, including activation of the stress response to surgery, with inhibitory sympathetic visceral reflexes and inflammatory mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have generally been disappointing with the exception of cisapride and the introduction of the new selective peripherally acting m-opioid antagonists. Presently, introduction of a multi-modal rehabilitation programme (including continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, early oral feeding and enforced mobilization) is the most effective technique to reduce PI in abdominal procedures.

Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

2002-01-01

229

Protective and preventative measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to bloodborne diseases such as human immunodefiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use "Universal Precautions" which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed.

Freedman, P.N.

2002-10-01

230

[Prevention of hepatic encephalopathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication of cirrhosis which, in addition to producing a great social impact, deteriorates the quality of life of patients and is considered a sign of advanced liver disease and therefore a clinical indication for liver transplant evaluation. Patients who have had episodes of HE have a high risk of recurrence. Thus, after the HE episode resolves, it is recommended: control and prevention of precipitating factors (gastrointestinal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, use of diuretics with caution, avoid nervous system depressant medications), continued administration of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose or lactitol, few or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin and assess the need for a liver transplant as the presence of a HE episode carries a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. PMID:24480288

Morillas, Rosa M; Sala, Marga; Planas, Ramon

2014-06-01

231

Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

Wasiksiri, S.

2002-07-01

232

The Money Laundering Prevention System  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from...

Sonja Cindori

2007-01-01

233

Making HIV prevention programmes work  

OpenAIRE

Even after 25 years of experience, HIV prevention programming remains largely deficient. We identify four areas that managers of national HIV prevention programmes should reassess and hence refocus their efforts-improvement of targeting, selection, and delivery of prevention interventions, and optimisation of funding. Although each area is not wholly independent from one another, and because each country and epidemic context will require a different balance of time and funding allocation in e...

Bertozzi, S. M.; Laga, M.; Bautista-arredondo, S.; Coutinho, A.

2008-01-01

234

Pollution prevention: A regulatory update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

235

Preventive self-governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”

Sturloni Giancarlo

2003-06-01

236

Hydrogen explosion prevention device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If an emergency core cleaning system is not operated upon loss of coolant accident, temperature of fuels is increased due to after-heat, by which zirconium alloy as the fuel can material and water as coolants react to generate hydrogen. If the inside of the container is replaced with a nitrogen gas, etc., hydrogen is not burnt. Then, as the pressure and the temperature are increased to break the container and the hydrogen gas leaks into nuclear buildings, since the inside of the nuclear buildings is not replaced with the nitrogen gas, there may be a risk of hydrogen gas explosion. In view of the above, water is sprayed to the inside of the nuclear buildings upon occurrence of accidents. Although the hydrogen gas is exploded or burnt with aid of oxygen in air, if moisture is present in the air, explosion or combustion of the hydrogen gas is suppressed. The sprayed water droplets are easily evaporated to increase the moisture content in air thereby enabling to prevent explosion and combustion of the hydrogen gas. (N.H.)

237

Prevention of nuclear war  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

238

Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in apolipoprotein L1 gene-associated nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular genetics have revolutionized the understanding of susceptibility to the broad spectrum of kidney diseases with light microscopic appearance of FSGS, particularly in populations with recent African ancestry. These disorders include idiopathic FSGS, HIV-associated nephropathy, severe lupus nephritis, sickle cell nephropathy, and the primary kidney disorder focal global glomerulosclerosis, which had historically been ascribed to systemic hypertension. FSGS was once thought to include a multitude of unrelated disorders with similar histologic appearance. However, variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene locus is now known to account for the vast majority of such cases in African Americans as well as nearly all the excess risk for FSGS and related forms of progressive nondiabetic nephropathy in populations with recent African ancestry, relative to European ancestry. Inheriting two coding apolipoprotein L1 gene nephropathy risk variants is necessary for susceptibility to CKD; however, these variants alone are insufficient to produce disease. This work reviews the evidence supporting second hits or modifying factors that affect risk for apolipoprotein L1 gene-associated nephropathy and produce the protean manifestations of this common and complex syndrome. Targeting modifiable second factors will lead to preventive therapies for slowing progression of nondiabetic nephropathy in many patients possessing two apolipoprotein L1 gene risk variants. This model of genetic risk coupled with modifiable second hits will serve as a paradigm applicable to patients with CKD of various etiologies as well as a host of other complex disorders. PMID:24903390

Freedman, Barry I; Skorecki, Karl

2014-11-01

239

Gene Modifications  

Science.gov (United States)

This animation shows how a gene is constructed to eventually produce a protein in a Bt corn plant. This is the fifth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of crop genetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Regions. To go to the next animation, go to Gene Gun.)

240

Cancer genes.  

OpenAIRE

Cancer is a genetic disease; tumor cells differ from their normal progenitors by genetic alterations that affect growth-regulatory genes. There exist 2 classes of such cancer genes: the oncogenes, which function as positive growth regulators, and the tumor suppressor genes, which function as negative growth regulators. Oncogenes are widely conserved among diverse forms of life and are active in transmitting growth signals from the cell periphery to the cell nucleus. These signaling functions ...

Vogt, P. K.

1993-01-01

241

PREVENT IP and Data Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The following outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program. Please note that the NCI has a variety of agreement mechanisms by which these terms may be applied and will work with the NCI Technology Transfer Center to determine the appropriate agreement for the studies approved by the PREVENT Program.

242

Can weight loss prevent cancer?  

OpenAIRE

We review and update evidence on obesity, weight gain and weight loss in relation to leading cancers since the International Agency for Research on Cancer report of 2002. Emphasis is placed on the time course of disease and implications for weight control to prevent cancer. We conclude that weight loss could prevent a major portion of common cancers.

Wolin, K. Y.; Colditz, G. A.

2008-01-01

243

Get Real about Diabetes Prevention  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/15/2007.

2007-11-01

244

DIABETES PREVENTION TRIAL TYPE 1  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diabetes Prevention Trial--Type 1 (DPT-1) is a nationwide study to see if we can prevent or delay type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. Nine medical centers and more than 350 clinics in the United States and Canada are taking part in the study....

245

[Boxing: traumatology and prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules). PMID:22043621

Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

2010-10-01

246

Preventing avoidable asthma deaths.  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK has one of the highest death rates in Europe from asthma, with more than 20 people dying from the disease each week. Across the UK there is a five-fold variation in the number of hospital admissions for asthma almost certainly explained in part by variations in delivery, uptake and organisation of care. Deaths from asthma are frequently avoidable the findings from the National Review of Asthma Deaths have confirmed. A total of 276 cases were considered by the confidential enquiry panels and 195 confirmed as asthma deaths. Major avoidable factors were judged to be present in 60% of cases. Key findings from the report include: Almost half the patients (45%) died without seeking medical help or before help could be provided; 10% died within 28 days of discharge from hospital; 21% had attended A&E with asthma in the previous year; and only 23% had a personal asthma action plan. Over-prescription of short-acting bronchodilators and under-prescription of preventer inhalers was common. Every general practice should have a designated, named clinical lead for asthma services. Patients with asthma should be referred to a specialist asthma service if they have required more than two courses of systemic corticosteroids, oral or injected, in the previous 12 months or management using BTS steps 4 or 5 to achieve control. Any patient admitted to hospital or attending A&E with asthma should be reviewed, and control optimised, within a week of discharge. All asthma patients should have a written personal asthma action plan and should have a structured review by a healthcare professional with training. in asthma at least annually. PMID:25588282

Griffiths, Chris; Levy, Mark L

2014-09-01

247

Resveratrol in epilepsy: preventive or treatment opportunities?  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol has been extensively investigated and has been demonstrated to have antioxidant properties, cancer chemopreventive activity, and the capacity to modulate the hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol, among others well established actions. A noteworthy feature of resveratrol is its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and to exhibit neuroprotective actions, mainly by their capacity to regulate redox pathways as well as the Sirtuin (SIRT) system, which in turn modulates gene transcription, controlling inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Lately, evidence is accumulating with respect to the synergic effect of resveratrol with antiepileptic drugs and also its antiepileptic activity in various models of seizures. We discuss here recent evidence that strongly suggests that resveratrol acts as an anticonvulsant agent and could be a very effective method for reducing damage in neural tissue and even for preventing seizure development in coadjuvant antiepileptic therapy. PMID:24896336

Pallàs, Mercè; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Benito-Andrés, Pol; Ponce-Regalado, María Dolores; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E

2014-01-01

248

Electrical stimulation prevents apoptosis in denervated skeletal muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that electrical stimulation regulates the levels of gene expression related to apoptosis in denervated muscle and prevents muscle atrophy after denervation.Nineteen rats were used in this study. To denervate soleus muscle, sciatic nerve was resected under aseptic condition. Electrical stimulation with 4 mA rectangular pulses of 0.5 ms duration at 2 Hz lasting for 1 hour was delivered to lower limb including the soleus muscle using two surface electrodes. After the stimulation periods of 4 weeks, the levels of gene expression related to apoptosis were evaluated. Electrical stimulation increased valosin-containing protein (VCP) expression and decreased cleaved caspase-12 expression in denervated muscles. These results indicated that electrical stimulation to denervated muscle suppresses ER-specific apoptosis by enhancing VCP expression. We proposed that electrical stimulation would be a potential treatment for preventing atrophy of denervated skeletal muscles. PMID:20871144

Arakawa, Takuya; Katada, Akihiro; Shigyo, Hiroshi; Kishibe, Kan; Adachi, Masaaki; Nonaka, Satoshi; Harabuchi, Yasuaki

2010-01-01

249

Trichoderma genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

Foreman, Pamela (Los Altos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Van Solingen, Pieter (Naaldwijk, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

2012-06-19

250

Gene Gun  

Science.gov (United States)

How the gene gun works to transform cells with new DNA. This is thesixth of a series of seven animations that detail the process of cropgenetic engineering. To begin at the beginning, see Overview of Crop Genetic Engineering. (To return to the animation previous to this, go to Gene Modification. To go to the next animation, go to Backcross Breeding.)

251

Primary prevention of Down's syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

2005-07-01

252

Emerging nanotechnology approaches for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, there is no cure and no preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved treatment, but it has to be taken for a lifetime, has major side effects and is ineffective in patients in whom the virus develops resistance. Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary field that is revolutionizing medicine in the 21st century. It has a vast potential to radically advance the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. In this review, we discuss the challenges with the current treatment of the disease and shed light on the remarkable potential of nanotechnology to provide more effective treatment and prevention for HIV/AIDS by advancing antiretroviral therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, vaccinology and microbicides. PMID:20148638

Mamo, Tewodros; Moseman, E Ashley; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Shi, Jinjun; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Langer, Robert; von Andrian, Ulrich; Farokhzad, Omid C

2010-02-01

253

Traditional healers and cancer prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase in the incidence of cancer in South Africa necessitates the expansion of preventative efforts. This study shows that traditional healers in Atteridgeville are consulted by a range of people in their communities, have a basic knowledge of cancer, provide health education to their patients and are willing to participate in cancer preventative strategies. They are therefore ideally suited to augment the services of westernized health care workers. The issue of professionalization is explored and a procedure is suggested whereby the training of traditional healers can be enhanced so as to facilitate their professionalization and their collaboration with other health care workers in the prevention of cancer.

M Steyn

2000-09-01

254

Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

Maria Pudenz

2014-10-01

255

Impact of soy isoflavones on the epigenome in cancer prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isoflavones (IF) such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans. PMID:25322458

Pudenz, Maria; Roth, Kevin; Gerhauser, Clarissa

2014-10-01

256

Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

Sultan, Sherif

2012-10-01

257

Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Isoflavones (IF) such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone?dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans. PMID:25322458

Pudenz, Maria; Roth, Kevin; Gerhauser, Clarissa

2014-01-01

258

Strategies for the prevention of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

European experts on autoimmune Type 1 diabetes met for 2 days in October 2010 in Cambridge, to review the state-of-the-art and to discuss strategies for prevention of Type 1 diabetes (http://www-gene.cimr.cam.ac.uk/todd/sub_pages/T1D_prevention_Cambridge_workshop_20_21Oct2010.pdf). Meeting sessions examined the epidemiology of Type 1 diabetes; possible underlying causes of the continuing and rapid increase in Type 1 diabetes incidence at younger ages; and lessons learned from previous prevention trials. Consensus recommendations from the meeting were: 1. Resources such as national diabetes registries and natural history studies play an essential role in developing and refining assays to be used in screening for risk factors for Type 1 diabetes. 2. It is crucial to dissect out the earliest physiological events after birth, which are controlled by the susceptibility genes now identified in Type 1 diabetes, and the environmental factors that might affect these phenotypes, in order to bring forward a mechanistic approach to designing future prevention trials. 3. Current interventions at later stages of disease, such as in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes, have relied mainly on non-antigen-specific mechanisms. For primary prevention-preventing the onset of autoimmunity-interventions must be based on knowledge of the actual disease process such that: participants in a trial would be stratified according the disease-associated molecular phenotypes; the autoantigen(s) and immune responses to them; and the manipulation of the environment, as early as possible in life. Combinations of interventions should be considered as they may allow targeting different components of disease, thus lowering side effects while increasing efficacy. PMID:21812815

Todd, J A; Knip, M; Mathieu, C

2011-10-01

259

Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundEmerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity.DiscussionObesity prevention research since the 1970¿s represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions.SummaryWe propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes. PMID:25204469

Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

2014-09-10

260

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... garden plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . Avoid home and garden applications of pesticides and herbicides when children (especially infants) ...

261

Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy  

Science.gov (United States)

In this trial, researchers are testing the ability of an antioxidant supplement called alpha-lipoic acid to prevent peripheral neuropathy caused by the platinum-containing drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin.

262

Cervical Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs and Projects Cervical Cancer Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award

263

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... phased out by the Environmental Protection Agency.) Buy medicines, vitamins and household products with child-resistant caps. ... same or similar medication, consider using color-coded medicine caps on the original container to prevent mixing ...

264

Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... for the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning ... gov] Top of page How can knowing about genetics help treat disease? Every year, more than two ...

265

Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

266

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . ... polish. Also any scissors, razor blades or sharp tools. Install nonskid strips in bathtubs. Verify that outlets ...

267

Prevention of carbon dioxide methanation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for prevention of catalytic carbon dioxide methanation is developed. This is part of the process for radioactive krypton separation from waste gases of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. (EF)

268

Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Occupational hearing loss is one of the ... controlled or eliminated. Learn About Workplace Noise and Hearing Loss Facts and Statistics Publications and Tools Hearing Loss ...

269

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... degrees F to prevent scalding. Unplug curling irons, hair dryers and electric razors when not in use. Lock up any bottles of mouthwash, perfume, hair spray, or nail polish. Also any scissors, razor ...

270

Do Baby Products Prevent SIDS?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Biologics Articulos en Espanol Do Baby Products Prevent SIDS? FDA Says No Search the Consumer Updates Section ... you can do to lower the chance of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is to place your baby on ...

271

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... disk called the annulus fibrosus. The annulus fibrosus holds the vertebrae together and prevents the content of ... your head and shoulders off the floor, and hold for 10 seconds. • Knee-to-Chest Raise. Lie ...

272

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... home, you can help prevent many common home injuries from occurring. Read the following list, and check ... Disabled As people age, the types of common injuries change, although the risk of injury does not. ...

273

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your doctor before starting these exercises. Good Back Techniques Another way of preventing back and leg pain is by using good back techniques while doing your daily activities. Adopt a straight ...

274

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a comprehensive list of poisonous house and garden plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . Avoid home and garden applications of pesticides ...

275

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

276

Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus lysis.  

OpenAIRE

Staphylococcus aureus S-6 cells grown in chemically defined media often lysed after exponential growth. Lysis could be prevented by the addition of alanine or proline before the culture reached stationary phase.

Bhaduri, S.

1983-01-01

277

Prevent the Spread of Norovirus  

Science.gov (United States)

... Protect Yourself and Others from Norovirus Practice proper hand hygiene Wash your hands carefully with soap and water, ... in healthcare facilities Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives , hand- and water-related hygiene tips Six Tips to Help Prevent the Spread ...

278

Fungal avirulence genes: structure and possible functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avirulence (Avr) genes exist in many fungi that share a gene-for-gene relationship with their host plant. They represent unique genetic determinants that prevent fungi from causing disease on plants that possess matching resistance (R) genes. Interaction between elicitors (primary or secondary products of Avr genes) and host receptors in resistant plants causes induction of various defense responses often involving a hypersensitive response. Avr genes have been successfully isolated by reverse genetics and positional cloning. Five cultivar-specific Avr genes (Avr4, Avr9, and Ecp2 from Cladosporium fulvum; nip1 from Rhynchosporium secalis; and Avr2-YAMO from Magnaporthe grisea) and three species-specific Avr genes (PWL1 and PWL2 from M. grisea and inf1 from Phytophthora infestans) have been cloned. Isolation of additional Avr genes from these fungi, but also from other fungi such as Uromyces vignae, Melampsora lini, Phytophthora sojae, and Leptosphaeria maculans, is in progress. Molecular analyses of nonfunctional Avr gene alleles show that these originate from deletions or mutations in the open reading frame or the promoter sequence of an Avr gene. Although intrinsic biological functions of most Avr gene products are still unknown, recent studies have shown that two Avr genes, nip1 and Ecp2, encode products that are important pathogenicity factors. All fungal Avr genes cloned so far have been demonstrated or predicted to encode extracellular proteins. Current studies focus on unraveling the mechanisms of perception of avirulence factors by plant receptors. The exploitation of Avr genes and the matching R genes in engineered resistance is also discussed. PMID:9756710

Laugé, R; De Wit, P J

1998-08-01

279

Therapeutic gene silencing strategies for polyglutamine disorders.  

OpenAIRE

Dominantly inherited polyglutamine disorders are chronic neurodegenerative diseases therapeutically amenable to gene-specific silencing strategies. Several compelling nucleic acid-based approaches have recently been developed to block the expression of mutant proteins and prevent toxic neurodegenerative sequelae. With such approaches, avoiding potential side effects caused by the concomitant ablation of the normal protein is an important objective. Therefore, allele-specific gene silencing is...

Scholefield, J.; Wood, Mj

2010-01-01

280

Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

281

Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

2015-01-22

282

Traditional healers and cancer prevention  

OpenAIRE

The increase in the incidence of cancer in South Africa necessitates the expansion of preventative efforts. This study shows that traditional healers in Atteridgeville are consulted by a range of people in their communities, have a basic knowledge of cancer, provide health education to their patients and are willing to participate in cancer preventative strategies. They are therefore ideally suited to augment the services of westernized health care workers. The issue of professionalization is...

Steyn, M.; Muller, A.

2000-01-01

283

The prevention of stimulant misuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The term 'stimulant' refers to a class of drugs that increase psychophysiological arousal. From the viewpoint of prevention, it is more useful to look primarily at the social consequences and functions of stimulants. Every society has a documented use of stimulants. When planning interventions the dynamics of use must be placed in the foreground. Stimulant epidemics, like problematic stimulant users, have a natural tendency to burn themselves out. Different types of stimulants may differ in their origins, but their epidemiological consequences and use functions tend to be similar. Implications for prevention can be drawn from the characteristics of stimulant use epidemics. Users at risk for socially unacceptable patterns should be targeted for prevention efforts. Mass media campaigns that single out stimulants should be avoided. Much of the harm associated with stimulants is a consequence of life-styles characterized by polydrug use and unhealthy practices. Prevention should be timed to the appropriate period of the epidemic. Interventions useful at period 1 will not work at period 2. The recommendations of the WHO Advisory Group on the Adverse Effects of Cocaine and Coca provide a good model for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention for all forms of stimulant misuse. Stimulant prevention must be creative in finding ways of encouraging the movements of the drug to the periphery of users' lives. PMID:7841865

Kaplan, C D; Husch, J A; Bieleman, B

1994-11-01

284

Allergy and asthma prevention 2014  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable.

Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich

2014-01-01

285

Clinical and laboratory features of Mycobacterium porcinum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent molecular studies have shown Mycobacterium porcinum, recovered from cases of lymphadenitis in swine, to have complete 16S rDNA sequence identity and >70% DNA-DNA homology with human isolates within the M. fortuitum third biovariant complex. We identified 67 clinical and two environmental isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant sorbitol-negative group, of which 48 (70%) had the same PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profile as the hsp65 gene of M. porcinum (ATCC 33776(T)) and were studied in more detail. Most U.S. patient isolates were from Texas (44%), Florida (19%), or other southern coastal states (15%). Clinical infections included wound infections (62%), central catheter infections and/or bacteremia (16%), and possible pneumonitis (18%). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (1,463 bp) showed 100% identity with M. porcinum ATCC 33776(T). Sequencing of 441 bp of the hsp65 gene showed four sequevars that differed by 2 to 3 bp from the porcine strains. Clinical isolates were positive for arylsulfatase activity at 3 days, nitrate, iron uptake, D-mannitol, i-myo-inositol, and catalase at 68 degrees C. They were negative for L-rhamnose and D-glucitol (sorbitol). Clinical isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid and susceptible or intermediate to cefoxitin, clarithromycin, imipenem, and amikacin. M. porcinum ATCC 33776(T) gave similar results except for being nitrate negative. These studies showed almost complete phenotypic and molecular identity between clinical isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant D-sorbitol-negative group and porcine strains of M. porcinum and confirmed that they belong to the same species. Identification of M. porcinum presently requires hsp65 gene PRA or 16S rRNA or hsp65 gene sequencing. PMID:15583300

Wallace, Richard J; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wilson, Rebecca W; Mann, Linda; Hall, Leslie; Zhang, Yansheng; Jost, Kenneth C; Brown, June M; Kabani, Amin; Schinsky, Mark F; Steigerwalt, Arnold G; Crist, Christopher J; Roberts, Glenn D; Blacklock, Zeta; Tsukamura, Michio; Silcox, Vella; Turenne, Christine

2004-12-01

286

Clinical and Laboratory Features of Mycobacterium porcinum†  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent molecular studies have shown Mycobacterium porcinum, recovered from cases of lymphadenitis in swine, to have complete 16S rDNA sequence identity and >70% DNA-DNA homology with human isolates within the M. fortuitum third biovariant complex. We identified 67 clinical and two environmental isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant sorbitol-negative group, of which 48 (70%) had the same PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profile as the hsp65 gene of M. porcinum (ATCC 33776T) and were studied in more detail. Most U.S. patient isolates were from Texas (44%), Florida (19%), or other southern coastal states (15%). Clinical infections included wound infections (62%), central catheter infections and/or bacteremia (16%), and possible pneumonitis (18%). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (1,463 bp) showed 100% identity with M. porcinum ATCC 33776T. Sequencing of 441 bp of the hsp65 gene showed four sequevars that differed by 2 to 3 bp from the porcine strains. Clinical isolates were positive for arylsulfatase activity at 3 days, nitrate, iron uptake, d-mannitol, i-myo-inositol, and catalase at 68°C. They were negative for l-rhamnose and d-glucitol (sorbitol). Clinical isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid and susceptible or intermediate to cefoxitin, clarithromycin, imipenem, and amikacin. M. porcinum ATCC 33776T gave similar results except for being nitrate negative. These studies showed almost complete phenotypic and molecular identity between clinical isolates of the M. fortuitum third biovariant d-sorbitol-negative group and porcine strains of M. porcinum and confirmed that they belong to the same species. Identification of M. porcinum presently requires hsp65 gene PRA or 16S rRNA or hsp65 gene sequencing. PMID:15583300

Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Hall, Leslie; Zhang, Yansheng; Jost, Kenneth C.; Brown, June M.; Kabani, Amin; Schinsky, Mark F.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Crist, Christopher J.; Roberts, Glenn D.; Blacklock, Zeta; Tsukamura, Michio; Silcox, Vella; Turenne, Christine

2004-01-01

287

Characterization of the first report of Mycobacterium timonense infecting an HIV patient in an Ecuadorian hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium timonense is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) described in southern France in 2009, and to our knowledge, not reported again as a human pathogen in indexed literature. The aim of this work was to characterize the first clinical isolate of M. timonense in Ecuador. Time of growth, biochemical tests, thin layer growth test, PCR-RFLP analysis of the hsp65 gene and MALDI-TOF spectra analysis were not able to identify the species. The species identification was achieved through sequencing of rrs, hsp65 and rpoB genes. The results highlight the necessity to set up a sequencing method to identify emerging NTM in Ecuadorian clinical facilities. PMID:24813256

Zurita, J; Ortega-Paredes, D; Mora, M; Espinel, N; Parra, H; Febres, L; Zurita-Salinas, C

2014-12-01

288

48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836.513 Section 1836...Contract Clauses 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer...FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

2010-10-01

289

48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836.513 Section 836...Contract Clauses 836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer...clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and...

2010-10-01

290

Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have ... day. search Features Can We Prevent Alzheimer's Disease? Mind Your Mouth Wise Choices Links To Prevent Gum ...

291

Gene Cloning  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive activity adapted from the University of Nebraska's Library of Crop Technologies details the steps involved in producing clones of genes that can then be used to transform the characteristics of an organism.

2009-09-08

292

Gene therapy.  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, there have been a number of technological breakthroughs that have allowed for clinical trials in gene therapy to be initiated. In combination with the genome initiative, the potential for new therapeutics is limitless. Although an enormous amount of information has been obtained in a relatively short period of time, gene therapy is not yet ready for wide-scale practice. Some of the successes and obstacles that remain are summarized in this report.

Mota Biosca, Anna

1992-01-01

293

Preventing atopy and allergic disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the recent exponential increase in food allergies and atopic disorders, effective allergy prevention has become a public health priority in many developed regions. Important preventive strategies include the promotion of breastfeeding and vaginal deliveries, judicious use of perinatal antibiotics, as well as the avoidance of maternal tobacco smoking. Breastfeeding for at least 6 months and introduction of complementary solids from 4-6 months are generally recommended. Complex oligosaccharides in breast milk support the establishment of bifidobacteria in the neonatal gut which stimulate regulatory T lymphocyte responses and enhance tolerance development. Maternal elimination diets during pregnancy or lactation are not effective in preventing allergies. If exclusive breastfeeding is not possible, (supplemental) feeding with a partially hydrolyzed whey-based formula or extensively hydrolyzed casein-based formula may reduce the risk of cow's milk allergy and atopic dermatitis in infants with a family history of atopy. By contrast, asthma and allergic rhinitis at 4-6 years of age are not prevented by this approach. Soy formula and amino acid-based formula have no proven role in allergy prevention. Perinatal supplementation with probiotics and/or prebiotics may reduce the risk of atopic dermatitis, but no reliable effect on the prevention of food allergy or respiratory allergies has so far been found. A randomized trial on maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy found that atopic dermatitis and egg sensitization in the first year of life were significantly reduced, but no preventive effect for food allergies was demonstrated. The role of vitamin D deficiency or excess as a risk factor for food allergy and atopic disorders requires further study. PMID:24504215

Heine, Ralf G

2014-01-01

294

Gene therapy in status epilepticus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene therapy in human disease has expanded rapidly in recent years with the development of safer and more effective viral vectors, and presents a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy. Studies in animals models have demonstrated that overexpression of inhibitory peptides can modify seizure threshold, prevent the development of epilepsy, and modify established epilepsy. More recently there has been a flurry of studies using optogenetics in which light-activated channels expressed in neurons can transiently change neuronal excitability on exposure to light, thereby enabling the development of closed loop systems to detect and stop seizure activity. The treatment of status epilepticus presents its own challenges. Because of both the delay in gene expression following transfection and also the necessity of using focal transfection, there are a limited number of situations in which gene therapy can be used in status epilepticus. One such condition is epilepsia partialis continua (EPC). We have used gene therapy in a model of EPC and have shown that we can "cure" the condition. Recent evidence suggesting that gene therapy targeting subcortical regions can modify generalized or more diffuse epilepsies, indicates that the range of situations in status epilepticus in which gene therapy could be used will expand. PMID:24001071

Walker, Matthew C; Schorge, Stephanie; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Wykes, Robert C; Heeroma, Joost H; Mantoan, Laura

2013-09-01

295

PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The PREVENT Cancer Drug Development Program is a National Cancer Institute-supported pipeline to bring new cancer preventing interventions and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials.

296

Simple and Rational Approach to the Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium Complex Species, and Other Commonly Isolated Mycobacteria  

OpenAIRE

A novel PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the hsp65 gene was developed. The restriction patterns for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species were designed to be highly distinct, and the overall number of restriction patterns was designed to be limited. Four hundred specimens (17 reference strains and 383 clinical isolates) were tested, of which 98 were M. tuberculosis and 132 were MAC species. The assay was virtually 100% sensitive and s...

Wong, Derek A.; Yip, Peter C. W.; Cheung, Danny T. L.; Kam, Kai Man

2001-01-01

297

Falls prevention for the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their results must be rated as compromised due to different biasing factors. In summary, it appears that the performance of tests or the application of parameters to identify individuals at risk of falling yields little or no clinically relevant information. Positive effects of exercise interventions may be expected in relatively young and healthy seniors, while studies indicate opposite effects in the fragile elderly. For this specific vulnerable population the modification of the housing environment shows protective effects. A low number of studies, low quality of studies or inconsistent results lead to the conclusion that the effectiveness of the following interventions has to be rated unclear yet: correction of vision disorders, modification of psychotropic medication, vitamin D supplementation, nutritional supplements, psychological interventions, education of nursing personnel, multiple and multifactorial programs as well as the application of hip protectors. For the context of the German health care system the economic evaluations of fall prevention retrieved by the literature searches yield very few useful results. Cost-effectiveness calculations of fall prevention are mostly based on weak effectiveness data as well as on epidemiological and cost data from foreign health care systems. Ethical analysis demonstrates ambivalent views of the target population concerning fall risk and the necessity of fall prevention. The willingness to take up preventive measures depends on a variety of personal factors, the quality of information, guidance and decision-making, the prevention program itself and social support. The analysis of papers regarding legal issues shows three main challenges: the uncertainty of which standard of care has to be expected with regard to fall prevention, the necessity to consider the specific conditions of every single case when measures for fall prevention are applied, and the difficulty to balance the rights to autonomous decision making and physical integrity. Discussion and

Dagmar Lühmann

2012-04-01

298

The Money Laundering Prevention System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

Sonja Cindori

2007-03-01

299

Reactivation Methylation-Silenced Genes by Polyphenols  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is an important mechanism to silence the expression of many tumor suppressors, DNA repair, and other genes in cancer. The long-term goal of this project is to study the inhibition and reversal of this process by dietary polyphenols for the purpose of prevention and treatment of cancer.

300

Preventing pollution from plutonium processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

301

Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ?non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ?offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ?injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ?fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ?discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ?multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ?and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ?successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ?initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.?

Dehran Swart

2009-07-01

302

Preventing paraffin-related injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world) is the most commonly used fuel in ?non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ?offers many advantages-especially its comparatively low cost to produce-it poses two major risks of ?injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ?fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ?discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ?multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ?and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ?successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ?initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations. ? PMID:21483184

Schwebel, David C; Swart, Dehran

2009-07-01

303

Evaluation of Preventive Studies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45

Müyesser Sayki Arslan

2013-06-01

304

Detection of EPO gene doping in blood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene doping--or the abuse of gene therapy--will continue to threaten the sports world. History has shown that progress in medical research is likely to be abused in order to enhance human performance. In this review, we critically discuss the progress and the risks associated with the field of erythropoietin (EPO) gene therapy and its applicability to EPO gene doping. We present typical vector systems that are employed in ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy trials. Due to associated risks, gene doping is not a feasible alternative to conventional EPO or blood doping at this time. Nevertheless, it is well described that about half of the elite athlete population is in principle willing to risk its health to gain a competitive advantage. This includes the use of technologies that lack safety approval. Sophisticated detection approaches are a prerequisite for prevention of unapproved and uncontrolled use of gene therapy technology. In this review, we present current detection approaches for EPO gene doping, with a focus on blood-based direct and indirect approaches. Gene doping is detectable in principle, and recent DNA-based detection strategies enable long-term detection of transgenic DNA (tDNA) following in vivo gene transfer. PMID:22508654

Neuberger, Elmo W I; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Moser, Dirk A; Simon, Perikles

2012-11-01

305

Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

2009-04-06

306

Needlestick and Sharps Injury Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every day while caring for patients, nurses are at risk to exposure to bloodborne pathogens potentially resulting in infections such as HIV or hepatitis B and C. These exposures, while preventable, are often accepted as being a part of the job. In the United States, needlestick injuries have begun to decrease from an estimated one million exposures per year in 1996 to 385,000 per year in 2000. This decline has resulted from the protections afforded by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard. Reasons for the success in decreasing needlestick and sharps injuries may be attributed to the elimination of needle recapping and the use of safer needle devices, sharps collection boxes, gloves and personal protective gear, and universal precautions. The prevention of needlestick injuries has made slow progress over the past 20 years since the HIV epidemic drew attention to the deadly nature of health care work and to protection of health care worker health and safety. In Africa, where the AIDS virus originated and where the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among hospitalized patients is highest in the world, attention has been directed only recently at protecting health care workers. Nurses, especially those infected from a preventable exposure, have been at the forefront of advocacy for prevention. This article includes a review about the hazard of exposure to bloodborne pathogens and epidemiology of occupational infection. The author discusses how to apply standard methods of occupational health and industry hygiene using the hierarchy of controls framework to prevent exposure to blood, and discusses evidence-based prevention and efficacy of particular control measures. Legislative progress and implementation of enforceable policy to protect health care workers is outlined.

Wilburn, S

2004-09-01

307

Health promotion and prevention strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations. PMID:23998773

Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

2013-09-01

308

Gene Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Past, Present and Future  

OpenAIRE

The broad field of gene therapy promises a number of innovative treatments that are likely to become important in preventing deaths from cancer. In this review, we discuss the history, highlights and future of three different gene therapy treatment approaches: immunotherapy, oncolytic virotherapy and gene transfer. Immunotherapy uses genetically modified cells and viral particles to stimulate the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Recent clinical trials of second and third generation vacc...

Cross, Deanna; Burmester, James K.

2006-01-01

309

The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1997-07-01

310

Anti-inflammatory prostaglandins for the prevention of preterm labour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth occurs in 10-12% of pregnancies and is the primary cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Tocolytic therapies have long been the focus for the prevention of preterm labour, yet they do not significantly improve neonatal outcome. A direct causal link exists between infection-induced inflammation and preterm labour. As inflammation and infection are independent risk factors for poor neonatal outcome, recent research focus has been shifted towards exploring the potential for anti-inflammatory strategies. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of many labour-associated genes including PTGS2 (COX2), prostaglandins (PGs) and the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) as well as key inflammatory genes. Targeting the inhibition of NF?B is therefore an attractive therapeutic approach for both the prevention of preterm labour and for reducing neonatal exposure to inflammation. While PGs are considered to be pro-labour and pro-inflammatory, the cyclopentenone PG 15-deoxy-?(12,14)PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties via the inhibition of NF?B in human amniocytes, myocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. 15d-PGJ2 also delays inflammation-induced preterm labour in the mouse and significantly increases pup survival. This review examines the current understanding of inflammation in the context of labour and discusses how anti-inflammatory PGs may hold promise for the prevention of preterm labour and improved neonatal outcome. PMID:24890751

Sykes, Lynne; MacIntyre, David A; Teoh, Tiong Ghee; Bennett, Phillip R

2014-08-01

311

CRISPR interference can prevent natural transformation and virulence acquisition during in vivo bacterial infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathogenic bacterial strains emerge largely due to transfer of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria, a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci of bacteria and archaea encode a sequence-specific defense mechanism against bacteriophages and constitute a programmable barrier to HGT. However, the impact of CRISPRs on the emergence of virulence is unknown. We programmed the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae with CRISPR sequences that target capsule genes, an essential pneumococcal virulence factor, and show that CRISPR interference can prevent transformation of nonencapsulated, avirulent pneumococci into capsulated, virulent strains during infection in mice. Further, at low frequencies bacteria can lose CRISPR function, acquire capsule genes, and mount a successful infection. These results demonstrate that CRISPR interference can prevent the emergence of virulence in vivo and that strong selective pressure for virulence or antibiotic resistance can lead to CRISPR loss in bacterial pathogens. PMID:22901538

Bikard, David; Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Mucida, Daniel; Marraffini, Luciano A

2012-08-16

312

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 222-1222). Make sure your house number is visible from the street. Be sure to have at ... garden plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants. ...

313

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and garden plants, see the National Capital Poison Control Center’s Web site at www.poison.org/prevent/plants.asp . Avoid home and garden applications of pesticides and herbicides when children (especially infants) are present or nearby, ...

314

Engaging Men in Violence Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

2009-01-01

315

Stroke prevention in internist practice  

OpenAIRE

Stroke secondary prevention in internist practice is discussed in accordance with up to date guidelines. Modern pharmacotherapy includes antiaggregants or anticoagulants, statins, and antihypertensive drugs. The choice of drugs is mostly founded on the rules of evidence based medicine, which allow adjusting individual treatment depending on clinical conditions. The composition of perindopril and indapamide is a preferred nowadays combination of antihypertensive drugs.

Napalkov, D. A.; Zhilenko, A. V.

2011-01-01

316

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most people at least once ... or healthcare professional or a Causes of Back Pain The most common cause of back pain is ...

317

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most people at ... doctor or healthcare professional or a Causes of Back Pain The most common cause of back pain ...

318

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for 10 seconds, and repeat 10 times. These exercises strengthen the back muscles, which allow them to withstand the rigors of everyday activities. If you have had previous back pain or medical problems, make sure to check ... Good Back Techniques Another way of preventing back ...

319

Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT)  

Science.gov (United States)

A fact sheet about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), which found that 25 percent fewer men taking the drug finasteride developed prostate cancer than men not taking the drug but that men who developed prostate cancer while taking finasteride were more likely to have high-grade cancers.

320

Islamic Teachings and Cancer Prevention  

OpenAIRE

It was widely reported that 80 to 90 percent of all cancers are related to life style and environmental factors, which could be is some way preventable. Lung cancer is the most vivid example, where 80 to 85 percent of these cases are directly related to smoking. Worldwide tobacco smoking and chewing is responsible for 2.5 million deaths annually.

Albar, M. A.

1994-01-01

321

How to Prevent Medical Emergencies  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... them from slamming closed. Bathroom Safety Checklist Install emergency releases on the outside of your bathroom and bedroom doors, or cover or remove locks so children cannot lock themselves in. Set your water heater at a temperature no higher than 125 degrees F to prevent ...

322

Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... Text Size Print Bookmark Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention People with diabetes are prone to having foot ... can’t tell if your shoes are causing pressure and producing corns or calluses. ... ulcers. Dry, cracked skin. Poor circulation and neuropathy can ...

323

Back Pain - How to Prevent  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available How to Prevent Back Pain Introduction Back pain is one of the most common medical problems people have. It affects most people at least ... doctor or healthcare professional or a Causes of Back Pain The most common cause of back pain is ...

324

Pollution prevention program implementation plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

325

Malaria Treatment and Prevention Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival, watch a graphic representation of the malaria parasite and hear from experts about the physical and economic effects of the disease on the human population, as well as treatments and preventive measures.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-08-31

326

Pollution prevention program implementation plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program.

Engel, J.A.

1996-09-01

327

Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?  

OpenAIRE

Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

Aggarwal, Pakhee

2014-01-01

328

Designer Genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic technologies may soon help fill some of the most important needs of humanity from food to energy to health care. The research of major designer genes companies and reasons why the initial mad rush for biotechnology has slowed are reviewed. (SR)

Miller, Judith; Miller, Mark

1983-01-01

329

The first case of cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wenkai Zong,* Xiaodong Zhang,* Hongsheng Wang, Xiu Lian Xu, Qiuling Wang, Weiwei Tian, Ya LI Jin, Qinxue Wu, Meiyu Tang Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, National Center for STD and Leprosy Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The authors present the first, to the best of their knowledge, reported case of cutaneous infection caused by Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. A 42-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic reddish papules, nodules, plaques, and patches on the right side of her face and on her forehead that had persisted for 5 years, with the lesions gradually increasing in size over that time. No previous intervening medical treatment had been applied. No history or evidence of immunosuppression was found. A skin biopsy was performed for routine histological examination. Samples of lesioned skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium to determine the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Ziehl–Neelsen staining was used to confirm the presence of the organism. In vitro drug susceptibility testing was conducted using the microtiter plate method. Mycobacterium was identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as fungus, were also conducted. Routine histopathology revealed granulomatous changes without caseation. Ziehl–Neelsen staining showed that the organisms in both the lesions and the cultures were acid-fast bacilli. The cultured colonies were grown in Löwenstein–Jensen medium and incubated at two different temperatures (32°C and 37°C for 2–3 weeks, developing pigmentation both in the dark and in the light. In vitro drug susceptibility tests showed that the organism was sensitive to clarithromycin and moxifloxacin. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of the hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed that the isolated organisms were M. parascrofulaceum. Fungal and other standard bacterial cultures were negative. In conclusion, identification and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria should be performed promptly to obtain better prognoses. Empirical treatments may be feasible, and drug susceptibility tests are important.Keywords: nontuberculous mycobacteria, skin infection, PCR-RFLP, laboratory diagnosis, therapy

Zong WK

2012-08-01

330

Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Only four out of 31 completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of HIV prevention strategies against sexual transmission have shown significant efficacy. Poor adherence may have contributed to the lack of effect in some of these trials. In this paper we explore the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy within an RCT. Analysis We used simple quantitative methods to illustrate the impact of various levels of adherence on ...

Hayes Richard J; Barnabas Ruanne V; Wasserheit Judith N; Weiss Helen A; Abu-Raddad Laith J

2008-01-01

331

Role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 in prevention of colon cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are important for the proliferation of cancer cells. One of their binding proteins, known as insulin-like growth factor binding protein -4 (IGFBP-4 is well known for its inhibitory action on IGFs in vitro. We assessed the effect of IGFBP-4 in prevention of development of colon cancer in vivo. Methods Nude mice were subcutaneously inoculated with HT-29 colon cancer cells and they were also simultaneously injected either gene construct containing mammalian expression vector pcDNA3 with or without IGFBP-4 gene or phosphate buffered saline. The effect was assessed 4 weeks later by evaluating the tumours for mitosis, necrosis, apoptosis, and expressions of IGFBP-4, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. Results The results showed that the IGFBP-4 gene therapy did not prevent the tumour establishment but it increased the tumour apoptosis which was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions. The IGFBP-4 protein was low in tumours which received IGFBP-4 gene construct which may be due to a feed back mechanism of IGFBP-4 upon its own cells. Conclusion IGFBP-4 gene therapy in the form localised gene transfer did not prevent colon cancer initiation and establishment but it resulted in increased apoptosis and Bax protein expression and a decrease in tumour cellular mitosis

Seifalian Alexander M

2007-11-01

332

Evaluating gene × gene and gene × smoking interaction in rheumatoid arthritis using candidate genes in GAW15  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We examined the potential gene × gene interactions and gene × smoking interactions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA using the candidate gene data sets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 2. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was used to test gene × gene interactions among candidate genes. The case-only sample was used to test gene × smoking interactions. The best predictive model was the single-locus model with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2476601 in gene PTPN22. However, no clear gene × gene interaction was identified. Substantial departure from multiplicativity was observed between smoking and SNPs in genes CTLA4, PADI4, MIF, and SNPs on chromosome 5 and one haplotype of PTPN22. The strongest evidence of association was identified between the PTPN22 gene and RA status, which was consistently detected in single SNP association, gene × gene interaction and gene × smoking interaction analyses.

Mei Ling

2007-12-01

333

Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges. PMID:23396860

Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

2013-01-01

334

Preventive Evolutionary Medicine of Cancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges. PMID:23396860

Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

2013-01-01

335

Pollution prevention program plan 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

336

Prevention of unintentional childhood injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injuries are the leading cause of death in children and teenagers in the United States. The leading causes of unintentional injury vary by age and include drowning, poisoning, suffocation, fires, burns, falls, and motor vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian-related crashes. Most injuries are preventable by modifying the child's environment (e.g., use of stair gates) and having parents engage in safety practices (e.g., keeping matches or lighters out of reach of children). Effective injury prevention methods include the use of childproof caps on medications and household poisons, age-appropriate restraints in motor vehicles (i.e., car seats, booster seats, seat belts), bicycle helmets, and a four-sided fence with a locked gate around residential swimming pools. PMID:17168342

Schnitzer, Patricia G

2006-12-01

337

Pollution prevention program plan 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE`s commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE`s routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations.

NONE

1996-06-01

338

Caries Risk Assessment and Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over 20 years, several analytical approaches have been designed to predict caries in children."nCaries Risk Assessment is a recently developed technique concern to caries prediction."nThis procedure involves three stages as follows:"n1- Determination and assessment of the dental caries risk factors."n2- Examination and evaluation of each individual child to be specifically diagnosed the level of 3- caries risk e.g. high, moderate and low risk."n3- Recommendation of preventive programs according to risk assessment."nBecause children vary widely in their ability to develop cavities, a well-organized program holds great promise for promoting dental heath for pre-school children of varying caries risk. This article considered a series of principals that dentist can use in case planning, management and prevention programs according to risk assessment.

Pourhashemi SJ

2000-05-01

339

Pressure ulcers: prevention and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pressure ulcers are a significant medical problem that greatly affects the geriatric population. We reviewed pertinent published data in the literature concerning the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. The development of pressure ulcers is associated with well known risk factors including unrelieved pressure, skin maceration, shear forces, malnutrition and immobility. Risk factor modification is an important aspect in prevention and treatment. When a pressure ulcer develops, various specialized support surfaces and wound care products exist to accelerate wound healing. Alternative therapeutic modalities such as ultrasonic mist and wound vacuum therapy are increasingly being used with success for such ulcers. Pressure ulcers are typically the consequence of underlying medical conditions that should be treated appropriately in order for the wound to heal. PMID:19534080

Dib, Mansour

2008-01-01

340

Accident prevention in power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accident prevention regulations drawn up by the professional associations for thermal power plants (conventional and nuclear) in West Germany are reviewed. An analysis of accidents statistics has shown: 1) for fossil-fuelled power plants, 2620 accidents, i.e. 79.8 accidents per year and per 1000 persons insured; 2) for nuclear power plants, 164 accidents, i.e. 34.1 per year and per 1000 persons insured, which is less than half as much as under 1). (HP)

341

Nonpharmacological prevention of osteoporotic fractures  

OpenAIRE

Osteoporosis is a systemic, metabolic disease that can result in debilitating fractures. The lasting effects of vertebral and hip fractures can cause acute and chronic pain, deformity, and emotional distress. Research evidence and clinical experience have determined that weight bearing and strength training exercise, fall prevention efforts, hip protectors, and some alternative therapies may assist patients in avoiding the pervasive and lasting effects of osteoporotic fractures. Clinicians sh...

Kessenich, Cathy R.

2007-01-01

342

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies ha...

Wehby George L; Goco Norman; Moretti-Ferreira Danilo; Felix Temis; Richieri-Costa Antonio; Padovani Carla; Queiros Fernanda; Guimaraes Camilla Vila; Pereira Rui; Litavecz Steve; Hartwell Tyler; Chakraborty Hrishikesh; Javois Lorette; Murray Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

343

Prevention of Hematomas and Seromas  

OpenAIRE

Hematoma and seroma formation in surgical wounds has negative effects on wound healing and subsequent morbidity to patients. This is of particular pertinence in cosmetic procedures in which the patient has chosen to undergo surgery electively. Over the past several decades there has been considerable interest in the use of ancillary techniques to assist in closing wounds and achieving hemostasis to prevent hematoma and seroma formation. These techniques include application of tissue sealants ...

Bullocks, Jamal; Basu, C. Bob; Hsu, Patrick; Singer, Robert

2006-01-01

344

Stroke prevention in internist practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stroke secondary prevention in internist practice is discussed in accordance with up to date guidelines. Modern pharmacotherapy includes antiaggregants or anticoagulants, statins, and antihypertensive drugs. The choice of drugs is mostly founded on the rules of evidence based medicine, which allow adjusting individual treatment depending on clinical conditions. The composition of perindopril and indapamide is a preferred nowadays combination of antihypertensive drugs.

D.A. Napalkov

2011-01-01

345

Preventive Evolutionary Medicine of Cancers  

OpenAIRE

Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations befor...

Hochberg, Michael E.; Thomas, Fre?de?ric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

2012-01-01

346

Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.  

OpenAIRE

Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

Bullock, Ka; Clarke, R.; Tilley, N.

2010-01-01

347

Preventive Health Examinations Part I  

OpenAIRE

The family physician may conduct preventive screening of children yet unborn, beginning with assessing the rubella-immunity status of 12-year-old females and continuing through the preconception period, the prenatal period, and the process of birth. Knowledge of both parents and their family history allows family physicians to deal effectively with the very sensitive issues of risks of congenital disorders and the effects of teratogenic drugs during pregnancy. Prenatal monitoring for various ...

Rosser, W. W.; Feldman, W.; Mcgrath, P.

1988-01-01

348

Stroke prevention by carotid endarterectomy  

OpenAIRE

Cerebrovascular disease is the third leading cause of death in Hong Kong and stroke is a major cause of disability in the elderly. With increased life span, rehabilitation and care of patients with disabiling stroke has become a substantial economic burden to the society and family. Prevention of stroke by carotid endarterectomy is definitely more cost-effective than treatment of stroke. Prospective randomized trials in North America and Europe have proven the benefit of carotid endarterectom...

Cheng, Swk; Lau, H.

1998-01-01

349

SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA  

OpenAIRE

"nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI) results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) for...

Rahimi-movaghar, V.; Yazdi, A.; Saadat, S.

2008-01-01

350

FAILURE PREVENTION METHODS IN MAINTENANCE  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays, maintenence is the key to successful bisness operation in all areas not only in the manafacturing industry. Effective maintenance can increase business performance thus ensuring advantages over competitors on the market A proper and well organised maintenance can save expenses and increase the profits of a company. The thesis presents methods of downtime prevention in maintenance. The sections are divided according to maintenance stages, and contain descriptions of maintenance me...

Bezjak, David

2012-01-01

351

Evaluating gene × gene and gene × smoking interaction in rheumatoid arthritis using candidate genes in GAW15  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We examined the potential gene × gene interactions and gene × smoking interactions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using the candidate gene data sets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 Problem 2. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was used to test gene × gene interactions among candidate genes. The case-only sample was used to test gene × smoking interactions. The best predictive model was the single-locus model with single-nucleotide polymorphism ...

Mei Ling; Li Xiaohui; Yang Kai; Cui Jinrui; Fang Belle; Guo Xiuqing; Rotter Jerome I

2007-01-01

352

SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

V Rahimi-Movaghar

2008-08-01

353

Cancer prevention with natural compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Botanical and nutritional compounds have been used for the treatment of cancer throughout history. These compounds also may be useful in the prevention of cancer. Population studies suggest that a reduced risk of cancer is associated with high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest. There are numerous reports of cancer chemopreventive activity of dietary botanicals, including cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, Allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, Citrus fruits, soybeans, tomatoes, berries, and ginger, as well as medicinal plants. Several lead compounds, such as genistein (from soybeans), lycopene (from tomatoes), brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables), sulforaphane (from asparagus), indole-3-carbinol (from broccoli), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts) are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals have great potential in cancer prevention because of their safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability. In this review, we discuss potential natural cancer preventive compounds and their mechanisms of action. PMID:20709209

Gullett, Norleena P; Ruhul Amin, A R M; Bayraktar, Soley; Pezzuto, John M; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Surh, Young-Joon; Kucuk, Omer

2010-06-01

354

[Prevention of myopia in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eye diseases rank third in the structure of morbidity among children aged 0 to 17 years. Acquired myopathy is the leading abnormality in the structure of morbidity, with diminished vision being in 28% of preschool children and in every two school graduates. Myopia is attended by the signs of systemic connective tissue dysplasia and impaired circulation due to autonomic dysfunction. Early diagnosis and correction of autonomic dysfunction is the basic line of the prevention and treatment of school myopia. Treatment of children can be organized in the medical room of a school. Along with general health-improving measures, physiotherapetic procedures, such as lens exercises, curative gymnastics, massage, and gentle manual therapy procedures should be used in the multimodality treatment of children with myopia. Autonomic tone can be regulated through the visual analyzer by pulse photostimulation on a spectral ophthalmologic apparatus (an up-to-date ACO-05 software model ("DEST", Cheboksary). Moreover, circulation improves, eye muscles become stronger, visual reflexes restore, and vision improves. A school oculist's room may be used as a new health-improving form in children with myopia. It should be set up in every school since the high efficiency of treatment for accommodation spasm is an important argument of the prevention of myopia, promotes a greater coverage of children with early myopia by means of therapeutic measures, as well as timely and contemporary prevention of progressive myopathy. PMID:16886746

Volkova, L P

2006-01-01

355

Drink your prevention: beverages with cancer preventive phytochemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific alimentary habits, including oriental and Mediterranean diets characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals and, for the Mediterranean diet, olive oil, are associated with a reduction of risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and some cancers. Numerous beverages contain diverse natural compounds, termed phytochemicals, that have been reported to exert antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant properties. Here we review the chemopreventive and angiopreventive properties of selected phytochemicals found in common beverages: epigallocatechin(green tea), triterpenoids (citrus juices), resveratrol (red wine), xanthohumol (beer), procyanidin (chocolate), and caffeine (coffee), focusing on their molecular mechanisms, providing "ready to drink" prevention approaches. PMID:25490889

Rossi, Teresa; Gallo, Cristina; Bassani, Barbara; Canali, Sara; Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino

2014-12-23

356

Two new ?-thalassemia deletions compromising prenatal diagnosis in an Italian and a Turkish couple seeking prevention  

OpenAIRE

Two novel deletions in the beta gene cluster were identified by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification in two at-risk couples seeking prevention. This study exemplifies a successful diagnostic approach in case one member of the couple is an atypical thalassemia carrier.

Phylipsen, Marion; Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Traeger-synodinos, Jan; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Basak, Nazli; Galanello, Renzo; Tuveri, Teresa; Ivaldi, Giovanni; Harteveld, Cornelis L.; Giordano, Piero C.

2009-01-01

357

Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... Pubic "Crab" Lice Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control Pubic ("crab") lice most commonly are spread directly ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of pubic ("crab") lice: All sexual ...

358

Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents  

Science.gov (United States)

... Ages & Stages Listen Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Article Body Drugs, including tobacco and alcohol, are ... support what you have started. Prevention Starts With Parents As a parent, you have a major impact ...

359

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Eyes Healthy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and Resources E-News ... Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy On this page: ...

360

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion  

Science.gov (United States)

... Expand sub topics Health Communication Health Literate Care Model Health Literacy e-Health Health Care Quality and Patient Safety + Expand sub topics Prevent Health Care-Associated Infections (HAIs) Prevent Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) Training Tools ...

361

Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB  

Science.gov (United States)

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

362

Measuring hospital falls prevention safety climate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The prevention of falls is a key safety priority for hospitals. There are no tools that examine the safety climate from a falls prevention perspective. The aim of this study was to measure the falls prevention safety climate at an Australian metropolitan hospital. The Victorian Safety Climate Survey (SCS) was used to examine the general safety climate, with four items replicated and modified to examine the falls prevention climate. Data (n = 458) for the six SCS domains compared favourably with statewide data. The falls prevention items were correlated with the original items from which they were derived but responses regarding falls prevention tended to be less positive than patient safety more broadly. Priorities for improvement identified using a falls safety climate survey can inform the development of falls prevention strategies and form the basis of a more comprehensive tool to explore the falls prevention safety climate. PMID:24483127

Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Stinson, Judy; Willcocks, Karlene; Chalmers, Cheyne

2014-02-01

363

Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Child Maltreatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... from harm. What is child maltreatment? Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect Child abuse and neglect affects hundreds ... Prevent Child Maltreatment Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect Health care professionals are trained to ...

364

Gene expression and gene therapy imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast growing field of molecular imaging has achieved major advances in imaging gene expression, an important element of gene therapy. Gene expression imaging is based on specific probes or contrast agents that allow either direct or indirect spatio-temporal evaluation of gene expression. Direct evaluation is possible with, for example, contrast agents that bind directly to a specific target (e.g., receptor). Indirect evaluation may be achieved by using specific substrate probes for a target enzyme. The use of marker genes, also called reporter genes, is an essential element of MI approaches for gene expression in gene therapy. The marker gene may not have a therapeutic role itself, but by coupling the marker gene to a therapeutic gene, expression of the marker gene reports on the expression of the therapeutic gene. Nuclear medicine and optical approaches are highly sensitive (detection of probes in the picomolar range), whereas MRI and ultrasound imaging are less sensitive and require amplification techniques and/or accumulation of contrast agents in enlarged contrast particles. Recently developed MI techniques are particularly relevant for gene therapy. Amongst these are the possibility to track gene therapy vectors such as stem cells, and the techniques that allow spatiotemporal control of gene expression by non-invasive heating (with MRI guided focused ultrasound) and the use of temperature sensitive promoters. (orig.)

365

Fuzzy clustering analysis of osteosarcoma related genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone-tumor with a peak manifestation during the second and third decade of life. In order to explore the influence of genetic factors on the mechanism of osteosarcoma by analyzing the inter relationship between osteosarcoma and its related genes, and then provide potential genetic references for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of osteosarcoma, we collected osteosarcoma related gene sequences in Genebank of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and local alignment analysis for a pair of sequences was carried out to identify the measurement association among related sequences. Then fuzzy clustering method was used for clustering analysis so as to contact the unknown genes through the consistent osteosarcoma related genes in one class. From the result of fuzzy clustering analysis, we could classify the osteosarcoma related genes into two groups and deduced that the genes clustered into one group had similar function. Based on this knowledge, we found more genes related to the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma and these genes could exert similar function as Runx2, a risk factor confirmed in osteosarcoma, this study may help better understand the genetic mechanism and provide new molecular markers and therapies for osteosarcoma. PMID:24293382

Chen, Kai; Wu, Dajiang; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Ziqiang; Wang, Chuanfeng; Zhao, Yingchuan; Li, Ming

2014-07-01

366

[Assessment of fall risk and fall prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

Typical risk factors for falls include a history of falling, decreased walking ability, and taking certain drugs. Serum vitamin D concentration is associated with falls, and vitamin D administration decreases falls. Fall prevention methods include exercise intervention, interventions other than exercise, and multifaceted interventions. However, the scientific evidence for whether fall prevention prevents fractures is poor. Fracture prevention with the use of hip protectors is effective in nursing facility dwellers, but not in elderly people living at home. PMID:22653024

Harada, Atsushi

2012-06-01

367

Implementing Cancer Prevention into Clinical Practice  

OpenAIRE

Cancer prevention has been associated with decreased rates of cancer incidence and increased survival. Cancer prevention, however, can have a greater impact if barriers to implementing cancer prevention into practice are removed and opportunities are both fostered and seized. The purpose of this article is to identify barriers and opportunities to cancer prevention in clinical practice and provide recommendations for the future. A multidisciplinary team participated in “The Future Direction...

Cialdella-kam, Lynn; Sabado, Parichart; Bernstein, Leslie; Bispeck, M. Katherine; Hawk, Ernest; Krawiec, Virginia; O Donnell, Joseph F.; Silverman, Sol

2012-01-01

368

Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?  

OpenAIRE

This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

Otunba, Ganiyu

2010-01-01

369

Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

2014-11-05

370

Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

2014-11-05

371

Interventions for preventing obesity in children.  

OpenAIRE

Background Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or li...

Summerbell, C. D.; Waters, E.; Edmunds, L. D.; Kelly, S. A. M.; Brown, T. A.; Campbell, K. J.

2011-01-01

372

Gene Switches  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

373

Prevention of Mental Retardation in Rural America.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes causes of mental retardation in rural America, preventative methods, and factors impeding preventative approaches in rural settings and offers principles for tailoring traditional preventative methods for rural areas. Relevant findings of research conducted by the National Rural Project, American Council on Rural Special…

Helge, Doris

374

Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

Keyes, Lee

2012-01-01

375

Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT&E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact.

1994-02-01

376

Nonpharmacological prevention of osteoporotic fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis is a systemic, metabolic disease that can result in debilitating fractures. The lasting effects of vertebral and hip fractures can cause acute and chronic pain, deformity, and emotional distress. Research evidence and clinical experience have determined that weight bearing and strength training exercise, fall prevention efforts, hip protectors, and some alternative therapies may assist patients in avoiding the pervasive and lasting effects of osteoporotic fractures. Clinicians should consider the recommendations ofnonpharmacological measures to assist patients at risk for experiencing the culminating event of this destructive disease. PMID:18044142

Kessenich, Cathy R

2007-01-01

377

Acid coal pile drainage prevention  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different compounds or mixtures to prevent acid coal pile drainage. Acid coal pile drainage refers to the low pH drainage from the water leached through the high sulfur coal piles. Purdue University owns and operates a co-generating power plant that produces steam and electricity from the combustion of coal, gas, and oil. In the summer of 1995, Purdue's Power Plant supported a research project that concluded that high sulfur coal is detrimental...

Mansilla-soto, Sandra L.

1999-01-01

378

Hormonal prevention of breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer prevention can be provided by using SERMs or aromatase inhibitors depending on the ovarian status, with a global risk reduction of 50 to 60%. Prophylactic annexectomy offered to reduce ovarian risk in BRCA mutation carriers also lowers breast cancer risk by 50%. Main side effects include deep vein thrombosis for SERMs, hot flushes and joint pain (although less frequently than initially suspected) with aromatase inhibitors. Other strategies based on progesterone, insulin or prolactin signaling modulation may be offered in the future. Criteria for candidate selection remain to be established. PMID:24997772

Thomin, Anne; Friszer, Stéphanie; Fajac, Anne; Daraï, Émile; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie

2014-07-01

379

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P, on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917

Wehby George L

2012-11-01

380

Pollution prevention through systems analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Their needs to identify barriers that impede the implementation of pollution prevention (P2) and to develop ways to eliminate them. On a broad scale, this includes such barriers as inflexible procedures, pore specifications, and the `wrong` type of money. In industry, the potential expense and the complexity of processes together serve as a barrier to the exploration of P2 opportunities that involve significant process change. This paper addresses the latter barrier and presents systems analysis, including process modeling and analysis, as a potential solution.

Osborne-Lee, I.W.

1996-03-13

381

PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

John J. Kilbane II

2002-03-01

382

A novel mechanism of filaggrin induction and sunburn prevention by ?-damascenone in Skh-1 mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding how oral administration of aroma terpenes can prevent sunburn or skin cancer in mice could lead to more effective and safer ways of blocking sun damage to human skin. To establish sunburn preventive activity, female Skh-1 mice were given oral ?-damascenone followed by irradiation with UVR from fluorescent ‘sunlamps’. The following endpoints were evaluated versus controls at various times between 1 and 12 days after the terpene: whole genome gene expression and in situ immunohistochemistry of PCNA, keratin10, filaggrin and caspase 14, and sunburn was evaluated at 5 days. UVR-induced sunburn was prevented by a single oral ?-damascenone dose as low as 20 ?L (0.95 mg/g body weight). Microarray analysis showed sunburn prevention doses of ?-damascenone up-regulated several types of cornification genes, including keratins 1 and 10, filaggrin, caspase 14, loricrin, hornerin and 6 late cornified envelope genes. Immunohistochemical studies of PCNA labeling showed that ?-damascenone increased the proliferation rates of the following cell types: epidermal basal cells, follicular outer root sheath cells and sebaceous gland cells. Keratin 10 was not affected by ?-damascenone in epidermis, and filaggrin and caspase 14 were increased in enlarged sebaceous glands. The thickness of the cornified envelope plus sebum layer nearly doubled within 1 day after administration of the ?-damascenone and remained at or above double thickness for at least 12 days. ?-Damascenone protected against sunburn by activating a sebaceous gland-based pathway that fortified and thickened the cornified envelope plus sebum layer in a way that previously has been observed to occur only in keratinocytes. -- Highlights: ? Orally administered ?-damascenone prevented UVB-induced sunburn in Skh-1 mice. ? Filaggrin and caspase 14 genes were induced in sebaceous gland cells. ? Numerous cornification genes were up-regulated by ?-damascenone. ? ?-Damascenone stimulated cell division in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes. ? Results explained by induction of a novel sebaceous gland system of UVR protection.

383

A novel mechanism of filaggrin induction and sunburn prevention by ?-damascenone in Skh-1 mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding how oral administration of aroma terpenes can prevent sunburn or skin cancer in mice could lead to more effective and safer ways of blocking sun damage to human skin. To establish sunburn preventive activity, female Skh-1 mice were given oral ?-damascenone followed by irradiation with UVR from fluorescent ‘sunlamps’. The following endpoints were evaluated versus controls at various times between 1 and 12 days after the terpene: whole genome gene expression and in situ immunohistochemistry of PCNA, keratin10, filaggrin and caspase 14, and sunburn was evaluated at 5 days. UVR-induced sunburn was prevented by a single oral ?-damascenone dose as low as 20 ?L (0.95 mg/g body weight). Microarray analysis showed sunburn prevention doses of ?-damascenone up-regulated several types of cornification genes, including keratins 1 and 10, filaggrin, caspase 14, loricrin, hornerin and 6 late cornified envelope genes. Immunohistochemical studies of PCNA labeling showed that ?-damascenone increased the proliferation rates of the following cell types: epidermal basal cells, follicular outer root sheath cells and sebaceous gland cells. Keratin 10 was not affected by ?-damascenone in epidermis, and filaggrin and caspase 14 were increased in enlarged sebaceous glands. The thickness of the cornified envelope plus sebum layer nearly doubled within 1 day after administration of the ?-damascenone and remained at or above double thickness for at least 12 days. ?-Damascenone protected against sunburn by activating a sebaceous gland-based pathway that fortified and thickened the cornified envelope plus sebum layer in a way that previously has been observed to occur only in keratinocytes. -- Highlights: ? Orally administered ?-damascenone prevented UVB-induced sunburn in Skh-1 mice. ? Filaggrin and caspase 14 genes were induced in sebaceous gland cells. ? Numerous cornification genes were up-regulated by ?-damascenone. ? ?-Damascenone stimulated cell division in epidermal and follicular keratinocytes. ? Results explained by induction of a novel sebaceous gland system of UVR protection.

Uddin, Ahmed N.; Labuda, Ivica; Burns, Fredric J., E-mail: fredric.burns@nyumc.org

2012-12-15

384

Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

Russell JA

2013-09-01

385

Method of preventing filter contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since slight amounts of radioactive corrosion products and soluble ions are contained in condensates produced from a nuclear reactor, they are cleaned-up in a filtration desalter, desalter, etc. before returning to the reactor. Hollow fibrous membrane filters are disposed instead of the filtration desalter for eliminating only the solid contents. When polymeric material such as the hollow fibrous membrance filters are put into contact with purified water of low conductivity, electrostatic charges are accumulated at the interface between them. If the membranes have negative static charges, Fe ions are attracted to increase the Fe ion concentration at the membrane boundary. If they are oxidized with oxygen dissolved in water, ferric hydroxide of low solubility is formed as precipitates. Then, oxidizer, in particular, hydrogen peroxide is added depending on the Fe ion concentration in flowing water entering the filters, to prevent the deposition of the Fe ions. This can prevent clogging in the filters and increase in the differential pressure due to the clogging. (T.M.)

386

Updating oil pollution prevention plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 USC 1321) established United States policy that there shall be no discharges of oil or hazardous substances in harmful quantities into or upon navigables waters of the US or adjoining shorelines. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was delegated responsibility for promulgating and enforcing the Oil Pollution Prevention Regulations for Non-Transportation Related Onshore and Offshore Facilities. These regulations provided a framework for the protection of navigable waters from oil discharges by requiring facility owners and operators to prepare and implement Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans. The EPA adopted a two-phased approach to implement revised these regulations for compliance with the new law. The EPA published proposed Phase 1 modifications to the SPCC regulations in the Federal Register on October 22, 1991. The EPA published more substantial modifications to the SPCC regulations in the Phase 2 revisions, which were issued as proposed rules in the Federal Register on February 17, 1993 and final rule on June 15, 1994. These modifications included requirements for facility-specific contingency planning and above ground storage tank integrity testing. The Phase 2 regulations also addressed requirements for ''complex'' facilities that are under multi-agency jurisdiction; that is, facilities that have a fuel pier component and a tank farm componentcomponent

387

Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

George William H

2011-07-01

388

Sublimation preventing method and sublimation preventing structure for condensating steam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ice condenser is disposed close to the inner surface of a reactor container. A large number of ice baskets are aligned in the ice condenser. Crushed ice or granular ice is filled in the ice baskets. An aqueous solution of a water soluble polymer is sprayed by an airless gun from the outside of the ice baskets to the layer of the granular ice to form a film of a water soluble polymer. The aqueous liquid comprises polyvinyl alcohol, viscosity-controlling sodium borate, ethylene glycol and starch. In a normal state, the granular ice is prevented from being in direct contact with the air even if the air circulating in the ice condensers is brought into contact with the granular ice to suppress sublimation. If the circulating air containing a great amount of steams should be in contact with the ice upon occurrence of abnormality, the water soluble polymer film is dissolved to provide a predetermined condensation effect. (I.N.)

389

Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate and preventive measures in affective disorder are also touched upon. At the indicated prevention level, studies of fatal and non-fatal suicide acts after suicide attempt are mentioned. The evidence of preventive measures to reduce repetition rates is presented. Finally, the state of the art is discussed with regard to prevention at the universal, the selected and the indicated level and clinical and research implications are outlined.

Nordentoft, Merete

2011-01-01

390

Preventive treatments for breast cancer: recent developments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is a burden for western societies, and an increasing one in emerging economies, because of its high incidence and enormous psychological, social, sanitary and economic costs. However, breast cancer is a preventable disease in a significant proportion. Recent developments in the armamentarium of effective drugs for breast cancer prevention (namely exemestane and anastrozole), the new recommendation from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence to use preventative drugs in women at high risk as well as updated Guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force and the American Society of Clinical Oncology should give renewed momentum to the pharmacological prevention of breast cancer. In this article we review recent major developments in the field and examine their ongoing repercussion for breast cancer prevention. As a practical example, the potential impact of preventive measures in Spain is evaluated and a course of practical actions is delineated. PMID:25445174

Alés-Martínez, J E; Ruiz, A; Chacón, J I; Lluch Hernández, A; Ramos, M; Córdoba, O; Aguirre, E; Barnadas, A; Jara, C; González, S; Plazaola, A; Florián, J; Andrés, R; Sánchez Rovira, P; Frau, A

2014-12-01

391

Probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common gastrointestinal inflammatory necrosis affecting almost exclusively premature infants usually after oral nutrition has been started, for example, 10 day plus postpartum. Although the pathogenesis is incompletely understood, major risk factors include prematurity and incomplete bacterial colonization. Evidence has been shown that the premature infant because of rapid passage through the birth canal or because of delivery by cesarean section has an inadequate initial ingestion of maternal colonic and vaginal flora and therefore, an inadequate initial colonization with less diversity of bacteria phylla and fewer species of bacteria in the microbiota. As a result, they are more susceptible to environmental pathogens. In addition, prematures have immature intestinal defenses (glycocalyx, tight junctions, innate immune response, etc.) resulting in excessive inflammation in response to luminal stimuli. Recently, we reported that genes mediating the innate inflammatory immune response are developmentally expressed with an increase in toll-like receptors, signaling molecules and transgenic factors and decreased negative regulators of inflammation, which undoubtedly contribute to an excessive inflammatory response. Several clinical studies have suggested that the use of probiotics and ingestion of expressed maternal breast milk containing probiotics can help to stabilize colonization and to reduce the incidence and severity of NEC when given to premature infants at risk. Meta-analyses of multiple small studies strongly suggest a protective effect in the use of probiotics. A multicenter study in Taiwan suggests that Bifidobacteria infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in combination may prevent NEC. These meta-analyses suggest that these probiotics should be used in routine care of premature infants. Other clinicians, however, suggest caution, holding out for a single protocol multicenter trial before routine use can be suggested. PMID:21992952

Ganguli, Kriston; Walker, W Allan

2011-11-01

392

Detection of Rare Beta Globin Gene Mutations in Northwestern Iran  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Recent molecular studies on Iranian ?-thalassemia genes revealed the presence of eight common mutations associated with thalassemia. Although these mutations are frequent, there are other rare and unknown mutations that can create large problems in designing preventive programs. We detected and explained the common mutations in north-western Iran previously and detection of the rare and unknown mutations could be useful in diagnosis and design of future preventive programs. Met...

Haghi, M.; Pouladi, N.; Aa, Hosseinpour Feizi; Ma, Hosseinpour Feizi; Azarfam, P.

2007-01-01

393

Cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, coronary artery disease (CAD) was the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Its remarkable decline can be attributed to our knowledge of the major risk factors identified by several studies resulting in better prevention and treatment. Of the major risk factors, the ratio of apolipoprotein (apo) B/apo A1 followed by smoking, diabetes, and hypertension are the most important. A number of risk scores for men and women are now available to estimate the likelihood of development of CAD. However, because of the risk of CAD differs in various populations, some of the algorithms are more appropriate for some countries but not suitable for others. These risk assessment algorithms differ in the parameters they use. All the risk scores have some limitations such as different study populations; the age of the study is also different, and number of points awarded for age categories also differs among the various algorithms. In an effort to further improve the risk prediction, a number of biomarkers have been studied. In addition to plasma lipids, a lot of interest has focused on apo measurements; particularly of apo B. Another valuable biomarker is lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. Lp(a) is not only atherogenic as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) but also prothrombotic, and several studies indicate that Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for CAD. The lipid profile provides a framework for appropriate management. This includes therapeutic lifestyle changes and medications. Lifestyle interventions are the cornerstone of CAD prevention strategies and are the first step in risk factor management. Of particular importance are smoking cessation, achievement and maintenance of ideal body weight, regular exercise, reduction in the intake of saturated fat and sugars, and decreasing level of stress. Of medications, lipid-lowering, anti-hypertensive, and anti-coagulant can be effectively used. The current strategies for risk assessment and prevention have been very successful contributing to the more than 50% decrease in CAD mortality over the last 20 years. Thus, in Canada, cardiovascular disease is no longer the leading cause of death. PMID:22502868

Frohlich, Jiri; Al-Sarraf, Ahmad

2013-01-01

394

Dietary interventions to prevent disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changing dietary behaviors to prevent chronic disease has been an important research focus for the last 25 years. Here we present a review of published articles on the results of research to identify methods to change key dietary habits: fat intake, fiber intake, and consumption of fruits and vegetables. We divided the research reviewed into sections, based on the channel through which the intervention activities were delivered. We conclude that the field is making progress in identifying successful dietary change strategies, but that more can be learned. Particularly, we need to transfer some of the knowledge from the individual-based trials to community-level interventions. Also, more research with rigorous methodology must be done to test current and future intervention options. PMID:11910063

Bowen, Deborah J; Beresford, Shirley A A

2002-01-01

395

Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

WHEELER COSETTE M

1997-01-01

396

Preventing thefts and wilful damage  

CERN Multimedia

The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody’s interest we advise the following precautions: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly “safe” hiding places such as drawers, even locked, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS Offices, workshops and meeting-rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. VANDALISM If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. REPORTING INCIDENTS Every misdemeanour solved increases the chances of others be...

DG Unit

2011-01-01

397

Medscape: Public Health and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

WebMD's Medscape and the American Public Health Association (APHA) present the new Public Health and Prevention Medscape website -- "a cutting-edge resource for a variety of health professionals, offering timely information about important public health issues of the day and tools for improved practice." Users will find the latest health-related news from Reuters Health and Medscape Medical News, as well as highlights from The Nation's Health (the APHA newspaper) and selected articles from the American Journal of Public Health. Other offerings include a book-of-the-month review, coverage of recent conferences, and online Resource Centers (topic-specific collections of Medscape's key clinical content). The site also provides Continuing Medical Education tutorials in public health subjects for physicians and other health professionals. The list of resources goes on and anyone working in public health should certainly bookmark this site.

398

Prevention is better than cure  

CERN Multimedia

Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

Anaïs Schaeffer

2012-01-01

399

Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk  

Science.gov (United States)

A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with data on a different sample collection from NCI’s genome-wide association studies (GWAS), lung cancer risk was still estimated to be lower, but only by 21 percent.

400

Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk of most cancer types are determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies provide theoretical and empirical evidence that additional genetic and environmental factors can be identified in studies that examine gene-environment (GxE) interactions. More importantly, GxE interaction research has the potential to facilitate insights into biological mechanisms and strategies for cancer prevention and control. Despite progress, several challenges remain for performing these studies.

401

Fall prevention in the elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a comprehensive cardiovascular and neuroautonomic evaluation, allows for reaching a final diagnosis in most cases, demonstrating a key role in the real identification of the etiology of the fall and implementing the treatment measures. PMID:24133524

Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

2013-05-01

402

Counterforce applied to prevent spalling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

403

Counterforce applied to prevent spalling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

2010-04-15

404

Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media. PMID:3602645

Haffner, D; Casey, S

1986-09-01

405

Unresolved orthology and peculiar coding sequence properties of lamprey genes: the KCNA gene family as test case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In understanding the evolutionary process of vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lamprey occupy crucial positions. Resolving molecular phylogenetic relationships of cyclostome genes with gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates genes is indispensable in deciphering both the species tree and gene trees. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses, especially those including lamprey genes, have produced highly discordant results between gene families. To efficiently scrutinize this problem using partial genome assemblies of early vertebrates, we focused on the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related (KCNA family, whose members are mostly single-exon. Results Seven sea lamprey KCNA genes as well as six elephant shark genes were identified, and their orthologies to bony vertebrate subgroups were assessed. In contrast to robustly supported orthology of the elephant shark genes to gnathostome subgroups, clear orthology of any sea lamprey gene could not be established. Notably, sea lamprey KCNA sequences displayed unique codon usage pattern and amino acid composition, probably associated with exceptionally high GC-content in their coding regions. This lamprey-specific property of coding sequences was also observed generally for genes outside this gene family. Conclusions Our results suggest that secondary modifications of sequence properties unique to the lamprey lineage may be one of the factors preventing robust orthology assessments of lamprey genes, which deserves further genome-wide validation. The lamprey lineage-specific alteration of protein-coding sequence properties needs to be taken into consideration in tackling the key questions about early vertebrate evolution.

Kuraku Shigehiro

2011-06-01

406

Identifying Gene Interaction Enrichment for Gene Expression Data  

OpenAIRE

Gene set analysis allows the inclusion of knowledge from established gene sets, such as gene pathways, and potentially improves the power of detecting differentially expressed genes. However, conventional methods of gene set analysis focus on gene marginal effects in a gene set, and ignore gene interactions which may contribute to complex human diseases. In this study, we propose a method of gene interaction enrichment analysis, which incorporates knowledge of predefined gene sets (e.g. gene ...

Zhang, Jigang; Li, Jian; Deng, Hong-wen

2009-01-01

407

Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2  

OpenAIRE

Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats ...

Fong, Louise Y. Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

2008-01-01

408

An Approach to the Study of Gene Expression in Hepatocarcinogenesis Initiation12  

OpenAIRE

In carcinogenesis, determination of gene and protein expression profiles is important for prevention and treatment. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in a single dose administered before carcinogenic initiation induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) prevents the appearance of preneoplastic lesions. On the basis of this approach, the main purpose of this work was to compare the gene expression profiles induced by DEN or a previously administered single dose of CAPE. Using a modified hepatocarci...

Beltra?n-rami?rez, Olga; Sokol, Serguei?; Le-berre, Ve?ronique; Franc?ois, Jean M.; Villa-trevin?o, Sau?l

2010-01-01

409

75 FR 75845 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

...Impaired Driving Prevention Month, we recommit to preventing...Impaired Driving Prevention Month, we must also draw attention...Impaired Driving Prevention Month. I urge all Americans...our Lord two thousand ten, and of the Independence of the United...

2010-12-07

410

Proactivity in VTE prevention: a concept analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention is an international patient safety issue. The author has observed gaps in prescription and provision of VTE prophylaxis, and that the attitude to VTE is often reactive rather than proactive. This concept analysis aims to explore proactivity and apply it to VTE prevention to address this. Ten databases were searched (1992-2012) using the keywords proactive, proactivity, nurse, nursing, VTE/venous thromboembolism, prevent/prevention/preventing, behaviour, DVT/PE (deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism). The Walker and Avant (2010) method of concept analysis identified the defining attributes as personal initiative, taking charge and feedback-seeking behaviour. Antecedents and consequences have been identified, and empirical referents are demonstrated. Defining proactivity in VTE prevention has the potential to increase prescription and, crucially, provision of prophylaxis, thereby improving patient care, reducing avoidable harm and improving the patient experience. PMID:25541872

Adams, Averil

2015-01-01

411

Product service systems for household waste prevention  

OpenAIRE

Waste prevention is the prioritized waste management option within EU waste policy. There is however a scarcity of research on and policy measures for waste prevention. Improved resource productivity in consumption practices may prevent waste. Literature suggests that Product Service Systems (PSS, ‘a marketable set of products and services capable of jointly fulfilling a user’s needs’ (Goedkoop et al. 1999)) have potential for increased resource productivity compared with...

Gottberg, Annika

2012-01-01

412

Preventing childhood sexual abuse: an ecological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood sexual abuse is a significant public health problem that negatively affects victims, families, organizations, and society. This special issue presents innovative approaches designed to prevent the sexual exploitation of youth. Using both an ecological approach and the Spectrum of Prevention ( Parks, Davis & Cohen, 2010 ), the articles collected for this special issue highlight cutting-edge prevention approaches educating children, parents, professionals, organizations, and the general public. PMID:22809043

Kenny, Maureen C; Wurtele, Sandy K

2012-01-01

413

Distributed Denial of Service Prevention Techniques  

OpenAIRE

The significance of the DDoS problem and the increased occurrence, sophistication and strength of attacks has led to the dawn of numerous prevention mechanisms. Each proposed prevention mechanism has some unique advantages and disadvantages over the others. In this paper, we present a classification of available mechanisms that are proposed in literature on preventing Internet services from possible DDoS attacks and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each mechanism. Thi...

Gupta, B. B.; Joshi, R. C.; Misra, Manoj

2012-01-01

414

Modelling environmental benefits of household waste prevention  

OpenAIRE

Waste prevention can be seen as a form of waste treatment, and it is then considered as the most desirable option to mitigate the environmental impacts of waste generation. However, some have already pointed out the fact that the true potential of waste prevention might lie in its connection to sustainable consumption, and not as a substitute to waste treatment (Ekvall 2008, Olofsson 2004). Sustainable consumption and waste prevention are concepts that are closely related. Goods that people c...

Le?bre, Ele?onore

2012-01-01

415

Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention  

OpenAIRE

Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and mate...

Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2011-01-01

416

Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.)

417

Demand and pricing of preventative healthcare  

OpenAIRE

This study introduces a theoretical framework for the economics of preventative healthcare. Mathematical models are used to explain how the price and utilization of prevention change depending on demand, as well as factors such as the price of a cure, the probability of illness, the efficacy of treatment, the probability of illness and cost functions. Different models are developed depending on the presence and level of health insurance and competition in preventative healthcar...

Vandoros, Sotiris; Carman, Katherine Grace

2011-01-01

418

The sieve element occlusion gene family in dicotyledonous plants  

OpenAIRE

Sieve element occlusion (SEO) genes encoding forisome subunits have been identified in Medicago truncatula and other legumes. Forisomes are structural phloem proteins uniquely found in Fabaceae sieve elements. They undergo a reversible conformational change after wounding, from a condensed to a dispersed state, thereby blocking sieve tube translocation and preventing the loss of photoassimilates. Recently, we identified SEO genes in several non-Fabaceae plants (lacking forisomes) and conclude...

Ernst, Antonia M.; Ru?ping, Boris; Jekat, Stephan B.; Nordzieke, Steffen; Reineke, Anna R.; Mu?ller, Boje; Bornberg-bauer, Erich; Pru?fer, Dirk; Noll, Gundula A.

2011-01-01

419

Androgen receptor gene mutations in 46, XY females  

OpenAIRE

The androgen insensitivity syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder with a wide spectrum of phenotypic abnormalities, ranging from complete female to ambiguous forms that more closely resemble males. The primary abnormality is a defective androgen receptor protein due to a mutation of the androgen receptor gene. This prevents normal androgen action and thus leads to impaired virilization. A point mutation of the androgen receptor gene affecting two siblings with complete androgen insensitivity sy...

Mir Davood Omrani; Soraya Saleh Gargari

2006-01-01

420

Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-? and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. CONCLUSION: Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver. PMID:22876038

Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

2012-01-01

421

Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. RESULTS: Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-? and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. CONCLUSION: Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

Federico Salamone

2012-01-01

422

Imaging gene expression in gene therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text. Gene therapy can be used to introduce new genes, or to supplement the function of indigenous genes. At the present time, however, there is non-invasive test to demonstrate efficacy of the gene transfer and expression processes. It has been postulated that scintigraphic imaging can offer unique information on both the site at which the transferred gene is expressed, and the degree of expression, both of which are critical issue for safety and clinical efficacy. Many current studies are based on 'suicide gene therapy' of cancer. Cells modified to express these genes commit metabolic suicide in the presence of an enzyme encoded by the transferred gene and a specifically-convertible pro drug. Pro drug metabolism can lead to selective metabolic trapping, required for scintigraphy. Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (H S V-1 t k+) has been use for 'suicide' in vivo tumor gene therapy. It has been proposed that radiolabelled nucleosides can be used as radiopharmaceuticals to detect H S V-1 t k+ gene expression where the H S V-1 t k+ gene serves a reporter or therapeutic function. Animal gene therapy models have been studied using purine-([18 F]F H P G; [18 F]-A C V), and pyrimidine- ([123/131 I]I V R F U; [124/131I]) antiviral nucleosides. Principles of gene therapy and gene therapy imaging will be reviewed and experimental data for [123/131rimental data for [123/131I]I V R F U imaging with the H S V-1 t k+ reporter gene will be presented

423

Improving injury prevention through health information technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health information technology is an emerging area of focus in clinical medicine with the potential to improve injury and violence prevention practice. With injuries being the leading cause of death for Americans aged 1-44 years, greater implementation of evidence-based preventive services, referral to community resources, and real-time surveillance of emerging threats is needed. Through a review of the literature and capturing of current practice in the field, this paper showcases how health information technology applied to injury and violence prevention can lead to strengthened clinical preventive services, more rigorous measurement of clinical outcomes, and improved injury surveillance, potentially resulting in health improvement. PMID:25441230

Haegerich, Tamara M; Sugerman, David E; Annest, Joseph L; Klevens, Joanne; Baldwin, Grant T

2015-02-01

424

Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

Matthew J Burton

2009-12-01

425

Prevent industrial pollution through technical transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses regulations for the prevention of industrial pollution in China. The regulations attempt to integrate technical transformation (modernization) with the prevention of industrial pollution, environmental protection with production development, and environmental benefits with economic results. Advantages of preventing industrial pollution through technical transformation are that it can better bring environmental protection into the course of national economic development, it can increase the utilization rate of resources and energy, it can strengthen the results of technical transformation, and it requires small investment. The regulations summarize the experience on preventing industrial pollution in China during the last 10 years.

1983-01-01

426

Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds  

OpenAIRE

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximatel...

Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; Kucuk, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Shin, Dong M.

2009-01-01

427

Preventing Illegitimate Teenage Pregnancy Through Systems Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Social workers, Cooperating with doctors, nurses, hospital social workers and educators in other helping systems, conducted a demonstration project described here, aimed at preventing illegitimate teenage pregnancy. (Author)

Jarvis, D. L.

1971-01-01

428

Preventing FASD: Healthy Women, Healthy Babies  

Science.gov (United States)

... and other drugs • Case management • Counseling and other mental health ... needs regarding reproductive health, sexuality, relationships, and victimization PREVENTING FASD: HEALTHY WOMEN, HEALTHY ...

429

Proceedings of the Canadian pollution prevention roundtable  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This roundtable provided an opportunity to strengthen partnerships and advance the pollution prevention agenda by encouraging, creating, and sharing new ideas that lead to measurable improvements in the environment through pollution prevention. Roundtable workshops and discussions focused on government pollution prevention programs, policies, initiatives and challenges; measurement, reporting and evaluation of pollution prevention programs; industrial, small and medium enterprise, and municipal/local government programs. Energy efficiency; agricultural initiatives and issues; sustainable consumption; emerging pollutants; strengthening linkages and interactive learning were also presented. The gathering featured 48 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

NONE

2005-07-01

430

Model approaches for advancing interprofessional prevention education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy People 2010 included an objective to "increase the proportion of … health professional training schools whose basic curriculum for healthcare providers includes the core competencies in health promotion and disease prevention." Interprofessional prevention education has been seen by the Healthy People Curriculum Task Force as a key strategy for achieving this objective and strengthening prevention content in health professions education programs. To fulfill these aims, the Association for Prevention Teaching and Research sponsored the Institute for Interprofessional Prevention Education in 2007 and in 2008. The institutes were based on the premise that if clinicians from different professions are to function effectively in teams, health professions students need to learn with, from, and about students from other professions. The institutes assembled interprofessional teams of educators from academic health centers across the country and provided instruction in approaches for improving interprofessional prevention education. Interprofessional education also plays a key role in implementation of Healthy People 2020 Education for Health framework. The delivery of preventive services provides a nearly level playing field in which multiple professions each make important contributions. Prevention education should take place during that phase of the educational continuum in which the attitudes, skills, and knowledge necessary for both effective teamwork and prevention are incorporated into the "DNA" of future health professionals. Evaluation of the teams' educational initiatives holds important lessons. These include allowing ample time for planning, obtaining student input during planning, paying explicit attention to teamwork, and taking account of cultural differences across professions. PMID:21238875

Evans, Clyde H; Cashman, Suzanne B; Page, Donna A; Garr, David R

2011-02-01

431

Commentary on “A roadmap for the prevention of dementia II. Leon Thal Symposium 2008.” Prevention Trials in Persons At-Risk for Dominantly-Inherited Alzheimer's Disease: Opportunities and Challenges  

OpenAIRE

Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) of young onset due to alterations in the PSEN1, APP, and PSEN2 genes is a fully-penetrant and devastating condition. As the subsequent development of AD in persons inheriting such genes is essentially certain, the condition provides a unique opportunity to perform informative studies of interventions with potential for preventing the disease. Though feasible, there are many challenges to such an endeavor including the fact that most person...

Ringman, John M.; Grill, Joshua; Rodriguez-agudelo, Yaneth; Chavez, Mireya; Xiong, Chengjie

2009-01-01

432

Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

2007-01-01

433

Principles of preventative foot care.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lower extremities of the body, particularly the heel and ankle, are at risk of ulceration, skin tears and other forms of trauma. This is especially so in today's health-care environment, where society is faced with the challenges of an ageing population, alongside an increased incidence of diabetes, vascular insufficiency, obesity and dermatological conditions, all of which pose both clinical and economic challenges to health-care providers. Once established, damage to the foot can have a detrimental impact on the patient's overall wellbeing, often over extended periods of time, with some patients spending many years within the health-care system. Advanced wound care products tend to have a strong focus upon management of tissue damage, infection, maceration and the promotion of an optimum environment to facilitate the healing process. This clinician-patient collaboration product review challenges traditional ideals and explores the impact of using an adherent soft silicone foam dressing in maintaining skin integrity and preventing tissue damage in those high-risk patient groups. PMID:24642738

Bateman, Sharon

2014-03-01

434

Cryopreservation prevents arterial allograft dilation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, immune-mediated degradation and subsequent aneurysm formation have limited the usefulness of cryopreserved arterial allografts. This study tested the hypothesis that modern cryopreserved arterial allografts are protected from immune-mediated dilation. Abdominal aortas were harvested from anesthetized rats (Lewis and Brown-Norway) for immediate implantation or cryopreservation. Subsequently, Lewis rats underwent infrarenal aortic replacement with either an acutely harvested or a cryopreserved graft. There were four experimental groups: (1) acutely harvested isografts (Iso; n = 6), (2) cryopreserved isografts (C-Iso; n = 6), (3) cryopreserved allografts (C-Allo; n = 6), and (4) acutely harvested allografts (Allo; n = 6). All grafts were explanted at 8 weeks. A video camera and edge detection software were used to measure systolic and diastolic in vivo graft diameter (d). Measurement of arterial blood pressure (p) allowed calculation of compliance (Dd/Dp). Tail-cuff plethysmography was used to assess graft patency at 1 week. Graft diameter and blood pressure measurements were repeated at harvest. All harvested grafts were examined histologically. Our results showed that cryopreservation prevented immune-mediated dilation in arterial allografts in our 8-week rat implant model. Furthermore, the compliance of the cryopreserved grafts and was similar to that of controls. Further investigation is needed to delineate the exact mechanism of these potential clinically significant findings. PMID:12391500

Giglia, Joseph S; Ollerenshaw, Jeremy D; Dawson, Patti E; Black, Kirby S; Abbott, William M

2002-11-01

435

Health advertising: prevention for profit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates on the basis of current knowledge alone that, at a minimum, 30,000 lives could be saved in the year 2000 if Americans would modify their dietary habits. A recent innovative way of responding to this challenge was the Kellogg Company/NCI All-Bran advertising campaign. This paper will describe the campaign, and its impact on consumers, cereal industry sales, food industry advertising practices, health regulatory policy, and the organizational credibility of both NCI and Kellogg. For the past three years, Kellogg has included NCI's cancer prevention messages in their advertisements for All-Bran cereal and on their bran cereal boxes. This collaborative effort has stimulated considerable controversy over whether the health claims made on the cereal label are in violation of federal food labeling regulations. Meanwhile, research has demonstrated the positive impact of the campaign on consumer's knowledge and behavior regarding fiber as well as on Kellogg's profits. Other manufacturers are anxious to jump on the "branwagon"; however, many unanswered questions remain about this new approach to health advertising. PMID:2833125

Freimuth, V S; Hammond, S L; Stein, J A

1988-05-01

436

Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

1999-02-10

437

Gene conversion in steroid 21-hydroxylase genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid 21-hydroxylase gene, CYP21B, encodes cytochrome P450c21, which mediates 21-hydroxylation. The gene is located about 30 kb downstream from pseudogene CYP21A. The CYP21A gene is homologous to the CYP21B gene but contains some mutations, including a C----T change which leads a termination codon, TAG, in the eighth exon. We found the same change in a mutant CYP21B gene isolated from a patient with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Furthermore, a reciprocal change--i.e., a T----C change in the eighth exon of the CYP21A gene--was observed in the Japanese population and was associated with the two HLA haplotypes, HLA-B44-DRw13 and HLA-Bw46-DRw8. These changes may be considered the result of gene conversion-like events. PMID:1971153

Urabe, K; Kimura, A; Harada, F; Iwanaga, T; Sasazuki, T

1990-06-01

438

Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. ? Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. ? Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impae has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

439

Clinical trials in cancer prevention: current results and perspectives for the future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer prevention remains the ideal strategy for reducing the burden of cancer on society. Progress in cancer prevention has been accelerated as prevention clinical trials are completed and reported. A promising strategy is the identification of cancer risk factors through epidemiologic and experimental research with lifestyle and medical approaches that allow translation of clinical trial results to clinical practice. A major focus of cancer prevention clinical trials has been on modulation of hormones and nutritional modifications using natural or synthetic bioactive food components for breast and prostate cancer. Breast cancer prevention clinical trials have investigated the role of estrogen antagonists with agents such as tamoxifen, raloxifene, and newer agents such as aromatase inhibitors and bioactive food components. Among the promising bioactive food components being investigated at the National Cancer Institute in prevention clinical trials to reduce breast cancer risk are indole-3-carbinol, sulforaphanes, phytoestrogen isoflavones, perillyl alcohol, and green tea polyphenols. Prostate cancer prevention trials have focused on hormone modulation with the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride and bioactive food components such as selenium and vitamin E. Soy isoflavones, green tea polyphenols, and doxercalciferol also are being investigated for prostate cancer prevention. Future prevention clinical trials will rely on multidisciplinary medical approaches that bring together expertise in many fields to address disease across the cancer spectrum. Nutritional science can play an important role in this effort through the use of new and emerging technologies to better understand the influence of bioactive food components on the genes, proteins, and cellular processes that are associated with cancer risk. PMID:15570061

Greenwald, Peter

2004-12-01

440

Maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and risk of neural tube defects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs. PMID:24332798

Lupo, Philip J; Mitchell, Laura E; Canfield, Mark A; Shaw, Gary M; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

2014-01-01

441

Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

2013-04-02

442

Vital Signs â?? Preventing Repeat Teen Births  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

2013-04-02

443

Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

Sussman, Steve

2011-01-01

444

Websites' analyses of security prevention from hackers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author describes the key technology about how to prevent website security problems upon the hacker's attack behavior process, which is based on the time sequence including before, after and then according to the different prevention strategy. And the solutions are given to authors' references

445

Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

2006-01-01

446

Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a “Low-tech” waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for “Low-tech” systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele

2011-01-01

447

Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a "High-tech" waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a "Low-tech" waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for "Low-tech" systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation. PMID:21924602

Gentil, Emmanuel C; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H

2011-12-01

448

Preventing Violence After a Natural Disaster  

Science.gov (United States)

... charge about suspected danger or call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE (1-800- ... 800-656-4673). Learn more about preventing Sexual Violence . Prevent Suicide Stay in touch with family. If possible, stay in touch with trusted family, ...

449

POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION INITIATIVE (TDI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Although pollution prevention (P2) technologies save money and help prevent the release of toxic and hazardous wastes into the environment, many companies are reluctant to install new equipment or change the current processes. Some of the reluctance is initiated by lack of time a...

450

School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

2015-01-01

451

Prevention of cardiovascular disease after renal transplantation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

After renal transplantation, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death with a functioning graft. Guidelines for prevention of CVD are mainly based on data from the general population. The purpose of this review is to give a practical approach on prevention of CVD in renal transplant recipients.

Svensson, My; Jardine, Alan

2012-01-01

452

Prevention Opportunities in Health Care Settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews changing patterns of health and illness that have led to increased interest in the role of patient and provider behaviors, discussing the advantages of using health care settings as prevention sites. Presents examples of successful behaviorally-based prevention programs, offering evidence supporting their cost-effectiveness. Describes…

Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Millstein, Susan G.

2003-01-01

453

Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

2008-04-24

454

Preventing Older Adult Falls and TBI  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast provides tips on how older adults can prevent falls and related injuries, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI).  Created: 3/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/7/2008.

2008-03-05

455

Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging  

Science.gov (United States)

Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging The full report is titled “Sunscreen and Prevention of Skin Aging. A Randomized Trial.” It is in the 4 June 2013 ... skin cancer, whether it can protect against skin aging has not been established. Antioxidants, such as -carotene, ...

456

Teen Pregnancy Prevention. A Legislator's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents an overview of adolescent pregnancy, including national and state statistical information; funding sources for teen pregnancy prevention programs; examples of the effects of teen pregnancy prevention on society; illustrations of teenagers' perspectives on the issue; recent developments and initiatives in the arena of teen…

Guiden, Mary

457

Current concepts in colorectal cancer prevention  

OpenAIRE

Colorectal cancer chemoprevention, or chemoprophylaxis, is a drug-based approach to prevent colorectal cancer. Preventing colorectal adenomas with currently available agents demonstrates the promise of pharmacologic strategies directed at critical regulatory pathways. However, agent toxicity, lesion breakthrough and competing efficacy from endoscopy procedures challenge population-based implementation. This article reviews the role of colorectal cancer chemoprevention in the context of existi...

Thompson, Patricia A.; Gerner, Eugene W.

2009-01-01

458

Webinar - Exploring the Microbiome of Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

DCP Videos & Webinars Exploring the Microbiome in Cancer Prevention: A Closer Look at Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics Frontiers in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention: Online Series Air date 01/24/2013 YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-n

459

Principles of gene therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics and future percepts and the technical and ethical issues of using gene therapy.

Mammen Biju

2007-01-01

460

Previniendo el alcoholismo / Preventing alcoholism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Dentro de los grandes azotes de la humanidad además de las guerras, las hambrunas, la miseria extrema y las catástrofes naturales están las drogas que cobran miles de vidas cada día. Según reportes del Programa de Naciones Unidas para la Fiscalización Internacional de Drogas, más del 50 % de los del [...] itos y muertes violentas a nivel mundial están relacionados de una u otra forma con toxicomanías. Que todos hayamos consumido algún tipo de droga alguna vez en la vida no significa que seamos adictos. Con referencia a las adicciones, se aborda en especial el alcoholismo ya que su consumo indebido e irresponsable constituye no solamente un factor de riesgo en la aparición de enfermedades crónicas sino trae consigo nefastas consecuencias individuales, económicas y sociales. La situación actual de este problema de salud demanda un trabajo interdisciplinario e interinstitucional. El llamado es a la prevención mancomunada de este flagelo. Abstract in english Among the scourges of mankind, in addition to wars, famines, extreme misery and natural disasters, are drugs that cause the death of thousands of persons every day. According to the reports of the UN Program for International Drug Control, over 50 % of crimes and violent deaths worldwide are related [...] in one way or another with drug addiction. The fact that everybody has ever taken some kind of drug does not mean that we are drug addicts. Regarding addictions, we dealt with alcoholism in this paper since excessive and irresponsible alcohol consumption is a risk factor in the